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Sample records for arthrobacter aurescens tc1

  1. Low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of Arthrobacter aurescens

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    Thompson Vicki S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III] and hexavalent [Cr(VI] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm. Many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 Centigrade year round. It is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of Cr(VI contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychrophiles. Results Core samples obtained from a Cr(VI contaminated aquifer at the Hanford facility in Washington were enriched in Vogel Bonner medium at 10 Centigrade with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/l Cr(VI. The extent of Cr(VI reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide assay. Resistance to Cr(VI up to and including 1000 mg/l Cr(VI was observed in the consortium experiments. Reduction was slow or not observed at and above 100 mg/l Cr(VI using the enrichment consortium. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI in the 30 and 60 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the consortium was 8 and 17 days, respectively at 10 Centigrade. Lyophilized consortium cells did not demonstrate adsorption of Cr(VI over a 24 hour period. Successful isolation of a Cr(VI reducing organism (designated P4 from the consortium was confirmed by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI at 10 Centigrade in the 25 and 50 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the isolate P4 was 3 and 5 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence from isolate P4 identified this organism as a strain of Arthrobacter aurescens, a species that has not previously been shown to be capable of low temperature Cr(VI reduction. Conclusion A. aurescens, indigenous to the subsurface, has the potential to be a predominant metal reducer in enhanced, in situ subsurface bioremediation efforts involving Cr(VI and possibly other heavy metals and radionuclides.

  2. Identification of a Novel Di-D-Fructofuranose 1,2’:2,3’ Dianhydride (DFA III) Hydrolysis Enzyme from Arthrobacter aurescens SK8.001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuhuai; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a di-D-fructofuranose 1,2’:2,3’ dianhydride (DFA III)-producing strain, Arthrobacter aurescens SK8.001, was isolated from soil, and the gene cloning and characterization of the DFA III-forming enzyme was studied. In this study, a DFA III hydrolysis enzyme (DFA IIIase)-encoding gene was obtained from the same strain, and the DFA IIIase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The SDS-PAGE and gel filtration results indicated that the purified enzyme was a homotrimer holoenzyme of 145 kDa composed of subunits of 49 kDa. The enzyme displayed the highest catalytic activity for DFA III at pH 5.5 and 55°C, with specific activity of 232 U mg-1. Km and Vmax for DFA III were 30.7 ± 4.3 mM and 1.2 ± 0.1 mM min-1, respectively. Interestingly, DFA III-forming enzymes and DFA IIIases are highly homologous in amino acid sequence. The molecular modeling and docking of DFA IIIase were first studied, using DFA III-forming enzyme from Bacillus sp. snu-7 as a template. It was suggested that A. aurescens DFA IIIase shared a similar three-dimensional structure with the reported DFA III-forming enzyme from Bacillus sp. snu-7. Furthermore, their catalytic sites may occupy the same position on the proteins. Based on molecular docking analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, it was shown that D207 and E218 were two potential critical residues for the catalysis of A. aurescens DFA IIIase. PMID:26555784

  3. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of a new L-N-carbamoylase gene from Arthrobacter aurescens DSM 3747 in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, B; Wiese, A; Syldatk, C; Mattes, R; Altenbuchner, J; Pietzsch, M

    1999-02-19

    An L-N-carbamoyl amino acid amidohydrolase (L-N-carbamoylase) from Arthrobacter aurescens DSM 3747 was cloned in E. coli and the nucleotide sequence was determined. After expression of the gene in E. coli the enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme was shown to be strictly L-specific and exhibited the highest activity in the hydrolysis of beta-aryl substituted N alpha-carbamoyl-alanines as e.g. N-carbamoyl-tryptophan. Carbamoyl derivatives of beta-alanine and charged aliphatic amino acids were not accepted as substrates. The N-carbamoylase of A. aurescens DSM 3747 differs from all known enzymes with respect to its substrate specificity although amino acid sequence identity scores of 35-38% to other N-carbamoylases have been detected. The enzyme consists of two subunits of 44,000 Da, and has an isoelectric point of 4.3. The optima of temperature and pH were determined to be 50 degrees C and pH 8.5 respectively. At 37 degrees C the enzyme was completely stable for several days. PMID:10194852

  4. Isolation and characterization of atrazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. AD26 and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingyan; LI Ying; ZHU Xikun; CAI Baoli

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial strain (AD26) capable of utilizing atrazine as a sole nitrogen source for growth was isolated from an industrial wastewatersample by enrichment culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified AD26 as anArthrobacter sp. PCR assays indicated that AD26contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN and atzBC. The trzN gene of AD26 only differs from the trzN ofArthrobacter aurescens TC1by one base (A→T at 907) and one amino acid (Met→Leu at 303). The specific activity of trzN of AD26 in crude cell extract was0.28 U/mg, which was 1.2 times that of TC 1. This strain has shown faster growth and atrazine-degradation rates in atrazine-containingminimal media than two well characterized atrazine-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. ADP and Arthrobacter aurescens TC 1. Afterincubating for 48 h at 30℃, the OD600 of AD26 reached 2.6 compared with 1.33 of ADP. AD26 was capable of degrading 500 mg/Lof atrazine in minimal medium at 95% in 72 h, while the degradative rates by TC1 and ADP were only 90% and 86%, respectively. Abioremediation trial of contaminated soil has indicated that AD26 can degrade as high as 98% of atrazine contained in soil (300 mg/kg)after incubating for 20 d at 26℃, nominating this strain as a good candidate for use in bioremediation programs.

  5. Complete genome sequence and metabolic potential of the quinaldine-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a

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    Niewerth Heiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are ubiquitous in soil environments and can be considered as true survivalists. Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline as sole carbon and energy source. The genome provides insight into the molecular basis of the versatility and robustness of this environmental Arthrobacter strain. Results The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,736,495 bp with an average G + C content of 62.32%, the circular 231,551-bp plasmid pARUE232, and the linear 112,992-bp plasmid pARUE113 that was already published. Plasmid pARUE232 is proposed to contribute to the resistance of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a to arsenate and Pb2+, whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. Remarkably, degradation of anthranilate exclusively proceeds via a CoA-thioester pathway. Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. However, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation likely proceeds via meta cleavage of homoprotocatechuate. The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. A. aurescens TC-1 is the closest sequenced relative of strain Rue61a. Conclusions The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a reflects the saprophytic lifestyle and nutritional versatility of the organism and a strong adaptive potential to environmental stress. The circular plasmid pARUE232 and the linear plasmid pARUE113 contribute to heavy metal resistance and to the ability to degrade

  6. Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum suggests reductive evolution away from an environmental Arthrobacter ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Gregory D; Rockey, Daniel D; Wu, Zaining; Chang, Jean; Levy, Ruth; Crane, Samuel; Chen, Donald S; Capri, Gina R; Burnett, Jeffrey R; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S; Schipma, Matthew J; Burd, Henry; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Rhodes, Linda D; Kaul, Rajinder; Strom, Mark S

    2008-11-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease and a significant threat to healthy and sustainable production of salmonid fish worldwide. This pathogen is difficult to culture in vitro, genetic manipulation is challenging, and current therapies and preventative strategies are only marginally effective in preventing disease. The complete genome of R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209 was sequenced and shown to be a 3,155,250-bp circular chromosome that is predicted to contain 3,507 open-reading frames (ORFs). A total of 80 copies of three different insertion sequence elements are interspersed throughout the genome. Approximately 21% of the predicted ORFs have been inactivated via frameshifts, point mutations, insertion sequences, and putative deletions. The R. salmoninarum genome has extended regions of synteny to the Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 and Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 genomes, but it is approximately 1.9 Mb smaller than both Arthrobacter genomes and has a lower G+C content, suggesting that significant genome reduction has occurred since divergence from the last common ancestor. A limited set of putative virulence factors appear to have been acquired via horizontal transmission after divergence of the species; these factors include capsular polysaccharides, heme sequestration molecules, and the major secreted cell surface antigen p57 (also known as major soluble antigen). Examination of the genome revealed a number of ORFs homologous to antibiotic resistance genes, including genes encoding beta-lactamases, efflux proteins, macrolide glycosyltransferases, and rRNA methyltransferases. The genome sequence provides new insights into R. salmoninarum evolution and may facilitate identification of chemotherapeutic targets and vaccine candidates that can be used for prevention and treatment of infections in cultured salmonids. PMID:18723615

  7. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum Suggests Reductive Evolution away from an Environmental Arthrobacter Ancestor▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Gregory D.; Rockey, Daniel D.; Wu, Zaining; Chang, Jean; Levy, Ruth; Crane, Samuel; Chen, Donald S.; Capri, Gina R.; Burnett, Jeffrey R.; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Schipma, Matthew J.; Burd, Henry; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Rhodes, Linda D.; Kaul, Rajinder; Strom, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease and a significant threat to healthy and sustainable production of salmonid fish worldwide. This pathogen is difficult to culture in vitro, genetic manipulation is challenging, and current therapies and preventative strategies are only marginally effective in preventing disease. The complete genome of R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209 was sequenced and shown to be a 3,155,250-bp circular chromosome that is predicted to contain 3,507 open-reading frames (ORFs). A total of 80 copies of three different insertion sequence elements are interspersed throughout the genome. Approximately 21% of the predicted ORFs have been inactivated via frameshifts, point mutations, insertion sequences, and putative deletions. The R. salmoninarum genome has extended regions of synteny to the Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 and Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 genomes, but it is approximately 1.9 Mb smaller than both Arthrobacter genomes and has a lower G+C content, suggesting that significant genome reduction has occurred since divergence from the last common ancestor. A limited set of putative virulence factors appear to have been acquired via horizontal transmission after divergence of the species; these factors include capsular polysaccharides, heme sequestration molecules, and the major secreted cell surface antigen p57 (also known as major soluble antigen). Examination of the genome revealed a number of ORFs homologous to antibiotic resistance genes, including genes encoding β-lactamases, efflux proteins, macrolide glycosyltransferases, and rRNA methyltransferases. The genome sequence provides new insights into R. salmoninarum evolution and may facilitate identification of chemotherapeutic targets and vaccine candidates that can be used for prevention and treatment of infections in cultured salmonids. PMID:18723615

  8. Bioavailability of Ag(I) with Arthrobacter oxidas and Arthrobacter globiformis

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Ginturi, E; Bagdavadze, N; Kuchava, N; Tsakadze, K; Janjalia, M

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of Ag(I)_ Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis 151B and Arthrobacter oxidas 61B) was studied at simultaneous application of dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. The biosorption constants and nature of interaction for Ag(I) -Arthrobacter oxidas and Ag(I) -Arthrobacter globiformis were determined. The biosorption constants for Ag(I)- -Arthrobacter globiformis and for Ag(I) -Arthrobacter oxidas equal to 65.0 x10-4 and 35.0 x10-4 respectively.

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSM658 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 74_3686( CP000474 |pid:none) Arthrobacter aurescens TC1, com... 47 0.001 AP009256_1209( AP009256 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium adolescen...ogy vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...id:none) Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 113... 49 2e-04 CP000476_147( CP000476 |pid:none) Arthrobacter aurescen...ig-U13857-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSM6-C/SSM658Q.Seq.d/ Repres... producing significant alignments: (bits) Value A75444( A75444 ) hypothetical protein - Deinococcus rad

  10. Tc1-like transposable elements in plant genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Yang, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (TEs) is widespread in animal genomes. Mariner-like elements, which bear a DDD triad catalytic motif, have been identified in a wide range of flowering plant species. However, as the founding member of the superfamily, Tc1-like elements that bear a DD34E triad catalytic motif are only known to unikonts (animals, fungi, and Entamoeba). Results Here we report the identification of Tc1-like elements (TLEs) in plant genomes. These el...

  11. s-triazine degrading bacterial isolate Arthrobacter sp. AK-YN10, a candidate for bioaugmentation of atrazine contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Storck, Veronika; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    The Arthrobacter sp. strain AK-YN10 is an s-triazine pesticide degrading bacterium isolated from a sugarcane field in Central India with history of repeated atrazine use. AK-YN10 was shown to degrade 99 % of atrazine in 30 h from media supplemented with 1000 mg L(-1) of the herbicide. Draft genome sequencing revealed similarity to pAO1, TC1, and TC2 catabolic plasmids of the Arthrobacter taxon. Plasmid profiling analyses revealed the presence of four catabolic plasmids. The trzN, atzB, and atzC atrazine-degrading genes were located on a plasmid of approximately 113 kb.The flagellar operon found in the AK-YN10 draft genome suggests motility, an interesting trait for a bioremediation agent, and was homologous to that of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus. The multiple s-triazines degradation property of this isolate makes it a good candidate for bioremediation of soils contaminated by s-triazine pesticides. PMID:26403923

  12. Tc1-like transposable elements in plant genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (TEs) is widespread in animal genomes. Mariner-like elements, which bear a DDD triad catalytic motif, have been identified in a wide range of flowering plant species. However, as the founding member of the superfamily, Tc1-like elements that bear a DD34E triad catalytic motif are only known to unikonts (animals, fungi, and Entamoeba). Results Here we report the identification of Tc1-like elements (TLEs) in plant genomes. These elements bear the four terminal nucleotides and the characteristic DD34E triad motif of Tc1 element. The two TLE families (PpTc1, PpTc2) identified in the moss (Physcomitrella patens) genome contain highly similar copies. Multiple copies of PpTc1 are actively transcribed and the transcripts encode intact full length transposase coding sequences. TLEs are also found in angiosperm genome sequence databases of rice (Oryza sativa), dwarf birch (Betula nana), cabbage (Brassica rapa), hemp (Cannabis sativa), barley (Hordium valgare), lettuce (Lactuta sativa), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), pear (Pyrus x bretschneideri), and wheat (Triticum urartu). Conclusions This study extends the occurrence of TLEs to the plant phylum. The elements in the moss genome have amplified recently and may still be capable of transposition. The TLEs are also present in angiosperm genomes, but apparently much less abundant than in moss. PMID:24926322

  13. Uptake of Glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Schulz, Arno; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an Arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. Orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. The Km for glyphosate uptake was 125 μM, and the Ki for orthophosphate was 24 μM. Organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppressed...

  14. Developmental time of immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae from artificially perforated bamboo in the rain forest of southern Brazil Tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae provenientes de bambus artificialmente perfurados em floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil

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    Gerson Azulim Muller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time of the immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905, from perforated bamboo in the southern Brazil rain forest was studied under laboratory conditions. Mean development periods were 5±2.23, 10±5.20, 14±8.26, 36±13.90 and 9±2.43 days, respectively, for the four larval instars and pupae. The 4th instar of females was longer than that of males. Implications of the long development time of the immature forms of Sa. aurescens are discussed.O tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905 de bambus perfurados da floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil foi estudado em condições de laboratório. O período médio de desenvolvimento foi de 5±2,23; 10±5,20; 14±8,26; 36±13,90 e 9±2,43 dias respectivamente, para os quatro instares larvais e pupa. O 4º instar das fêmeas foi mais longo do que o dos machos. Implicações do longo tempo de desenvolvimento das formas imaturas de Sa. aurescens são discutidas.

  15. Biodegradation of α-, β-, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by Arthrobacter fluorescens and Arthrobacter giacomelloi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, M R; Lippi, D; Guerriero, E; Polcaro, C M; Donati, E

    2013-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and its non-insecticidal isomers α-, β-, and δ- continue to pose serious environmental and health concerns, although their use has been restricted or completely banned for decades. The present study reports the first results on the ability of two Arthrobacter strains, not directly isolated from a HCH-polluted site, to grow in a mineral salt medium containing α-, β-, or γ-HCH (100 mgl(-1)) as sole source of carbon. Growth of cultures and HCHs degradation by Arthrobacter fluorescens and Arthrobacter giacomelloi were investigated after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days of incubation by enumerating colony forming units and GC with ECD detection, respectively. Both bacteria are able to metabolize the HCHs: A. giacomelloi is the most effective one, as after 72 h of incubation it produces 88 % degradation of α-, 60 % of β-, and 56 % of γ-HCH. The formation of possible persistent compounds was studied by GC/MS and by HPLC analysis. Pentachlorocyclohexenes and tetrachlorocyclohexenes have been detected as metabolites, which are almost completely eliminated after 72 h of incubation, while no phenolic compounds were found. PMID:23553101

  16. Transcribed Tc1-like transposons in salmonid fish

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    Afanasyev Sergey

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements comprise a substantial fraction of vertebrate genomes. These genes are considered to be deleterious, and in vertebrates they are usually inactive. High throughput sequencing of salmonid fish cDNA libraries has revealed a large number of transposons, which remain transcribed despite inactivation of translation. This article reports on the structure and potential role of these genes. Results A search of EST showed the ratio of transcribed transposons in salmonid fish (i.e., 0.5% of all unique cDNA sequences to be 2.4–32 times greater than in other vertebrate species, and 68% of these genes belonged to the Tc1-family of DNA transposons. A phylogenetic analysis of reading frames indicate repeated transposition of distantly related genes into the fish genome over protracted intervals of evolutionary time. Several copies of two new DNA transposons were cloned. These copies showed relatively little divergence (11.4% and 1.9%. The latter gene was transcribed at a high level in rainbow trout tissues, and was present in genomes of many phylogenetically remote fish species. A comparison of synonymous and non-synonymous divergence revealed remnants of divergent evolution in the younger gene, while the older gene evolved in a neutral mode. From a 1.2 MB fragment of genomic DNA, the salmonid genome contains approximately 105 Tc1-like sequences, the major fraction of which is not transcribed. Our microarray studies showed that transcription of rainbow trout transposons is activated by external stimuli, such as toxicity, stress and bacterial antigens. The expression profiles of Tc1-like transposons gave a strong correlation (r2 = 0.63–0.88 with a group of genes implicated in defense response, signal transduction and regulation of transcription. Conclusion Salmonid genomes contain a large quantity of transcribed mobile genetic elements. Divergent or neutral evolution within genomes and lateral transmission can

  17. Biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_Arthrobacter species

    OpenAIRE

    Gelagutashvili, E.; Pataraia, E. Ginturi D.; Gurielidze, M.

    2011-01-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis and Arthrobacter oxidas) was studied simultaneous application dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. Also biosorption of Cr(VI) in the presence of Zn(II) during growth of Arthrobacter species and Cr(III) in the presence of Mn(II) were discussed. Comparative Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species shown, that Cr(III) was more effectively adsorbed by both bacterium than Cr(VI). The adsorption capacity is ...

  18. Cloning and sequencing of the trpE gene from Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 and several related subsurface Arthrobacter isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernova, T.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Austria, N.; Nichols, B.P.

    1998-09-01

    Tryptophan dependent mutants of Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 were isolated and trp genes were cloned by complementation and marker rescue of the auxotrophic strains. Rescue studies and preliminary sequence analysis reveal that at least the genes trpE, trpC, and trpB are clustered together in this organism. In addition, sequence analysis of the entire trpE gene, which encodes component I of anthranilate synthase, is described. Segments of the trpE gene from 17 subsurface isolates of Arthrobacter sp. were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The partial trpE sequences from the various strains were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that in addition to single base changes, recombination and genetic exchange play a major role in the evolution of the Arthrobacter genome.

  19. Beta-galactosidase from psychrotrophic microorganism (strain arthrobacter)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich; Skálová, Tereza; Petroková, Hana; Vondráčková-Buchtelová, Eva; Dohnálek, Jan; Spiwok, V.; Lipovová, P.; Strnad, H.; Králová, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 18-19. ISSN 1211-5894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : .beta.-galactoside * cold active enzymes * Arthrobacter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Isolation of Arthrobacter species from the phyllosphere and demonstration of their epiphytic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Scheublin, T.R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are common inhabitants of the soil environment, but can also be recovered from leaf surfaces (the phyllosphere). Using enrichment cultures on 4-chlorophenol, we succeeded in specifically isolating Arthrobacter bacteria from ground cover vegetation in an apple orchard. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were found to belong to at least three different species of Arthrobacter. Compared to the model bacterial epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans, the Arthr...

  1. Arthrobacter deserti sp. nov., isolated from a desert soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Wen; Chu, Xiao; Xiao, Min; Li, Chang-Tian; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Hozzein, Wael N; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative bacterium, designated YIM CS25T, was isolated from a soil sample collected from Turpan desert in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, north-western China. The isolate grew at 15-40 °C, at pH 6.0-8.0 and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM CS25T belonged to the genus Arthrobacter and was closely related to Arthrobacter halodurans JSM 078085T (95.89 % similarity). The peptidoglycan type contained lysine, alanine and glutamic acid. The major whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose and ribose. The isolate contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as the major polar lipids and MK-9 (H2) as the predominant menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.3 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, strain YIM CS25T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter deserti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM CS25T ( = KCTC 39544T = CGMCC 1.15091T). PMID:26908080

  2. Interstrain crosses enhance excision of Tc1 transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, I; Moerman, D G; Waterston, R H

    1990-01-01

    We report here an unusual activation of the Tc1 transposable element system in Caenorhabditis elegans. Germline Tc1 activity, as measured by reversion of unc-22::Tc1 alleles, is elevated 50- to 100-fold by certain crosses. For example, unc-22::Tc1 reversion is 1 x 10(-3) in a mut-6 IV strain and less than 1 x 10(-6) in a non-mutator strain, but in the unc-22::Tc1 progeny of a cross between mut-6 hermaphrodites and non-mutator males, reversion is 10(-1). The reciprocal cross does not induce this enhancement of reversion. Results similar to those for mut-6 were obtained using a mut-5 II strain. The mutator hermaphrodite by nonmutator male cross per se is not required for the enhancement of reversion, as mut-5 hermaphrodites x mut-6/+ males also induce unc-22 revertants at an elevated frequency. This reversion enhancement appears to depend on a maternal component inherited from a mutator strain, suggesting that the regulation of Tc1 activity may be complex. PMID:2157953

  3. Wide Distribution of Closely Related, Antibiotic-Producing Arthrobacter Strains throughout the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Bowman, Jeff S.;

    2012-01-01

    We isolated 16 antibiotic-producing bacterial strains throughout the central Arctic Ocean, including seven Arthrobacter spp. with almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. These strains were numerically rare, as revealed using 454 pyrosequencing libraries. Arthrobacter spp. produced arthrobacilin...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Strain Mor30.16, Isolated from the Bean Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Ríos, José Antonio; Ramírez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Nova-Franco, Bárbara; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Iturriaga, Gabriel; Suárez-Rodríguez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are commonly found in the soil and plant rhizosphere. In this study we report the draft genome of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus strain Mor30.16 that was isolated from rhizosphere of beans grown in Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico. This strain promotes growth and ameliorates drought stress in bean plants.

  5. Intracellular inclusions of a n-alkane-grown Arthrobacter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructural changes associated with the growth of a marine Arthrobacter sp. on n-hexadecane were demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Multiple electron translucent areas (ETI), similar to inclusions described by other investigators, were found in hydrocarbon-grown cells but not in peptone-grown cells. Stereological planimetry demonstrated that the ETI occupy as much as 40% of the hydrocarbon-grown cell's volume. Electron dense structures (EDI) were observed in hexadecane and in peptone-grown cells. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated traces of n-hexadecane associated with the hydrocarbon-grown cells: however, the hydrocarbon levels were not high enough to suggest the presence of hydrocarbon inclusions in the cells. Solvent partition studies with disrupted 14C-n-hexadecane-grown cells suggested that the intracellular radioactivity was associated with polar compounds. Acrylate-inhibited, hydrocarbon-grown Arthrobacter sp. did not form ETI, suggesting that the formation of ETI involves the participation of Coenzyme A. Thin-layer and gas chromatography indicated that the major intracellular components were glycerides, with one or more R groups composed of palmitic acid and free palmitic acid. 27 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  6. Ability of Cyanobacteria and Arthrobacter Species to Remove Gold Ions from Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Rcheulichvili, A; Tsakadze, K; Bagdavadze, N; Kuchava, N; Djandjalia, M

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of Au(III) - Spirulina platensis and Au(III) - Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis and Arthrobacter oxidas) were studied at simultaneous application of dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. Also biosorption of Au(III) - Spirulina platensis at various pH were discussed. Biosorption constants for Au-cyanobacteris Spirulina platensis at different pH, and for Arthrobacter oxidas and Arthrobacter globiformis at pH=7.1 are : 1. K=3.91 x 10-4 (Au- Arthrobacter oxidas 61B, pH=7.1) 2. K=14.17 x 10-4 . (Au- Arthrobacter globiformis 151B, pH=7.1). 3. K=2.07x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=7.1) 4. K= 4.87x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=6.2) 5. K=8.7x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=8.4)

  7. Biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_Arthrobacter species

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Gurielidze, M

    2011-01-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis and Arthrobacter oxidas) was studied simultaneous application dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. Also biosorption of Cr(VI) in the presence of Zn(II) during growth of Arthrobacter species and Cr(III) in the presence of Mn(II) were discussed. Comparative Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species shown, that Cr(III) was more effectively adsorbed by both bacterium than Cr(VI). The adsorption capacity is the same for both the Chromium-Arthrobacter systems. The biosorption constants for Cr(III) is higher than for Cr(VI) 5.7-5.9- fold for both species. Comparative Freundlich biosorption characteristics Cr(VI) Arthrobacter species of living and dry cells shown, that capacity(n) is in both cases the same(1.25,1.35). Dry cells have larger biosorption constant for both species, than living cells. Biosorption characteristics (K) and (n) for A. oxidas are without Mn(II) and in the presence of Mn(II) 2.6 x 10-4 (K), 1.37 (n) and 2...

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFJ322 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :none) Arthrobacter aurescens TC1, com... 70 8e-11 AP009256_1209( AP009256 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium adolescent... 1 dna update 2004. 9.24 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Valu...ogy vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits)...ttn*nqqsqnqqqlqptnngai*ksnkvkktqnrts l Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant...2Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFJ322 (AFJ322Q) /CSM/AF/AFJ3-A/AFJ322Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX

  9. Dicty_cDB: AFM487 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis subsp.... 70 2e-10 AP009256_1209( AP009256 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium adolescentis AT... 70 2e-1...lnilfldqk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits... cDNA clone:dda16m01, 5' ... 274 e-120 2 dna update 2009. 4.12 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments... 81 7e-14 CP000474_3686( CP000474 |pid:none) Arthrobacter aurescens TC1, com... 77 9e-13 CP001341_3726( CP00...s producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ34

  10. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Syed H.; Gould, J. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  11. Characteristics of banded chorus-like emission measured by the TC-1 Double Star spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macúšová, Eva; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Yearby, K.

    Göttingen: Copernicus, 2013. s. 10341. [EGU General Assembly 2013. 07.04.2013-12.04.2013, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : banded whistler-mode emissions * TC-1 spacecraft Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-10341-1.pdf

  12. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  13. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation incl...

  14. Germ-line transgenesis of the Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon Minos in Ciona intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Awazu, Satoko; Chiba, Shota; Satoh, Nori

    2003-01-01

    The tadpole larva of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis has the most simplified, basic body-plan of chordates. Because it has a compact genome with a complete draft sequence, a large quantity of EST/cDNA information, and a short generation time, Ciona is a suitable model for future genetics. We establish here a transgenic technique in Ciona that uses the Tc1/mariner superfamily transposon Minos. Minos was integrated efficiently into the genome of germ cells and transmitted stably to ...

  15. Erythema caused by a localised skin infection with Arthrobacter mysorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Trinad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin erythemas of unknown origin are a frequent reason for consulting the general practitioner or dermatologist. Case presentation Here we report a case of an erythema resembling the erythema migrans manifestation of Lyme disease, but with atypical symptoms like persistent pruritus. The patient had no history of a recent tick-bite but displayed a positive serology for an advanced stage of Lyme borreliosis, which stood in contrast to the clinical manifestation of erythema migrans as a symptom of early Lyme disease. Three skin swabs and soil samples, collected in the area where the patient possibly acquired the infection, were examined by bacterial and fungal culture methods. Microorganisms were identified by using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics. The patient and soil isolates were compared by employing RAPD analysis. The serum samples of the patient were examined by immunoblotting. Arthrobacter mysorens, a soil bacterium, was isolated from the collected skin and soil samples. The identity of both isolates was determined by molecular fingerprinting methods. A. mysorens was proven to be causative for the erythema by direct isolation from the affected skin and a positive serology, thus explaining the atypical appearance of the erythema compared to erythema migrans caused by Borrelia infection. Conclusions Infections with A.mysorens might be underreported and microbiological diagnostic techniques should be applied in cases of patients with unclear erythemas, resembling erythema migrans, without a history of tick bites.

  16. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species). PMID:26486726

  17. Knockdown of TC-1 enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer 1 (TC-1, C8ofr4 is widely expressed in vertebrates and associated with many kinds of tumors. Previous studies indicated that TC-1 functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in radiosensitivity of NSCLC are still unclear. The expression level of TC-1 was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot in NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to TC-1 knockdown or/and radiation were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was further examined by western blot in vitro and in vivo. Compared to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone, TC-1 silencing combined with radiation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines by inactivating of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by XAV939, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, contributed to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Combinative treatment of A549 xenografts with TC-1 siRNA and radiation caused significant tumor regression and inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway relative to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone. The results from in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that TC-1 silencing sensitized NSCLC cell lines to radiotherapy through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  18. Application of NAA method to study chromium uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study chromium uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans (Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from Columbia basalt rocks, USA) instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied. It was established that chromate accumulation is dose-dependent and it is more intensive in the interval of concentrations of Cr(VI) (10-50 mg/l). At low concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 50 mg/l) the most intensive formation of Cr(V) was also found (using ESR method). Besides, it was estimated that reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(V) is faster process than the uptake of Cr(VI). According to ENAA measurements Cr(III), in constant to Cr(VI), is not accumulated in Arthrobacter oxydans cells up to concentration of 200 mg/l. Using epithermal neutron activation analysis the background levels of 17 major, minor and trace elements were determined in Arthrobacter oxydans

  19. Cluster and TC-1 observation of magnetic holes in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Sun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes with relatively small scale sizes, detected by Cluster and TC-1 in the magnetotail plasma sheet, are studied in this paper. It is found that these magnetic holes are spatial structures and they are not magnetic depressions generated by the flapping movement of the magnetotail current sheet. Most of the magnetic holes (93% were observed during intervals with Bz larger than Bx, i.e. they are more likely to occur in a dipolarized magnetic field topology. Our results also suggest that the occurrence of these magnetic holes might have a close relationship with the dipolarization process. The magnetic holes typically have a scale size comparable to the local proton Larmor radius and are accompanied by an electron energy flux enhancement at a 90° pitch angle, which is quite different from the previously observed isotropic electron distributions inside magnetic holes in the plasma sheet. It is also shown that most of the magnetic holes occur in marginally mirror-stable environments. Whether the plasma sheet magnetic holes are generated by the mirror instability related to ions or not, however, is unknown. Comparison of ratios, scale sizes and propagation direction of magnetic holes detected by Cluster and TC-1, suggests that magnetic holes observed in the vicinity of the TC-1 orbit (~7–12 RE are likely to be further developed than those observed by Cluster (~7–18 RE.

  20. Shrinkage of magnetosphere observed by TC-1 satellite during the high-speed solar wind stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.; RME; I.; DANDOURAS; C.; M.; CARR

    2008-01-01

    During the interval 06:14―07:30 UT on August 24, 2005, since the Earth’s magneto- pause was suddenly compressed by the persistent high-speed solar wind stream with the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the magnetopause moved inward for about 3.1 RE. Meanwhile, TC-1 satellite shifted from northern plasma sheet to the northern lobe/mantle region, although it kept inward flying during the interval 06:00―07:30UT. The shift of TC-1 from the plasma sheet to the lobe/mantle is caused by the simultaneous inward displacements of the plasma sheet and near-Earth lobe/mantle region, and their inward movement velocity is larger than the inward motion velocity of TC-1. The joint inward dis-placements of the magnetopause, the lobe/mantle region and the plasma sheet indicate that the whole magnetosphere shrinks inward due to the magnetospheric compression by the high-speed solar wind stream, and the magnetospheric ions are attached to the magnetic field lines (i.e. ‘frozen’ in magnetic field) and move inward in the shrinking process of magnetosphere. The large shrinkage of magne-tosphere indicates that the near-Earth magnetotail compression caused by the strong solar wind dynamic pressure is much larger than its thickening caused by the southward component of the IMF, and the locations of magnetospheric regions with different plasmas vary remarkably with the variation of the solar wind dynamic pressure.

  1. Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus sp. nov., a novel 4-nitroguaiacol-degrading actinobacterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutoučková, L.; Schumann, P.; Durnová, E.; Spröer, C.; Sedláček, I.; Neča, J.; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Němec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2004), s. 773-777. ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/00/P095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : Nitroguaiacol * actinobacterium * Arthrobacter Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.015, year: 2004

  2. Purification and Characterization of Two Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatases from a Psychrophilic Arthrobacter Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, P; Brenchley, J E

    1997-01-01

    Two extracellular, heat-labile alkaline phosphatases were purified from a psychrophilic Arthrobacter isolate, D10. The enzymes were active over different pH ranges, used distinct substrates, and had different kinetic properties. Each enzyme reacted specifically to its own antibody during immunoblot analysis. One had both monophosphatase and diesterase activities.

  3. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  4. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression. PMID:23315072

  5. Human Thyroid Cancer-1 (TC-1) is a vertebrate specific oncogenic protein that protects against copper and pro-apoptotic genes in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie K. Jones; Nagla T.T. Arab; Rawan Eid; Nada Gharib; Sara Sheiban; Hojatollah Vali; Chamel Khoury; Alistair Murray; Eric Boucher; Mandato, Craig A; Young, Paul G.; Greenwood, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The human Thyroid Cancer-1 (hTC-1) protein, also known as C8orf4 was initially identified as a gene that was up-regulated in human thyroid cancer. Here we show that hTC-1 is a peptide that prevents the effects of over-expressing Bax in yeast. Analysis of the 106 residues of hTC-1 in available protein databases revealed direct orthologues in jawed-vertebrates, including mammals, frogs, fish and sharks. No TC-1 orthologue was detected in lower organisms, including yeast. Her...

  6. Improved biosorption for Cr(VI) reduction and removal by Arthrobacter viscosus using zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Figueiredo, Hugo; Quintelas, C.; Neves, Isabel C.; Tavares, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to optimize the reduction and removal of chromium from aqueous solutions by a biosorption system consisting of a bacteria supported on a zeolite. The system proposed combines the biosorption properties of Arthrobacter viscosus, with the ion exchange capacity of NaY zeolite. Experiments were also performed without the zeolite for comparison purposes. Experimental parameters such as solution pH, biomass concentration and initial Cr(VI) concentration were investig...

  7. Biodegradation by an Arthrobacter Species of Hydrocarbons Partitioned into an Organic Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Alexander, Martin

    1991-01-01

    An Arthrobacter strain mineralized naphthalene and n-hexadecane dissolved in 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. The extent of mineralization increased with greater volumes of solvent. Measurements under aseptic conditions of the partitioning of naphthalene into the aqueous phase from the solid phase or from heptamethylnonane showed that the rates were rapid and did not limit mineralization. The rate of mineralization of hexadecane was rapid, although partitioning of the compound into aqueous so...

  8. Improving the Survival of Arthrobacter sp., CW9 during Spray Drying Monitored by Scan Electric Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenqiang Xia; Ming Zhu; Yanqiu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The culture of an aquaculture probiotic, i.e., Arthrobacter sp., CW9, was spray dried with different carriers/protectants, in which Scan Electric Microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the surface of micro-paticles produced by spray-drying. Matrix of protectants, inlet temperature and feed rate were optimized according to the survival rate after spray drying. Scanning electron micrographs showed that cracks formed on the particle surface were a key factor in enhancing bacteria survival during s...

  9. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Twenty Bacteriophages Infecting Either Brevibacterium or Arthrobacter Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Trautwetter, Annie; Blanco, Carlos

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, or Arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. Restriction analysis of phage DNA indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. All these phages were assigned to group B of the classification of Bradley (Bacteriol. Rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.

  10. Deformation behavior of TC1 titanium alloy sheet under double-sided pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-jin; SONG Hui; WANG Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of normal stress through thickness on the formability of sheet metal, the viscous pressure bulge(VPB) tests of an annealed TC1 titanium alloy sheet were carried out under two different conditions: double-sided pressure bulging and conventional single-sided pressure bulging. The automated strain analysis, measurement environment (ASAME) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to study the strain distributions and the fracture morphology of bulged specimens. It is found that thickness strain is increased for double-sided pressure bulging specimens, and the limiting dome height(LDH) of double-sided pressure bulging specimens is increased by 31.8% compared with conventional single-sided pressure bulging specimens. The dimples in fracture surface for double-sided pressure bulging specimens are larger and deeper than those for conventional single-sided pressure bulging specimens. The results indicate that normal stress through thickness is helpful in improving the formability of titanium alloy sheet metal.

  11. New metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate by Arthrobacter sp. SPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthrobacter sp. SPG utilized 2-nitrobenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy and degraded it with accumulation of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite ions. Salicylate and catechol were detected as metabolites of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities for 2-nitrobenzoate-2-monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the crude extracts of the 2-nitrobenzoate-induced cells of strain SPG. The 2-nitrobenzoate-monooxygenase activity resulted in formation of salicylate and nitrite from 2-nitrobenzoate whereas salicylate hydroxylase catalyzed the conversion of salicylate to catechol. The ring-cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase cleaved catechol to cis, cis-muconic acid. Cells of strain SPG were able to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in sterile as well as non-sterile soil microcosms. The results of microcosm studies showed that strain SPG degraded more than 90% of 2-nitrobenzoate within 10-12 days. This study clearly shows that Arthrobacter sp. SPG degraded 2-nitrobenzoate via a new pathway with formation of salicylate and catechol as metabolites. Arthrobacter sp. SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2-nitrobenzoate-contaminated sites due to its ability to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in soil.

  12. Telepresence teacher professional development for physics and math constructs focused on US and Thai classrooms' TC-1 slinky seismometer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livelybrooks, D.; Parris, B. A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.; Tulyatid, D.; Toomey, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Broader Impacts of the Cascadia Initiative, a seismic study of the Cascadia margin, and the Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) collaboration we have developed school- and museum/library-based networks of TC-1 educational seismometers. The TC-1 is constructed such that its 'guts' are visible through an transparent acrylic outer cylinder, thus it is an excellent demonstration of how fundamental physics constructs can be leveraged to design and operate a vertical-channel seismometer capable of recording signals from large earthquakes world-wide. TC-1 (aka 'slinky seismometer') networks therefore serve as the application for projects-based learning (PBL) physics and data science instruction in Oregon and Thai classrooms. The TC-1 acts as a simple harmonic oscillator, employing electromagnetic induction of a moving magnet within a wire coil. Movement of the lower magnet within an electrically conductive pipe dampens motion such that P-, S- and Surface wave phases can be identified. Further, jAmaSeis software can be configured to simultaneously show live signals from three TC-1s and has tools necessary to pick phases for earthquake signals and, thus, locate earthquake epicenters. Leveraging a long-standing collaboration between the Royal Thai Distance Learning Foundation and the University of Oregon, we developed five, 2-hour, two-way teacher professional development sessions that were transmitted live to Thai K-12 teachers and others starting mid-August, 2015. As an example, one session emphasized hands-on activities to analyze the effect of spring stiffness, inertial mass and initial displacement on the resonance frequency of a simple oscillator. Another pedagogical goal was to elucidate how math is important to understanding the analysis of seismic data, for example, how cross-correlation is useful for distinguishing between genuine earthquake signals and, say, a truck rolling by a TC-1 station. UO graduate and

  13. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Marechal

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  14. 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase gene was first discovered in Arthrobacter sp. strain P J3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiYing; MA PengDa; LI WenMing; LIU JinYing; LI Liang; ZHU XiaoJuan; WANG XingZhi

    2007-01-01

    Bacterium strain PJ3, isolated from wastewater and identified as Arthrobacter sp. bacterium based on its 16S rDNA gene, could use carbazole as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. The genomic libraryof strain PJ3 was constructed and a positive clone JM109 (pUCW402) was screened out for the expression of dioxygenase by the ability to form yellow ring-fission product. A 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (23DHBD) gene of 933 bp was found in the 3360 bp exogenous fragment of pUCW402 by GenSCAN software and BLAST analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 23DHBD from strain PJ3 formed a deep branch separate from a cluster containing most known 23DHBD in GenBank.Southern hybridization confirmed for the first time that the 23DHBD gene was from the genomic DNA of Arthrobacter sp. PJ3. In order to test the gene function, recombinant bacterium BL21 (pETW-8) was constructed to express 23DHBD. The expression level in BL21 (pETW-8) was highest compared with the recombinant bacteria JM109 (pUCW402) and strain PJ3. We observed that 23DHBD was not absolute specific. The enzyme activity was higher with 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as a substrate than with catechol.The substrate specificity assay suggested that 23DHBD was essential for cleavage of bi-cyclic aromatic compounds during the course of aromatic compound biodegradation in Arthrobacter sp. strain PJ3.

  15. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E S Challaraj Emmanuel; T Ananthi; B Anandkumar; S Maruthamuthu

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  16. Metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-chloro-4-aminophenol by Arthrobacter sp. SPG

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Bae, Hanhong; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2014-01-01

    A degradation pathway of 2-chloro-4-aminophenol (2C4AP) was studied in an Arthrobacter sp. SPG that utilized 2C4AP as its sole source of carbon and energy. The 2C4AP degradation was initiated by a 2C4AP-deaminase that catalyzed the conversion of 2C4AP into chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) with removal of ammonium ion. In the next step, a CHQ-dehalogenase dehalogenated CHQ to hydroquinone (HQ) that cleaved into γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde by a HQ-dioxygenase. The 2C4AP degradation was also investiga...

  17. Impact of phenolic substrate and growth temperature on the arthrobacter chlorophenolicus proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unell, Maria; Abraham, Paul E.; Shah, Manesh; Zhang, Bing; Ruckert, Christian; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2009-02-15

    We compared the Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus proteome during growth on 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol or phenol at 5 C and 28 C; both for the wild type and a mutant strain with mass spectrometry based proteomics. A label free workflow employing spectral counting identified 3749 proteins across all growth conditions, representing over 70% of the predicted genome and 739 of these proteins form the core proteome. Statistically significant differences were found in the proteomes of cells grown under different conditions including differentiation of hundreds of unknown proteins. The 4-chlorophenol-degradation pathway was confirmed, but not that for phenol.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter enclensis NCIM 5488T for Secondary Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurgaonkar, Priya S.; Dharne, Mahesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter enclensis NCIM 5488T, an actinobacterium isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. This draft genome sequence consists of 4,226,231 bp with a G+C content of 67.08%, 3,888 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNAs, and 10 rRNAs. Analysis of the genome using bioinformatics tools such as antiSMASH and NaPDoS showed the presence of many unique natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:27257206

  19. Impact of Phenolic Substrate and Growth Temperature on the Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus Proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unell, Maria [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Abraham, Paul E [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Zhang, B [Vanderbilt University; Ruckert, Christian [Bielefeld University, Center for Biotechnology, Bielefeld, Germany; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Jansson, J [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden

    2009-01-01

    We compared the Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus proteome during growth on 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol, or phenol at 5 and 28 C, both for the wild-type and a mutant strain with mass spectrometry based proteomics. A label-free workflow employing spectral counting identified 3749 proteins across all growth conditions, representing over 70% of the predicted genome and 739 of these proteins form the core proteome. Statistically significant differences were found in the proteomes of cells grown under different conditions including differentiation of hundreds of unknown proteins. The 4-chlorophenol- degradation pathway was confirmed, but not that for phenol.

  20. Human Thyroid Cancer-1 (TC-1 is a vertebrate specific oncogenic protein that protects against copper and pro-apoptotic genes in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human Thyroid Cancer-1 (hTC-1 protein, also known as C8orf4 was initially identified as a gene that was up-regulated in human thyroid cancer. Here we show that hTC-1 is a peptide that prevents the effects of over-expressing Bax in yeast. Analysis of the 106 residues of hTC-1 in available protein databases revealed direct orthologues in jawed-vertebrates, including mammals, frogs, fish and sharks. No TC-1 orthologue was detected in lower organisms, including yeast. Here we show that TC-1 is a general pro-survival peptide since it prevents the growth- and cell death-inducing effects of copper in yeast. Human TC-1 also prevented the deleterious effects that occur due to the over-expression of a number of key pro-apoptotic peptides, including YCA1, YBH3, NUC1, and AIF1. Even though the protective effects were more pronounced with the over-expression of YBH3 and YCA1, hTC-1 could still protect yeast mutants lacking YBH3 and YCA1 from the effects of copper sulfate. This suggests that the protective effects of TC-1 are not limited to specific pathways or processes. Taken together, our results indicate that hTC-1 is a pro-survival protein that retains its function when heterologously expressed in yeast. Thus yeast is a useful model to characterize the potential roles in cell death and survival of cancer related genes.

  1. Heavy metal resistance in Arthrobacter ramosus strain G2 isolated from mercuric salt-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study describes isolation of a multiple metal-resistant Arthrobacter ramosus strain from mercuric salt-contaminated soil. The isolate was found to resist and bioaccumulate several metals, such as cadmium, cobalt, zinc, chromium and mercury. Maximum tolerated concentrations for above metals were found to be 37, 525, 348, 1530 and 369 μM, respectively. The isolate could also reduce and detoxify redox-active metals like chromium and mercury, indicating that it has great potential in bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites. Chromate reductase and mercuric reductase (MerA) activities in protein extract of the culture were found to be 2.3 and 0.17 units mg-1 protein, respectively. MerA enzyme was isolated from the culture by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation followed by dye affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Its monomeric molecular weight, and optimum pH and temperature were 57 kDa, 7.4 and 55 deg. C, respectively. Thus, the enzyme was mildly thermophilic as compared to other MerA enzymes. Km and Vmax of the enzyme were 16.9 μM HgCl2 and 6.2 μmol min-1 mg-1 enzyme, respectively. The enzyme was found to be NADPH-specific. To our knowledge this is the first report on characterization of MerA enzyme from an Arthrobacter sp.

  2. Genetic differentiation of Arthrobacter population from heavy metal-contaminated environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hanbo; REN Weimin; SHAO Qiyong; DUAN Changqun

    2007-01-01

    Six samples containing extremely high concentration of Pb,Zn,and Cd were obtained from the layers of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm three tailing piles,with ages of about 10,20 and more than 80 years,respectively.Then,48 bacterial strains were obtained from these samples,and subsequently their phylogenetic positions were determined by analysis on the partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene (fragment length ranging from 474 to 708 bp).These isolates were members of the Arthrobacter genus,phylogenetically close to A.keyseri and A.ureafaciens,with sequence ranging from 99.1%to 100%.Furthermore,genetic variation between subpopulations from different samples was revealed by analysis on their randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profile.Nei genetic distance showed that the greatest differentiation occurred between subpopulation A and C.Notably,either genetic distance between subpopulations from the layers of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm of each tailing pile or between same layers of different tailing pile increased with the history of tailings.Moreover,correlation analysis showed that soluble Pb has a significantly negative relationship with Nei'gene diversity of subpopulation.It was assumed that soluble Pb may be responsible for the reduced genetic diversity of the Arthrobacter population.Our data provided evidence that genetic differentiation of microbial populations was consistent with the changes of environmental factors,particularly heavy metals.

  3. Isolation of Indole Utilizing Bacteria Arthrobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. From Livestock Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Eonmi; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Jintae

    2016-06-01

    Indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule widespread in different environmental compartment. Although multifaceted roles of indole in different biological systems have been established, little information is available on the microbial utilization of indole in the context of combating odor emissions from different types of waste. The present study was aimed at identifying novel bacteria capable of utilizing indole as the sole carbon and energy source. From the selective enrichment of swine waste and cattle feces, we identified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Alcaligenes. Bacteria belonging to the genus Alcaligenes showed higher rates of indole utilization than Arthrobacter. Indole at 1.0 mM for growth was completely utilized by Alcaligenes sp. in 16 h. Both strains produced two intermediates, anthranilic acid and isatin, during aerobic indole metabolism. These isolates were also able to grow on several indole derivatives. Interestingly, an adaptive response in terms of a decrease in cell size was observed in both strains in the presence of indole. The present study will help to explain the degradation of indole by different bacteria and also the pathways through which it is catabolized. Furthermore, these novel bacterial isolates could be potentially useful for the in situ attenuation of odorant indole and its derivatives emitted from different types of livestock waste. PMID:27570307

  4. Efficacy of HPV-16 E7 Based Vaccine in a TC-1 Tumoric Animal Model of Cervical Cancer - page 483

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fazeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus as an etiological agent of cervical cancer doesnot grow adequately in tissue culture systems. The tumor cell line TC-1 continuously expressesthe E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins of HPV, and is considered a suitable tool inlaboratory investigations and vaccine researches against cervical cancer.Materials and Methods: The TC-1 cell line was grown in RPMI 1650 supplemented with10% FBS, glutamine and antibiotics, and was used for tumor development in mice. Six toseven week-old tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups consisting of 7mice per group. The first group received pcDNA-E7, the second group received pcDNA3,and the third group received phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The treated animals weremonitored for their tumor size progression and survival. At last, the tumoric tissues fromautopsied animals were fixed and examined with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin (H&E.All experiments were done in accordance with guidelines of the Laboratory Animal EthicalCommission of Tarbiat Modares University. Data analysis was performed using the onewayANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both experimental and control groups. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant.Results: There were significant decreases in tumor growth; there were also improvementsin survival among mice in the treated groups (p<0.041. H&E stained sections fromuntreated mice were studied independently in a blinded fashion by two observers andshowed malignant neoplasms composed of severely pleomorphic tumor cells with nuclearenlargement, high nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C ratios, and prominent nucleoli in solid andfascicular patterns of growth. High mitotic activity with extensive necrosis was also notedin both test and control groups.Conclusion: The TC-1 lung metastatic model can be used to test the efficacy of variousE7-based therapeutic cancer vaccine strategies for cervical cancer and the prevention ofHPV-related neoplasia.

  5. One-pot conversion of levan prepared from Serratia levanicum NN to difructose anhydride IV by Arthrobacter nicotinovorans levan fructotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroto; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Nagura, Taizo; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2010-03-01

    The newly established difructose anhydride IV (DFA IV) production system is comprised of the effective production of levan from sucrose by Serratia levanicum NN, the conversion of the levan into DFA IV by levan fructotransferase from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans GS-9, which is highly expressed in an Escherichiacoli transformant, and a practical purification step. The chemical properties of DFA IV were also investigated. PMID:20159571

  6. Transcriptional profiling of Gram-positive Arthrobacter in the phyllosphere: induction of pollutant degradation genes by natural plant phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Deusch, S.; Moreno-Forero, S.K.; Müller, J.A.; van der Meer, J.R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 is a Gram-positive, 4-chlorophenol degrading soil bacterium that was recently shown to be an effective colonizer of plant leaf surfaces. The genetic basis for this phyllosphere competency is unknown. In this paper, we describe the genome-wide expression profile of A.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Papaverine-Degrading, Gram-positive Arthrobacter sp., Isolated from Soil Near Hohenheim, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Reznicek, Ondrej; Facey, Sandra J; Hauer, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    We present the 4.8-Mb draft genome of a soil bacterium identified as Arthrobacter sp. This Gram-positive soil bacterium is able to use the aromatic compound papaverine as sole carbon source and will be examined for novel oxygenases.

  8. AcEST: DK953594 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in mutS OS=Pedioco... 31 3.4 sp|Q2JD52|MURD_FRASC UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutama...PVSDIAEL 399 >sp|Q2JD52|MURD_FRASC UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase OS=Frankia sp. (strain Cc...Result : TrEMBL tr_hit_id A0JV92 Definition tr|A0JV92|A0JV92_ARTS2 UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ...N=AGA... 34 5.8 tr|A1R5F6|A1R5F6_ARTAT UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ... 33 9.8 >tr|A0JV92|A0JV92_ARTS2 UDP-N-acetylmuram...tr|A1R5F6|A1R5F6_ARTAT UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase OS=Arthrobacter aurescens (strain TC1

  9. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. ► Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. ► Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. ► Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. ► Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 1010 cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 °C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  10. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  11. Arthrobacter pokkalii sp nov, a Novel Plant Associated Actinobacterium with Plant Beneficial Properties, Isolated from Saline Tolerant Pokkali Rice, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ramya; Menon, Rahul Ravikumar; Tanaka, Naoto; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Rameshkumar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    A novel yellow colony-forming bacterium, strain P3B162T was isolated from the pokkali rice rhizosphere from Kerala, India, as part of a project study aimed at isolating plant growth beneficial rhizobacteria from saline tolerant pokkali rice and functionally evaluate their abilities to promote plant growth under saline conditions. The novel strain P3B162T possesses plant growth beneficial traits such as positive growth on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. In addition, it also showed important phenotypic characters such as ability to form biofilm and utilization of various components of plant root exudates (sugars, amino acids and organic acids), clearly indicating its lifestyle as a plant rhizosphere associated bacterium. Taxonomically, the novel strain P3B162T was affiliated to the genus Arthrobacter based on the collective results of phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses. Moreover, molecular analysis using 16S rRNA gene showed Arthrobacter globiformis NBRC 12137T, Arthrobacter pascens DSM 20545T and Arthrobacter liuii DSXY973T as the closely related phylogenetic neighbours, showing more than 98% 16S rRNA similarity values, whereas the recA gene analysis displayed Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T as the nearest neighbour with 94.7% sequence similarity and only 91.7% to Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T and 88.7% to Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain P3B162T, Arthrobacter globiformis LMG 3813T, Arthrobacter pascens LMG 16255T and Arthrobacter liuii JCM 19864T was below 50%. In addition, the novel strain P3B162T can be distinguished from its closely related type strains by several phenotypic characters such as colony pigment, tolerance to NaCl, motility, reduction of nitrate, hydrolysis of DNA, acid from sucrose, cell wall sugars and cell wall peptidoglycan structure. In conclusion, the combined results of this study support the

  12. Application of zeolite-Arthrobacter viscosus system for the removal of heavy metal and dye : chromium and azure B

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, E.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M. A.; Tavares, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid system combining the ion-exchange properties of a NaY zeolite and the characteristics of the bacterium Arthrobacter viscosus was investigated to treat polluted effluents with dye and toxic metals. In this study, the dye and the metal ion employed were a thiazine dye, Azure B, and chromium (VI), respectively. Initially, the removal of dye by the zeolite was tested. The analysis of dye equilibrium isotherms data was done using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich–Peterson models. Red...

  13. Characterization of the in vitro assembly of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3 using light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shanshan; Ding, Shenglong; Hou, Yannan; Yu, Linghui; Chen, Ximing; Xiao, Jianxi

    2016-10-01

    The self-assembly of FtsZ, the bacterial homolog of tubulin, plays an essential role in cell division. Light scattering technique is applied to real-time monitor the in vitro assembly of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3, a newly isolated psychrotrophic bacterium. The critical concentration needed for the assembly is estimated as 6.7μM. The polymerization of FtsZ in Arthrobacter strain A3 requires both GTP and divalent metal ions, while salt is an unfavorable condition for the assembly. The FtsZ polymerizes under a wide range of pHs, with the fastest rate around pH 6.0. The FtsZ from Arthrobacter strain A3 resembles Mycobacterium tuberculosis FtsZ in terms of the dependence on divalent metal ions and the slow polymerization rate, while it is different from M. tuberculosis FtsZ considering the sensitivity to salt and pH. The comparison of FtsZ from different organisms will greatly advance our understanding of the biological role of the key cell division protein. PMID:27164494

  14. A method for the production of D-tagatose using a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus and a recombinant L-arabinose isomerase from Arthrobacter sp. 22c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanarska Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-Tagatose is a natural monosaccharide which can be used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverages and pharmaceutical products. It is also currently being tested as an anti-diabetic and obesity control drug. D-Tagatose is a rare sugar, but it can be manufactured by the chemical or enzymatic isomerization of D-galactose obtained by a β-D-galactosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of milk sugar lactose and the separation of D-glucose and D-galactose. L-Arabinose isomerases catalyze in vitro the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose and are the most promising enzymes for the large-scale production of D-tagatose. Results In this study, the araA gene from psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 22c was isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active form of recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase consists of six subunits with a combined molecular weight of approximately 335 kDa. The maximum activity of this enzyme towards D-galactose was determined as occurring at 52°C; however, it exhibited over 60% of maximum activity at 30°C. The recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase was optimally active at a broad pH range of 5 to 9. This enzyme is not dependent on divalent metal ions, since it was only marginally activated by Mg2+, Mn2+ or Ca2+ and slightly inhibited by Co2+ or Ni2+. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-arabinose isomerase reached 30% after 36 h at 50°C. In this study, a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast strain secreting β-D-galactosidase Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus was also constructed. During cultivation of this strain in a whey permeate, lactose was hydrolyzed and D-glucose was metabolized, whereas D-galactose was accumulated in the medium. Moreover, cultivation of the P. pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase in a whey permeate supplemented with Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase resulted in a 90% yield

  15. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-C7-TC13 was organised by the University of Genova - DIME/MEC, Measurement Laboratory, Italy, on 4-6 September 2013. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: TC1 Education and Training in Measurement and Instrumentation TC7 Measurement Science TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine This is in keeping with the tradition set by the previous events of this well established series. There has been a special focus on measurement across physical and behavioural sciences, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and of promoting constructive interactions with scientists in other disciplines. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in psychophysics, psychometrics and quantum physics. The symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Australia and Japan, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume, organised according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Genova, which was the European Capital of Culture in 2004, and took place in Palazzo Ducale, an important historical building whose construction started in the 13th century, and that has been the house of the Duke of Genova from the 14th century. Genova, whose name comes from the Latin word 'Janua' (meaning 'door', as January is the door month of the year), has been regarded over the centuries as a door connecting Europe with the different countries and cultures of the Mediterranean basin and thus was an appropriate site for an international symposium involving different and new scientific visions and approaches to

  16. Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yearby

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

  17. Inhibition of TC-1 tumor progression by cotransfection of Saxatilin and IL-12 genes mediated by lipofection or electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y S; Kim, K S; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Baek, J Y; Huang, L

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a number of reports have demonstrated that coexpression of therapeutic genes having different anticancer mechanisms is a more effective strategy for anticancer gene therapy than single gene expression. Saxatilin, a novel disintegrin from snake venom, has recently been shown to have potent antiangiogenic functions, such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, bFGF-induced proliferation of HUVEC, and vitronectin-induced smooth muscle cell migration. IL-12 is a well-known immune modulator that promotes Thl-type antitumor immune responses and inhibits angiogenesis as well. The saxatilin and/or IL-12 genes were transfected intratumorally into C57BL/6 mice carrying TC-1 transformed mouse lung endothelial cells by either lipofection or electroporation. The plasmids encoding saxatilin and IL-12 were administered to tumor tissues via novel cationic liposomes consisting of dimyristyl-glutamyl-lysine (DMKE). On the other hand, expression of the genes was also induced by electroporation after naked pDNA injection to the tumor tissues. Lipofection of saxatilin and/or IL-12 genes appeared to be slightly more effective in inhibition of tumor growth than electroporation of the same genes. Cotransfection of saxatilin and IL-12 genes was clearly more effective than individual administration of either gene. This result implies that cotransfection of saxatilin and IL-12 genes represents an innovative modality for anticancer gene therapy. PMID:20225758

  18. Metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-chloro-4-aminophenol by Arthrobacter sp. SPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Bae, Hanhong; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2014-01-01

    A degradation pathway of 2-chloro-4-aminophenol (2C4AP) was studied in an Arthrobacter sp. SPG that utilized 2C4AP as its sole source of carbon and energy. The 2C4AP degradation was initiated by a 2C4AP-deaminase that catalyzed the conversion of 2C4AP into chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) with removal of ammonium ion. In the next step, a CHQ-dehalogenase dehalogenated CHQ to hydroquinone (HQ) that cleaved into γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde by a HQ-dioxygenase. The 2C4AP degradation was also investigated in sterile and non-sterile soil microcosms using strain SPG. The results show that the SPG cells degraded 2C4AP more rapidly in sterile soil than non-sterile soil. Our studies showed that strain SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2C4AP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of the 2C4AP degradation by any bacteria. PMID:25427856

  19. Genetic analysis of phenylacetic acid catabolism in Arthrobacter oxydans CECT386.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llorens, Juana María; Drzyzga, Oliver; Perera, Julián

    2008-07-01

    Arthrobacter oxydans CECT386 is a Gram-positive bacterium able to use either phenylacetic acid or phenylacetaldehyde as the sole carbon and energy source for aerobic growth. Genes responsible for the catabolism of these compounds have been located at two chromosomal regions and were organized in one isolated paaN gene and two putative paa operons, one consisting of the paaD, paaF, tetR and prot genes, and one consisting of the paaG, paaH, paaI, paaJ, paaK and paaB genes. The identity of the paaF and paaN genes was supported by functional complementation experiments. A comparison with the paa catabolic genes and/or gene clusters of other bacteria that degrade these aromatic compounds is presented. The results of this study broaden the knowledge regarding the range of metabolic potential of this strain and eventually make it attractive for environmental applications. PMID:18437357

  20. IN-VITRO BIOREDUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM BY VIABLE WHOLE CELLS OF Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Dey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A chromium resistant and reducing bacterium Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. Viable whole cells of this isolate was capable of completely reducing 100 µM Cr(VI in chemically defined MS medium within 28 h of incubation under batch cultivation. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at a density of 1010 cells/ml, but the reduction potential of the suspended cells decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration in the medium. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors, while the optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI reduction was found to be 7.0 and 35°C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Ni, Co and Cd, but not by Cu and Fe. Similarly, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, N,N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide (DCC, sodium azide and sodium fluoride were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while in presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol (2,4 DNP chromate reduction by SUK 1201 cells remained unaffected.

  1. The rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis produces dimethylhexadecylamine, a compound that inhibits growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes I; López-Bucio, José; Flores-Cortez, Idolina; Santoyo, Gustavo; Hernández-Soberano, Christian; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi affect agricultural production worldwide. Control of these pests can be done by the use of fungicides such as captan, which may have deleterious effects on human health. This study demonstrates that the rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 produces volatile organic compounds that inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in vitro. A single compound from the volatile blends, namely dimethylhexadecylamine (DMHDA), could inhibit the growth of both B. cinerea and P. cinnamomi when supplied to the growth medium in low concentrations. DMHDA also inhibited the growth of beneficial fungi Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride but at much higher concentrations. DMHDA-related aminolipids containing 4, 8, 10, 12, and 14 carbons in the alkyl chain were tested for their inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogens. The results show that the most active compound from those tested was dimethyldodecylamine. This effect correlates with a decrease in the number of membrane lipids present in the mycelium of the pathogen including eicosanoic acid, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester. Strawberry leaflets treated with DMHDA were not injured by the compound. These data indicate that DMHDA and related compounds, which can be produced by microorganisms may effectively inhibit the proliferation of certain plant pathogens. PMID:23674267

  2. Chromate reduction by Arthrobacter CR47 in biofilm packed bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial strain Cr47 was isolated from a landfarming process soil sample. It was identified, by 16s rDNA sequencing, as Arthrobacter sp. The time course of the Cr(VI) reduction was monitored in batch operated packed bed biofilm reactors (12mL void volume) and in recirculating packed bed biofilm reactors (100 mL void volume) inoculated with bacterial strain Cr47. The reduction was evaluated with, 30 mg L-1 Cr(VI) laboratory solutions prepared with K2Cr2O7 and enriched with glucose-minimal medium, and with 30 mg L-1 Cr(VI) industrial model solutions prepared with chrome plating waste waters enriched with sucrose-minimal medium. Under batch mode the reduction reaction by the biofilm seemed to fit well an exponential-decay model with a first order kinetic parameter of 0.071 mg(L h)-1 Cr(VI). In the recirculating reactor, monitored after 4 weeks from inoculation and fed with laboratory solutions the removal rate was 0.79 mg(L h)-1. In the reactor fed with the industrial model solutions the maximum Cr(VI) removal rate attained was 0.49 mg(L h)-1. Artrobacter sp. packed bed biofilm reactors achieved Cr(VI) reduction rates comparable to other aerobic and anaerobic fixed film bioreactors previously reported

  3. Use of Arthrobacter davidanieli as a live vaccine against Renibacterium salmoninarum and Piscirickettsia salmonis in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonius, K; Siderakis, C; MacKinnon, A M; Griffiths, S G

    2005-01-01

    Arthrobacter davidanieli (proposed species nomenclature) is a non-pathogenic Gram-variable bacterium related to, but taxonomically distinct from, Renibacterium salmoninarum, the aetiological agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). We have demonstrated that vaccination with live A. davidanieli is effective against BKD in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showing above 80 relative percent survival in experimental challenge trials. Good protection was also demonstrated in long-term field trials where Atlantic salmon were naturally exposed to R. salmoninarum challenge until 23 months after vaccination. The same vaccine, which is licensed in Canada against BKD has also proved effective in reducing mortality from experimental challenge of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with Piscirickettsia salmonis, the causative agent of piscirickettsiosis. Under field conditions in Chile, use of the vaccine led to a significant reduction in piscirickettsiosis mortality in coho salmon over 10 months following sea transfer. The vaccine strain is unique in that it is the first live organism to be licensed as a vaccine for use in aquaculture. Potential mechanisms of protection against the two taxonomically disparate pathogens are discussed. PMID:15962482

  4. Characterization and molecular cloning of a novel enzyme, inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-glucomannokinase, of Arthrobacter sp. strain KM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takako; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Matsukawa, Hirokazu; Matuo, Yuhsi; Murata, Kousaku

    2003-07-01

    A bacterium exhibiting activities of several inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)]- and ATP-dependent kinases, including glucokinase, NAD kinase, mannokinase, and fructokinase, was isolated, determined to belong to the genus Arthrobacter, and designated Arthrobacter sp. strain KM. Among the kinases, a novel enzyme responsible for the poly(P)- and ATP-dependent mannokinase activities was purified 2,200-fold to homogeneity from a cell extract of the bacterium. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 30 kDa. This enzyme phosphorylated glucose and mannose with a high affinity for glucose, utilizing poly(P) as well as ATP, and was designated poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase. The K(m) values of the enzyme for glucose, mannose, ATP, and hexametaphosphate were determined to be 0.50, 15, 0.20, and 0.02 mM, respectively. The catalytic sites for poly(P)-dependent phosphorylation and ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme were found to be shared, and the poly(P)-utilizing mechanism of the enzyme was shown to be nonprocessive. The gene encoding the poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. strain KM, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 804 bp coding for a putative polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 29,480 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide exhibited homology to the amino acid sequences of the poly(P)/ATP-glucokinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (level of homology, 45%), ATP-dependent glucokinases of Corynebacterium glutamicum (45%), Renibacterium salmoninarum (45%), and Bacillus subtilis (35%), and proteins of bacteria belonging to the order Actinomyces whose functions are not known. Alignment of these homologous proteins revealed seven conserved regions. The mannose and poly(P) binding sites of poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase are discussed. PMID:12839753

  5. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Natural selection in highly radioactive waste sites may yield bacteria with favorable bioremediating characteristics. However, until recently the microbial ecology of such environments has remained unexplored because of the high costs and technical complexities associated with extracting and characterizing samples from such sites. We have examined the bacterial ecology within radioactive sediments from a high-level nuclear waste plume in the vadose zone on the DOE?s Hanford Site in south-central Washington state (Fredrickson et al, 2004). Manganese-dependent, radiation resistant bacteria have been isolated from this contaminated site including the highly Mn-dependent Deinococcus and Arthrobacter spp.

  6. The mRNA and Proteins Expression Levels Analysis of TC-1 Cells Immune Response to H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyuan; Li, Ning; Meng, Dan; Hao, Mengchan; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-01-01

    Since 1994, the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has spread widely in mainland China, causing great economic losses to the poultry industry there. Subsequently, it was found that the H9N2 AIV had the ability to infect mammals, which gave rise to great panic. In order to investigate the immune response of a host infected with H9N2 AIV, TC-1 cells were set as a model in this research. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to study the expression changes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AIV-infected TC-1 cells. Our research found that TC-1 cells had similar susceptibility to both CK/SD/w3 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W3/2012) and CK/SD/w4 (A/Chicken/Shandong/W4/2012) H9N2 isolates, while the CK/SD/w3 isolate had a stronger capability of replication in the TC-1 cells. At the same time, the expression of PRRs (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, MDA-5), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6], and chemokines [regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and interferon-γ-induced protein-10 kDa (IP-10)] were significantly up-regulated. These results indicated that MDA-5, IL-1β, IL-6, RANTES, and IP-10 might play important roles in the host immune response to H9N2 AIV infection. This study provided useful information for further understanding the interaction between H9N2 virus infection and host immunity, and had certain guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

  7. Cyclophosphamide-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cell population is immunosuppressive but not identical to myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by growing TC-1 tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Mikyšková, R. (Romana); Indrová, M. (Marie); Polláková, V. (Veronika); Bieblová, J. (Jana); Šímová, J; Reiniš, M

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play an important role in tumor escape from antitumor immunity. MDSC accumulate in the lymphoid organs and blood during tumor growth and their mobilization was also reported after cyclophosphamide (CY) administration. In this communication, spleen MDSC accumulating after CY therapy (CY-MDSC) were compared with those expanded in mice bearing human papilloma viruses 16-associated TC-1 carcinoma (TU-MDSC). Although both CY-MDSC and TU-MDSC accelerated grow...

  8. Alterations to dendritic spine morphology, but not dendrite patterning, of cortical projection neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse models of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda A Haas

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines--the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.

  9. Optimization of Endoglucanase Production from a Novel Bacterial Isolate, Arthrobacter sp. HPG166 and Characterization of Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, a potential novel cellulolytic bacteriumArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was isolated from the hindgut of root-feeding larvaeHolotrichia parallela. Optimization of fermentation factors for endoglucanase production byArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was carried out via response surface methodology. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1.19% (w/v and beef extract 0.35% (w/v were the ideal combination of carbon and nitrogen sources for enzyme production; the optimum temperature and pH for cellulase production were 34°C and pH 8.0 respectively. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, the maximum endoglucanase activity of 1.411 U mL-1 was obtained. The crude endoglucanase was thermotolerant as it retained 50.31% of its activity after incubation at 70°C for an hour. Metal profile of the enzyme indicated that Mg2+ and Na+ were strong stimulators while Mn2+ and Co+ drastically inhibited its activity. Due to its particular characteristics, this enzyme could have potential for industrial applications.

  10. Studies on Bioflocculant Production by Arthrobacter sp. Raats, a Freshwater Bacteria Isolated from Tyume River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Nwodo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioflocculant-producing bacteria was isolated from Tyume River in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and identified by 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence to have 91% similarity to Arthrobacter sp. 5J12A, and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Arthrobacter sp. Raats (accession number HQ875723. The bacteria produced an extracellular bioflocculant when grown aerobically in a production medium containing glucose as sole carbon source and had an initial pH of 7.0. Influences of carbon, nitrogen and metal ions sources, as well as initial pH on flocculating activity were investigated. The bacteria optimally produced the bioflocullant when lactose and urea were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen respectively with flocculating activities of 75.4% and 83.4% respectively. Also, the bacteria produced the bioflocculant optimally when initial pH of the medium was 7.0 (flocculating activity 84%, and when Mg2+ was used as cation (flocculating activity 77%. Composition analyses indicated the bioflocculant to be principally a glycoprotein made up of about 56% protein and 25% total carbohydrate.

  11. Optimization of four types of antimicrobial agents to increase the inhibitory ability of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Wang, Shujun; Lü, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Fang, Yaowei; Jiao, Yuliang; Hu, Jianen

    2016-03-01

    We adopted the response surface methodology using single factor and orthogonal experiments to optimize four types of antimicrobial agents that could inhibit biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, which is commonly found in the human oral cavity and causes tooth decay. The objective was to improve the function of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash (designed and developed by our laboratory). The experiment was conducted in a three-level, four-variable central composite design to determine the best combination of ZnSO4, lysozyme, citric acid and chitosan. The optimized antibacterial agents were 2.16 g/L ZnSO4, 14 g/L lysozyme, 4.5 g/L citric acid and 5 g/L chitosan. The biofilm formation inhibition reached 84.49%. In addition, microscopic observation of the biofilm was performed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized formula was tested in marine dextranase Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 mouthwash and enhanced the inhibition of S. mutans. This work may be promoted for the design and development of future marine dextranase oral care products.

  12. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitroca...

  13. Praziquantel facilitates IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1 and IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17 responses to DNA vaccination in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs are crucial for eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV infected cells. DNA vaccination, a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic virus infection, has been shown to induce CTL responses. However, accumulated data have shown that CTLs could not be effectively induced by HBV DNA vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that praziquantel (PZQ, an anti-schistoma drug, could act as an adjuvant to overcome the lack of potent CTL responses by HBV DNA vaccination in mice. PZQ in combination with HBV DNA vaccination augmented the induction of CD8(+ T cell-dependent and HBV-specific delayed hypersensitivity responses (DTH in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the induced CD8(+ T cells consisted of both Tc1 and Tc17 subtypes. By using IFN-γ knockout (KO mice and IL-17 KO mice, both cytokines were found to be involved in the DTH. The relevance of these findings to HBV immunization was established in HBsAg transgenic mice, in which PZQ also augmented the induction of HBV-specific Tc1 and Tc17 cells and resulted in reduction of HBsAg positive hepatocytes. Adoptive transfer experiments further showed that PZQ-primed CD8(+ T cells from wild type mice, but not the counterpart from IFN-γ KO or IL-17 KO mice, resulted in elimination of HBsAg positive hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that PZQ is an effective adjuvant to facilitate Tc1 and Tc17 responses to HBV DNA vaccination, inducing broad CD8(+ T cell-based immunotherapy that breaks tolerance to HBsAg.

  14. The effects of various alcohols on the secondary structural integrity of melittin, TH-10Aox, and Tc1 by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Hua; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2006-03-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of various alcohols on the structural integrity of three peptides: melittin with 2 α-helices, TH-10Aox with 3 β-strands, and Tc1 with 1 α-helix and 2 β-strands. The results reveal that the secondary structural integrity of these peptides increased with decreasing dielectric constant of the solvent, indicating that there is a positive correlation between the number of carbon atoms in alcohols and the stability of the secondary structures. In addition, TFE enhanced the secondary structural stability of these peptides to a greater extent than the other alcohols.

  15. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits anti-tumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-II; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that Th17/Tc17 cells may exhibit potent anti-tumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In the present study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized Tc1 or Tc17 cells combined with autologous ...

  16. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing Radiation (IR) Resistance in Bacteria. Until recently, there have been no clear physiologic predictors of a cell's ability to recover from ionizing radiation (IR) and other DOE-relevant oxidative stress conditions. In general, the most resistant bacteria have been Gram-positive (e.g., Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus spp.) and the most sensitive have been Gram-negative (e.g., Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Neisseria spp.). However, there are several reported exceptions to this paradigm, the Gram-negative cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis is extremely resistant to IR, whereas the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus is sensitive. We have identified biomolecular signatures for radiation sensitivity and resistance which are independent of phylogeny, where very high and very low intracellular Mn/Fe concentration ratios correlated with very high and very low resistances, respectively; and restricting Mn(II) in the famously resistant Deinococcus radiodurans sensitized this eubacterium to IR

  17. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.

    2006-05-01

    Ionizing Radiation (IR) Resistance in Bacteria. Until recently, there have been no clear physiologic predictors of a cell's ability to recover from ionizing radiation (IR) and other DOE-relevant oxidative stress conditions. In general, the most resistant bacteria have been Gram-positive (e.g., Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus & Enterococcus spp.) and the most sensitive have been Gram-negative (e.g., Pseudomonas, Shewanella & Neisseria spp.). However, there are several reported exceptions to this paradigm, the Gram-negative cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis is extremely resistant to IR, whereas the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus is sensitive. We have identified biomolecular signatures for radiation sensitivity and resistance which are independent of phylogeny, where very high and very low intracellular Mn/Fe concentration ratios correlated with very high and very low resistances, respectively; and restricting Mn(II) in the famously resistant Deinococcus radiodurans sensitized this eubacterium to IR.

  18. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Daly, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Until recently, there have been no clear physiologic predictors of a cell's ability to recover from ionizing radiation (IR), desiccation, and other DOE-relevant oxidative stress conditions. In general, the most resistant bacteria have been Gram-positive (e.g., Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus & Enterococcus spp.) and the most sensitive have been Gram-negative (e.g., Pseudomonas, Shewanella & Neisseria spp.). However, there are several reported exceptions to this paradigm, the Gram-negative cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis is extremely resistant to IR, whereas the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus is sensitive. We have identified biomolecular signatures for radiation sensitivity and resistance which are independent of phylogeny, where very high and very low intracellular Mn/Fe concentration ratios correlated with very high and very low resistances, respectively; and restricting Mn(II) in the famously resistant Deinococcus radiodurans sensitized this eubacterium to IR (http://cfyn.ifas.ufl.edu/radiation.pdf).

  19. Anti-tumor effects on the combination of photodynamic therapy with arsenic compound in TC-1 cells implanted C57BL/6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Wan; Wen, Lan Ying; Bae, Su Mi; Park, Choong Hak; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Lee, Doo Yun; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2009-06-01

    The effects of As4O6 were studied as adjuvant on photodynamic therapy. As4O6 is considered to have anticancer activity via several biological actions such as free radical producing and inhibition of VEGF expression. In vitro experiments, cell proliferation and morphology were determined by MTT assay. Also, quantitative PCR array was performed to study the synergetic mechanism. Additionally, this study was supported by the finding that combination of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 shows an inhibition effect of tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice with TC-1 cells xenographs in vivo. Radachlorin and As4O6 significantly inhibited TC-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P IGFBP-3 and Mdm-2) were markedly increased by combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. Besides, the immunology response NEAT pathway (Ly- 12, CD178 and IL-2) also modulated after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. This combination effect apparently shows a same pattern in vivo model. These findings suggest the benefit of the combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 for the inhibition of cervical cancer growth.

  20. Complete Genome Sequencing of Protease-Producing Novel Arthrobacter sp. Strain IHBB 11108 Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Shashi; Swarnkar, Mohit K.; Pal, Mohinder; Thakur, Rishu; Tewari, Rupinder; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gulati, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A previously uncharacterized species of the genus Arthrobacter, strain IHBB 11108 (MCC 2780), is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, nonmotile, cold-adapted, and protease-producing alkaliphilic actinobacterium, isolated from shallow undersurface water from Chandra Tal Lake, Lahaul-Spiti, India. The complete genome of the strain is 3.6 Mb in size with an average 58.97% G+C content.

  1. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria.

  2. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, A’guan; Zhang, Yanqi; Qiu, Kai; Wang, Jianhua; Li, Qinfan

    2016-01-01

    Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria. PMID:27196926

  3. Alleviating salt stress in tomato seedlings using Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Pengfei; Chen, Daitao; He, Yanan; Zhou, Qingxia; Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2016-11-01

    Salt-induced soil degradation is common in farmlands and limits the growth and development of numerous crop plants in the world. In this study, we isolated salt-tolerant bacteria from the rhizosphere of Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda salsa and Zoysia sinica, which are common wild plants grown on a saline-alkaline land, to test these bacteria's efficiency in alleviating salt stress in tomato plants. We screened out seven strains (TF1-7) that are efficient in reducing salt stress in tomato seedlings. The sequence data of 16S rRNA genes showed that these strains belong to Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium. All strains could hydrolyze casein and solubilize phosphate, and showed at least one plant growth promotion (PGP)-related gene, indicating their potential in promoting plant growth. The Arthrobacter strains TF1 and TF7 and the Bacillus megaterium strain TF2 and TF3 could produce indole acetic acid under salt stress, further demonstrating their PGP potential. Tomato seed germination, seedling length, vigor index, and plant fresh and dry weight were enhanced by inoculation of Arthrobacter and B. megaterium strains under salt stress. Our results demonstrated that salt-tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands could be used for alleviating salt stress in crop plants. PMID:27196364

  4. pTC-1 observation of ion high-speed flow reversal in the near-Earth plasma sheet during substorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.; RME; I.; DANDOURAS; C.; M.; CARR

    2008-01-01

    Based on measurements of FGM and HIA on board TC-1 at its apogee on Septem-ber 14, 2004, we analyzed the ion high-speed flows in the near-Earth plasma sheet observed during the substorm expansion phase. Strong tailward high-speed flows (Vx ~ -350 km/s) were first seen at about X ~ -13.2 RE in near-Earth magnetotail, one minute later the flows reversed from tailward to earthward. The reversal process occurred quickly after the substorm expansion onset. The near-Earth magnetotail plasma sheet was one of key regions for substorm onset. Our analysis showed that the ion flow reversal from tailward to earthward was likely to be in close relation with the substorm expansion initiation and might play an important role in trigger-ing the substorm expansion onset.

  5. Quasi-continuous reconnection accompanied by FTEs during IMF Bz ≈ 0 nT observed by Double Star TC-1 at the dawnside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang Qing; Mozer, Forrest S.; Phan, Tai; Shen, Chao; Chen, Tao; Bogdanova, Yulia V.; Rème, Henri; Carr, Chris; Liu, Zhen Xing

    2016-07-01

    During a one-hour interval of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz ≈ 0 nT, the equatorial spacecraft Double Star TC-1 encountered the dawn flank magnetopause many times at the magnetic local time (MLT) of about 08:00 and the latitude of about -27°. During each encounter, reconnection jets were observed with their velocities up to more than 500 km/s, significantly higher than the background flow in the magnetosheath. The fast flows match the theoretical prediction of Alfvénic acceleration well. The medium temperature and density of ions in the boundary layer indicate the open magnetic field topology inside this layer. The mainly southward and tailward flows of the plasma jets alongside with the negative slopes of the Walén test indicate that the spacecraft was located south of the reconnection site, consistent with both anti-parallel and component reconnection models. The accelerated flows were observed lasting for about one hour, with some modulations by the oscillations of the magnetopause, but no reversals in the direction of Vz were found during the interval. The significantly enhanced flows in the boundary layer compared to the adjacent magnetosheath indicate that the reconnection was quasi-continuously active at the magnetopause northward of the spacecraft under such IMF conditions. At the same time, the bipolar signatures in BN with enhancements of the magnetic field indicate the occurrence of the Flux Transfer Events (FTEs). The observed reconnection was quasi-continuous, whereas the simultaneously accompanied FTEs were time-dependent under the IMF Bz ≈ 0 nT. For this event, however, it is not possible to identify whether the reconnection was anti-parallel or component because the TC-1 was far away from the reconnection site.

  6. Peptide concentration regulates priming of naive T cells to develop into Th1/Tc1 or Th2/Tc2 cells%抗原肽浓度对初始T细胞向Th1/Tc1、Th2/Tc2分化影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华; 刘霜; 沈弢

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究不同浓度抗原肽(OVA)对初始CD4~+T细胞向Thl/Th2、初始CD8~+T细胞向Tc1/Tc2分化偏向性的影响.方法 采用系列浓度TCR特异性抗原肽与小鼠脾脏树突状细胞联合培养,然后刺激小鼠初始CD4~+或CD8~+T细胞.流式细胞术检测细胞内因子IFN-γ和IL-4的表达水平,同时用CFSE检测活化T细胞的增殖水平.结果 低浓度抗原肽刺激初始CD4~+T向Th2、初始CD8~+T向Tc2分化;而高浓度抗原肽刺激初始CD4~+T向Th1、初始CD8~+T向Tc1分化.Th细胞比Tc细胞受影响程度要明显.结论 抗原肽在很大浓度范围内均可以刺激初始T细胞的活化,但随着浓度的升高,分化方向从Th2、Tc2逐渐向Th1、Tc1倾斜.这一结论为动物实验中疫苗免疫剂量的控制提供了重要的参考价值.%Objective To study the effect of concentration of TCR-specific antigen peptides on priming naive CD4~+ T cells to develop into Th1/Th2 cells or naive CD8~+ T cells to develop into Tc1/Tc2 cells. Methods TCR-specific peptides with series of concentration were co-cultured with routine spleen DCs to activate murine naive CD4~+/CD8~+ T cells. The production of intracellular cytokines IFN-γand IL-4 were measured by flow cytometry. The dividing profile of activated T cells was analyzed by CFSE staining. Results Lower concentration of specific peptides favored Th2/Tc2 polarization while higher concentration benefited Th1/Tc1 polarization. The influence of peptides concentration on Th cells differentiation is higher than that on Tc cells. Conclusion Antigen peptides can stimulate activation of naive T cells in a wide range of concentration. However, with the increase of peptides concentration, activated T cells differentiated grad-ually from Th2/Tc2 to Th1/Tc1, which will provide significant value to control immunized dose of vaccine candidates in animal experiments.

  7. Production of Xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915 Using Saw Dust As Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw dust was used as substrate for xylanase production from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915. The study of period of incubation, temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources for xylanase production was optimized. Xylanase production was found to be optimum at an incubation period of 96 hrs (117.0 U/mL, temperature 30°C (105.0 U/mL, and pH 9.0 (102.9 U/mL. The results showed that the xylanase production was found to be higher in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose (176.4 U/mL and dextrose (126.0 U/mL. It was also observed that peptone (170.1 U/mL and beef extract (161.7 U/mL supported maximum xylanase production.The enzyme was characterized and found to be fairly active at pH 9 (764.4 U/mL and temperature 60°C (819 U/mL. Even in the present study, a major difference in the production temperature (30°C and optimal temperature (60°C of the enzyme activity was observed. However, the pH of the production media and the enzyme activity were found to be the same (pH 9.

  8. TIME DEPENDENT ACCUMULATION OF NICOTINE DERIVATIVES IN THE CULTURE MEDIUM OF ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS pAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Ștefan Boiangiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the metabolic intermediate 6-hidroxy-D-nicotine (6HNic found in the Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1+ nicotine catabolic pathway has the ability to bind nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and to sustain spatial memory in rats. These properties make 6HNic a valuable compound with some potential for medical applications, thereby a suitable, simple and efficient method for producing 6-hidroxy-D-nicotine is necessary. Here, we focus on identifying the best moment for harvesting A. nicotinovorans cells in order to directly convert nicotine to 6HNic with the best yield.  The growth of  A. nicotinovorans pAO1+ was monitored and the correlation between the growth phases and nicotine metabolism was established. After about 5 hours of lag,the strain entered the log phase and was fully grown after 10 hours. The nicotine concentration began to drop dramatically as the pAO1+ culture reached saturation and was depleted in 5 hours. As the nicotine concentration dropped, 6HNic began to accumulate, reaching the maximum levels after about 11 hours of growth. Two other products could be detected by HPLC, one which was identified as the nicotine-blue (NB pigment and a second a still unknown end-product. 

  9. Evaluation of 4-bromophenol biodegradation in mixed pollutants system by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in an upflow packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Naresh Kumar; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Bromophenol is listed as priority pollutant by U.S. EPA, however, there is no report so far on its removal in mixed pollutants system by any biological reactor operated in continuous mode. Furthermore, bromophenol along with chlorophenol and nitrophenol are usually the major constituents of paper pulp and pesticide industrial effluent. The present study investigated simultaneous biodegradation of these three pollutants with specially emphasis on substrate competition and crossed inhibition by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in an upflow packed bed reactor (UPBR). A 2(3) full factorial design was employed with these pollutants at two different levels by varying their influent concentration in the range of 250-450 mg l(-1). Almost complete removal of all these pollutants and 97 % effluent toxicity removal were achieved in the UPBR at a pollutant loading rate of 1707 mg l(-1) day(-1) or lesser. However, at higher loading rates, the reactor performance deteriorated due to transient accumulation of toxic intermediates. Statistical analysis of the results revealed a strong negative interaction of 4-CP on 4-NP biodegradation. On the other hand, interaction effect between 4-CP and 4-BP was found to be insignificant. Among these three pollutants 4-NP preferentially degraded, however, 4-CP exerted more inhibitory effect on 4-NP biodegradation. This study demonstrated the potential of A. chlorophenolicus A6 for biodegradation of 4-BP in mixed pollutants system by a flow through UPBR system. PMID:24934870

  10. Synergistic effect using vermiculite as media with a bacterial biofilm of Arthrobacter sp. for biodegradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Dan; Wu, Wei-Min; Ren, Nan-Qi; Gao, Da-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Vermiculite is one of matrix material used for constructed wetland (CW) for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Arthrobacter sp. strain C21 (CGMCC No. 7671), isolated from a constructed wetland receiving municipal wastewater, forms biofilm on the surface of vermiculite. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a typical phthalate pollutant in environment, can be degraded by the biofilm of strain C21 formed on vermiculite. Results of laboratory studies indicated that DEHP was removed from aqueous phase via biodegradation, adsorption by vermiculite, and adsorption by biofilm biomass. Synergistic effect of these three reactions enhanced the overall DEHP removal efficiency. During a batch incubation test with vermiculite and the cell suspension, bacterial adhesion to the media surface occurred within 5h and the phthalate esters (PEs) removal was due to both biodegradation and vermiculite adsorption. As the biofilm developed on surface of vermiculite (5-36 h), biodegradation became the predominance for PEs removal. As mature biofilm was formed (36-54 h), the adsorption of PEs by biofilm biomass became a main driving force for the removal of PEs from aqueous phase. The content of extracellular polymers (EPS) of the biofilm and DEHP removal performance showed a significant positive correlation (rp>0.86). PMID:26547620

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Gram-positive Arthrobacter in the phyllosphere: induction of pollutant degradation genes by natural plant phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheublin, Tanja R; Deusch, Simon; Moreno-Forero, Silvia K; Müller, Jochen A; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Leveau, Johan H J

    2014-07-01

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 is a Gram-positive, 4-chlorophenol-degrading soil bacterium that was recently shown to be an effective colonizer of plant leaf surfaces. The genetic basis for this phyllosphere competency is unknown. In this paper, we describe the genome-wide expression profile of A.chlorophenolicus on leaves of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) compared with growth on agar surfaces. In phyllosphere-grown cells, we found elevated expression of several genes known to contribute to epiphytic fitness, for example those involved in nutrient acquisition, attachment, stress response and horizontal gene transfer. A surprising result was the leaf-induced expression of a subset of the so-called cph genes for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. This subset encodes the conversion of the phenolic compound hydroquinone to 3-oxoadipate, and was shown to be induced not only by 4-chlorophenol but also hydroquinone, its glycosylated derivative arbutin, and phenol. Small amounts of hydroquinone, but not arbutin or phenol, were detected in leaf surface washes of P.vulgaris by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings illustrate the utility of genomics approaches for exploration and improved understanding of a microbial habitat. Also, they highlight the potential for phyllosphere-based priming of bacteria to stimulate pollutant degradation, which holds promise for the application of phylloremediation. PMID:24373130

  12. capA, a cspA-like gene that encodes a cold acclimation protein in the psychrotrophic bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis SI55.

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, F.; Normand, P.; Potier, P

    1997-01-01

    By use of Arthrobacter globiformis SI55, a psychrotrophic bacterium capable of growth between -5 and +32 degrees C, we cloned and sequenced capA, a gene homologous to cspA encoding the major cold shock protein in Escherichia coli. The deduced protein sequence has a high level of identity with the sequences of other CspA-related proteins from various sources, and no particular residue or domain that could be specific to cold-adapted microorganisms emerged. We show that CapA was produced very r...

  13. Proizvodnja β-fruktofuranozidaze s pomoću bakterije Arthrobacter sp. i primjena tog enzima u pretvorbi steviozida i rebaudiozida A

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhong-Wei; Li, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Hua; Yang, Bo; Ning, Zheng-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    U proizvodnji enzima β-fruktofuranozidaze upotrijebljen je soj bakterije Arthrobacter sp. 10137. Kao najbolji izvori ugljika i dušika za proizvodnju enzima u pokusu na tresilici upotrijebljeni su saharoza i kukuruzni ekstrakt u omjeru 10:1. Maksimalna aktivnost β-fruktofuranozidaze od 26,69 U/mL postignuta je šaržnim uzgojem nakon 22,5 h. Sirovi enzim β-fruktofuranozidaza, dobiven ultrafiltracijom i frakcioniranjem s (NH4)2SO4, pročišćen je 7 puta, što je potvrđeno usporedbom specifične aktiv...

  14. Isolation and Characterization of IS1409, an Insertion Element of 4-Chlorobenzoate-Degrading Arthrobacter sp. Strain TM1, and Development of a System for Transposon Mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    A new insertion element of 1,449 bp with 25-bp perfect terminal repeats, designated IS1409, was identified in the chromosome of 4-chlorobenzoate-degrading Arthrobacter sp. strain TM1 NCIB12013. Upon insertion, IS1409 causes a target duplication of 8 bp. IS1409 carries only a single open reading frame of 435 codons encoding the transposase TnpA. Both TnpA and the overall organization of IS1409 are highly similar to those of some related insertion elements of the ISL3 group (J. Mahillon and M. ...

  15. Analysis of Th 1/Th2 and Tc 1/Tc2 Balance from Peripheral Blood in Patients with Secondary Early Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊翌明; 邹循辉; 吴志华; 李顺凡; 陈秋霞

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the change of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 balance in patients with secondary early syphilis. Methods: Peripheral blood Th and Tc cell subpopulations were examined by three-color flow cytometry in 30 patients with secondary early syphilis and 20 healthy subjects. Results: Percentages of CD3+, CD4+ T cells and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and NK cells in syphilitic patients were significantly lower than in the control group (P 0.05). The percentage of Th1 cells and ratios of Thl/Th2 and Tcl/Tc2 in syphilitic patientswere clearly decreased as compared to those in controis (P<0.001-0.01), whereas percentages of Tc0 and Tc2 cells in syphilitics was higher than those in controls(P<0.001). Conclusion: There could be a disturbance of cellular immunity and the relatively intact function of humoral immunity in secondary syphilis. It is postulated that the polarization toward development of Th2 and Tc2 cells and their associated cytokines might be involved in the incomplete clearance of treponemes and the development of chronic infection.

  16. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2012-04-20

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) leaching from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4})]{sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding into important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of G975 Arthrobacter oxydans strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorus-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 1-10 mM in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile cultureware with inserts was used in non-contact bioleaching experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest the G975 bacteria is able to enhance U(VI) leaching from autunite without the direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the U(VI) bioleaching from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  17. Early Administration of Peroxisomicine A1 (T-514 Extracted from K. parvifolia Seeds Causes Necrosis of Implanted TC-1 Cells without Affecting Target Organs in a Murine Model La Administración Temprana de Peroxisomicina A1 (T-514 Extraída de las semillas de K. parvifolia Causa Necrosis de Células TC-1 Implantadas sin Afectar Órganos Blanco en un Modelo Murino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Soto-Domínguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomicine A1 (PA1, one of the toxins isolated from seeds of plants of the Karwinskia genus, whose targets organs are the liver, kidney, and lungs. There is a selective toxicity in vitro to cancer-cell lines derived from the lungs, liver, and colon, compared to normal cell lines. PA1 caused apoptosis in several cancer-cell lines in culture. In toxic doses to rodents, it causes extensive apoptosis in the liver, kidney, and lungs. In our study we were interested in evaluating, for the first time, the morphological effects of administration of PA1 to implanted TC-1 cells and in the target organs in vivo. The TC-1 cells were cultured and injected into the hind limb of C57BL-6 mice. The animals were divided into 3 groups; those treated with four doses of 1 mg/kg each of PA1, the untreated control, and the vehicle-control groups. All mice were killed 10 days after cell implantation. Samples were obtained from TC-1 cells at the implantation site and from the liver, kidney, and lungs. The samples were processed for examination under light and electron microscopy. In the PA1-treated group, the TC-1 cells had necrosis, whereas in the control groups the tumor cells were undamaged. The target organs did not show any lesions. We demonstrated for the first time that there is a selective toxic effect of PA1 on the TC-1 cells in vivo.Peroxisomicina A1 (PA1, una de las toxinas aisladas de las semillas de plantas del género Karwinskia, cuyos órganos blanco son hígado, riñón y pulmón. Hay una toxicidad selectiva in vitro contra líneas celulares cancerosas derivadas de pulmón, hígado y colon, comparadas con líneas celulares normales. PA1 causa apoptosis en varias líneas celulares malignas en cultivo. En dosis tóxicas a roedores, causa extensa apoptosis en hígado, riñón y pulmón. En nuestro estudio, estuvimos interesados en evaluar por primera vez los efectos morfológicos de la administración temprana de PA1 sobre células TC-1 implantadas y

  18. Characterization of an exo-inulinase from Arthrobacter: a novel NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase with high molecular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jidong; Zhang, Rui; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Ruixian; Wang, Min; Huang, Zunxi; Zhou, Junpei

    2015-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase family 32 exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. HJ7 isolated from saline soil located in Heijing town. The gene encodes an 892-residue polypeptide with a calculated mass of 95.1 kDa and a high total frequency of amino acid residues G, A, and V (30.0%). Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells were used as hosts to express the exo-inulinase gene. The recombinant exo-inulinase (rInuAHJ7) showed an apparently maximal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 40-45°C. The addition of 1.0 and 10.0 mM Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) had little or no effect on the enzyme activity. rInuAHJ7 exhibited good salt tolerance, retaining more than 98% inulinase activity at a concentration of 3.0%-20.0% (w/v) NaCl. Fructose was the main product of inulin, levan, and Jerusalem artichoke tubers hydrolyzed by the enzyme. The present study is the first to report the identification and characterization of an Arthrobacter sp exo-inulinase showing a high molecular mass of 95.1 kDa and NaCl tolerance. These results suggest that the exo-inulinase might be an alternative material for potential applications in processing seafood and other foods with high saline contents, such as marine algae, pickles, and sauces. PMID:25695343

  19. Evaluation of chromate reductase activity in the cell-free culture filtrate of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A K

    2016-08-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromate resistant and reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine overburden of Sukinda valley, Odisha, India has been evaluated for its hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction potential using cell-free culture filtrate as extracellular chromate reductase enzyme. Production of the enzyme was enhanced in presence of Cr(VI) and its reducing efficiency was increased with increasing concentration of Cr(VI). The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the maximum specific velocity (Vmax) of the extracellular Cr(VI) reductase were calculated to be 54.03 μM Cr(VI) and 5.803 U mg(-1) of protein respectively showing high affinity towards Cr(VI). The reducing activity of the enzyme was maximum at pH 6.5-7.5 and at a temperature of 35 °C and was dependent on NADH. The enzyme was tolerant to different metals such as Mn(II), Mg(II) and Fe(III) and was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in chromite mine seepage. These findings suggest that the extracellular chromate reductase of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has a great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under different environmental conditions, particularly in the mining waste water treatment systems. PMID:27176938

  20. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som Gowda Nanjappa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17 are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1 responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients.

  1. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M; Klein, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients. PMID:26367276

  2. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  3. Increased iron-stress resilience of maize through inoculation of siderophore-producing Arthrobacter globiformis from mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Vandana; Rau, Nupur; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated. 16S rRNA sequence analyses demonstrated that siderophore-producing bacteria were taxonomically diverse (seven genera, nineteen species). Among these, Gram-positive Bacillus (eleven species) was prevalent (76.92%). A. globiformis, a commonly found rhizobacterium of graminaceous crops was investigated in detail. Its siderophore has high iron-chelation capacity (ICC: 13.0 ± 2.4 μM) and effectively dissolutes diverse iron-complexes (FeCl3 : 256.13 ± 26.56 μM/ml; Fe2 O3 red: 84.3 ± 4.74 μM/ml; mine spoil: 123.84 ± 4.38 μM/ml). Siderophore production (ICC) of A. globiformis BGDa404 also varied with supplementation of different iron complexes. In plant bioassay with iron-deficiency sensitive species maize, A. globiformis inoculation triggered stress-associated traits (peroxidase and proline) in roots, enhanced plant biomass, uptake of iron and phosphate, and protein and chlorophyll contents. However, in iron deficiency tolerant species wheat, growth improvement was marginal. The present study illustrates: (i) rhizosphere of D. annulatum colonizing abandoned mine as a "hotspot" of siderophore-producing bacteria; and (ii) potential of A. globiformis BGDa404 inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience in maize. A. globiformis BGDa404 has the potential to develop as

  4. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments. PMID:26239066

  5. Production of β -cyclodextrin from pH and thermo stable Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase, obtained from Arthrobacter mysorens and its evaluation as a drug carrier for Irbesartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Y; Narayanan, K; Reddy, M Sreenivasa; Bhaskar, Vijaya K; Shenoy, G Gautham; Subrahmanyam, V M; Rao, J Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are carrier molecules produced by cyclization of α-1,4-glucans by Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase (CGTase). These torus shaped molecules have hydrophobic cavity and hydrophilic shell making them useful in pharmaceutical, food, textile, pesticide and cosmetic industries. In this study, culture conditions for the production of CGTase by organism belonging to Arthrobacter genus obtained from a paddy field soil were optimized by single parameter mode. Soluble starch, yeast extract and magnesium sulphate played an important role in CGTase production. Percentage increase in CGTase yield under optimized conditions was 396.77%. The enzyme precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate was purified using DEAE-sepharose. The molecular weight of the purified protein as determined by SDS-PAGE was 75 kDa. Purified CGTase was thermostable and stable over a wide pH range. Dissolution studies on β -cyclodextrin-Irbesartan complex revealed that β -CDs formed were useful in preparing immediate release oral dosage forms. PMID:25901452

  6. Monitoring Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100 in a 'tag and chase' method during p-nitrophenol bio-remediation in soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Jain, Rakesh K

    2006-05-01

    Monitoring of micro-organisms released deliberately into the environment is essential to assess their movement during the bio-remediation process. During the last few years, DNA-based genetic methods have emerged as the preferred method for such monitoring; however, their use is restricted in cases where organisms used for bio-remediation are not well characterized or where the public domain databases do not provide sufficient information regarding their sequence. For monitoring of such micro-organisms, alternate approaches have to be undertaken. In this study, we have specifically monitored a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading organism, Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100, using molecular methods during PNP degradation in soil microcosm. Cells were tagged with a transposon-based foreign DNA sequence prior to their introduction into PNP-contaminated microcosms. Later, this artificially introduced DNA sequence was PCR-amplified to distinguish the bio-augmented organism from the indigenous microflora during PNP bio-remediation. PMID:16205921

  7. A new cold-adapted β-D-galactosidase from the Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. 32c – gene cloning, overexpression, purification and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kur Józef

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of a new cold-active β-D-galactosidases and microorganisms that efficiently ferment lactose is of high biotechnological interest, particularly for lactose removal in milk and dairy products at low temperatures and for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. Results In this article, we present a new β-D-galactosidase as a candidate to be applied in the above mentioned biotechnological processes. The gene encoding this β-D-galactosidase has been isolated from the genomic DNA library of Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 32c, sequenced, cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. 27 mg of β-D-galactosidase was purified from 1 L of culture with the use of an intracellular E. coli expression system. The protein was also produced extracellularly by P. pastoris in high amounts giving approximately 137 mg and 97 mg of purified enzyme from 1 L of P. pastoris culture for the AOX1 and a constitutive system, respectively. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by using either one step- or a fast two step- procedure including protein precipitation and affinity chromatography. The enzyme was found to be active as a homotrimeric protein consisting of 695 amino acid residues in each monomer. Although, the maximum activity of the enzyme was determined at pH 6.5 and 50°C, 60% of the maximum activity of the enzyme was determined at 25°C and 15% of the maximum activity was detected at 0°C. Conclusion The properties of Arthrobacter sp. 32cβ-D-galactosidase suggest that this enzyme could be useful for low-cost, industrial conversion of lactose into galactose and glucose in milk products and could be an interesting alternative for the production of ethanol from lactose-based feedstock.

  8. Effects of Cd (Ⅱ) on the physico-biochemical behaviors of Arthrobacter sp.and Bacillus sp.%镉胁迫对节杆菌(Arthrobacter sp.)和芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sp.)生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜瑞英

    2012-01-01

    将节杆菌和芽孢杆菌分别暴露于不同质量比的镉溶液中,进行不同暴露时间的急性毒性试验.结果表明,20 mg/kg的Cd(Ⅱ)处理会使节杆菌中还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)质量浓度显著降低,细胞膜脂质过氧化产物——硫代巴比妥酸活性物质(TBARS)浓度显著升高;0.2mg/kg的Cd(Ⅱ)处理会使芽孢杆菌中GSH质量浓度、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著降低.节杆菌的可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖质量浓度随暴露时间延长而减少,GSH质量浓度、CAT和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性随暴露时间延长而增加,TBARS浓度呈先减后增的变化趋势;芽孢杆菌的可溶性蛋白质量浓度、CAT活性和TBARS浓度呈先增后减的变化趋势,可溶性糖、GSH质量浓度和SOD活性呈先减后增的变化趋势.镉处理对节杆菌和芽孢杆菌具有一定的胁迫作用,两种菌通过启动不同的抗性系统来抵抗外界胁迫.%This paper is engaged in the study of the effects of Cd(II) on the physico-biochemical behaviors of Arthrobacter sp. through tox-icity testing. The toxicity test has been arranged by putting the an-tioxidant system of Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. under the exposure to different concentrations of Cd(II) for different lengths of testing time. The results of our testing show that Cd(II) has a strong impact on the antioxidant system of Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. . However, it is possible to reduce GSH content and increase TBARS content of Arthrobacter sp. significantly by letting Cd(II) treated with 20 mg/kg. Our testing proves that it is possible to reduce the GSH content and CAT activity of Bacillus sp. significantly by treating Cd(II) with 0.2 mg/kg, for the Arthrobacter sp. , the soluble protein and soluble sugar content can be reduced through prolonging the time of exposure. On the contrary, it is also possible to increase the GSH content and the CAT & SOD activity by means of prolonging the exposure, with the TBARS content

  9. Cloning, sequencing, expression, and regulation of the structural gene for the copper/topa quinone-containing methylamine oxidase from Arthrobacter strain P1, a gram-positive facultative methylotroph.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; Fuller, J.H.; McIntire, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotides corresponding to amino acid sequences of methylamine oxidase and polyclonal anti-methylamine oxidase antibodies were used to probe Arthrobacter strain P1 plasmid and chromosomal DNA libraries. Two open reading frames, maoxI and maoxII, which are greater than 99% homologous, were cloned from the chromosomal library. The deduced amino acid sequences of the coding regions are identical except for two residues near the C termini. On the other hand, the 5'- and 3'-flanking re...

  10. Levan fructotransferase from Arthrobacter oxydans J17-21 catalyzes the formation of the di-D-fructose dianhydride IV from levan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Hyo; Ryu, Eun-Ja; Park, Buem-Seek; Song, Ki-Bang; Kang, Soon Ah; Kim, Chul Ho; Uhm, Tai-Boong; Park, Yong-Il; Rhee, Sang-Ki

    2003-04-23

    A new levan fructotransferase (LFTase) isolated from Arthrobacter oxydans J17-21 was characterized for the production of difructose dianhydride IV (DFA IV). LFTase was purified to apparent homogeneity by Q-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography, Mono-Q HR 5/5 column chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 54000 Da. The optimum pH for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction was pH 6.5, and the optimum temperature was observed at 45 degrees C. The LFTase was activated by the presence of CaCl(2) and EDTA-2Na but inhibited strongly by MnCl(2) and CuSO(4) at 1 mM and completely by FeSO(4) and Ag(2)SO(4) at 1 mM. A bacterial levan from Zymomonas mobilis was incubated with an LFTase; final conversion yield from the levan to DFA IV was 35%. Neither inulin, levanbiose, sucrose, dextran, nor starch was hydrolyzed by LFTase. DFA IV was very stable at acidic pH and high temperature, thus indicating that DFA IV may be suitable for the food industry and related areas. PMID:12696949

  11. Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas—A contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Catarina R., E-mail: crmarques@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana L. [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Haller, Andreas [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The assay gave rapid and feasible discrimination of toxic soils to A. globiformis. • Sensitive and low variability response to soils from different regions. • Soil properties may interfere with metal toxicity and fluorescence measurements. • Proposal of a toxicity threshold for the contact assay regarding soils. • A. globiformis assay should be included in the Tier I of risk assessment frameworks. - Abstract: This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes.

  12. Characteristics of an organic solvent-tolerant β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter arilaitensis NJEM01 and efficient synthesis of prebiotic kestose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jianlin; Wu, Xueming; Wu, Bin; Wang, Rui; He, Bingfang

    2014-06-18

    An organic solvent-tolerant β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase) from Arthrobacter arilaitensis NJEM01 was purified, characterized, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The mature β-FFase contained 495 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 55 kDa. The purified β-FFase from strain NJEM01 was very stable in the buffer systems (pH 5.0-9.5) and showed high stability below 45 °C. Furthermore, the enzyme exhibited relatively high solvent stability in various aqueous organic mixtures and retained nearly 100% of its initial activity after incubation for 10 days in 20% (v/v) DMSO. In addition, the β-FFase exhibited high transfructosylation activity, synthesized prebiotic products of mainly 6-kestose (up to 476 g/L), and showed fructosyl receptor specificity to C-glucosyl flavone. A relatively high yield of FOS was achieved by the β-FFase from bacterium with a high concentration of sucrose. It made the β-FFase an exploitable biocatalyst for the production of glycosides of natural products and prebiotic kestose. PMID:24854707

  13. Laser Welding of TC-1 Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanbin DU; Lunji HU; Xiyuan HU; Jianhua LIU

    2003-01-01

    The technology of CO2 laser welding and joint properties of titanium alloy were investigated. The problem of moltenpool protection was resolved by designing a shielding trailer and a special clamp. Joints with silvery appearance wereobtained, which have no pore and crack. In addition, the welding speed could reach 3 m/min for the plate of 1.5 mmthickness being penetrated. The reason of the porosity formation in partial penetration joints is that the keyholescan be easily cut apart in the radial direction, which makes the gas enclosed in the molten pool. The surface oxideof specimens can not affect the porosity formation in welds directly.

  14. Chimeric HBcAg virus-like particles presenting a HPV 16 E7 epitope significantly suppressed tumor progression through preventive or therapeutic immunization in a TC-1-grafted mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu X

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojie Chu,1–3,* Yang Li,1–3,* Qiong Long,1–3 Ye Xia,1–3 Yufeng Yao,1–3 Wenjia Sun,1–3 Weiwei Huang,1–3 Xu Yang,1–3 Cunbao Liu,1–3 Yanbing Ma1–3 1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 2Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research & Development on Severe Infectious Disease, 3Yunnan Engineering Research Center of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infectious Disease, Kunming, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are currently being developed. However, no therapeutic efficacy has been achieved in clinical trials for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer. One of the important issues in increasing vaccine efficacy is determining the best way to enhance tumor antigen-specific cellular immune responses. This study aimed to explore the virus-like particles (VLPs of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg as potential therapeutic vaccine carriers and to assess its immunological characteristics.Methods: Chimeric VLPs presenting a HPV 16 cytotoxic T lymphocytes epitope E749–57 (amino acid 49–57 of the E7 protein were prepared using recombinant genes. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with VLPs and grafted with tumor cells TC-1 which is an E7-expressing tumorigenic cell line. The dynamic tumor growth was monitored and anti-tumor immune responses were investigated.Results: Using a preventive strategy, immunization with VLPs resulted in nearly complete suppression of tumor growth. In treatment studies, VLP immunization significantly suppressed the tumor progression in mice carrying 2–3 mm tumors and in those bearing even larger tumors with diameters up to 8–9 mm. The VLP structure was shown to be important to induce vigorous antitumor immunity and effects. In immunized mice, enhanced E749–57-specific cellular immune

  15. Influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the growth and phenol biodegradation characteristics of Arthrobacter sp.W1%单壁碳纳米管对Arthrobacter sp.W1生长及苯酚降解功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李端行; 王经伟; 沈文丽; 张照婧; 厉舒祯; 李会杰; 刘紫嫣; 马桥; 曲媛媛

    2015-01-01

    单壁碳纳米管(SWCNTs)对大肠杆菌等模式菌株的生长抑制作用明显,为了解SWCNTs对具有环境功能的菌株的作用,以苯酚降解菌Arthrobacter sp.Wl为对象,考察不同浓度SWCNTs下菌株W1的生长曲线和苯酚降解曲线,并通过扫描电镜观察、细胞凋亡检测、DNA泄漏量分析和活性氧产量分析考察作用机制.结果表明,特定浓度范围的SWCNTs (0.5-5.0 mg/L)会加快W1的苯酚降解速率,且1.5-2.0 mg/L SWCNTs不抑制Wl的生长.SWCNTs在溶液中形成团簇并吸附Wl细胞,且对Wl产生以物理穿刺为主的毒性作用,但在特定浓度范围的SWCNTS条件下,SWCNTs-菌株-苯酚体系增加了菌体与苯酚的接触机会,从而对Wl生长和苯酚降解产生明显的促进作用.本研究结果可为进一步揭示SWCNTs的环境微生物效应提供理论依据.

  16. The role of stromal mast cells in the modification of CD4 CD25 Foxp3 regulatory T cells, Th17 lymphocytes and cytotoxic lymphocytes Tc1 in the development and progression of tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Starska; Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk

    2010-01-01

    Despite the lack of direct evidence that immune surveillance cells protect against tumor development, indirect clinical observations and experimental studies indicate activity in the immune response against cancer cells of various origin. Little is known about the effects of the stromal tumor mast cell (MC) in the activity of immune cells, i.e. CD4[sup] [/sup]CD25[sup] [/sup]Foxp3[sup] [/sup] regulatory T cells, Th17 lymphocytes, cytotoxic lymphocytes Tc1 and their mutual modulatory function ...

  17. Preliminary separation and qualitative analysis of carotenoids in Arthrobacter sp.%一株节杆菌发酵产物中类胡萝卜素的分离及组分分析的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玉贵; 张伟国; 钱和

    2014-01-01

    [目的]对实验室保存的一株红色球菌进行菌株鉴定,并对色素提取液的组分进行定性分析.[方法]采取形态学观察、16S rDNA序列同源性分析和生理生化分析相结合的方法确定菌株的分类地位.使用乙醇-丙酮混合液提取胞内色素,采用硅胶G薄板层析法对色素提取液进行初步分离纯化,并结合其光谱吸收特性、质谱结果进行定性分析.[结果]实验结果表明此菌株属于节杆菌属(Arthrobacter sp.).薄板层析结果显示该菌株内主要有4种色素组分,且靠近溶剂前沿组分为黄色,其它组分皆为橘红色.吸收光谱特性、质谱结果显示黄色组分可能为β-胡萝卜素,橘红色组分可能为螺菌黄质系类胡萝卜素.[结论]此株节杆菌以较为廉价的糖蜜和玉米浆作为营养物质用于满足自身生长需要,并且积累胞内类胡萝卜素,因此该菌的进一步研究有一定的价值.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10403-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available spora anserina genomic DNA c... 34 6.4 AP009256_713( AP009256 |pid:none) Bifidobacterium adolescent...tters) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Cont...tters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits...monas fluorescens SBW25 c... 57 1e-18 AM180252_415( AM180252 |pid:none) Lawsonia intrace...ne) Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, comple... 57 4e-16 CP000474_1968( CP000474 |pid:none) Arthrobacter aurescens TC

  19. The Effects of Heterologous Expression of groEL from Arthrobacter simplex on the Resistance Performance of Escherichia coli%简单节杆菌groEL基因表达对大肠杆菌抗逆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 王红玲; 王敏; 骆健美

    2016-01-01

    Arthrobacter simplex,a strain with steroid C1,2 dehydrogenation ability,has been widely used in the steroid industry, usually adding ethanol in the transforming system may catalyze the dissolution of hydrophobic substrates. Our prior work by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis found that heat shock protein(HSP)GroEL was closely correlated to the cell adaptive behavior under ethanol stress condition. Based on this concept,groEL gene was cloned by PCR while usingA. simplexTCCC 11037 genome as a template. The results showed that the homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequence of GroEL in the strain were the highest with that fromNocardioides sp. JS614 by the ratio of 89% and 95%,respectively. Then its heterologous expression was conducted in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)with the vector pET-22b (+),and the results showed that the recombinant strain presented the significant increase on the survival performance under the shock condition with high-concentration of methanol,hypertonicity and superacid,as well as the growth performance under the proper stresses of them. The study was the first report on the cloning and expression of genegroEL fromA. simplex,and also provided fundamental data for exploring the biological function of HSP protein GroEL from A. simplex.%以简单节杆菌(Arthrobacter simplex)TCCC 11037基因组为模板,通过PCR方法进行groEL基因克隆,结果表明,该菌株中GroEL的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与Nocardioidessp. JS614来源的GroEL同源性最高,分别为89%和95%。通过pET-22b(+)将其在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行异源表达,结果表明,重组菌株在甲醇、高渗和强酸这3种压力高浓度冲击条件下的存活能力和适当压力条件下的生长性能均明显提高。

  20. Arthrobacter enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Qin, L.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.J.

    A novel bacterial strain designated as NIO-1008(T) was isolated from marine sediments sample in Chorao Island India. Cells of the strains were gram positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed cream to light grey colonies...

  1. 基于细胞性质分析不同有机溶剂对简单节杆菌C1,2脱氢反应的影响%Study on the Effects of Different Kinds of Organic Solvents on C1,2 Dehydrogenation Reaction by the Analysis of Arthrobacter Simplex Cell Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆健美; 宋妍; 王建锋; 宁静; 成永新; 郑宇; 申雁冰

    2012-01-01

    通过对简单节杆菌细胞性质的研究,探讨了不同有机溶剂(乙醇、DMF、DMSO、甲醇)加入后醋酸可的松生物转化反应效率产生差异的原因.采用底物转化法检测生物转化率,采用平板活菌计数法计算细胞存活率,通过糖代谢活力保留值表征细胞的生理代谢活力,用原子力显徽镜观察细胞超显微结构,以FDA法表征细胞膜通透性.在体积分数为4%的条件下,4种有机溶剂均能提高简单节杆菌生物转化醋酸可的松的初始转化速率和最终转化率,转化率从高到低依次为乙醇>DMSO>甲醇>DMF;4种溶剂对简单节杆菌存活率和糖代谢活力保留值的影响趋势基本一致,其中DMF最大,DMSO次之,乙醇和甲醇较小;4种溶剂中,甲醇对简单节杆菌细胞完整性的影响最大,乙醇次之,DMF和DMSO差别不明显;4种有机溶剂对简单节杆菌细胞膜通透性的影响大小依次为甲醇>乙醇>DMSO>DMF.上述结果表明,细胞生理代谢活力和细胞膜通透性的差异是造成转化率水平不同的重要原因.其中,细胞膜通透性的增强有利于底物分子更容易进入细胞与生物酶接触,进而提高转化率.%The cell characters were studied to analyze the reason for difference of the conversion efficiency of Arthrobacter simplex on cortisoniacetas(CA) in the presence of different kinds of organic solvents (ethanol,DMF,DMSO,methanol).The bioconversion rate was determined by the substrate conversion method,the cell survival ratio was calculated by the counting method on plates,the cell metabolic activity was assessed by the glucose metabolic activity retention,AFM was used to observe the cell ultrastructure,FDA method was adopted to determine the cell membrane permeability.Both of the initial conversion rate and the final conversion rate for the biotransformation process were increased by adding four kinds of organic solvents at the concentration level of 4%(volume fraction

  2. Culicídeos associados a internódios de bambu, com enfase em Sabethes aurescens (Diptera, Culicidae), na Mata Atlântica, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Gerson Azulim

    2013-01-01

    Criadouros fitotélmicos são aqueles formados por qualquer estrutura vegetal que acumule água e que possibilite o desenvolvimento da fauna. Um exemplo de fitotelmata são os internódios de bambu, que através de aberturas em suas paredes possibilitam, entre outros, o desenvolvimento de uma fauna de Culicidae muito específica. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e aspectos ecológicos de Culicidae associados a bambus (Bambusa tuldoides, Munro, 1868) presentes em um fragmento d...

  3. Nitrogen starvation affects bacterial adhesion to soil Adesão de bactérias desnutridas por nitrogênio a solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Borges

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors limiting the bioremediation of subsoil environments based on bioaugmentation is the transport of selected microorganisms to the contaminated zones. The characterization of the physiological responses of the inoculated microorganisms to starvation, especially the evaluation of characteristics that affect the adhesion of the cells to soil particles, is fundamental to anticipate the success or failure of bioaugmentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen starvation on cell surface hydrophobicity and cell adhesion to soil particles by bacterial strains previously characterized as able to use benzene, toluene or xilenes as carbon and energy sources. The strains LBBMA 18-T (non-identified, Arthrobacter aurescens LBBMA 98, Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201, and Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1 were used in the experiments. Cultivation of the cells in nitrogen-deficient medium caused a significant reduction of the adhesion to soil particles by all the four strains. Nitrogen starvation also reduced significantly the strength of cell adhesion to the soil particles, except for Klebsiella sp. LBBMA 204-1. Two of the four strains showed significant reduction in cell surface hydrophobicity. It is inferred that the efficiency of bacterial transport through soils might be potentially increased by nitrogen starvation.Um dos principais fatores limitantes da biorremediação in situ de solos subterrâneos, baseada na bioaumentação, é o transporte dos microrganismos selecionados até o local contaminado. A caracterização das respostas fisiológicas dos microrganismos introduzidos no subsolo a condições de escassez nutricional, notadamente a avaliação de características que afetam a adesão celular ao solo, é fundamental para se prever o sucesso da bioaumentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da desnutrição em meio com escassez de nitrogênio sobre a hidrofobicidade celular e a

  4. Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S; Moreno, J; Bothast, R J

    2004-03-01

    Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid (5 mM), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 15 mM), and furfural (20 mM) as the carbon and energy sources, followed by an additional transfer into a corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) prepared using dilute acid. Subsequently, based on stable growth on these substrates, six isolates--including five bacteria related to Methylobacterium extorquens, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium indologenes, Acinetobacter sp., Arthrobacter aurescens, and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria--were chosen. All six isolates depleted toxic compounds from defined medium, but only C. ligniaria C8 (NRRL 30616) was effective at eliminating furfural and 5-HMF from CSH. C. ligniaria NRRL 30616 may be useful in developing a bioprocess for inhibitor abatement in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. PMID:12908085

  5. Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ick; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Yu, Mi-Ji; Kim, Young-Wan

    2013-09-25

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of low-molecular-mass organic bases derived from free amino acids. Due to the undesirable effects of BAs on human health, amine oxidase-based detection methods for BAs in foods have been developed. Here, we developed a bifunctional enzyme fusion (MAPO) using a Cu(2+)-containing monoamine oxidase (AMAO2) and a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing putrescine oxidase (APUO) from Arthrobacter aurescens. It was necessary to activate MAPO with supplementary Cu(2+) ions, leading to a 6- to 12-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) for monoamines. The optimal temperatures of Cu(2+)-activated MAPO (cMAPO) for both tyramine and putrescine were 50 °C, and the optimal pH values for tyramine and putrescine were pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, consistent with those of AMAO2 and APUO, respectively. The cMAPO showed relative specific activities of 100, 99, 32, and 32 for 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine, respectively. The tyramine-equivalent BA contents of fermented soybean pastes by cMAPO were more than 90% of the total BA determined by HPLC. In conclusion, cMAPO is fully bifunctional toward biogenic monoamines and putrescine, allowing the combined determination of multiple BAs in foods. This colorimetric determination method could be useful for point-of-care testing to screen safety-guaranteed products prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:24001036

  6. Involvement of Potassium and Cation Channels in Hippocampal Abnormalities of Embryonic Ts65Dn and Tc1 Trisomic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani Stern

    2015-09-01

    Numerical simulations reproduced the DS measured phenotype by variations in the conductance of the delayed rectifier and A-type, but necessitated also changes in inward rectifying and M-type potassium channels and in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels. We therefore conducted whole cell patch clamp measurements of M-type potassium currents, which showed a ~90% decrease in Ts65Dn neurons, while HCN measurements displayed an increase of ~65% in Ts65Dn cells. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates overexpression of 40% of KCNJ15, an inward rectifying potassium channel, contributing to the increased inhibition. We thus find that changes in several types of potassium channels dominate the observed DS model phenotype.

  7. The virus-encoded chemokine vMIP-II inhibits virus-induced Tc1-driven inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Nansen, Anneline; Bartholdy, Christina;

    2003-01-01

    virus-induced T-cell-mediated inflammation. This was done by use of the well-established model system murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Mice were infected in the footpad, and the induced CD8(+) T-cell-dependent inflammation was evaluated in mice subjected to treatment with vMIP-II. We......-induced signals are pivotal in directing antiviral effector cells toward virus-infected organ sites and that vMIP-II is a potent inhibitor of type 1 T-cell-mediated inflammation....... found that inflammation was markedly inhibited in mice treated during the efferent phase of the antiviral immune response. In vitro studies revealed that vMIP-II inhibited chemokine-induced migration of activated CD8(+) T cells, but not T-cell-target cell contact, granule exocytosis, or cytokine release...

  8. Bandwidths and amplitudes of chorus-like banded emissions measured by the TC-1 Double Star spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macúšová, Eva; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Yearby, K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1057-1071. ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284520 - MAARBLE Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Earth's magnetosphere * geomagnetic activity * whistler-mode * chorus emissions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020440/abstract

  9. Purification and characterization of a novel marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Delong; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun; Jiao, Yuliang; Li, Weijuan; Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Zhaopu

    2014-06-15

    Dextranases can hydrolyze dextran deposits and have been used in the sugar industry. Microbial strains which produce dextranases for industrial use are chiefly molds, which present safety issues, and dextranase production from them is impractically long. Thus, marine bacteria to produce dextranases may overcome these problems. Crude dextranase was purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography, and then the enzyme was characterized. The enzyme was 66.2 kDa with an optimal temperature of 50°C and a pH of 7. The enzyme had greater than 60% activity at 60°C for 1h. Moreover, 10mM Co(2+) enhanced dextranase activity (196%), whereas Ni(2+) and Fe(3+) negatively affected activity. 0.02% xylitol and 1% alcohol enhanced activity (132.25% and 110.37%, respectively) whereas 0.05% SDS inhibited activity (14.07%). The thickness of S. mutans and mixed-species oral biofilm decreased from 54,340 nm to 36,670 nm and from 64,260 nm to 43,320 nm, respectively. PMID:24721052

  10. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm indicating the presence of lignin in the released coloring matter. Enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20 % reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity...

  11. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  12. Isolation and identification of oil sludge degrading bacteria from production tank Number 9 Masjed Soleiman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Sheyni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: “Bioremediation” is one of the most effective methods to remove petroleum contaminants. The aim of the present study is to isolate the indigenous bacteria from the waste petroleum in the Masjed Soleiman No. 9 production tank and to examine the effect of their application on the elimination of petroleum heavy chain hydrocarbons and converting them into light compounds .   Materials and methods: Two percent of petroleum sludge was inoculated to the mineral basal medium and after proliferation of its indigenous bacteria, they were inoculated into the mixture of oil sludge and sand at level of 5%, and the amount of total hydrocarbons and residual oil were measured and compared. The isolates were identified based on biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Optimization of nitrogen and phosphate sources was done based on growth curves of selected isolates. Gas chromatography was used to determine degradation of sludge hydrocarbons.   Results: In this study, 10 bacterial isolates were isolated from petroleum sludge . Measurement of petroleum total hydrocarbons, using Soxhlet-extraction method, showed that two isolates named MIS1 and MIS2 are able to decompose oil sludge hydrocarbons within 7 days, with the yields of 62% and 72%, respectively. Furthermore, the two isolates reach the end of the logarithmic phase at 48 and 120 hrs, respectively. The best source of nitrogen and phosphate for both isolates was ammonium nitrate and potassium di ­hydrogen phosphate, respectively. The isolates were identified as Arthrobacter aurescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. In gas chromatography analysis it was revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more potent in degradation of heavy chain hydrocarbons and their conversion to light chain compounds.   Discussion and conclusion: Resident bacteria are present in the oil sludge and are able to degrade the heavy petroleum compounds and convert them into light compounds. These

  13. Cyclophosphamide-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cell population is immunosuppressive but not identical to myeloid-derived suppressor cells induced by growing TC-1 tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Polláková, Veronika; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2012), s. 374-384. ISSN 1524-9557 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/11/P220; GA ČR GA301/09/1024; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : myeloid-derived suppressor cells * cyclophosphamide * all-trans-retinoic acid * IL-12 * HPV16 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.463, year: 2012

  14. Immunotherapy of HPV-16-associated tumours with tumour cell line/dendritic cell line (TC-1/DC2.4) hybrid vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa; Bubeník, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 49 (2003), s. 203-206. ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * dendritic cells * fusion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.527, year: 2003

  15. Exosomes as potent cell-free peptide-based vaccine. II. Exosomes in CpG adjuvants efficiently prime naive Tc1 lymphocytes leading to tumor rejection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaput, N.; Schartz, N.E.; Andre, F.; Taieb, J.; Novault, S.; Bonnaventure, P.; Aubert, N.; Bernard, J.; Lemonnier, F.; Merad, M.; Adema, G.J.; Adams, M.; Ferrantini, M.; Carpentier, A.F.; Escudier, B.; Tursz, T.; Angevin, E.; Zitvogel, L.

    2004-01-01

    Ideal vaccines should be stable, safe, molecularly defined, and out-of-shelf reagents efficient at triggering effector and memory Ag-specific T cell-based immune responses. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes could be considered as novel peptide-based vaccines because exosomes harbor a discrete set of p

  16. IMEKO TC1-TC7 Symposium in London: The assurance as a result of blood chemical analysis by ISO-GUM and QE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The Quality Assurance (QA) of measurand has been discussed over many years by Quality Engineering (QE). It is need to more discuss about ISO standard. It is mining to find out root fault element for improvement of measured accuracy, and it remove. The accuracy assurance needs to investigate the Reference Material (RM) for calibration and an improvement accuracy of data processing. This research follows the accuracy improvement in field of data processing by how to improve of accuracy. As for the fault element relevant to measurement accuracy, in many cases, two or more element is buried exist. The QE is to assume the generating frequency of fault state, and it is solving from higher ranks for fault factor first by "Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)". Then QE investigate the root cause over the fault element by "Root Cause Analysis (RCA)" and "Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)" and calculate order to the generating element of assume specific fault. These days comes, the accuracy assurance of measurement result became duty in the Professional Test (PT). ISO standard was legislated by ISO-GUM (Guide of express Uncertainty in Measurement) as guidance of an accuracy assurance in 1993 [1] for QA. Analysis method of ISO-GUM is changed into Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) from Analysis of Valiance (ANOVA). EDA calculate one by one until an assurance performance is obtained according to "Law of the propagation of uncertainty". If the truth value was unknown, ISO-GUM is changed into reference value. A reference value set up by the EDA and it does check with a Key Comparison (KC) method. KC is comparing between null hypothesis and frequency hypothesis. It performs operation of assurance by ISO-GUM in order of standard uncertainty, the combined uncertainty of many fault elements and an expansion uncertain for assurance. An assurance value is authorized by multiplying the final expansion uncertainty [2] by K of coverage factor. K-value is calculated from the Effective Free Degree (EFD) which thought the number of samples is important. Free degree is based on maximum likelihood method of an improved information criterion (AIC) for a Quality Control (QC). The assurance performance of ISO-GUM is come out by set up of the confidence interval [3] and is decided. The result of research of "Decided level/Minimum Detectable Concentration (DL/MDC)" was able to profit by the operation. QE has developed for the QC of industry. However, these have been processed by regression analysis by making frequency probability of a statistic value into normalized distribution. The occurrence probability of the statistics value of a fault element which is accompanied element by a natural phenomenon becomes an abnormal distribution in many cases. The abnormal distribution needs to obtain an assurance value by other method than statistical work of type B in ISO-GUM. It is tried fusion the improvement of worker by QE became important for reservation of the reliability of measurement accuracy and safety. This research was to make the result of Blood Chemical Analysis (BCA) in the field of clinical test.

  17. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Som Gowda Nanjappa; Nydiaris Hernández-Santos; Kevin Galles; Marcel Wüthrich; Suresh, M.; Bruce S Klein

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Patients with AIDS, cancer or immune suppressive treatments are vulnerable to infection with invasive fungi. We have found that even when helper CD4 T cells are profoundly reduced in a mouse model that mimics this defect in AIDS, other remaining T cells are capable of mounting vaccine immunity against a deadly fungal infection, and they do so by producing the powerful, soluble product, IL-17. It has been widely believed that the activation and instruction of such cells, called ...

  18. Praziquantel Facilitates IFN-γ-Producing CD8+ T Cells (Tc1) and IL-17-Producing CD8+ T Cells (Tc17) Responses to DNA Vaccination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zou; Xin Yao; Jin Feng; Zhinan Yin; Richard Flavell; Yanxin Hu; Guoxing Zheng; Jin Jin; Youmin Kang; Bing Wu; Xiaoxuan Liang; Congcong Feng; Hu Liu; Weiyi Li; Xianzheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are crucial for eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected cells. DNA vaccination, a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic virus infection, has been shown to induce CTL responses. However, accumulated data have shown that CTLs could not be effectively induced by HBV DNA vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that praziquantel (PZQ), an anti-schistoma drug, could act as an adjuvant to overcome the lack of potent CTL res...

  19. Purification and characterization of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in solid-state fermentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Numan, M.T.H.; Mukherjee, B.; Satwekar, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    -(1,4)- linked xylose or galactose backbones in arabinoxylans and breakdown of heteroxylans [4–7]. Inrecentyears,a-L-AFaseshavereceivedconsiderableattention materials for animal feed, and hydrolysis of grape monoterpenyl glycosides during wine...Z,BrillouetJM,VoirinS,BaumesR,CordonnierR.Purificationandsome properties of an a-L-arabino-furanosidase from Aspergillus niger. Action on grape monoterpenyl arabinofuranosyl glucosides. J Agric Food Chem 1990;38:772–6. [11] Utt EA, Eddy CK, Keshav KF, Ingram LO. Sequencing and expression of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens...

  20. Experimental evidence of a xylose-catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine. A putative sugar catabolic pathway consisting of 11 ORF's organized as a single operon were previously described. The current work brings experimental data supporting the existence of a D-Xylose catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid. When grown on D-xylose containing media, the cells harboring the pAO1 megaplasmid grow to higher cell densities and also express the OxRe protein coded by the megaplasmid. A putative pathway similar to Weimberg pentose pathway is postulated, in which D-xylose is transported in the cell by the ABC-type transport system and then transformed using the putative sugar-dehidrogenase OxRe to D-xylonate, which is further degrated to 2-ketoglutarate and integrated into the general metabolism of the cell

  1. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    The presence of tetracycline resistance (Tc-r) genes and class I integrons (in-1), and their ability to cotransfer were investigated in Tc-r gram-negative (185 strains) and gram-positive (72 strains) bacteria from Danish farmland and pigsties. The isolates belonged to the groups or species...... and/or Pseudomonas putida. We conclude that soil bacteria in close contact to manure or pigsty environment may thus have an important role in horizontal spread of resistance. Use of tetracyclines in food animal production may increase not only Tc-r but also multidrug resistance (caused by the presence...

  2. MOLECULAR GENE CLONING OF NICOTINE-DEHIDROGENASE FROM THE pAO1 MEGAPLASMID OF ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Andrei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 6-hydroxi-L-nicotine (6HNic has an important potential as a drug for neuro-degenerative disorders and a  suitable simple and reliable method for obtaining contaminant-free 6HNic preparations is required. Here, we envision the in-vitro production of 6HNic by using purified nicotine-dehydrogenase (NDH followed by HPLC or capillary electrophoresis techniques and we focus on the isolation and cloning of the three genes coding the NDH enzyme.  A PCR protocol was established for easy amplification and the DNA fragment containing the ndhLSM genes was directionally cloned into the pART2 vector.

  3. Isolation, purification and characterization of xylanase produced by Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 when grown in solid-state fermentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    %) fractionation, and purified to homogeneity using size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of xylanase was approx. 20 kDa. Enzyme retained 100% activity at pH 7 and 8 for 24 h. It was interesting to note that at higher pH such as 9, 10...

  4. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Michael J.

    2007-07-23

    Progress is briefly summarized in these areas: ionizing radiation resistance in bacteria; a hypothesis regarding ionizing radiation resistance emerging for bacterial cells; transcriptome analysis of irradiated D. radiodurans and Shewanella oneidensis; the role of metal reduction in Mn-dependnet Deinococcal species; and engineered Deinococcus strains as models for bioremediation. Key findings are also reported regarding protein oxidation as a possible key to bacterial desiccation resistance, and the whole-genome sequence of the thermophile Deinococcus geothermalis.

  5. A new cold-adapted β-D-galactosidase from the Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. 32c – gene cloning, overexpression, purification and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kur Józef; Wanarska Marta; Hildebrandt Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of a new cold-active β-D-galactosidases and microorganisms that efficiently ferment lactose is of high biotechnological interest, particularly for lactose removal in milk and dairy products at low temperatures and for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. Results In this article, we present a new β-D-galactosidase as a candidate to be applied in the above mentioned biotechnological processes. The gene encoding this β...

  6. Cold active .beta.-galactosidase from Arthrobacter sp. C2-2 forms compact 660 kDa hexamers: crystal structure at 1.9 Ă resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skálová, Tereza; Dohnálek, Jan; Spiwok, V.; Lipovová, P.; Vondráčková, Eva; Petroková, Hana; Dušková, Jarmila; Strnad, Hynek; Králová, B.; Hašek, Jindřich

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 2 (2005), s. 282-294. ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500500512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glycosyl hydrolase * .beta.-galactosidase * cold -active Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.229, year: 2005

  7. Genetic, morphological and physiological relationships among coryneform bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombach, W.H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The DNA base composition of the soil arthrobacters tested (65.3 - 67.0% GC) suggests that this group is genetically homogeneous. Hybridization experiments, however, revealed clear differences between the Arthrobacter simplex and the Arthrobacter globiformis strains. The orange cheese coryneforms wer

  8. Diversity of l-Ieucine catabolism in various microorganisms involved in dairy fermentations, and identification on the rate-controlling step in the formation of the potent flavour component 3-methylbutanal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Various microorganisms, belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Arthrobacter, used in dairy fermentations such as cheese making, were analysed for their potential to convert leucine into f

  9. 99mTc-labeled-1-thio-β-D-glucose as a new tool to temporomandibular joint inflammatory disorders diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate early detection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammatory changes based on 1-thio-β-D-glucose radiolabeled with technetium-99m. Method: The method applied a TMJ inflammation model in rats followed by radiopharmaceutical synthesis, intravenous administration of 99mTc-1-TG and kinetic scintigraphy imaging. Results: Results show a significant difference of 99mTc-1-TG uptake between inflamed TMJ and the control joint. The biodistribution of 99mTc-1-TG by images showed the kidneys' excretion. Conclusion: As conclusion, 99mTc-1-TG is a helpful tool in TMJ inflammatory process detection.

  10. Characterization of quorum sensing and quorum quenching soil bacteria isolated from Malaysian tropical montane forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Teik-Min; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Choo, Yeun-Mun; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the production and degradation of quorum sensing N-acyl-homoserine lactones by bacteria isolated from Malaysian montane forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates clustered closely to the genera of Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Quorum quenching activity was detected in six isolates of these three genera by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Biosensor screening and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the production of N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) by Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis (isolate BT9). In addition to degradation of a wide range of N-acyl-homoserine lactones, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. also degraded p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. capable of degrading p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone and the production of C12-HSL by P. frederiksbergensis. PMID:22666062

  11. Competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen species of bacteria were screened for abilities to adsorb thorium and uranium. High adsorption capacity was observed for thorium by Arthrobacter nicotianae and Micrococcus luteus, and for uranium by Arthrobacter nicotianae. The adsorption of both thorium and uranium by Micrococcus luteus cells was rapid, was affected by the solution pH, and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for binary systems in a competitive manner taking the ionic charge of the metal ion into account. The thorium selectivity in the competitive adsorption is assumed to be caused by the faster adsorption and the slower desorption rates of thorium than those of uranium. (author)

  12. First results of Chinese particle instruments in the Doubler Star Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Star Program (DSP) aims to investigate the trigger mechanism and physical models of geomagnetic storms and substorms. The DSP involves two satellites: the equatorial satellite of DSP (TC-1 in China) and the polar satellite of DSP (TC-2 in China). On board the two satellites of TC-1 and TC-2, there are four kinds of particle instruments developed by the Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), namely: the High Energy Electron Detector (HEED,TC-1,2), the High Energy Proton Detector (HEPD,TC-1,2), the High Energy Heavy Ion Detector (HID,TC-1,2) and the Low Energy Ion Detector (LEID,TC-2). HEED, HEPD and HID were developed and calibrated in China. The LEID was developed in China and calibrated in France. This paper introduces the scientific objectives and characteristics of each instrument, their status and some preliminary results. (orig.)

  13. AcEST: BP912230 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000016_F06 448 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000016_F06. BP912230 - Show ... s mus... 52 9e-07 sp|P08159|HDNO_ARTOX 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine ... oxidase OS=Arthrobacte... 50 3e-06 sp|Q6FS20|ALO_C ...

  14. Distribution of Brown Blotch Bacteria in Wild and Cultivated Species of Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.

    1984-01-01

    Wild and cultivated Basidiomycetes species were cultured to determine the distribution of bacteria causing brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus. Colonies from each basidiocarp were screened for brown blotch organisms by the white line and host pathogenicity tests. Isolates causing brown blotch were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasi and an Arthrobacter species.

  15. Polyamine Distribution Patterns in Coryneform Bacteria and Related Gram-Positive Eubacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Koei

    1996-01-01

    Polyamines of the nine genera of coryneform and related Gram-positive eubacteria were analyzed by HPLC. Authentic species of Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas and Corynebacterium were devoid of polyamines. Arthrobacter species were divided into polyamine-absent, putrescine, cadaverine and putrescine-cadaverine types. Clavibacter contained putrescine and cadaverine. Spermidine was detected in some species of Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium and Curtobacterium and diaminopropane in so...

  16. Isolation and Identification of Novel Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Manage, Pathmalal M.; Edwards, Christine; Singh, Brajesh K.; Lawton, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Of 31 freshwater bacterial isolates screened using the Biolog MT2 assay to determine their metabolism of the microcystin LR, 10 were positive. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA) identified them as Arthrobacter spp., Brevibacterium sp., and Rhodococcus sp. This is the first report of microcystin degraders that do not belong to the Proteobacteria.

  17. Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain CSCT, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family Micrococcaceae. Nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), Arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and Arthrobacter russicus (94.6%). Although the predominant fatty acids (anteiso C15:0), cell-wall sugars (galactose, glucose) and polar lipids (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol) are in accordance with those of members of the genus Arthrobacter, strain CSCT can be distinguished from members of the genus Arthrobacter by biochemical tests, the absence of a rod-coccus life cycle and the occurrence of the partially saturated menaquinone MK-10(H2) as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content is 57.7 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic differences from other species of the Micrococcaceae, a novel genus and species are proposed, Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is CSCT (=DSM 14247T=CCUG 49701T). PMID:16449459

  18. Sb-NQR probe for superconducting property in the Pr-based filled skutterudite compound PrRu4Sb12

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi, M.; Kotegawa, H.; Imamura, Y; Zheng, G. -q.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sugawara, H.; SATO, H

    2003-01-01

    We report the electronic and superconducting properties in the Pr-based filled-skutterudite superconductor PrRu$_4$Sb$_{12}$ with $T_c = 1.3$ K via the measurements of nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR) frequency $\

  19. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled-1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose as a new tool to temporomandibular joint inflammatory disorders diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Brasileiro, Claudia, E-mail: cbbrasileiro@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fonseca Pacheco, Cinthia Mara da, E-mail: cinthia@newtonpaiva.b [Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Centro Universitario Newton Paiva-Avenida Silva Lobo, 1730, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins Queiroz-Junior, Celso, E-mail: cmqj@yahoo.com.b [Departamento de Clinica, Patologia e Cirurgia Odontologica, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Flavia de Lima, Carla, E-mail: carla.flavia@terra.com.b [Nucleo de Diagnostico Cardiovascular (ECOGRAF)-Rua dos Otoni, 881, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Batista da Silva, Juliana, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmb.b [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-PCA, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-Avenida Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-100 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate early detection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammatory changes based on 1-thio-{beta}-D-glucose radiolabeled with technetium-99m. Method: The method applied a TMJ inflammation model in rats followed by radiopharmaceutical synthesis, intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG and kinetic scintigraphy imaging. Results: Results show a significant difference of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG uptake between inflamed TMJ and the control joint. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG by images showed the kidneys' excretion. Conclusion: As conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-1-TG is a helpful tool in TMJ inflammatory process detection.

  20. Influences of crustal thickening in the Tibetan Plateau on loading modeling and inversion associated with water storage variation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hs; Xiang, LW; Wu, PPC; L. Jia; JIANG, L.; Q Shen; H. Steffen

    2015-01-01

    We use the average crustal structure of the CRUST1.0 model for the Tibetan Plateau to establish a realistic earth model termed as TC1P, and data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) hydrology model and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, to generate the hydrology signals assumed in this study. Modeling of surface radial displacements and gravity variation is performed using both TC1P and the global Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Furthermore, inver...

  1. Shotgun Cloning of Transposon Insertions in the Genome of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Plasterk, Ronald H.A.; van der Linden, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify and map large numbers of transposon insertions in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Our approach makes use of the mutator strain mut-7, which has germline-transposition activity of the Tc1/mariner family of transposons, a display protocol to detect new transposon insertions, and the availability of the genomic sequence of C. elegans. From a pilot insertional mutagenesis screen, we have obtained 351 new Tc1 transposons inserted in or near 219 predicted C. ...

  2. Simultaneous Double Star and Cluster FTEs observations on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We present Cluster and Double Star-1 (TC-1 observations from a close magnetic conjunction on 8 May 2004. The five spacecraft were on the dawnside flank of the magnetosphere, with TC-1 located near the equatorial plane and Cluster at higher geographic latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. TC-1, at its apogee, skimmed the magnetopause for almost 8h (between 08:00-16:00 UT. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs, moving southward/tailward from the reconnection site, were observed by TC-1 throughout almost all of the period. Cluster, travelling on a mainly dawn-dusk trajectory, crossed the magnetopause at around 10:30 UT in the same Magnetic Local Time (MLT sector as TC-1 and remained close to the magnetopause boundary layer in the Southern Hemisphere. The four Cluster spacecraft observed FTEs for a period of 6.5h between 07:30 and 14:00 UT.

    The very clear signatures and the finite transverse sizes of the FTEs observed by TC-1 and Cluster imply that, during this event, sporadic reconnection occurred. From the properties of these FTEs, the reconnection site was located northward of both TC-1 and Cluster on the dawn flank of the magnetosphere. Reconnection occurred between draped magnetosheath and closed magnetospheric field lines. Despite variable interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions and IMF-Bz turnings, the IMF clock angle remained greater than 70° and the location site appeared to remain relatively stable in position during the whole period. This result is in agreement with previous studies which reported that the dayside reconnection remained active for an IMF clock angle greater than 70°. The simultaneous observation of FTEs at both Cluster and TC-1, separated by 2h in MLT, implies that the reconnection site on the magnetopause must have been extended over several hours in MLT.

  3. Coordinated Cluster/Double Star observations of dayside reconnection signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent launch of the equatorial spacecraft of the Double Star mission, TC-1, has provided an unprecedented opportunity to monitor the southern hemisphere dayside magnetopause boundary layer in conjunction with northern hemisphere observations by the quartet of Cluster spacecraft. We present first results of one such situation where, on 6 April 2004, both Cluster and the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft were on outbound transits through the dawnside magnetosphere. The observations are consistent with ongoing reconnection on the dayside magnetopause, resulting in a series of flux transfer events (FTEs seen both at Cluster and TC-1, which appear to lie north and south of the reconnection line, respectively. In fact, the observed polarity and motion of each FTE signature advocates the existence of an active reconnection region consistently located between the positions of Cluster and TC-1, with Cluster observing northward moving FTEs with +/- polarity, whereas TC-1 sees -/+ polarity FTEs. This assertion is further supported by the application of a model designed to track flux tube motion for the prevailing interplanetary conditions. The results from this model show, in addition, that the low-latitude FTE dynamics are sensitive to changes in convected upstream conditions. In particular, changing the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF clock angle in the model suggests that TC-1 should miss the resulting FTEs more often than Cluster and this is borne out by the observations.

  4. Microbiological activities in a shallow-ground repository with cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious wasteform with immobilised nuclear power plant operational radioactive waste disposed in a near surface testing repository for about 20 years have been analysed for microbiological activities. Clean cultures were selected from the main metabolic groups expected within repository environment e.g. anaerobic de-nitrifying, fermenting, sulphur-reducing, iron-reducing, and oxidizing, thio-bacterium and mushrooms. Microbiological species were identified within cementitious wasteform, in the clayey soil near the wasteform and in the contacting water. The most populated medium was the soil with microbial populations Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus, and densities of populations up to 3.6*105 colony/g. Microbial populations of generic type Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, and Arthrobacter were identified within cementitious wasteform. Populations of Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Flavobacterium were identified in the water samples contacting the cementitious wasteform. Microbiological species identified are potential destructors of cementitious wasteform and containers. (authors)

  5. AcEST: DK962293 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 1e-09 sp|P46881|PAOX_ARTGO Phenylethylamine oxidase OS=Arthrobacter gl... 58 2e-08 sp|Q9P7F2|AMOH2_SCHPO Putative primary ami...W++ G H P Sbjct: 577 FVNQHPGGAVLPAYVAQDRDIDGQDLVVWHSFGLTHFP 614 >sp|P46881|PAOX_ARTGO Phenylethylamine oxida...sum sativum PE=1 SV=1 119 2e-30 sp|Q07123|AMO2_ARTS1 Copper methylamine oxidase O...NSFEKTSLKTVRIKDGSSKRKSYWTTETQTAKTESD 519 >sp|Q07123|AMO2_ARTS1 Copper methylamine oxidase OS=Arthrobacter sp...P46883|AMO_ECOLI Primary amine oxidase OS=Escherichia coli (s... 66 8e-11 sp|P49250|AMO_KLEAE Primary amine oxidase OS=Klebsiella

  6. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Regulatory roles of cell surface glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic ac...

  7. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  8. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Viable Cells of Chromium Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Chromite Mining Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Satarupa Dey; Baishali Pandit; A. K. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contamination of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is of serious concern for its toxicity as well as mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Bacterial chromate reduction is a cost-effective technology for detoxification as well as removal of Cr(VI) from polluted environment. Chromium resistant and reducing bacteria, belonging to Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium isolated from chromite mine overburden and seepage samples of Orissa, India, were found to tolerate 12–18 mM Cr(VI...

  9. Biosorption system produced from biofilms supported on Faujasite (FAU) zeolite, process for obtaining it and its usage for removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, M. T.; Neves, Isabel C.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention refers to a biosorption system composed of a bacterial biofilm supported in synthetic zeolites, for usage in various types of industry for the removal of hexavalent chromium, through the retention of metal ions in the biofilm, in solutions with concentrations between 50 and 250 mgCr/L, process for obtaining it and respective usages. This process consists in obtaining a bacterial biofilm of Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on a faujasite (FAU) zeolite. The biofilm promote...

  10. Sialylation by β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; HASHIMOTO, YUKO

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM-mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin-8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H-ALCL...

  11. Charakterisierung von Plasmiden aus einer Gemeinschaft von Bodenbakterien mit dem Schwerpunkt auf dem genetischen Potential für konjugativen DNA-Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Battermann, Anja

    2002-01-01

    Aus einem Ackerboden in Schleswig-Holstein wurden denitrifizierende Bodenbakterien isoliert. 3055 Bodenisolate wurden mit einer endogenen alkalischen Plasmidisolierungsmethode auf ihren Plasmidgehalt untersucht. Es wurden 99 plasmidhaltige Bodenisolate detektiert; dies entspricht einem Gesamtplasmidgehalt der isolierten Bakterienpopulation von 3.2 v.H. Die Verteilung der Plasmide in den einzelnen Gattungen variierte allerdings zwischen 2 v.H. (Arthrobacter) und 100 v.H. (Paracoccus). Von d...

  12. THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE CREATION OF NEW FORMS OF MICROBIAL BIOCHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. KOZHEMYAKOV; Yu.V. LAKTIONOV; T.A. POPOVA; A.G. ORLOVA; A.L. KOKORINA; Vaishlya, O. B.; E.V. AGAFONOV; S.A. GUZHVIN; A.A. CHURAKOV; M.T. YAKOVLEVA

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the results of a comprehensive study aimed on the creation of liquid form of biological products for symbiotic and associative rhizobacteria. The objects of study were nodule bacteria from the rhizosphere of galegae (Rhizobium galegae), soybean (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) and associative rhizobacteria (Arthrobacter mysorens, Azospirillum brasilense, Agrobacterium radiobacter), as well as plants of soybean (Glycine max L.), barley (Hordeum L.), alfalfa (Medicago L.), etc. As...

  13. Physicochemical Cell Surface and Adhesive Properties of Coryneform Bacteria Related to the Presence and Chain Length of Mycolic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The presence and chain length of mycolic acids of bacteria of the genera Corynebacterium, Rhodococcus, Gordona, Mycobacterium, and Arthrobacter and of coryneform bacteria containing a type B peptidoglycan were related to the cell surface hydrophobicity of the bacteria, which in turn was related to adhesion of the cells to defined surfaces such as Teflon and glass. The origin of the overall negative charge of these bacteria is discussed.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Whole Bacterial Cells Exposed to Potassium Permanganate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry: a Biphasic Dose-Dependent Response to Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Marina K. Abuladze; Victor M. Sokhadze; Emma N. Namchevadze; Kiziria, E.; Leila V. Tabatadze; Lejava, Lia V.; Sh. Gogichaishvili; Bakradze, Nugzar B.

    2009-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM) on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at whole cell level using soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied in order to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM) on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at the whole cell level using the soil b...

  15. Microbial degradation of chlorinated acetophenones.

    OpenAIRE

    Havel, J.; Reineke, W

    1993-01-01

    A defined mixed culture, consisting of an Arthrobacter sp. and a Micrococcus sp. and able to grow with 4-chloroacetophenone as a sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated. 4-Chlorophenyl acetate, 4-chlorophenol, and 4-chlorocatechol were identified as metabolites through comparison of retention times and UV spectra with those of standard substances. The proposed pathway was further confirmed by investigation of enzymes. The roles of the two collaborating strains were studied by growth ex...

  16. Sulfur-Specific Microbial Desulfurization of Sterically Hindered Analogs of Dibenzothiophene

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M. K.; Senius, J. D.; Grossman, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) bearing alkyl substitutions adjacent to the sulfur atom, such as 4,6-diethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DEDBT), are referred to as sterically hindered with regard to access to the sulfur moiety. By using enrichment cultures with 4,6-DEDBT as the sole sulfur source, bacterial isolates which selectively remove sulfur from sterically hindered DBTs were obtained. The isolates were tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species. 4,6-DEDBT sulfone was shown to be an intermediate ...

  17. Degradation of PAHs in soil by indigenous and inoculated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In soil heavily polluted by coal tar, the inherent mineralization of radio-labeled phenanthrene to 14CO2 was relatively slow, and a stimulation of degradation was observed by inoculation with a mixed population of PAH-degrading bacteria. A much faster inherent mineralization of phenanthrene was observed in soil slightly polluted by coal tar, and inoculation of this soil had no effect. Several phenanthrene-degrading bacteria were isolated from different soils. Two strains were further characterized as an Arthrobacter sp. and a Pseudomonas sp. In an organic medium without phenanthrene, growth rates of 0.52 h-1 and 0.71 h-1 were measured for the Arthrobacter sp. and the Pseudomonas sp., respectively. Most isolates grown in the phenanthrene-free medium, including the Arthrobacter sp., rapidly adapted to phenanthrene degradation following transfer to a phenanthrene-containing medium. In contrast, the phenanthrene-degrading capability of other strains, including the Pseudomonas sp., was lost during growth in the phenanthrene-free medium. Growth in an organic medium without phenanthrene of strains that retain the ability to degrade phenanthrene could prove to be a useful technique for production of PAH-degrading bacteria on a larger scale for soil inoculation

  18. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition. PMID:27080407

  19. Isolation and characterization of organic-sulfur degradation bacterial strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; DIAO Meng-xue; SHI Wu-yang; LI Li; DAI Qin-yun; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial strain that was capable of degrading organic sulfur (dibenzothiophene) was isolated by enrichment techniques from the petroleum-contaminated soil collected from Zhongyuan Oil Field. The strain is named ZYX and is gram-positive.This strain undergoes bacilus-coccus morphological change, and forms yellow-pigment glossy circular colonies with 1.5 mm in diameter on average after 2 d incubation on Luria-Bertani(LB) plates. The full-length of 16S rDNA sequence of strain ZYX was determined and analyzed. Strain ZYX is found most relative with the genus of Arthrobacter. The similarity values between ZYX and Arthrobacter sp. P2 is 99.53%. The main morphological, biochemical and physiological features of strain ZYX accord with those of Arthrobacter. It is found that the optimal initial pH for growth is about 7.0, and the optimal concentration of dibenzothiophene(DBT)for growth is 0.10 g/L. Additionally, the results show that the best carbon source and nitrogen source are glycerol and glutamine,respectively.

  20. TGF-β and IL-21 cooperatively stimulate activated CD8(+) T cells to differentiate into Tc17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Yao, Tsung-You; Hsieh, Chia-Ling; Chen, I-Hua; Liu, Shin-Jen

    2016-06-01

    TGF-β together with IL-21 or IL-6 can drive the differentiation of naïve CD8(+) T cells into IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells. These IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells are termed Tc17 cells. Tc17 cells preserve plasticity under various conditions in vitro and in vivo. IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells are termed Tc1 cells. However, Tc1 cells are considered relatively stable. In the present study, we show that the combination of TGF-β plus IL-21, but not IL-6, converts Tc1 cells into Tc17 cells; this conversion is associated with elevated RORα, RORγt, and Batf mRNA levels. These results indicate that Tc1 cells are skewed to the Tc17 cell phenotype under TGF-β plus IL-21-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, IL-6R is expressed on naïve, but not activated, CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, IL-21R is expressed on both naïve and activated CD8(+) T cells. Thus, differential expression profiles of IL-6R and IL-21R on naïve and activated CD8(+) T cells may be one mechanism by which TGF-β plus IL-21, but not IL-6, can drive activated CD8(+) T cells to differentiate into IL-17-producing cells. Taken together, these results provide a novel viewpoint for the plasticity of Tc1 cells. PMID:27085379

  1. Changes in lymphocyte subsets due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of intracellular cytokine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is critical for dentists who perform radiation therapy to comprehend immunity, because irradiation therapy may damage lymphocytes. After local irradiation to the maxillary area of mice, naive T cells and memory T cells in the spleen, and Th1/Th2 balance and Tc1/Tc2 balance were investigated by intracellular cytokine detection. Female BALB/c mice at 5 weeks of age were adopted for the experiments. In the irradiation groups, a portion of the maxilla was exposed to X-rays (2.0 Gy/min, 10 Gy). Then lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry (anti-CD4, CD62L-selectin and CD45RB monoclonal antibodies). The percentage of Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Tc1 cells, and Tc2 cells and the ratio of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 were analyzed by intracellular cytokine detection, and the findings were compared with those of non-irradiated groups. The observation was performed 1 day before irradiation and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. The absolute number of naive T cells was significantly lower 1 and 3 days after irradiation. However, the absolute number of memory T cells did not change significantly after irradiation. The percentage of Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 cells did not change significantly after irradiation, either. There were no significant differences in the Th1/Th2 ratio and Tc1/Tc2 ratio were observed after irradiation. It was suggested that after the local irradiation the absolute number of naive T cells decreased, that the effect on memory T cells was minimal, and that irradiation did not affect either the ratio of Th1/Th2 nor that of Tc1/Tc2. (author)

  2. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella d’Ettorre; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Mauro Andreotti; Carla Selvaggi; Noemi Giustini; Sara Serafino; Ivan Schietroma; Giuseppe Nunnari; Guido Antonelli; Vincenzo Vullo; Carolina Scagnolari

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLAD...

  3. Double superconducting transition in the filled skutterudite PrOs4Sb12 and sample characterizations

    OpenAIRE

    Méasson, Marie-Aude; Braithwaite, Daniel; Lapertot, Gérard; Brison, Jean-Pascal; Flouquet, Jacques; Bordet, Pierre; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Canfield, Paul,

    2008-01-01

    A thorough characterization of many samples of the filled skutterudite compound PrOs4Sb12 is provided. We find that the double superconducting transition in the specific heat Tc1~1.89K and Tc2~1.72K tends to appear in samples with a large residual resistivity ratio, large specific heat jump at the superconducting transition and with the highest absolute value of the specific heat above Tc1. However, we present evidence which casts doubt on the intrinsic nature of the double superconducting tr...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11906-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lis cyclo-oxygenase 2 ... 70 2e-10 AY606270_1( AY606270 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii peroxine......up chromosome 3 clone OS... 46 5.5 1 ( AC125784 ) Genomic sequence for Oryza sativa, Nipponba...as palustris BisB... 135 6e-30 CP001298_1859( CP001298 |pid:none) Methylobacterium chlorome...... 88 1e-15 CU458896_3880( CU458896 |pid:none) Mycobacterium abscessus chromos... 87 2e-15 EU677754_1( EU677754 |pid:non...e) Salvelinus fontinalis prostaglandi... 78 1e-12 CP001341_2833( CP001341 |pid:none) Arthrobacter chloro

  5. Biorremediación de un suelo con diesel mediante el uso de microorganismos autóctonos

    OpenAIRE

    ARRIETA RAMÍREZ OLGA MARIA; RIVERA RIVERA ANGELA PATRICIA; ARIAS MARIN LIDA; ALBERTO ROJANO BENJAMÍN; RUIZ ORLANDO; CARDONA GALLO SANTIAGO ALONSO

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio, se aisló y caracterizó bioquímica y molecularmente un consorcio bacteriano capaz de degradar los diferentes hidrocarburos presentes en un combustible diesel,conformado por los siguientes géneros: Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Sanguibacter soli, Arthrobacter sp y Flavobacterium sp, a partir de un suelo contaminado con diesel a escala de laboratorio, y tratado mediante 2 tecnologías de biorremediación: atenuación natural y bioestimulación. Se definió como...

  6. Bioremediation of soil with diesel Through the use of autochthonous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study was isolated and characterized biochemical and molecular a bacterial consortium able to degrade hydrocarbons several, comprised of the following genres: Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Sanguibacter soli, Arthrobacter spy Flavobacterium sp, from soil contaminated with diesel fuel in a laboratory scale, and treated with two technologies for bioremediation: natural attenuation and biostimulation. We obtained a reduction in the concentration of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in a period of 4 months was 36,86% for natural attenuation and 50,99% for biostimulation.

  7. Evaluation of ion exchange-modified Y and ZSM5 zeolites in Cr(VI) biosorption and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Figueiredo, Hugo; Soares, O. S. G. P.; Pereira, M. F. R.; Figueiredo, J. L.; Lewandowska, A. E.; Bañares, M. A.; Neves, I.C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the performance of two zeolites with different structures (FAU and MFI) and acidity properties in the biosorption of Cr(VI) and catalytic oxidation of ethyl acetate. The starting zeolites, Y (FAU) and ZSM5 (MFI), were modified by ion exchange treatments with NaNO3 in order to obtain zeolites with different acidity and sodium content. A biosorption system consisting of a bacterium, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on the different zeolites was used fo...

  8. Comparative study between natural and artificial zeolites as supports for biosorption systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, M. T.; Quintelas, C.; Figueiredo, Hugo; Neves, Isabel C.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims the definition of a new material that may act as a robust and yet cost effective biosorbent for treatment of wastewater with low concentration of heavy metals. A comparative study was made between two biosorption systems composed of an Arthrobacter viscosus biofilm supported on Cuban natural zeolites and on prepared NaY and NaX, in terms of their ability to retain ionic chromium. The bacterium is able to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and, only then, this smaller and positi...

  9. Comparative study between natural and artificial zeolites as supports for biosorption systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, M. T.; Quintelas, C.; Figueiredo, Hugo; Neves, Isabel C.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims the definition of a new material that may act as a robust and yet cost effective biosorbent for treatment of wastewater with low concentration of heavy metals. A comparative study was made between two biosorption systems composed of an Arthrobacter viscosus biofilm supported on Cuban natural zeolites and on prepared NaY and NaX, in terms of their ability to retain ionic chromium. The bacterium is able to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and, only then, this smaller and ...

  10. Transformation of Synechococcus with a gene for choline oxidase enhances tolerance to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshnium, P; Los, D A; Hayashi, H; Mustardy, L; Murata, N

    1995-12-01

    Choline oxidase, isolated from the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis, converts choline to glycinebetaine (N-trimethylglycine) without a requirement for any cofactors. The gene for this enzyme, designated codA, was cloned and introduced into the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. The codA gene was expressed under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and the transformed cells accumulated glycinebetaine at intracellular levels of 60-80 mM. Consequently the cells acquired tolerance to salt stress, as evaluated in terms of growth, accumulation of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity. PMID:8555454

  11. AcEST: BP916252 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available denine DNA glycosylase OS... 30 5.0 sp|P46881|PAOX_ARTGO Phenylethylamine oxid...sp|P46881|PAOX_ARTGO Phenylethylamine oxidase OS=Arthrobacter globiformis PE=1 SV=1 Length = 638 Score = 28.... Q9PLI5 Definition sp|Q9PLI5|Y114_CHLMU Uncharacterized protein TC_0114 OS=Chlamydia muridarum Align len...terized protein TC_0114 OS=Chlamydia muridarum GN=TC_0114 PE=4 SV=2 Length = 122 ...VGPKGWAVRPLKRHASWVQNVVRQFGPYPSRA 77 >tr|Q8CQV6|Q8CQV6_STAES Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Staphylococcus epidermid

  12. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium based on modified Y zeolites obtained by alkali-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Hugo de; Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Quintelas, C.; Pereira, M.F.R.; Neves, Isabel C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    The structural modification of external surface of NaY was investigated in order to enhance efficient biosorption systems consisting of a bacterial biofilm, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on that zeolite, for removing hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The supported bacterial biofilm reduces Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and this cation is then retained in the zeolite by ion exchange. NaY zeolite was modified by alkali-treatments using NaOH 2.0 M, with two different contact periods of...

  13. Biosorption of Cr VI supported on mordenite zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Silva, Bruna Andreia Nogueira Airosa; Quintelas, C.; Neves, Isabel C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the usage of a combined zeolite-biosorbent system for the removal and recovery of aqueous CrVI. The biosorption system consisted of a bacterium, Arthrobacter viscosus, supported on two mordenite (MOR) type zeolites with different Si/Al ratio, HMOR (Si/Al = 10) and NaMOR (Si/Al = 6.5). The results show that the biofilm of A. viscosus supported on MOR zeolite is able to recover chromium from dilute solutions. For both biosorption-MOR systems, the maximum removal...

  14. Fractal analysis to discriminate between biotic and abiotic attacks on chalcopyrite and pyrolusite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, P; Ercole, C; Breccia, S; Lepidi, A

    1999-05-01

    In the present paper, a model describing release and mobility of copper and manganese in chalcopyrite and pyrolusite powders due to bacterial bioleaching, i.e. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Arthrobacter sp., is proposed. Sites where copper and manganese were released were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting micrographs were scanned and submitted to a point by point fractal analysis to verify if a discrimination between biological and chemical attack could be established on the basis of the distribution of the fractional part of the fractal dimension over the whole surface. We demonstrate that such a method is able to discriminate among the different attacks. PMID:10353795

  15. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altimira Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55, Stenotrophomonas strain (C21 and Arthrobacter strain (O4 are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15957-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Carboxydothermus hydrogenoforma... 75 6e-14 AL646052_1055( AL646052 |pid:none) Ralsto...m leaves, 1... 48 0.66 1 ( EE258429 ) RFABC66TH Castor bean cDNA library from flowers,8... 48 0.66 1 ( DC001823 ) Xenop...ne) Photobacterium profundum acyl carr... 88 4e-16 AE004091_2966( AE004091 |pid:none) Pseudomonas aerugino...ne) Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 ... 80 9e-14 CP001279_275( CP001279 |pid:none) Nautilia prof...bacterium radiobacter K84 c... 72 3e-11 CP000738_1713( CP000738 |pid:none) Sinor

  17. Role of CD28 co-stimulation in generation and maintenance of virus-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Christensen, Jan P; Kristensen, Nanna N; Hansen, Nils J V; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R

    2002-01-01

    and virus dose play little if any role. Direct visualization of antigen-specific cells also confirms the notion that CD28 is more critical for the generation of antiviral T(h)1 cells than for T(c)1 cells generated in response to the same virus (LCMV). Most importantly, the present study reveals that...

  18. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    on tectonothermalage t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of thecontinental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holdsfor the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more...

  19. LM-2C Series Launch Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueFuxing

    2004-01-01

    On December 30, 2003, a LM-2C/SM launch vehicle was launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC), successfully sending TC-1 satellite into orbit. The satellite is the first one of the two scientific satellites known as Double Star. The operation orbit of the satellite is the highest compared with China's other satellites ever launched.

  20. Increasing a Robust Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response by FMDV DNA Vaccination with IL-9 Expressing Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination. In this study, we sought to investigate if a DNA construct expressing IL-9 (designed as proV-IL9 as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcD-VP1 DNA vaccination. Mice immunized with pcD-VP1 combined with proV-IL9 developed a strong humoral response. In addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cytotoxic response. This agreed well with higher expression level of IFN-γ and perforin in CD8+ T cells, but not with IL-17 in these T cells. The results indicate that IL-9 induces the development of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1, but not the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17. Up-regulated expressions of BCL-2 and BCL-XL were exhibited in these Tc1 cells, suggesting that IL-9 may trigger antiapoptosis mechanism in these cells. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-9 used as molecular adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination, in augmenting humoral and cellular responses and particularly promoting Tc1 activations. Thus, the IL-9 may be utilized as a potent Tc1 adjuvant for DNA vaccines.

  1. Høfde 42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2011-01-01

    I forbindelse med grundvandsafdræningen af testcellerne TC1, TC2 og TC3 i giftdepotet ved Høfde 42, Harboøre Tange, Danmark, er der målt tidsserier af det hydrauliske trykniveau i piezometre filtersat indenfor cellerne. I dette notat anvendes det sene sænkningsforløb til at vurdere den specifikke...

  2. Possible contribution of taurine to distorted glucagon secretion in intra-islet insulin deficiency: a metabolome analysis using a novel α-cell model of insulin-deficient diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Bessho

    Full Text Available Glycemic instability is a serious problem in patients with insulin-deficient diabetes, and it may be due in part to abnormal endogenous glucagon secretion. However, the intracellular metabolic mechanism(s involved in the aberrant glucagon response under the condition of insulin deficiency has not yet been elucidated. To investigate the metabolic traits that underlie the distortion of glucagon secretion under insulin deficient conditions, we generated an αTC1-6 cell line with stable knockdown of the insulin receptor (IRKD, i.e., an in vitro α-cell model for insulin-deficient diabetes, which exhibits an abnormal glucagon response to glucose. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis of the IRKD αTC1-6 cells (IRKD cells revealed some candidate metabolites whose levels differed markedly compared to those in control αTC1-6 cells, but also which could affect the glucagon release in IRKD cells. Of these candidates, taurine was remarkably increased in the IRKD cells and was identified as a stimulator of glucagon in αTC1-6 cells. Taurine also paradoxically exaggerated the glucagon secretion at a high glucose concentration in IRKD cells and islets with IRKD. These results indicate that the metabolic alterations induced by IRKD in α-cells, especially the increase of taurine, may lead to the distorted glucagon response in IRKD cells, suggesting the importance of taurine in the paradoxical glucagon response and the resultant glucose instability in insulin-deficient diabetes.

  3. Flow Fields with Vortex in a Small Semi-open Axial Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norimasa. Shiomi; Yoichi Kinoue; Ying zi Jin; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of tip clearance (TC) size on fan performance and the flow field at rotor outlet in a small semi-open axial fan, the experimental investigation was carried out. The tip diameter of test fan rotor was 180mm and test TC sizes were 1 mm (TC=1 mm) and 4mm (TC=4mm). Fan characteristics tests were carried out for two cases of TC size and three-dimensional velocity fields at rotor outlet were measured using a single slant hot-wire probe at four flow-rate conditions. As a result, it was found that the pressure -flow-rate characteristics curves for two cases showed almost the same tendency. However, the ensemble averaged velocity profiles along radial measurement stations of TC=4mm largely changed compared with that of TC=1mm in cases of small flow-rate condition. From the phase-locked averaging results, it was also found that the vortex existed in the rotor outlet flow field of high flow-rate condition for each TC case. Compared with the vortices for TC=1mm and TC=4mm, the vortex for TC=4mm was stronger than that for TC=1mm.

  4. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe (1). Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) (1, 2) (3). Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinic...

  5. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  6. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients. PMID:26221062

  7. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  8. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  9. Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo properties of a 99mTc-labeled inhibitor of the multidrug resistant gene product P-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is present in the plasma membrane of various tumor cells and in several normal cell types, contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of many human cancers. As a prerequisite for therapy, the expression of Pgp must be studied. The available clinical radiopharmaceuticals for studying the expression of Pgp include the lipophilic 99mTc cations (sestamibi, tetrofosmin) as well as [99mTc]Q57, [99mTc]Q58, and [99mTc]Q63. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo properties of the structurally different complex (3-thiapentane-1,5-dithiolato)[[N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-2(3-quinazoline-2,4 -dionyl)-ethyl]amino-ethylthiolato] oxotechnetium(V) (99/99mTc1) as a potential inhibitor of Pgp. 99Tc1 enhances the net cell accumulation of Pgp substrates [3H]vinblastine, [3H]vincristine, [3H]colchicine, [99mTc]sestamibi, and [99mTc]tetrofosmin in rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4), an immortalized endothelial cell line that expresses Pgp. In addition, the cell accumulation of 99mTc1 could be increased by verapamil and reserpine, which are known Pgp inhibitors. A multitracer approach was used to study the side effects of 99Tc1 on cell metabolism. The cells were simultaneously incubated with [99mTc]sestamibi, 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), and various 3H-labeled tracers. Two-dimensional scatter plots of [99mTc]sestamibi uptake/[18F]FDG uptake show typical changes of known Pgp inhibitors including 99Tc1. The effects of 99Tc1 on the in vivo distribution of [99mTc]sestamibi and [18F]FDG in rats also are comparable with the effects of verapamil, an established Pgp inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. We conclude that 99/99mTc1 is a transport substrate and a potential inhibitor of Pgp. Our approach may be useful in the design of further radiotracers with specificity to Pgp

  10. Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo properties of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled inhibitor of the multidrug resistant gene product P-glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, R. E-mail: R.Bergmann@fz-rossendorf.de; Brust, P.; Scheunemann, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Roux, F.; Johannsen, B

    2000-02-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is present in the plasma membrane of various tumor cells and in several normal cell types, contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of many human cancers. As a prerequisite for therapy, the expression of Pgp must be studied. The available clinical radiopharmaceuticals for studying the expression of Pgp include the lipophilic {sup 99m}Tc cations (sestamibi, tetrofosmin) as well as [{sup 99m}Tc]Q57, [{sup 99m}Tc]Q58, and [{sup 99m}Tc]Q63. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo properties of the structurally different complex (3-thiapentane-1,5-dithiolato)[[N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-2(3-quinazoline-2,4 -dionyl)-ethyl]amino-ethylthiolato] oxotechnetium(V) ({sup 99/99m}Tc1) as a potential inhibitor of Pgp. {sup 99}Tc1 enhances the net cell accumulation of Pgp substrates [{sup 3}H]vinblastine, [{sup 3}H]vincristine, [{sup 3}H]colchicine, [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi, and [{sup 99m}Tc]tetrofosmin in rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4), an immortalized endothelial cell line that expresses Pgp. In addition, the cell accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc1 could be increased by verapamil and reserpine, which are known Pgp inhibitors. A multitracer approach was used to study the side effects of {sup 99}Tc1 on cell metabolism. The cells were simultaneously incubated with [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi, 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG), and various {sup 3}H-labeled tracers. Two-dimensional scatter plots of [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi uptake/[{sup 18}F]FDG uptake show typical changes of known Pgp inhibitors including {sup 99}Tc1. The effects of {sup 99}Tc1 on the in vivo distribution of [{sup 99m}Tc]sestamibi and [{sup 18}F]FDG in rats also are comparable with the effects of verapamil, an established Pgp inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. We conclude that {sup 99/99m}Tc1 is a transport substrate and a potential inhibitor of Pgp. Our approach may be useful in the design of further radiotracers with specificity to Pgp.

  11. The HIA instrument on board the Tan Ce 1 Doubler Star near-equatorial spacecraft and its first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 29 December 2003, the Chinese spacecraft Tan Ce 1 (TC-1), the first component of the Double Star mission, was successfully launched within a low-latitude eccentric orbit. In the framework of the scientific cooperation between the Academy of Sciences of China and ESA, several European instruments, identical to those developed for the Cluster spacecraft, were installed on board this spacecraft. The HIA (Hot Ion Analyzer) instrument on board the TC-1 spacecraft is an ion spectrometer nearly identical to the HIA sensor of the CIS instrument on board the 4 Cluster spacecraft. This instrument has been specially adapted for TC-1. It measures the 3-D distribution functions of the ion between 5 eV/q and 32 keV/q without mass discrimination. TC-1 is like a fifth Cluster spacecraft to study the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and to study geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms in the near equatorial plane. HIA was commissioned in February 2004. Due to the 2 RE higher apogee than expected, some in-flight improvements were needed in order to use HIA in the solar wind in the initial phase of the mission. Since this period HIA has obtained very good measurements in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the dayside and nightside plasma sheet, the ring current and the radiation belts. We present here the first results in the different regions of the magnetosphere and in the solar wind. Some of them are very new and include, for example, ion dispersion structures in the bow shock and ion beams close to the magnetopause. The huge interest in the orbit of TC-1 is strongly demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. UV-Resistant Non-Spore-Forming Bacteria From Spacecraft-Assembly Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-01-01

    Four species of non-spore-forming bacteria collected from clean-room surfaces in spacecraft-assembly facilities could survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that would suffice to kill most known cultivable bacterial species. In a previous study, high UV resistance was found in spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus, as reported in "Ultraviolet- Resistant Bacterial Spores," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007), page 94. These studies are parts of a continuing effort to understand the survival of hardy species of bacteria under harsh conditions, and develop means of sterilizing spacecraft to prevent biocontamination of Mars that could in turn interfere with future life detection missions. The four species investigated were Arthrobacter sp. KSC_Ak2i, Microbacterium schleiferi LMA_AkK1, Brevundimonas diminuta KSC_Ak3a, and Sphingomonas trueperi JSC_Ak7-3. In the study, cells of these species were mixed into Atacama Desert soil (to elucidate the shadowing effect of soil particles) and the resulting mixtures were tested both in solution and in a desiccated state under simulated Martian atmospheric and UV conditions. The UV-survival indices of Arthrobacter sp. and Microbacterium schleiferi were found to be comparable to those of Bacillus pumilus spores.

  13. Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia fetida andrei by colorimetric assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Pan; Xianghui Liu; Feng Ge; Tao Zheng

    2003-12-01

    A novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2Htetrazolium (MTS) was used in the assessment of antimicrobial activity in earthworm in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as an electron coupling reagent. This activity was purified from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECF), Eisenia fetida andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae, annelids) using a series of column chromatography techniques and was tested against three Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila and three Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter sp., respectively. Only the pigment-free eluate of coelomic fluid of the earthworm (ECFPE) showed activity against B. megaterium amongst three isolated active fractions. The anion (DEAE-52) exchange effluent of the ECFPE was reported to have the strongest activity against P. aeruginosa amongst the three active fractions. The 20% acetonitrile eluate (AE) by Sep-Pak C18 cartridge was also tested and showed fair resistance against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Arthrobacter sp., respectively.

  14. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m-2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Satarupa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gramnegative (58% bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130 showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92 tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM, the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

  16. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest IAA production and ACC-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonised the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials

  17. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  18. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Coral-Associated Actinobacteria: Diversity, Abundance, and Biotechnological Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda M; Kalendar, Aisha A

    2016-01-01

    Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with three types of coral thriving in a thermally stressed coral reef system north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola, and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though Brevibacterium and Kocuria were the most dominant actinobacterial isolates, they failed to show any antimicrobial activity, whereas less dominant genera, such as Streptomyces, did show antimicrobial activity. Focusing on the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria may help to understand how corals thrive under harsh environmental conditions and may lead to the discovery of novel antimicrobial metabolites with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:26973601

  20. Nicosulfuron application in agricultural soils drives the selection towards NS-tolerant microorganisms harboring various levels of sensitivity to nicosulfuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Ines; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Bru, David; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Kandeler, Ellen; Djuric, Simonida; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    The action mode of sulfonylurea herbicides is the inhibition of the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for the biosynthesis of amino acids valine and isoleucine in plants. However, this enzyme is also present in a range of non-targeted organisms, among which soil microorganisms are known for their pivotal role in ecosystem functioning. In order to assess microbial toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron (NS), a tiered microcosm (Tier I) to field (Tier II) experiment was designed. Soil bacteria harboring AHAS enzyme tolerant to the herbicide nicosulfuron were enumerated, isolated, taxonomically identified, and physiologically characterized. Results suggested that application of nicosulfuron drives the selection towards NS-tolerant bacteria, with increasing levels of exposure inducing an increase in their abundance and diversity in soil. Tolerance to nicosulfuron was shown to be widespread among the microbial community with various bacteria belonging to Firmicutes (Bacillus) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) phyla representing most abundant and diverse clusters. While Arthrobacter bacterial population dominated community evolved under lower (Tier II) nicosulfuron selection pressure, it turns out that Bacillus dominated community evolved under higher (Tier I) nicosulfuron selection pressure. Different NS-tolerant bacteria likewise showed different levels of sensitivity to the nicosulfuron estimated by growth kinetics on nicosulfuron. As evident, Tier I exposure allowed selection of populations able to better cope with nicosulfuron. One could propose that sulfonylureas-tolerant bacterial community could constitute a useful bioindicator of exposure to these herbicides for assessing their ecotoxicity towards soil microorganisms. PMID:26517995

  1. Survival of microbial isolates from clouds toward simulated atmospheric stress factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Muriel; Amato, Pierre; Sancelme, Martine; Vinatier, Virginie; Abrantes, Magali; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    In the atmosphere, airborne microbial cells are exposed to conditions that are thought to affect their survival. Here, we investigated the survival of 5 microorganisms among the most represented in the cultivable community of clouds (4 bacteria affiliated to Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Arthrobacter and 1 yeast of Dioszegia) after exposition to different atmospheric factors generally considered stressful for cells: artificial solar light (10 h), oxidant (hydrogen peroxide: 0-1 mM for 90 min), osmotic shocks (0.1-2.5 M NaCl) and freeze-thaw cycles (6 cycles of 5 °C/-40 °C). Each condition was applied separately to cell suspensions, and survival rates were examined by culture. Survival was highly strain and stress dependent, with no relationship with pigmentation or ice nucleation activity. In all strains, solar light had no or mitigated influence, and exposition to H2O2 at the concentration measured in cloud water only slightly impacted viability (>70% of the cells survived). The strain Sphingomonas sp. was particularly impacted by osmotic shocks while repeated freeze-thaw was particularly damaging for Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas species. Overall, our results tend to indicate that in the atmosphere, the most stringent selection factors on living organisms are probably freeze-thaw and condensation/evaporation (osmotic shocks) cycles, whereas the impacts of oxidants and of solar light are limited.

  2. Exploring bacterial community structure and function associated with atrazine biodegradation in repeatedly treated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Lian, Jianjun; Wang, Huifang; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-04-01

    Substantial application of the herbicide atrazine in agriculture leads to persistent contamination, which may damage the succeeding crops and pose potential threats to soil ecology and environmental health. Here, the degradation characteristics of atrazine and dynamic change of soil bacterial community structure and function as well as their relations were studied during three repeated treatments at the recommended, double, and five-fold doses. The results showed that the degradation half-life of atrazine obviously decreased with increased treatment frequency. Soil microbial functional diversity displayed a variation trend of suppression-recovery-stimulation, which was associated with increased degradation rate of atrazine. 16S amplicon sequencing was conducted to explore bacterial community structure and correlate the genus to potential atrazine degradation. A total of seven potentially atrazine-degrading bacterial genera were found including Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium. These bacterial genera showed almost complete atrazine degradation pathways including dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, and ring cleavage. Furthermore, the relative abundance of four of them (i.e., Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, Methylobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium) increased with treatment frequency and atrazine concentration, suggesting that they may participate in atrazine degradation during repeated treatments. Our findings reveal the potential relationship between atrazine degradation and soil bacterial community structure in repeatedly treated soils. PMID:25603295

  3. Ecological interactions between metals and microbes that impact bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Konopka; Cindy Nakatsu

    2004-03-17

    Distinct microbial communities had been found in contaminated soils that varied in their concentrations of Pb, Cr and aromatic compounds. It is difficult to distinguish between their effects as their presence is highly correlated. Microcosms were constructed in which either Pb{sup +2} or CrO{sub 4}{sup -2} was added at levels that produced acute modest or severe acute effects (50 or 90% reduction). We previously reported on changes in microbial activity and broad patterns of Bacterial community composition. These results showed that addition of an organic energy source selected for a relatively small number of phylotypes and the addition of Pb or Cr(VI) modulated the community response. We sequenced dominant phylotypes from microcosms amended with xylene and Cr(VI) and from those with the simple addition of glucose only. In both cases, the dominant selected phylotypes were diverse. We found a number of distinct Arthrobacter strains, as well as several Pseudomonas spp. In addition, the high GC-content bands belonged to members of the genera Nocardioides and Rhodococcus. The focus of amended microcosm work has now shifted to anaerobic processes. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) as a detoxification mechanism is of greater interest, as is the specific role of particular physiological groups of anaerobes in mediating Cr(VI) detoxification. The correlation between microbial activity, community structure, and metal level has been analyzed on 150 mg of soil collected at spatial scales <1, 5, 15 and 50 cm. There was no correlation between metal content and activity level. Soils <1 cm apart could differ in activity 10-fold and extractable Pb and Cr 7-fold. Therefore, we turned to geostatistical analysis. There was spatial periodicity which is likely to reflect the heterogeneous distribution of active microbes and metal contaminants. Variograms indicated that the range of spatial dependence was up to 20 cm. To visualize the spatial relationships between the primary variate

  4. 海带中岩藻多糖的分离纯化与结构分析%Isolation,Purification and Structural Analysis of Fucoidan from Kelp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文清; 左萍萍; 徐辰; 杨蕾; 张玉龙; 夏玮

    2012-01-01

    A homogeneous polysaccharide named as TC-1 was obtained from kelp by DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration chromatography.Its chemical structure was characterized by means of monosaccharide composition analysis,methylation analysis and IR spectroscopic analysis.TC-1 was a complex sulfated polysaccharide with a weight-average molecular weight of 3.7 × 105.TC-1 mainly consisted of fucose and small amounts of xylose,mannose,glucose and galactose were also found.The chain of TC-1 included 1,4-linked or 1,3-linked fucose,1,3-linked xylose,1,3-linked or 1,6-linked mannose,1,3,4-linked or 1,2,4,6-linked glucose,and 1,6-linked,1,3,6-linked,or 1,3,4,6-linked galactose.%通过DEAE-纤维素和凝胶过滤色谱反复柱层析,采用苯酚-硫酸法和高效凝胶过滤色谱法(HPGFC)检测,从提取的海带岩藻多糖中得到了均一多糖TC-1,并结合多种分析手段:包括糖组成分析、甲基化分析、红外光谱(IR)分析等对其化学结构进行测定。结果表明:TC-1重均相对分子质量(Mw)为3.7×105,主要由岩藻糖构成,此外还伴有少量的木糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖组成的结构复杂的硫酸酯多糖。其中岩藻糖糖基以1,4-、1,3-连接方式存在;木糖以1,3-连接方式存在;甘露糖以1,3-、1,6-连接方式存在;葡萄糖以1,3,4-、1,2,4,6-连接方式存在;半乳糖以1,6-、1,3,6-、1,3,4,6-连接方式存在。

  5. Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling tc1. For tunneling well below tc1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids

  6. Coordinated Cluster/Double Star observations of dayside flux transfer events on 6 April 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcom; W.; DUNLOP

    2008-01-01

    With the Double Star Program TC1 in the equatorial orbit and Cluster tetrahedron in the high latitude polar orbit, a conjunct observation of FTEs on the dayside magnetopause (MP) on April 6, 2004 is presented in this study. The FTEs observed by TC1 at low latitudes are characterized to be generated in the subsolar region and the obtained flux tube axes orientate along the predicted low latitude component magnetic reconnection X-line, indicating that these FTEs were more likely to be generated through multiple X-line reconnection or single X-line bursty reconnec-tion. During the same period, Cluster also encountered a series of magnetosheath FTEs with their axes pointing roughly along the interplanetary magnetic field. At last, the global FTE configuration is obtained from observations in different loca-tions, which is in good agreement with the "elbow shape" model.

  7. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: A distortion of pseudotetramers coupled with the Jahn Teller effect in the geometrically frustrated spinel system CdV2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masashige; Hasegawa, Junichi

    2003-01-01

    For the geometrically frustrated spinel system CdV2O4 with V3+ (S = 1) that undergoes structural and magnetic transitions at Tc1 = 97 K, and may exhibit a transition to the antiferromagnetic state at Tc2 = 35 K, the crystal structures at 299 and 85 K have been determined with space groups Fdbar 3m and I41 /amd, respectively, by means of x-ray four-circle diffraction. At 85 K, the VO6 octahedron is distorted due to the Jahn-Teller effect with contraction of the V-O bond along the tetragonal c axis, and the network of V ions is achieved by the linkage of a distorted V4-tetrahedron block with two kinds of V-V bonds. On the basis of these structural properties, magnetic susceptibilities at temperatures between Tc1 and Tc2 are explained in terms of the tetragonally distorted pseudotetramer model.

  9. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Function by Interleukin 19 and Interleukin 24 During Filarial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections. To study the role of IL-19 and IL-24 in regulating T-cell responses, we examined the frequency of T-helper type 1 (Th1)/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, Th22/Tc22, and Tr1 cells in 26 filariae-infected individuals stimulated with filarial antigen following IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization. IL-19 or IL-24 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1 and/or Th17/Tc17 cells and significantly reduced frequencies of Th2/Tc2, Tr1, and/or Th9/Tc9 cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the modulation of T-cell responses in filarial infections. PMID:26486636

  10. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    OpenAIRE

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reports a 1 deg 1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The modelis digitally available from the author’s web-site: www.lithosphere.info.Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliabledata on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publicationsfor data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplement...

  11. Nanosized magnetisation density profiles in hard-magnetic NdFeCoAl glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd-Fe-Co-Al alloys have a high glass forming ability and show hard magnetic behavior at room temperature. The aim of the present SANS investigation was to establish structural and magnetic units in the alloys on a nanometer length scale and correlate them with the observed magnetic properties. Nd80Fe20 and Nd60FexCo30-xAl10 cylinders with x=0, 7.5 and 20 have been produced by mold casting with different diameters and have been investigated by SANS, SEM/TEM and magnetization measurements. The microstructure consists of a Nd-rich matrix, a Fe-rich partially amorphous phase and of nanosized Nd particles. The magnetisation show two transition temperatures: Tc1∝40 K corresponds to the ordering of the magnetic moment in the Nd phases and and Tc2∝500 K to the Curie temperature of the Fe-rich phase. The low magnetic scattering contribution has been extracted beside the strong nuclear scattering by using polarized neutrons. It turned out that the Fe-rich phase is essential for the hard magnetic properties of the alloys where the nanoparticles play an important role, while the Fe free alloy is soft magnetic. The magnetization density profile depends on T: Well below Tc1 the local magnetization of the nanosized particles is higher than that of the ferromagnetic matrix while above Tc1 they are paramagnetic and act more efficiently as pinning centers for the magnetic domains, which enhance the coercivity above Tc1

  12. Adjuvant activity of Chinese herbal polysaccharides in inactivated veterinary rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-04-01

    Four botanical polysaccharide preparations (from Astragalus, Echinacea, wolfberry, and kelp) were evaluated as immunopotentiators/adjuvants of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Results showed that lymphocyte proliferation and some cytokines were significantly elevated, with cellular immune responses skewed towards Th1 and Tc1. All four polysaccharides produced accelerated and enhanced effects on rabies-neutralizing antibody responses in mice and dogs. The results also indicated that certain botanical polysaccharides could be used in rabies vaccine formulations for early and persistent prophylaxis. PMID:22326819

  13. Fast Nondeterministic Matrix Multiplication via Derandomization of Freivalds’ Algorithm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    Heidelberg: Springer, 2014 - (Diaz, L.; Lanese, I.; Sangiorgi, D.), s. 123-135. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8705). ISBN 978-3-662-44601-0. ISSN 0302-9743. [TCS 2014. IFIP TC 1/WG 2.2 International Conference /8./. Rome (IT), 01.09.2014-03.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : matrix multiplication * Freivalds' algorithm * derandomization * computational complexity Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  15. Absence of hydrogen in superconducting molybdenum sulfide, Mo 3S 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillif, R.; Yvon, K.; Fischer, P.

    1983-09-01

    Superconducting Mo 3S 4( Tc=1.8 K) was prepared from the ternary sulfides MMo 3S 4 ( M=Cu, Ni) by the acid extraction method, and was studied by neutron diffraction and NMR spectroscopy. In contrast to earlier reports no significant amounts of hydrogen could be found in the rhombohedral structure. However, large proton concentrations were found in samples which had been exposed to moist air.

  16. A hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase enhances transgenesis in zebrafish embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Lardelli Michael; Newman Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Transposons are useful molecular tools for transgenesis. The 'sleeping beauty' transposon is a synthetic member of the Tc1/mariner transposon family. Davidson et al. (2003) previously described a vector for zebrafish transgenesis consisting of the inverted repeats of 'sleeping beauty' flanking the gene to be transposed. Subsequently, there have been attempts to enhance the transpositional activity of 'sleeping beauty' by increasing the activity of its transposase. Recently...

  17. A Brief Introduction and Recent Progress of the Geospace Double Star Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhenxing; CAO Jinbin

    2004-01-01

    The Geospace Double Star Project (DSP) consists of two small satellites operating in the near-earth equatorial and polar regions, respectively. The goals of DSP are: (1) to provide high-resolution field, particle, and wave measurements in some important near-earth active regions which have not been covered by current ISTP missions, such as the near-earth plasma sheet and its boundary layer, the ring current, the radiation belts, the dayside magnetopause boundary layer, and the polar region; (2) to investigate the trigger mechanisms of magnetic storms, magnetospheric substorms, and magnetospheric particle events,as well as the responses of geospace storms to solar activities and interplanetary disturbances; (3) to set up the models describing the spatial and temporal variations of the near-earth space environment.To realize the above goals, the equatorial satellite TC-1 and the polar satellite TC-2 will accommodate, respectively, eight instruments on board. TC-1was launched successfully in December 2003 while the polar satellite (TC-2)will be launched in July 2004. The orbit of the equatorial satellite TC-1 consists of a perigee at 550 km, an apogee at 60 000 km, and an inclination of about 28.5; while the orbit of the polar satellite will have a perigee of 700 km, an apogee of 40 000 km, and an inclination of about 90. The two satellites will take coordinated measurements with Cluster Ⅱ and will first form a "six-point exploration" in geospace.The operational status of TC-1 are introduced in this paper.

  18. Seismic Base Isolators For A Silo Supporting Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bîtcă Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 3000 tones capacity silo, located in a seismic area with ground acceleration ag = 0,20g and TC =1,0s, was designed in a classical solution The supporting structure has an octagonal shape in planview, and columns with “Maltese cross sections”. The main lateral resisting system is made up of centric bracings with cross-section class I.

  19. CD8+ T cells Mediate RAS-induced Psoriasis-like Skin Inflammation Through IFN-γ

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Andrew J.; Mohammed, Javed; Horvath, Frank; Podolsky, Michael, J.; Anderson, Cherie; Glick, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RASV12G in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses and increased Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin infiltrating CD8+ T cells co-expressed IFN-γ and IL-17A. When RAS was exp...

  20. On the excitation and formation of circumstellar fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Cami, J.; E. Peeters; Jones, A.P.; Micelotta, E. R.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2012-01-01

    We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds; Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C60 and little or no emission is present from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The strength of the fullerene bands in the thre...

  1. Characterization of E-cadherin-dependent and -independent events in a new model of c-Fos-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fos proteins have been implicated in control of tumorigenesis-related genetic programs including invasion, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate that c-Fos is able to induce mesenchymal transition in murine tumorigenic epithelial cell lines. Expression of c-Fos in MT1TC1 cells led to prominent alterations in cell morphology, increased expression of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and S100A4, DNA methylation-dependent down-regulation of E-cadherin and abrogation of cell-cell adhesion. In addition, c-Fos induced a strong β-catenin-independent proliferative response in MT1TC1 cells and stimulated cell motility, invasion and adhesion to different extracellular matrix proteins. To explore whether loss of E-cadherin plays a role in c-Fos-mediated mesenchymal transition, we expressed wild-type E-cadherin and two different E-cadherin mutants in MT1TC1/c-fos cells. Expression of wild-type E-cadherin restored epithelioid morphology and enhanced cellular levels of catenins. However, exogenous E-cadherin did not influence expression of c-Fos-dependent genes, only partly suppressed growth of MT1TC1/c-fos cells and produced no effect on c-Fos-stimulated cell motility and invasion in matrigel. On the other hand, re-expression of E-cadherin specifically negated c-Fos-induced adhesion to collagen type I, but not to laminin or fibronectin. Of interest, mutant E-cadherin which lacks the ability to form functional adhesive complexes had an opposite, potentiating effect on cell adhesion to collagen I. These data suggest that cell adhesion to collagen I is regulated by the functional state of E-cadherin. Overall, our data demonstrate that, with the exception of adhesion to collagen I, c-Fos is dominant over E-cadherin in relation to the aspects of mesenchymal transition assayed in this study

  2. Investigation on Microbial Dissolution of Uranium (VI) from Autunite Mineral - 13421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University. 10555 West Flagler St. Suite 2100, Miami Fl 33175 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitating autunite minerals by polyphosphate injection was identified as a feasible remediation strategy for sequestering uranium in contaminated groundwater and soil in situ at the Hanford Site. Autunite stability under vadose and saturated zone environmental conditions can help to determine the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in Hanford soil as well as other subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. Ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, these bacteria can play a significant role in the dissolution of minerals and the formation of secondary minerals. The main objective of this investigation was to study the bacterial interactions under oxidizing conditions with uranium (VI); study the potential role of bicarbonate, which is an integral complexing ligand for U(VI) and a major ion in groundwater compositions; and present data from autunite dissolution experiments using Arthrobacter strain G968, a less U(VI)-tolerant strain. Sterile 100 mL glass mixed reactors served as the major bioreactor for initial experimentation. These autunite-containing bioreactors were injected with bacterial cells after the autunite equilibrated with the media solution amended with 0 mM, 3 mM 5 mM and 10 mM concentrations of bicarbonate. G968 Arthrobacter cells in the amount of 10{sup 6} cells/mL were injected into the reactors after 27 days, giving time for the autunite to reach steady state. Abiotic non-carbonate controls were kept without bacterial inoculation to provide a control for the biotic samples. Samples of the solution were analyzed for dissolved U(VI) by means of kinetic phosphorescence analyzer KPA-11 (Chemcheck Instruments, Richland, WA). Analysis showed that as [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] increases, a diminishing trend on the effect of bacteria on autunite leaching is observed. Viability of cells was conducted after 24 hours of cell

  3. A search of diffuse bands in fullerene planetary nebulae: evidence for diffuse circumstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Luis, J J; Rao, N Kameswara; Manchado, A; Cataldo, F

    2014-01-01

    Large fullerenes and fullerene-based molecules have been proposed as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The recent detection of the most common fullerenes (C60 and C70) around some Planetary Nebulae (PNe) now enable us to study the DIBs towards fullerene-rich space environments. We search DIBs in the optical spectra towards three fullerene-containing PNe (Tc 1, M 1-20, and IC 418). Special attention is given to DIBs which are found to be unusually intense towards these fullerene sources. In particular, an unusually strong 4428A absorption feature is a common charateristic to fullerene PNe. Similarly to Tc 1, the strongest optical bands of neutral C60 are not detected towards IC 418. Our high-quality (S/N > 300) spectra for PN Tc 1 together with its large radial velocity permits us to search for the presence of diffuse bands of circumstellar origin which we refer to as diffuse circumstellar bands (DCBs). We report the first tentative detection of two DCBs at 4428 and 5780 A in the fullerene-rich ci...

  4. Determination of Intracellular Cytokines in Human Lymphocytes of SLE by Flow Cytometry%应用流式细胞术测定系统性红斑狼疮患者淋巴细胞内细胞因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓉

    2006-01-01

    目的:应用流式细胞术测定系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者淋巴细胞内细胞因子,并将其与健康人组进行比较.方法人的外周血在PMA、ionomycin和monensin存在的条件下在体外短期培养,进行细胞膜表面抗原和细胞内细胞因子染色,再用流式细胞仪对淋巴细胞内细胞因子进行测定.结果SLE患者Th1,Tc1细胞较健康人组明显升高(P<0.01),而SLE患者的Th2、Th1/Th2、Tc2、Tc1/Tc2虽比健康人组升高,但无统计学意义.Th1细胞百分率与SLEDAI成正相关,r=0.447,P<0.05.结论①Th1细胞在SLE发病中具有重要的作用.②Tc1升高提示机体对免疫复合物及细胞碎片的吞噬清除增加,但仍不能保护机体免于狼疮的发生.

  5. Adjuvant effect of docetaxel on HPV16 L2E6E7 fusion protein vaccine in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyan; Xu, Wei; Guan, Ran; Wang, Yunhao; Wu, Jie; Zhai, Lijuan; Chen, Gang; Hu, Songhua

    2016-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that the antineoplastic agent docetaxel enhanced the immune response to an influenza vaccine. This study evaluated the adjuvant effect of docetaxel (DOC) on the therapeutic efficacy of HPV16 L2E6E7 fusion protein (HPV-LFP) in mice inoculated with TC-1 cells. The results demonstrated that docetaxel significantly enhanced the therapeutic effect of HPV-LFP on TC-1 cell-induced tumors in mice. The injection of HPV-LFP in combination with docetaxel in TC-1 tumor-bearing mice significantly reduced tumor volume and weight, and a greater percent survival was detected than mice treated with HPV-LFP alone. The inhibition of tumors was associated with significantly increased serum antigen-specific IgG and isotypes, activated CTLs, increased IFN-γ-secreting T cells, and decreased Treg cells and IL-10-secreting cells in spleen. In addition, down-regulation of IL-10, VEGF and STAT3, up-regulation of IFN-γ and decreased Treg cells in the tumor microenvironment may also important contributing factors to the antitumor effect. It may be valuable to use a DOC-containing water to dilute HPV-LFP powder before injection in patients because of its excellent adjuvant effect on HPV-LFP and solubility in water. PMID:27233002

  6. The STAFF-DWP wave instrument on the DSP equatorial spacecraft: description and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The STAFF-DWP wave instrument on board the equatorial spacecraft (TC1 of the Double Star Project consists of a combination of 2 instruments which are a heritage of the Cluster mission: the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment and the Digital Wave-Processing experiment (DWP. On DSP-TC1 STAFF consists of a three-axis search coil magnetometer, used to measure magnetic fluctuations at frequencies up to 4 kHz and a waveform unit, up to 10 Hz, plus snapshots up to 180 Hz. DWP provides several onboard analysis tools: a complex FFT to fully characterise electromagnetic waves in the frequency range 10 Hz-4 kHz, a particle correlator linked to the PEACE electron experiment, and compression of the STAFF waveform data. The complementary Cluster and TC1 orbits, together with the similarity of the instruments, permits new multi-point studies. The first results show the capabilities of the experiment, with examples in the different regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system that have been encountered by DSP-TC1 at the beginning of its operational phase. An overview of the different kinds of electromagnetic waves observed on the dayside from perigee to apogee is given, including the different whistler mode waves (hiss, chorus, lion roars and broad-band ULF emissions. The polarisation and propagation characteristics of intense waves in the vicinity of a bow shock crossing are analysed using the dedicated PRASSADCO tool, giving results compatible with previous studies: the broad-band ULF waves consist of a superimposition of different wave modes, whereas the magnetosheath lion roars are right-handed and propagate close to the magnetic field. An example of a combined Cluster DSP-TC1 magnetopause crossing is given. This first case study shows that the ULF wave power intensity is higher at low latitude (DSP than at high latitude (Cluster. On the nightside in the tail, a first wave event comparison - in a rather quiet time interval

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13141-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne) Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. vici... 44 0.008 CP001341_474( CP001341 |pid:none) Arthrobacter chlorophenol... 0.013 AP009389_1585( AP009389 |pid:none) Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum... 43 0.013 JS0631( JS0631 )alpha-am...e f... 42 0.039 ( P19584 ) RecName: Full=Thermophilic beta-amylase; EC=3.... 42 0.039 S36364( S36364 ;S1371...305539_1( EU305539 |pid:none) Paenibacillus graminis strain MC22... 41 0.050 ( P31747 ) RecName: Full=Cyclomaltodextrin glucano...ne) Frankia sp. CcI3, complete geno... 39 0.19 EF545003_1( EF545003 |pid:none) Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoam

  8. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. PMID:26336239

  9. Formation of polyhydroxylated isoflavones from the soybean seed isoflavones daidzein and glycitein by bacteria isolated from tempe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, K; Barz, W

    1995-12-01

    Five tempe-derived bacterial strains identified as Micrococcus or Arthrobacter species were shown to transform the soybean isoflavones daidzein and glycitein to polyhydroxylated isoflavones by different hydroxylation reactions. All strains converted glycitein and daidzein to 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (factor 2) and the latter substrate also to 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone. Three strains transformed daidzein to 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone and 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. In addition, two strains formed 6,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone from daidzein. Conversion of glycitein by these two strains led to the formation of factor 2 and 6,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. The structures of these transformation products were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and chemical degradation. PMID:8588745

  10. A simple and versatile system for fermentation control by on-line HPLC analysis of medium components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koliander, W.; Arnezeder, C.; Hampel, W.A. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Biochemische Technologie und Mikrobiologie)

    1990-01-01

    The configuration and applicability of a system for on-line determinations of media components by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is described, assembled only from commercial available stand-alone devices. The fermentation broth is circulated in a bypass through a magnetically stirred filtration unit. The clear filtrate is injected at preset intervals by an electrically actuated valve into the HPLC analysis system. Excess is circulated back to the fermenter to minimize liquid loss. The system offers aseptic operation, an excellent long-term stability and a relatively short response time. A wide range of media components is detectable by appropriate choice of analytical HPLC columns and detectors. The system was tested for the analysis of carbohydrates in cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Streptomyces olivaceus and Arthrobacter sp. (orig.).

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16466-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s) Database: CSM 8402 sequences; 8,075,542 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Val...000323_1128( CP000323 |pid:none) Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5... 57 1e-06 CP001177_1859( CP001177 |pid:none) Bacillus cer...1341 |pid:none) Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6,... 162 2e-38 AJ851385_1( AJ851385 |pid:none) Gallus gallus mRNA for hypothetica...1625 |pid:none) Homo sapiens interleukin 4 induced... 75 6e-12 DQ445630_1( DQ445630 |pid:none) Acanthopagrus...ig An02c0260... 54 1e-05 CP000613_3837( CP000613 |pid:none) Rhodospirillum centenum SW, com.

  12. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  13. AcEST: DK949800 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CHCQRGYQGDGISHCNRTCLEDCGHGVCSGP 1130 >sp|Q9HQD6|HUTI_HALSA Probable imidazolonepropionase OS=Halobacterium salina... sp|Q7Z7M0|MEGF8_HUMAN Multiple epidermal growth factor-like doma... 35 0.38 sp|Q9HQD6|HUTI_HALSA Probable imidazolonepropionas...G0|B4WEG0_9CAUL Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Brevu... 34 7.8 tr|B0R543|B0R543_HALS3 Imidazolonepropionas...D Sbjct: 64 D 64 >tr|B8HE20|B8HE20_9MICC N-isopropylammelide isopropylaminohydrolase OS=Arthrobacter chlorophenoli...... 32 3.3 sp|Q5RDJ3|MA2B2_PONAB Epididymis-specific alpha-mannosidase OS=P... 32 4.2 sp|Q5XK84|CARM1_XENLA Histone-arginin

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06996-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 AY142891_1( AY142891 |pid:none) Heliobacillus mobilis Dephospho-Co... 93 6e-18 FN392322_502( FN392322 |pid...1034 |pid:none) Natranaerobius thermophilus JW/... 92 1e-17 CP000474_1981( CP000474 |pid:none) Arthrobacter ... CP000088 |pid:none) Thermobifida fusca YX, complete... 86 7e-16 (Q38VS6) RecName: Full=Dephospho-CoA kinase...roxidans MPO... 55 1e-06 AM942759_2031( AM942759 |pid:none) Proteus mirabilis strain HI4320... 55 1e-06 (Q5N.....................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( AU269735 ) Dictyosteli

  15. Beta-blockers in the environment: part II. Ecotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Puckowski, Alan; Caban, Magda; Wagil, Marta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The increasing consumption of beta-blockers (BB) has caused their presence in the environment to become more noticeable. Even though BB are safe for human and veterinary usage, ecosystems may be exposed to these substances. In this study, three selected BB: propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol were subjected to ecotoxicity study. Ecotoxicity evaluation was based on a flexible ecotoxicological test battery including organisms, representing different trophic levels and complexity: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil/sediment bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). All the ecotoxicological studies were supported by instrumental analysis to measure deviation between nominal and real test concentrations. Based on toxicological data from the green algae test (S. vacuolatus) propranolol and metoprolol can be considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. However, sorption explicitly inhibits the hazardous effects of BB, therefore the risks posed by these compounds for the environment are of minor importance. PMID:24975494

  16. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes. PMID:23828605

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12325-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ndi... 84 1e-14 AE017223_1293( AE017223 |pid:none) Brucella abortus biovar 1 str. ... 84 1e-14 AB243629_1( A...onochoria vaginalis als2 gene for... 84 1e-14 CP000708_1236( CP000708 |pid:none) Brucella..._81( CP000038 |pid:none) Shigella sonnei Ss046, complete g... 90 2e-16 ( P45261 ) RecName: Full=Acetolactate synthase large subu...id:none) Arthrobacter sp. FB24, complete... 86 4e-15 CP001280_2935( CP001280 |pid:none) Methylocella silvest...P000612 |pid:none) Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1, ... 85 5e-15 CP000232_2202( CP000232 |pid:none) Moorell

  18. Isolation and biosorption performance of copper-resistant bacteria%抗重金属铜细菌的分离鉴定和吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 张利平; 石楠; 张秀敏

    2008-01-01

    从土壤中分离具有抗重金属铜的细菌,用于去除废水中的重金属铜.对保定近郊炼铜厂排污口处的土样中进行分离,得到15株形态不同的细菌,经鉴定,分别属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus),假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas),节杆菌属(Arthrobacter),短波单胞菌属(Brevundimonas),寡养单胞菌属(Stenotrophomonas)和盐单胞菌属(Halomonas).这15株细菌都具有铜吸附能力,其中吸附能力最好的是菌株764.

  19. Enzymatic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon intermediates using a recombinant dioxygenase immobilized onto surfactant-activated carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Yanasinee; Lim, Heejun; Kwean, Oh Sung; Cho, Suyeon; Yang, Junwon; Kim, Yohan; Kang, Christina S; Kim, Han S

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the enzymatic decomposition of aromatic hydrocarbon intermediates (catechol, 4-chlorocatechol, and 3-methylcatechol) using a dioxygenase immobilized onto single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The surfaces of SWCNTs were activated with surfactants. The dioxygenase was obtained by recombinant technique: the corresponding gene was cloned from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6, and the enzyme was overexpressed and purified subsequently. The enzyme immobilization yield was 62%, and the high level of enzyme activity was preserved (60-79%) after enzyme immobilization. Kinetic analyses showed that the substrate utilization rates and the catalytic efficiencies of the immobilized enzyme for all substrates (target aromatic hydrocarbon intermediates) tested were similar to those of the free enzyme, indicating that the loss of enzyme activity was minimal during enzyme immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme against abrupt changes in pH, temperature, and ionic strength. Moreover, it retained high enzyme activity even after repetitive use. PMID:26810145

  20. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition. PMID:26139410

  1. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06711-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 70369_7( AM270369 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An16c0170... 66 4e-10 CP001341_1926( CP001341 |pid:none) Arthrobacter...nococcus geothermalis DSM 113... 71 1e-11 (Q4K514) RecName: Full=Iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein er...M920437 |pid:none) Penicillium chrysogenum Wiscons... 68 1e-10 (Q5QVQ4) RecName: Full=Iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein er...WVE3) RecName: Full=Iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein erp... 67 1e-10 CP001196_2236( CP001196 |pid:none) Olig...RecName: Full=Iron-sulfur cluster insertion protein erp... 59 4e-08 CP000249_3083( CP000249 |pid:none) Frankia sp. CcI3, complete ge

  3. Actinobacterial Flora in Feces of Healthy Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus auduboni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2015-03-01

    Most known antibiotics from bacteria are produced by Actinobacteria. However, little is known about the community structure and diversity of fecal actinobacteria from rabbit feces. To investigate the actinobacterial community structure in rabbit feces, different actinobacterial-specific primer sets were used to amplify the overlap regions of 16S rRNA genes from the same DNA. At the genus level, 12 actinobacterial genera were detected by the L and S libraries. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Dietzia, Leucobacter, Microbacterium, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus were detected by L and S libraries. The Nocardioides, Streptomyces and Williamsia were only detected by L library; the Oerskovia and Brevibacterium were only detected by S library. The results indicated that rabbit feces contain diverse nonpathogenic actinobacterial taxa and PCR primer sets could underestimate the actinobacterial diversity besides the DNA extract efficiency. PMID:25424303

  4. AcEST: DK953324 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |LSRR_PHOLL Transcriptional regulator lsrR OS=Photorhab... 30 6.1 sp|A0JY64|ATPB_ARTS2 ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...cter s... 30 6.1 sp|A1R7V3|ATPB_ARTAT ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthrobacter sp. (strain FB24) GN=atpD PE=3 SV=1 Len...KD 372 Query: 311 HLHFTHRGKQRL 346 H + R KQ L Sbjct: 373 HYNTAVRVKQIL 384 >sp|A1R7V3|ATPB_ARTAT ATP synthase subunit beta OS=Arthroba...T and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Ac

  5. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  6. Efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Linda D; Rathbone, Cindra K; Corbett, Stephen C; Harrell, Lee W; Strom, Mark S

    2004-04-01

    DNA adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. Whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic Arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent R. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified R. salmoninarum genomic DNA as adjuvants did not increase protection. However, a combination of both whole cell vaccines significantly increased survival among fish naturally infected with R. salmoninarum, and the surviving fish treated with the combination vaccine exhibited reduced levels of bacterial antigens in the kidney. This is the first demonstration of a potential therapeutic effect of a whole cell vaccine against BKD. PMID:15123289

  7. The use of fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) for the identification of heterotrophic bacteria present on three mural paintings showing severe damage by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, J; Mergaert, J; Denys, R; Swings, J

    1999-12-01

    Mural paintings in Carmona (Spain), Herberstein (Austria) and Greene (Germany), showing visible deterioration by microorganisms, were sampled to investigate the biodiversity of the heterotrophic bacteria present. Four hundred twenty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from which 385 were characterized by fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME). The isolates were grouped into 41 clusters on the basis of their FAME profiles, 20 isolates remained ungrouped. The majority (94%) of the isolates comprised the gram-positive bacteria and the main clusters were identified as Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Staphylococcus sp. Other clusters contain nocardioform actinomycetes and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. A cluster of the latter contained extreme halotolerant bacteria isolated in Herberstein. The FAME profiles of this cluster showed a high similarity with Halomonas. PMID:10564789

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12987-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum DNA helicase homolog (repB) gene, complete cds. Length = 3093 Score = 866 bits (437), Expect(2) = 0.0 Iden...ne) Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6... 47 5e-04 AM942444_1574( AM942444 |pid:none) Corynebacterium ure...EC=3.6.1.-; AltName: Full=DNA excision repair cross-complementing protein-3 homolog; AltName: Full=DNA re...77065 ) Dictyostelium discoideum DNA helicase homolog (repB... 866 0.0 2 ( BJ332402 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clo...** f... 34 1.4 5 ( BX511120 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-214C7 in ... 46 1.4 1 ( AC175374 ) Colobus guereza clo

  9. 月经病虚寒证患者T细胞亚群与生殖激素的变化%The Changes of Type Ⅰ and Type Ⅱ T Lymphocytes and Reproductive Hormone in Menopathy of Asthenia Cold Syndrome Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芹; 段彦苍; 杜惠兰

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过分析虚寒型月经病患者外周血T细胞亚群与生殖激素水平的变化及二者的相关关系,探讨妇科虚寒证的内分泌-免疫学发病机理.方法:分别采用放射免疫分析法和流式细胞技术检测虚寒型月经病患者、正常人各30例生殖激素与T细胞亚群的变化,分析其相关性.结果:虚寒组较正常组E”T、LH、FSH、及Th2、Th2/Th1、Tc2、Tc1、Tc2/Tc1降低,Th1升高,均有统计学意义.Th2、Th2/Th1与E2呈正相关,Th1与E2呈负相关;Th2、Tc2、Th2/Th1与T呈正相关;Th1与FSH呈负相关.结论:月经病虚寒证患者生殖激素分泌减少,Th2、Tc2、Tc1细胞水平下降,Th1细胞水平上升,机体内分泌-免疫调节功能紊乱而发生月经病.%Objective:By analyzing the changes ofrelations between type Ⅰ and type ⅡT lymphocytes and reproductive hormone in menopathy of asthenia cold syndrome patients,and the relations between them,initially approach partly etiopathogenesis of it from endocrine-immunological means.Methods:Adopt radio immunoassay and flow cytometry to respectively detect reproductive hormone and type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ T lymphocytes of thirty asthenia cold syndrome patients and health adults,analyze relations between them.Results:Compared with normal group,contents of E2 、T、LH、FSH were decreased,had statistically significant.The percentage of Th2、Th2/Th1 、Tc2、Tc1 、Tc2/Tc1 decreased,Th1 increased.The level of Th2、Th2/Th1 and E2 was a positive linear correlation,Th1 and E2 was a negative linear correlation ;Th2、Tc2、Th2/Th1 and T was a positive linear correlation,Th1 and FSH was a negative linear correlation.Conclusion:Reproductive hormone of menopathy of asthenia cold syndrome patients were lower,the percentage of Th2、Tc2、Tc1、Tc2/ Tc1 decreased,Th1 increased,organism endocrine-immunological modulation function disordered,finally caused menopathy.

  10. CONTENIDO MICROBIOLÓGICO CULTIVABLE DEL TRACTO INTESTINAL Y POLEN ALMACENADO DE Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUBERNEY GARCÍA GARCÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee’s gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.

  11. Cultured Microbiological Content of the Intestinal Tract and Stored Pollen of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García Duberney

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Apis mellifera were characterized. Samples were collected from storage pollen (young pollen and ripe pollen and carried in corbiculas, and bee's gut of newly born and adult workers. Bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Yersinia and Arthrobacter genus and molds of Rhizopus, Alternaria and Epicoccum genus were isolated. According to their biochemical properties some of these microbes may be involved in the outer pollen walls degradation and could have been acquired by the bees through food ingestion or contact with other bees. The molds presence is explicated by their wide environmental distribution; they are typically found in soil and plants chosen as food source by bees.Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y tracto digestivo de las abejas (forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacteriaspueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las
    plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  12. Exploring the Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Marine Actinobacteria from the Comau Fjord in Northern Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Claverías, Fernanda P; González, Myriam; Moore, Edward R B; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bioprospecting natural products in marine bacteria from fjord environments are attractive due to their unique geographical features. Although, Actinobacteria are well known for producing a myriad of bioactive compounds, investigations regarding fjord-derived marine Actinobacteria are scarce. In this study, the diversity and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria isolated from marine sediments within the Comau fjord, in Northern Chilean Patagonia, were assessed by culture-based approaches. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that members phylogenetically related to the Micrococcaceae, Dermabacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Dietziaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families were present at the Comau fjord. A high diversity of cultivable Actinobacteria (10 genera) was retrieved by using only five different isolation media. Four isolates belonging to Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Kocuria genera showed 16S rRNA gene identity <98.7% suggesting that they are novel species. Physiological features such as salt tolerance, artificial sea water requirement, growth temperature, pigmentation and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Streptomyces isolates showed strong inhibition against both Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Antimicrobial activities in Brachybacterium, Curtobacterium, and Rhodococcus have been scarcely reported, suggesting that non-mycelial strains are a suitable source of bioactive compounds. In addition, all strains bear at least one of the biosynthetic genes coding for NRPS (91%), PKS I (18%), and PKS II (73%). Our results indicate that the Comau fjord is a promising source of novel Actinobacteria with biotechnological potential for producing biologically active compounds. PMID:27486455

  13. Coral-associated Actinobacteria from the Arabian Gulf: diversity, abundance and biotechnological potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacteria are widely distributed in terrestrial environments, where they are considered a significant source of bioactive compounds, mainly antibiotics. Marine Actinobacteria, particularly coral-associated Actinobacteria, have attracted attention recently. In this study, the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria associated with Coscinaraea columna, Platygyra daedalea and Porites harrisoni, north of the Arabian Gulf were investigated. The corals of the Arabian Gulf, one of the world’s hottest seas, are thriving under extreme water temperatures that exceed 39°C during the summer. Similar water temperatures cause coral bleaching and death in other water bodies. For this reason, the corals of the Gulf are living models for investigating how corals in other settings may survive at the end of the current century.Different coral hosts have been found to harbor equivalent numbers of culturable Actinobacteria in their tissues but not in their mucus. However, different culturable actinobacterial communities have been found to be associated with different coral hosts. Differences in the abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria were detected between the mucus and tissue of the same coral host. In addition, temporal and spatial variations in the abundance and diversity of the cultivable actinobacterial communities were detected. In total, 19 different actinobacterial genera, namely Micrococcus, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Renibacterium, Nocardia, Microbacterium, Dietzia, Cellulomonas, Ornithinimicrobium, Rhodococcus, Agrococcus, Kineococcus, Dermacoccus, Devriesea, Kocuria, Marmoricola and Arthrobacter, were isolated from the coral tissue and mucus samples. Furthermore, 82 isolates related to Micromonospora, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces showed antimicrobial activities against representative Gram-positive and/or Gram-negative bacteria. Even though

  14. Biodiversity of Dominant Cultivable Endophytic Bacteria Inhabiting Tissues of Six Different Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) Cropped under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Katarzyna; Pietr, Stanisław Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (EnB) play a crucial role in plant development. This study was an attempt to isolate and identify dominant cultivable EnB inhabiting young seedlings germinated in vitro and leaves of six maize cultivars grown under field conditions at temperate climate zone with culture-dependent approach. We isolated bacteria from field cropped maize only. Strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and α- and γ-Proteobacteria were found. Species of two genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant among them. Higher diversity of EnB was found in plants collected from Kobierzyce, where we identified 35 species from 16 genera with 22 species uniquely found at this field. On the contrary, from maize leaves collected at Smolice we identified 24 species representing 10 genera with 10 species uniquely isolated from this field. However, none of species was common for all cultivars at both locations. Among isolated EnB six species only, Pseudomonas clemancea, Pseudomonasfluorescens, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, were found in aboveground parts of the same cultivar grown on both tested fields. The fact that the same cultivars, sown from the same lots of seeds, under field conditions on two different locations were colonized with noticeably different associations of cultivable EnB suggest that cultivar genotype is an important factor selecting endophytic bacteria from local agro-environment. To our knowledge this is first report about the significant variation of diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria inhabiting aboveground parts of the same maize cultivars grown at different locations. PMID:26373177

  15. Thermal Analysis of Whole Bacterial Cells Exposed to Potassium Permanganate Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry: a Biphasic Dose-Dependent Response to Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina K. Abuladze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was applied to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at whole cell level using soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was applied in order to estimate the impact of the toxic oxidant potassium permanganate (PM on the intracellular structural and functional alterations at the whole cell level using the soil bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model culture. We compared the total melting heat and the temperature of DNA-protein complex (DNP melting at the PM application prior to the calorimetry measurement and after 24-h exposure at the concentration range 0.02–1.4 mM. The initial oxidative effect caused changes in the pattern of the whole cell melting spectra (mainly at the temperature range 56–78°C, the decrease of Tmax °C DNP melting, and did not influence significantly the total heat of bacterial melting at different concentrations of PM. The prolonged effect of permanganate up to 24 h was characterized by a biphasic dose-dependent response to stress estimated by the DSC technique and the colony-forming assay. The low doses of PM (0.02 and 0.2 mM stimulated cell proliferation, and increased the total whole cell melting heat and the temperature of DNP melting. The toxic effect of PM up to 0.04 mM reduced cell viability, changed the character of multipeaked thermograms, and lowered the total melting heat and the temperature of DNP melting in a concentration-dependent manner. This study presents the DSC method for evaluating and monitoring the effects of exposure to potential human and environmental toxicants.

  16. Energy concentration of high-oil corn varieties for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Bajjalieh, N L

    1997-02-01

    Growth performance and utilization of nutrients and energy in three high-oil corn varieties (5.4 to 9.7% ether extract) and regular corn (4.2% ether extract) were compared in three experiments using growing pigs. Twenty-four 25-kg crossbred barrows were used in Exp. 1 to evaluate nutrient and energy digestibility in the three high-oil corn varieties and regular corn. Four diets were formulated to contain 97% of one of four varieties of corn (Control, TC1, TC2, and X122 varieties) and 3% minerals and vitamins. Digestibilities of nitrogen and ether extract were similar (P > .05) for regular corn and all three varieties of high-oil corn. The digestible energy concentrations (kcal/g; as-fed basis) for control, TC1, TC2, and X122 corn varieties were 3.29, 3.57, 3.4, and 3.41, respectively, with control lower (P lysine.HCl were fed to 24 crossbred barrows (six pigs per diet) in a nutrient and energy balance study similar to the Exp. 1. Results were similar to those obtained in Exp. 1. The same four diets that were used in Exp. 2 were fed to 40 (10/diet) 20-kg crossbred pigs (20 barrows and 20 gilts) in a 28-d growth performance study (Exp. 3). Gain:feed ratios were .39, .43, .42, and .42 and growth rates (kg/d) were .68, .74, .70, and .72 for diets containing control, TC1, TC2, and X122 corn varieties, respectively. These translate to 8 to 10% improvement in feed efficiency and a numerical improvement in weight gain (3 to 9%) when high-oil corn was fed as compared with control corn. The results of nitrogen, ether extract, and energy balance and feeding experiments with growing pigs indicate efficient utilization of nutrients in diets containing high-oil corn. PMID:9051466

  17. A novel "priming-boosting" strategy for immune interventions in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shujie; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Xiaoji; Wang, Wei; Deng, Dongrui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Changyu; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Zhang, Hanwang; Ma, Ding

    2015-04-01

    Despite the encouraging development of a preventive vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), it cannot improve ongoing infections. Therefore, a new vaccine is urgently needed that can prevent and treat cervical cancer, and cure pre-cancerous lesions. In this study, we constructed two peptide-based vaccines. The first was a short-term, long-peptide (ST-LP) vaccine that simultaneously targeted three key carcinogenic epitopes (E5-E6-E7) on HPV16. We tested this vaccine in murine TC-1 cells infected with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) fused with HPV16E5 DNA (rTC-1 cells), which served as a cell model; we also tested it in immune-competent mice loaded with rTC-1 cells, which served as an ectopic tumor model. The ST-LP injections resulted in strong, cell-mediated immunity, capable of attacking and eliminating abnormal antigen-bearing cells. Furthermore, to prolong immunogenic capability, we designed a unique rAAV that encoded the three predicted epitopes for a second, long-term, long-peptide (LT-LP) vaccine. Moreover, we used a new immune strategy of continuous re-injections, where three ST-LP injections were performed at one-week intervals (days 0, 7, 14), then one LT-LP injection was performed on day 120. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that this strategy could boost the immune response to produce longer and stronger protection against target cells, and mice were thoroughly protected from tumor growth. Our results showed that priming the immune system with the ST-LP vaccine, followed by boosting the immune system with the LT-LP vaccine could generate a rapid, robust, durable cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to HPV16-positive tumors. PMID:25575128

  18. Successive magnetic transitions of the kagome staircase compound Co3V2O8 studied in various magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the fictitious spin-1/2 kagome staircase system Co3V2O8, magnetic field-temperature (H-T) phase diagrams have been constructed for the fields along three principal directions up to 5T, using results of various macroscopic measurements on single crystal samples and also using neutron diffraction data taken on both powder and single crystal samples under H along c. In zero magnetic field, the system exhibits three transitions at temperatures Tc1∼11.2 K, Tc2∼8.8 K and Tc3∼(6.0-7.0) K. The single crystal data present clear evidence for the noncollinear nature of the magnetic structures in all magnetically ordered phases below Tc1. The sinusoidal nature of the incommensurate modulation of the ordered moment reported in the former work has been confirmed between Tc1 and Tc2, that is, no higher harmonics of the modulation have been detected even for the present large single crystal. Even in the phase of commensurate modulation between Tc2 and Tc3, we have not detected any higher harmonics of the modulation. The phase diagrams show that the magnetically ordered phases sensitively change to other phases with H, indicating that the geometrical frustration inherent in this system is important for the determination of the phase diagram. No evidence for ferroelectric transitions has been observed in the measurements of the dielectric constant (ε) applying the electric fields along three crystallographic axes, a, b, and c. Only small dielectric anomalies closely connected with the magnetic phase transitions have been found. (author)

  19. Expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomura Fumio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of different chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS has been extensively investigated; however, little is known about the difference in the role of chemokine receptors between the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO and MS. Therefore, we examined the expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL in MS and NMO. Methods We used flow cytometry to analyse lymphocyte subsets in 12 patients with relapsing NMO, 24 with relapsing-remitting MS during relapse, 3 with NMO and 5 with MS during remission. Results Compared with healthy controls (HC, the percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cells was significantly lower in NMO and MS patients. The percentage of T cells expressing CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD45RO+ was higher, while that of CD4+CC chemokine receptor (CCR3+ (T helper 2, Th2 was significantly lower in MS patients than in HC. The ratios of CD4+CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR3+/CD4+CCR3+ (Th1/Th2 and CD8+CXCR3+/CD8+CCR4+ (T cytotoxic 1, Tc1/Tc2 were higher in MS patients than in HC. The percentage of CD8+CXCR3+ T cell (Tc1 and CD4+CXCR3+ T cell (Th1 decreased significantly during remission in MS patients (P 0.05. No significant differences were identified in the expression of the chemokine receptors on PBL in NMO patients compared with MS patients and HC. Conclusions Th1 dominance of chemokine receptors on blood T cells and the correlation between CXCR3+ T cell (Th1 and Tc1 and disease activity in MS patients were confirmed by analysing chemokines receptors on PBL. In contrast, deviation in the Th1/Th2 balance was not observed in NMO patients.

  20. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma. IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The frequencies of cytotoxic T cells (Tc)1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-35, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 12) were analyzed by Pearson's test. IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmatics compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients and healthy controls. More importantly, plasma IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2) cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma. Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. PMID:26547705

  1. Dynamic regulation of effector IFN-γ-producing and IL-17-producing T cell subsets in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Ruan, Suhong; Yin, Lingling; Zhao, Dongmei; Chen, Chong; Pan, Bin; Zeng, Lingyu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Kailin

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as the predominant complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains to be fully understood. It is known that the cytokines produced by allogeneic reactive effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are involved in GVHD. However, the regulation and coordination of IFN-γ-producing and IL-17-producing effector T cells remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of alloantigen-specific effector CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell subsets by flow cytometry, which produce inflammatory cytokines involved in the multistep GVHD pathogenesis progress. The results demonstrated that IL-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17) cells and IFN-γ+CD8+ T (Tc1) cells were detected in the early stage of GVHD. The differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1 cell (IFN-γ+CD4+ T) and Th17 (IL-17+CD4+ T) cells was later than that of the Tc1 and Tc17 cells. The effector CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell subsets either became exhausted or became memory cells, exhibiting a CD62L-CD44+ phenotype following marked expansion during GVHD. Furthermore, T cell-associated type I (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and type II (IL-4 and IL-10) classical cytokines exhibited coordinated dynamic regulation. It was concluded that the differentiation of cytokine-producing Tc1 and Tc17 cells may be the key step in the initiation of GVHD, whereas CD4+ effector Th1 and Th17 cells are considered to be pathophysiological factors leading to the continuous aggravation of GVHD. PMID:26647759

  2. Evidence for Unconventional Strong-coupling Superconductivity in PrOs_4Sb_12 : An Sb Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kotegawa, H.; Yogi, M.; Imamura, Y; Kawasaki, Y.; Zheng, G. -q.; Kitaoka, Y.; Ohsaki, S.; Sugawara, H.; Aoki, Y; SATO, H

    2002-01-01

    We report Sb-NQR results which evidence a heavy-fermion (HF) behavior and an unconventional superconducting (SC) property in the filled-skutterudite compound PrOs_4Sb_12 revealing a SC transition temperature T_c=1.85 K. The temperature (T) dependence of nuclear-spin-lattice-relaxation rate 1/T_1 and NQR frequency unravel a low-lying crystal-electric-field splitting below T_0~10 K, associated with Pr^3+ (4f^2)-derived ground state. The emergence of T_1T=const. behavior below T_F~4 K points to ...

  3. Gamma-radiolysis of tetracycline in solutions. Part 1. Basic chemical processes resulting from gamma irradiation in aqueous and methanolic tetracycline hydrochloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition yield of tetracycline hydrochloride in 0.1 N H2SO4 and CH3OH solutions was found to increase with antibiotic (TC) concentration. The H+ ions, N2O and monochloroacetic acid lower the decomposition yield of TC and isopropyl alcohol does not affect the value of G(sub(-TC)). The radiolysis mechanism of TC was suggested and the values of k(sub(H+TC)) = 2.9.105l.mole-1sec-1 and k(sub(esub(s)+TC)) = 1.46.1091.mole-1.sec-1 were estimated. (author)

  4. Magnetic and thermal properties of NdT2AI20 (T: Ti, V, Cr) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Takahiro; Nosaka, Kenta; Tsuchida, Kyousuke; Lei, Qiankun; Kanamori, Ryousuke; Nishimura, Katsuhiko

    2016-02-01

    We have succeeded in growing the caged cubic compounds NdT2Al20 (T: Ti, V, Cr) by the Al-self flux method, and measured magnetic susceptibility χ, magnetization M, and specific heat divided by temperature C/T down to 0.5K. From the measurements, the antiferromagnetic phase transition at TN = 1.45 K was observed for NdTi2Al20, and ferromagnetic phase transition at TC = 1.8 K and 1.7 K were observed for NdV2Al20 and NdCr2Al20, respectively.

  5. Quantum information approach to the azurite mineral frustrated quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abutalib, M.; Farouk, Ahmed; Abdalla, S.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum correlations are almost impossible to address in bulk systems. Quantum measures extended only to a few number of parties can be discussed in practice. In the present work, we study nonlocality for a cluster of spins belonging to a mineral whose structure is that of a quantum magnet. We reproduce at a much smaller scale the experimental outcomes, and then, we study the role of quantum correlations there. A macroscopic entanglement witness has been introduced in order to reveal nonlocal quantum correlations between individual constituents of the azurite mineral at nonzero temperatures. The critical point beyond which entanglement is zero is found at T_c < 1 K.

  6. Computational materials design of attractive Fermion system with large negative effective $U$ in the hole-doped Delafossite of CuAlO$_2$, AgAlO$_2$ and AuAlO$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Akitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroshi Katayama-Yoshida A.; Fukushima, T.; Uede, H.; Katayama-Yoshida, H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize super-high-critical temperature $(T_c)$ superconductors ($T_c$>1,000 K) based on general design rules for negative effective $U$ $(U_{eff})$ systems by controlling purely-electronic and attractive Fermion mechanisms, we perform computational materials design for the negative $U_{eff}$ system in hole-doped two-dimensional (2D) Delafossite CuAlO$_2$, AgAlO$_2$ and AuAlO$_2$ from ${\\it ab\\ initio}$ calculations. It is found that the large negative $U_{eff}$ in the hole-doped ...

  7. Optimization of large area YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x films by single target ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauzzi, A.; Lucia, M.L.; Affronte, M.; Pavuna, D. (Inst. for Micro- and Optoelectronics, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1991-12-01

    We report on the in-situ growth over large area of high-quality homogeneous YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} films by single target ion beam sputtering. The '123' stoichiometry transfer to the substrates is obtained by using sufficiently low power ion beam and a grazing angle between the ion beam and the target. The as-deposited films show consistent homogeneity and reproducible superconducting properties ({Delta}Tc<1 K, j{sub c}(77K)>10{sup 6} A cm{sup -2} at 77K) over areas larger than {approx equal}30 cm{sup 2}. (orig.).

  8. Rejection of large HPV-16 expressing tumors in aged mice by a single immunization of VacciMax® encapsulated CTL/T helper peptides

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald Lisa; Korets-Smith Ella; Fuentes-Ortega Antar; Pohajdak Bill; Mansour Marc; Daftarian Pirouz M; Weir Genevieve; Brown Robert G; Kast W Martin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of cancer increases significantly in later life, yet few pre-clinical studies of cancer immunotherapy use mice of advanced age. A novel vaccine delivery platform (VacciMax®,VM) is described that encapsulates antigens and adjuvants in multilamellar liposomes in a water-in-oil emulsion. The therapeutic potential of VM-based vaccines administered as a single dose was tested in HLA-A2 transgenic mice of advanced age (48–58 weeks old) bearing large palpable TC1/A2 tumors. Th...

  9. Lattice dynamics and broad-band dielectric properties of multiferroic Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeviciute, R.; Goian, V.; Greicius, S.; Grigalaitis, R.; Nuzhnyy, D.; Holc, J.; Banys, J.; Kamba, S.

    2015-02-01

    Complex dielectric properties of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramics were investigated in a broad frequency range from 100 Hz up to 90 THz. A broad dielectric anomaly was observed near the temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition (TC1 = 376 K). Below 1 MHz, the anomaly is strongly influenced by conductivity of the sample, but higher frequency data taken up to 81 MHz reveal a broad and frequency independent peak at TC1 typical for a diffuse ferroelectric phase transition. Surprisingly, dielectric permittivity measured at 37 GHz exhibits a peak shifted by 25 K above TC1, which indicates polar nanoregions with dynamics in microwave frequency region. A dielectric relaxation, which appears in THz region below 700 K, slows down towards TC1 and again hardens below TC2 = 356 K. This central mode drives both phase transitions, so they belong to order-disorder type, although the polar phonons exhibit anomalies near both phase transitions. In the paraelectric phase, infrared reflectivity spectra correspond to local F m 3 ¯ m structure due to short-range chemical ordering of Fe and Nb cations on the B perovskite sites. Moreover, each polar phonon is split due to two different cations on the B sites. Recently, Manley et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014)] proposed a new mechanism of creation of polar nanoregions in relaxor ferroelectrics. They argued, based on their inelastic neutron scattering studies of PMN-PT, that the TO1 phonon is split and interaction of both components gives rise to so called Anderson phonon localization, which can produce regions of trapped standing waves and these waves induce polar nanoregions in relaxors. We cannot exclude or confirm this mechanism, but we show that the splitting of polar phonons is a common feature for all complex perovskites with relaxor ferroelectric behavior and it can be also observed in canonical ferroelectric BaTiO3, where the soft mode is split in paraelectric phase due to a strong lattice anharmonicity.

  10. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: Differential Contribution to T Helper 17 and T Cytotoxic 17 Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Mark D.; Ovcinnikovs, Vitalijs; Smith, Andrew G.; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to be required for optimal Thelper (Th) 17 cell activation. Th17 cells provide immunity against extracellular pathogens and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. Herein, the role of the AhR in cytokine production by Th17, and by the analogous population of T cytotoxic (Tc)17 cells, has been examined. Lymph node Tc (CD8+) and Th (CD4+) cells were isolated by negative selection from naive AhR+/− and AhR−/− mice and polarised to Tc1/Th1 or Tc17...

  11. AC susceptibility studies of the superconductivity of PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the superconducting phase diagram of PrOs4Sb12 deduced from the real-part χ' and the imaginary part χ'' of the AC susceptibility. The double transition at Tc1=1.85K and Tc2=1.75K seen in the specific heat may be related to features in χ' and χ'', where full diamagnetic shielding is observed below Tc2 only. As function of magnetic field the phase bounded by Tc2 displays features reminiscent of the peak effect

  12. Computability and Non-computability Issues in Amorphous Computing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    Berlin: Springer, 2012 - (Baeten, J.; Ball, T.; de Boer, F.), s. 1-9. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7604). ISBN 978-3-642-33474-0. ISSN 0302-9743. [TCS 2012. IFIP TC 1/WG 2.2 International Conference /7./. Amsterdam (NL), 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : amorphous computing * computability * non-computability * molecular communication Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  13. Effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline on bone metabolism and uterus in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQing-Nan; HUBin; HUANGLian-Fang; CHENYan; WENGLin-Ling; ZhengHu; CHENHuai-Qing

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of low doses of hydrochloride tetracycline (Tc) on bone metabolism and uterus in the ovariectomized (Ova) rats. METHODS:Forty 3-month-old rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham group, Ova group, Tc1 group (1.2mg·kg-1·d-1), Tc2 group (4.8mg·kg-1·d-1), and estrone group (1.48 mg·kg-1·d-1),oral fed for 3 months. The proximal tibia metaphyses were processed undecalcified for quantitative bone histomorphometry and the soft tissues were processed in paraffin for pathological observation. RESULTS: Placebo-treated (lactose) Ova rats were characterized by trabecular area (TA) decreasing and their architecture worsening compared with sham controls, and bone resorption was over formation with high bone turnover. The uteri were atrophy. (2)In estrone-treated group, TA and trabecular numbers were significantly increased and the trabecular separation decreased vs Ova group. Estrone slowed down Ova-inducing bone high turnover. But the size, weight, and the endometrium of the uteri in this group were increased vs Ova group. (3) TA was increased in both Tc1 and Tc2 groups compared with Ova rats. Tc maintained bone formation indices almost at Ova level, and only decreased mineral apposition rate (MAR) in Tc1 group, and declined bone resorption perimeter. The uteri and the cell of liver and kidney almost maintained at Ova level; Tc2 decreased labeling perimeter and increased MAR in comparison with Tc1 group. The uteri were atrophy, whose size maintained at Ova level; yellow labeling was not found in bone with these doses of Tc, while yellow labeling could be seen with the doses of 30mg·kg-1·d-1 of Tc for bone marker. CONCLUSION:The two doses of Tc have similar effects on preventing bone loss in Ova rats while the bone formation and uterus are not affected. However, Tc2 does not have more effects on increasing bone mass, Tc2 causes less mild damages to the liver and kidneys.

  14. Resistance of novel mouse strains different in MHC class I and the NKC domain to the development of experimental tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišerová, Anna; Richter, Jan; Čapková, Katarína; Bieblová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Reiniš, Milan; Indrová, Marie

    2016-08-01

    To elucidate the immunological mechanisms critical for tumor progression, we bred novel mouse strains, different in the NKC and H-2D domains. We used inbreeding to generate hybrids of Balb/c and C57BL/6 of stable H-2Db+d-NK1.1neg and H-2Db-d+NK1.1high phenotypes. We analyzed the growth of three established MHC class I-deficient tumor cell lines: TC-1/A9 tumor (HPV-associated) and B16F10 melanoma, both syngeneic to C57BL/6, and the MCB8 (3-methycholanthrene-induced tumor) syngeneic to Balb/c. Furthermore, we induced colorectal carcinoma by azoxymethane-DSS treatment to test the susceptibility to chemically-induced primary cancer. We found that the novel strains spontaneously regressed the tumor transplants syngeneic to both Balb/c (MCB8) and C57BL/6 (B16F10 and TC-1/A9) mice. The H2-Db+d-NK1.1neg, but not the H2-Db-d+NK1.1high strain was also highly resistant to chemically-induced colorectal cancer in comparison to the parental mice. The immune changes during TC-1/A9 cancer development involved an increase of the NK cell distribution in the peripheral blood and spleen along with higher expression of NKG2D activation antigen; this was in correlation with the time-dependent rise of cytotoxic activity in comparison to C57BL/6 mice. The TC-1/A9 cancer regression was accompanied by higher proportion of B cells in the spleen and B220+/CD86+ activated antigen-presenting B cells distributed in the lymphoid organs, as well as in the periphery. The changes in the T-cell population were represented mainly by the prevalence of T helper cells reflected by grown CD4/CD8 ratio, most prominent in the b+d-NK1.1neg strain. The results of the present study imply usefulness of the two novel mouse strains as an experimental model for further studies of tumor resistance mechanisms. PMID:27279019

  15. Progress of Double Star Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhenxing; CAO Jinbin

    2006-01-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) is the first joint space mission between China and ESA. The mission, which is made of two spacecraft, is designed to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer"), was launched on 30 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C. Due to the importance of and success of DSP, both CNSA and ESA approved the extension of DSP. This paper presents DSP mission and some important scientific results made based on the data of DSP.

  16. Microscopic theory of antiferromagnetic and double superconducting transitions in UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiferromagnetic and double superconducting transitions in UPt3 are studied by using a high-degeneracy model. Within the model, superconductivity is stimulated by long-range antiferromagnetic order. Two scenarios of the temperature behaviour are possible for the close-packed hexagonal structure. In the first scenario the double superconducting transition follows an antiferromagnetic transition (TN1 > Tc1 > Tc2). In the second scenario the superconducting transition follows two consecutive antiferromagnetic transitions (TN1>TN2>Tc. For both scenarios the superconducting gap is anisotropic and vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. The specific heat has the T2 behaviour in the superconducting state. (author)

  17. Effect of dexamethasone on T cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus%地塞米松对系统性红斑狼疮患者外周血T细胞亚群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪; 高香; 薛愉; 万伟国; 吕玲

    2010-01-01

    研究地塞米松对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)中Th17、Tc17、Th1、Tc1等T细胞亚群表达的影响.收集30例确诊的SLE患者和22例健康志愿者作为对照组.SLE患者和正常对照者的PBMC分空白孔、佛波酯(PMA)/离子霉素(Ionomycin)孔、PMA/Ionomycin+地塞米松(DEX):孔行体外培养,运用四色流式细胞术检测PBMC表达Th17、Tc17、Th1、Tc1、IL-17/IFN-γ双阳细胞等T细胞亚群的百分比.未经刺激的状态下,SLE患者PBMC中各群T细胞的百分比较正常人无差异;经PMA刺激后,SLE患者外周血Th17、Tc1、CD3+CD8-IL-17+IFN-γ+细胞的比例显著高于对照组,SLE患者Th1、Tc17细胞百分比与对照组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);地塞米松能明显抑制活化状态下的PBMC中表达Th17、Tc17、Th1、Tc1细胞的比例(P<0.05),还可降低SLE患者PBMC培养中CD4+T细胞表达IL-17、IFN-γ的平均荧光强度.SLE患者体内T细胞亚群的表达水平存在明显异常,地塞米松能干扰SLE患者体内细胞因子网络失衡的免疫病理过程,且对表达IL-17、IFN-γ的T细胞均有明显的抑制作用,为临床使用糖皮质激素治疗SLE提供新的理论依据和实验室基础.

  18. The Tc3 Family of Transposable Genetic Elements in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, J.; Forbes, E.; Anderson, P

    1989-01-01

    We describe genetic and molecular properties of Tc3, a family of transposable elements in Caenorhabditis elegans. About 15 Tc3 elements are present in the genomes of several different wild-type varieties of C. elegans, but Tc3 transposition and excision are not detected in these strains. Tc3 transposition and excision occur at high frequencies, however, in strain TR679, a mutant identified because of its highly active Tc1 elements. In TR679, Tc3 is responsible for several spontaneous mutation...

  19. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: Differential Contribution to T Helper 17 and T Cytotoxic 17 Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D Hayes; Vitalijs Ovcinnikovs; Smith, Andrew G.; Ian Kimber; Dearman, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been shown to be required for optimal Thelper (Th) 17 cell activation. Th17 cells provide immunity against extracellular pathogens and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. Herein, the role of the AhR in cytokine production by Th17, and by the analogous population of T cytotoxic (Tc)17 cells, has been examined. Lymph node Tc (CD8(+)) and Th (CD4(+)) cells were isolated by negative selection from naive AhR(+/-) and AhR(-/-) mice and polarised to Tc1/Th1...

  20. Multiple Redundant Effector Mechanisms of CD8+ T Cells Protect against Influenza Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Bassity, Elizabeth; Flies, Amanda; Strutt, Tara M.; Garcia-Hernandez, Maria de Luz; McKinstry, K. Kai; Zou, Tie; Swain, Susan L.; Dutton, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that mice challenged with a lethal dose of PR8-OVAI are protected by injection of 4 to 8 × 106 in vitro - generated Tc1 or Tc17 CD8+ effectors. Viral load, lung damage and loss of lung function are all reduced following transfer. Weight loss is reduced and survival increased. We sought here to define the mechanism of this protection. CD8+ effectors exhibit multiple effector activities, perforin-, FasL- and TRAIL- mediated cytotoxicity, secretion of multiple cytokin...

  1. Peripheral Tc17 and Tc17/Interferon-γ Cells are Increased and Associated with Lung Function in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Han Xu; Xiao-Ling Hu; Xiao-Fang Liu; Peng Bai; Yong-Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive loss of lung function and local and systemic inflammation, in which CD8+ T-cells are believed to play a key role. Activated CD8+ T-cells differentiate into distinct subpopulations, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing Tc1 and interleukin (IL)-17-producing Tc17 cells. Recent evidence indicates that Tc17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity and may convert into IL-17/IFN-γ-double producing (Tc17/IFN-γ)...

  2. Tc17 CD8 T Cells: Functional Plasticity and Subset Diversity1

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Harris, Timothy J.; Wada, Satoshi; Grosso, Joseph F.; Getnet, Derese; Goldberg, Monica V.; Liang, Kai-Li; Bruno, Tullia C.; Pyle, Kristin J.; Chan, Siaw-Li; Anders, Robert A.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Adler, Adam J.; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Pardoll, Drew M.

    2009-01-01

    IL-17-secreting CD8 T cells (Tc17) have been described in several settings, but little is known regarding their functional characteristics. While Tc1 cells produced IFN-γ and efficiently killed targets, Tc17 cells lacked lytic function in vitro. Interestingly, the small numbers of IFN-γ-positive or IL-17/IFN-γ-double-positive cells generated under Tc17 conditions also lacked lytic activity and expressed a similar pattern of cell surface proteins to IL-17-producing cells. As is the case for Th...

  3. Potential application of metabolic engineering to tune the production of compatible solutes for enhancing tolerance of crop plants to salinity/drought (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential need to develop genotypes of crop plants that can substantially withstand salinity and drought with little yield losses is being increasingly felt, as the cultivable agricultural lands is increasingly being exposed to these stresses. In-spite of gains in productivity, conventional plant breeding methods have their limitations either due to limited gene pool or due to species barrier for gene transfer. Modern molecular tools have paved ways for identification of genes imparting abiotic stress tolerance in unrelated species/organisms and to transfer the selected genes into desirable crop plant species by conquering the incompatibility barriers. In fact, now genetic engineering has been widely realized to be in important tool for developing abiotic stress tolerant crop plants. Abiotic stress tolerance is a complex phenomenon involving simultaneous expression of a number of genes coupled with an interaction of varying weather variables and crop phonology. However, in order to tackle the issue, successful attempts have been made in identifying genes enhancing abiotic stress tolerance. The genes for biosynthesis of various compatible solutes (viz., mtlD for mannitol: P5CS or P5CSF129A for proline; coda/cox or belA/beIB for glycinebetaine' lpsl for trehalose; PINOI for inositol) have been demonstrated to enhance abiotic stress tolerance of plants. We have isolated the codA gene (Accession number AY589052) for choline oxidase from an Indian strain of Arthrobacter sp. from IMTECH (Chandigarh) and the mtlD genes from local strains of E. coli (accession number A Y523630) and halobacterium sp. (Accession number A Y52363 1). We have enhanced the tolerance of Brassica juncea to salt, drought and low temperature stresses by introducing the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. Presenting our research team is busy developing genotypes of chickpea black gram, peanut and sorghum besides mustard with enhanced

  4. 甲苯降解菌的降解特性及生物强化作用的研究%Screening of toluene degrading strains and its application in bioaugmentation toluene degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段云霞; 唐运平; 吕晶华; 郑先强; 张维; 李晓静

    2011-01-01

    Toluene-degradating strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil of Dagang oilfield. Eight bacterium were screened with the method of enrichment and dilution, which were identified as Bacillus aquimaris, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas putida ,Microbacterium,Arthrobacter,Microbacterium,Staphylococcu,Planococcus rifietoensis by 16S rDNA I-dentification.and named as TD1-TD8 respectively. Among the eight bacteria,TD3 presented best performance for toluene degradation,and the max degradation rate was 96. 3%. The optimum growth conditions were pH = 7 and 30 C of temperature. TD3 were added in the activated sludge of the Hangu chemical wastewater treatment plant for bioagmentation degradation of toluene,the biodegradation rate of toluene was increased from 86. 0% to 94. 5%.%从大港油田土壤中分离降解甲苯的微生物,得到8株优势菌,分别命名为TD1至TD8.经16S rDNA鉴定分别为芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus aquimaris)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)、假单孢菌属(Pseudomonas putida)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、微杆菌属(Microbacterium)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)和动性球菌属(Planococcus ri fietoensis).其中TD4和TD6都属于微杆菌属,TD3降解甲苯能力最强,甲苯降解率达到96.3%.通过实验得到TD3降解甲苯最佳条件.将TD3加入到含甲苯的汉沽化工园区化工废水活性污泥中,甲苯降解率由原来的86.0%提高到94.5%.

  5. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  6. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1 and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1 and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1 and 3.01± μg g(-1 being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include

  7. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43-. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO43--irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO43--irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 (micro)M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these amplified phosphatases are being

  8. 连作花生田根际土壤优势细菌的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Dominant Bacteria in Rhizosphere of Continuous Peanut Cropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜艳伟; 张红; 刘露; 咸洪泉; 崔德杰

    2011-01-01

    The dilution-plate method was used to isolate dominant bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of continuous peanut cropping. Through morphological specificity, culture shape, physiological-biochemical characteristics and sequence analysis of 16S rDNA,the bacterium strains were identified. The result showed that the type of dominant bacteria in rhizosphere soil changed significantly after the soil was planted with peanut and continuously planted with peanut. Severn types of bacteria were isolated and identified, which were Leifsonia xyli , Arthrobacter chlorophenoli-cus ,Microbacterium flavescens ,Sphingomonas sp. , Pasteurella sp. , Bacillus simplex and Bacillus megaterium. It was the first time to isolate and identify dominant bacteria systemically from the rhizosphere soil of continuous peanut cropping. All of the strains isolated were not pathogenic to peanut. It indicated that the primary factor of continuous peanut cropping barrier was not induced by bacteria causing peanut disease. But the type of dominant bacteria changed obviously after the soil was planted with peanut. The relationship of bacteria and continuous peanut cropping barrier needed further studied.%采用土壤稀释分离法,从不同连作年限花生根际土壤中分离优势细菌,结合菌株形态特征、培养性状、生理生化特征及16S rDNA序列分析结果,对优势细菌进行鉴定.结果表明,种植过花生及花生连作后,土壤中优势细菌种类发生明显变化,从连作花生田根际土壤中分离鉴定出7种优势细菌,分别为Leifsonia xyli、氯酚节杆菌(Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus)、黄色微杆菌(Microbacterium flavescens)、鞘氨醇单胞菌属细菌(Sphingomonas sp.)、巴斯德菌属细菌(Pasteurella sp.)、简单芽孢杆菌(Bacillus simplex)和巨大芽孢杆菌(Bacillus megaterium).未发现花生病原细菌,说明花生连作障碍的主要因素不是细菌引发花生病害所导致,但花生种植后土壤中优势细菌种类会发生

  9. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  10. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g(-1) dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g(-1) and 7.36±1.0 μg g(-1)) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g(-1) and 3.01± μg g(-1)) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates

  11. Cultivation-Based and Molecular Assessment of Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosheath of Wheat under Different Crop Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Hameed, Sohail; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Smidt, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted to compare the formationand bacterial communities of rhizosheaths of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation and to study the effects of bacterial inoculation on plant growth. Inoculation of Azospirillum sp. WS-1 and Bacillus sp. T-34 to wheat plants increased root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of rhizosheathsoil when compared to non-inoculated control plants, and under both crop rotations. Comparing both crop rotations, root length, root and shoot dry weight and dry weight of soil attached with roots were higher under wheat-cotton rotation. Organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid) were detected in rhizosheaths from both rotations, with malic acid being most abundant with 24.8±2 and 21.3±1.5 μg g-1 dry soil in wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Two sugars (sucrose, glucose) were detected in wheat rhizosheath under both rotations, with highest concentrations of sucrose (4.08±0.5 μg g-1and 7.36±1.0 μg g-1) and glucose (3.12±0.5 μg g-1 and 3.01± μg g-1) being detected in rhizosheaths of non-inoculated control plants under both rotations. Diversity of rhizosheath-associated bacteria was evaluated by cultivation, as well as by 454-pyrosequencing of PCR-tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 14 and 12 bacterial isolates predominantly belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Pseudomonaswere obtained from the rhizosheath of wheat grown under wheat-cotton and wheat-rice rotation, respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Verrucomicrobia as the most abundant phyla in wheat-rice rotation, whereas Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Cyanobacteria were predominant in wheat-cotton rotation. From a total of 46,971 sequences, 10.9% showed ≥97% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of 32 genera previously shown to include isolates with plant

  12. Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in continuous flow and batch reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, S. S.; Gikas, P.; Moberly, J. G.; Peyton, B. M.; Ginn, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of heavy metals may significantly affect microbial growth. In many cases, small amounts of particular heavy metals may stimulate microbial growth; however, larger quantities may result in microbial growth reduction. Environmental parameters, such as growth pattern may alter the critical heavy metal concentration, above which microbial growth stimulation turns to growth inhibition. Thus, it is important to quantify the effects of heavy metals on microbial activity for understanding natural or manmade biological reactors, either in situ or ex situ. Here we compare the toxicity of Zn and Cu on Arthrobacter sp., a heavy metal tolerant microorganism, under continuous flow versus batch reactor operations. Batch and continuous growth tests of Arthrobacter sp. were carried out at various individual and combined concentrations of Zn and Cu. Biomass concentration (OD) was measured for both the batch and continuous reactors, whereas ATP, oxygen uptake rates and substrate concentrations were additionally measured for the continuous system. Results indicated that Cu was more toxic than Zn under all conditions for both systems. In batch reactors, all tested Zn concentrations up to 150 uM showed a stimulatory effect on microbial growth. However, in the case of mixed Zn and Cu exposures, the presence of Zn either eliminated (at the 50 uM level both Zn and Cu) or reduced by ~25% (at the 100 and 150 uM levels both Zn and Cu) the Cu-induced inhibition. In the continuous system, only one test involved combined Cu (40uM) and Zn (125uM) and this test showed similar results to the 40uM Cu continuous test, i.e., no reduction in inhibition. The specific ATP concentration, i.e., ATP/OD, results for the continuous reactor showed an apparent recovery for both Cu-treated populations, although neither the OD nor glucose data showed any recovery. This may reflect that the individual microorganisms that survived after the addition of heavy metals, kept maintaining the usual ATP

  13. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ГЕНОВ, КОНТРОЛИРУЮЩИХ РЕАКЦИЮ ДЕГАЛОГЕНИРОВАНИЯ, БАКТЕРИЙДЕСТРУКТОРОВ 4-ХЛОРБЕНЗОАТА

    OpenAIRE

    Шумковa, Е.; Лобова, И.; Ананьина, Л.; Плотникова, Е.

    2007-01-01

    Методом полимеразной цепной реакции проведен скрининг бактерий-деструкторов 4-хлорбензойной кислоты на наличие fcb-генов, контролирующих реакцию дегалогенирования 4-хлорбензоата. Установлено, что Arthrobacter sp. H4, H5, Pseudomonas fluorescens H2, Micrococcus sp. G120 и Rhodococcus ruber Р25 содержат fcbA и fcbB гены, кодирующие 4ХБК-СоА-лигазу и 4ХБК-СоА-дегалогеназу, соответственно. Уровень сходства fcb-генов штамма R. ruber Р25 с деструкторами 4ХБК рода Arthrobacter cjcnfdkztn 95-99%....

  14. Bacteria-Mineral Interactions on the Surfaces of Metal-Resistant Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraordinary ability of indigenous microorganisms, like metal-resistant bacteria, for biotransformation of toxic compounds is of considerable interest for the emerging area of environmental bioremediation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which metal-resistant bacteria transform toxic compounds are currently unknown and await elucidation. The project's objective was to study stress-induced responses of metal-resistant bacteria to environmental changes and chemical stimulants. This project involved a multi-institutional collaboration of our LLNL group with the group of Dr. H.-Y. Holman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). In this project, we have utilized metal-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model bacterial system. We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize for the first time at the nanometer scale formation of stress-induced structures on bacterial surfaces in response to Cr (VI) exposure. We have demonstrated that structure, assembly, and composition of these stress-induced structures are dependent on Cr (VI) concentrations. Our AFM observations of the appearance and development of stress-induced layers on the surfaces of Arthrobacter oxydans bacteria exposed to Cr (VI) were confirmed by Dr. Holman's biochemical, electron microscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy studies. In general, in vitro imaging of live microbial and cellular systems represents one of the most challenging issues in application of AFM. Various approaches for immobilization of bacteria on the substrate for in vitro imaging were tested in this project. Imaging of live bacteria was achieved, however further optimization of experimental methods are needed for high-resolution visualization of the cellular environmental structural dynamics by AFM. This project enhanced the current insight into molecular architecture, structural and environmental variability of bacterial systems. The project partially funded research for two book chapters (1

  15. Studies on the Catalytic Properties of Partially Purified Alkaline Proteases from Some Selected Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo Olufunke Femi-Ola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The research was done to study the conditions enhancing catalytic activities of alkaline proteases from Vibro sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Zymomonas sp., Athrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis.Methodology and Results: The proteolytic enzymes were purified in 2-step procedures involving ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-150 gel permeation chromatography. The upper and lower limits for the specific activities of proteases from the selected microorganisms were estimated at 20.63 and 47.51 units/mg protein with Zymomonas protease having the highest specific activity towards casein as its substrate and purification fold of 3.46, while that ofLactobacillus brevis protease was 8.06. The native molecular weights of these active proteins ranged from 30.4 to 45.7 kDa with Athrobacter sp. protease having the highest weight for its subunits. The proteolytic enzymes had optimum pH range of 8 to 10 and temperature range of 50 to 62 ºC accounting for the percentage relative activity range of 75 to 94% and 71 to 84 % respectively. The activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis proteases were maximum at pH 9 and 10 respectively. Lactobacillus brevis protease activity was maximum at temperature of 62 ºC, while beyond this value, a general thermal instability of these active proteins was observed. At above 70 ºC, the catalytic activities of Corynebacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Zymomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. proteases were progressively reduced over a period of 120 min of incubation, while Bacillus subtlis and Lactobacillus brevis proteases were relatively stable. Effect of metal ions was investigated on the catalytic activity of protease from the microorganisms. Lactobacillus brevis,Zymomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis protease activities were strongly activated by metal ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2. Enzyme activities were inhibited strongly by Cu2+ and Hg2+ but were not

  16. Dielectric constant of fluids and fluid mixtures at criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A; Thoen, Jan

    2010-04-01

    The behavior of the dielectric constant epsilon of pure fluids and binary mixtures near liquid-gas and liquid-liquid critical points is studied within the concept of complete scaling of asymmetric fluid-fluid criticality. While mixing of the electric field into the scaling fields plays a role, pressure mixing is crucial as the asymptotic behavior of the coexistence-curve diameter in the epsilon-T plane is concerned. Specifically, it is found that the diameters, characterized by a |T-Tc|1-alpha singularity in the previous scaling formulation [J. V. Sengers, D. Bedeaux, P. Mazur, and S. C. Greer, Physica A 104, 573 (1980)], gain a more dominant |T-Tc|2beta term, whose existence is shown to be supported by literature experimental data. The widely known |T-Tc|1-alpha singularity of epsilon along the critical isopleth in the one-phase region is found to provide information on the effect of electric fields on the liquid-liquid critical temperature: from experimental data it is inferred that Tc usually decreases as the magnitude of the electric field is enhanced. Furthermore, the behavior of mixtures along an isothermal path of approach to criticality is also analyzed: theory explains why the observed anomalies are remarkably higher than those associated to the usual isobaric path. PMID:20481691

  17. Superconductivity in Ternary Pnictide SrPd2Sb2 Polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Naoki; Suzuki, Harufumi; Tsukamoto, Takenori; Nakano, Tomohito; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-04-01

    Superconductivity was observed in SrPd2Sb2 polymorphs: a primitive tetragonal CaBe2Ge2-type (low-temperature phase, LT-SrPd2Sb2) structure and body-centered ThCr2Si2-type (high-temperature phase, HT-SrPd2Sb2) structure. The superconducting transition was observed at Tc = 1.95 (LT) and 0.6 K (HT). The specific heat C(T) showed a clear anomaly at Tc = 1.85 (LT) and 0.6 K (HT); thus, the superconductivity was of a bulk nature. The agreement with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) curve indicated that the LT-SrPd2Sb2 superconductor was fully gapped. The values of electron-phonon coupling λep and density of state at Fermi level N(EF) in 122 compounds with the CaBe2Ge2-type and its related structure were evaluated to reveal the main factor that determines Tc. From our systematic analysis, Tc of this family can be explained by λep rather than N(EF).

  18. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude

  19. Unusual Superconductivity in Skutterudite Compound PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report Sb-NQR results, which evidence unusual superconducting (SC) property in a filled-skutterudite compound PrOs4Sb12 with a SC transition temperature, Tc = 1.8 K. The nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 have revealed that Pr-derived 4f moments behave as if they are localized in a high temperature (T) above T0 ∼ 10 K. The observed NQR-line shift below T0 suggests the local redistribution of the charges associated with quadrupolar moments of Pr3+. The 1/T1 in the SC state has revealed anisotropic energy gap of Δ/kBTc ∼ 2.7. The absence of the coherence peak, but an exponential decrease in 1/T1 T below Tc = 1.8 K cannot be accounted for by either a conventional s-wave model or an anisotropic SC model with point- or line-node gap, pointing to a new class of un usual superconductivity. (author)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS OF AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION: TALISADI CHURNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda is known as the oldest healing science. Talisadi Churna is important in management of digestive and respiratory disturbances of all body types. It is having different ingredient which are having a wide range of uses in health maintenance. The quality control of Talisadi churna which will assist the regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturer in developing standards.Talisadi churna (TC1 is consist of the fine powders of Talisapatra, Dalchini, Ela, Pippali, Shunthi, Vamsa lochna in the ratio of 1:1. It is best remedy in acute, chronic and allergic bronchitis. It is very useful in acute exacerbation of asthma. In chronic asthma it reduces the frequency and severity of asthmatic attack. Talisadi churna sample was prepared in laboratory according to Ayurvedic formulary. This was evaluated by comparative analysis with the marketed formulations (TC2&TC3 for their extractive values (ethanol and distilled water, Micromeretic parameters (bulk density, true density, angle of repose and Carr’s Index and Phytochemical evaluation. The extractive values of Talisadi churna (TC1, TC2 and TC3 in water and ethanol is (12.15,11.33,11.18 and 12.92,11.54,11.35 respectively indicating the presence of almost polar and semi polar constituents in Talisadi churna. These analytical findings and data analysis revels that parameters like Extractive values, Presence of Phytoconstituents and micromeretic parameters all remains in close proximity for each batch of the Talisadi churna.

  1. Phase transitions of dense neutron matter with generalized Skyrme interaction to superfluid states with triplet pairing in strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    A generalized non-relativistic Fermi-liquid approach was used to find analytical formulas for temperatures $T_{c,1}(n,H)$ and $T_{c,2}(n,H)$ (which are functions nonlinear of density n and linear of magnetic field H) of phase transitions in spatially uniform dense pure neutron matter from normal to superfluid states with spin-triplet p-wave pairing (similar to anisotropic superfluid phases $^3He-A_{1}$ and $^3He-A_{2}$) in steady and homogeneous strong magnetic field (but $|\\mu_{n}| H\\ll E_{c}<\\varepsilon_{F}(n)$, where $\\mu_{n}$ is the magnetic dipole moment of a neutron, E_{c} is the cutoff energy and $\\varepsilon_{F}(n)$ is the Fermi energy in neutron matter). General formulas for $T_{c,1,2}(n,H)$ (valid for arbitrary parametrization of the effective Skyrme interaction in neutron matter) are specified here for generalized BSk18 parametrization of the Skyrme forces (with additional terms dependent on density n) on the interval $0.3\\ n_{0}

  2. Genome instability of mis-match repair and its role in carcinogenesis due to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homologue genes, mutS and mutL have been known as a key gene for mismatch repair in E. coli. In this study, identification of such homologue genes in the nematode was attempted using caenorhabditis elegans and three kinds of mutS homologues (mshG, mshZ and mshF) and 2 kinds of mutL ones were identified. From after isolation of these genes, base sequences were analyzed. Then, an insertion mutant in which Tcl transposon is inserted in Exon 13 positioned at the center of mshF was screened and its homozygote where breakage of transposon in somatic cells occurred frequently was obtained and its morphological changes were not significant. In the nematoda, we detected a highly conserved domain in mutS family gene, which is commonly present in yeast and human genes. Based on the amino acid sequence of this domain, four kinds of primers were constructed for PCR reaction using the whole DNA from the nematoda as a template and four DNA fragments of which sizes were almost corresponding to the homologue proteins were produced. From screening of Tc1 insertion mutant for 8 mismatch repair genes, three strains; mshF, rqhW and RqhY were obtained and the gene structures and the positions of Tc1 insertion in these strains were determined. The sensitivities to ionizing radiation, UV and alkyl reagent of these strains were not significantly different from those of the wild strain. (M.N.)

  3. 地塞米松对系统性红斑狼疮患者外周血单个核细胞中细胞因子分泌及T细胞亚群表达的影响%Effects of dexamethasone on the secretion of cytokines and the expression of T cell subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪; 高香; 宣丹丹; 薛愉; 吕玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨地塞米松对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中白细胞介素(IL)-17、干扰素(IFN)-γ分泌水平和Th17、Tc17、Th1、Tc1等T细胞亚群表达的影响.方法 SLE患者和健康对照者的PBMCs分空白孔、佛波酯(PMA)/离子霉素(Ionomycin)孔、PMA/Ionomycin+地塞米松(DEX)孔行体外培养,运用四色流式细胞术检测PBMCs表达Th17、Tc17、Th1、Tc1等T细胞亚群的百分比,采用酶联免疫吸附法测定SLE患者和健康对照者血浆及PBMCs培养上清中IL-17、IFN-γ的表达水平.结果 SLE组患者血浆IL-17[138.98(84.82~187.04)ng/L]、IFN-γ[21.92(15.95~27.09)ng/L]含量均高于正常对照组[57.21(47.78~72.12)ng/L,13.43(7.04~17.37)ng/L].无PMA刺激条件下,SLE患者PBMCs培养上清中细胞因子水平、PBMCs中各T细胞亚群的百分比与正常对照组相比差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);加入PMA刺激后,SLE患者PBMCs上清中IL-17的水平[(26.43±10.04)ng/L]和外周血Th17[(2.49±1.49)%]、Tc1[(44.89±16.43)%]细胞的比例均显著高于正常对照组[(18.06±5.42)ng/L,(1.47±0.73)%,(31.41±9.05)%)(P均<0.05),SLE患者Th1、Tc17细胞百分比与正常对照组相比,差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);地塞米松能明显抑制活化状态下的PBMCs分泌IL-17的水平[(16.72±6.09)ng/L](P<0.01),且显著下调Th17(1. 34±0.76)%、Tc1(34.62±17.25)%细胞百分比(P均<0.05),而地塞米松对IL-17的抑制作用更强.结论 SLE患者体内T细胞亚群及其相应细胞因子的表达水平存在明显异常,地塞米松能干扰SLE患者体内细胞因子网络失衡的免疫病理过程,且对IL-17有明显的抑制作用,为临床使用糖皮质激素治疗SLE提供新的理论依据和实验室基础.%Objective To investigate the effects of dexamethasone(DEX)on the secretion of interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon(IFN)-γ and the proportion of Th17,Tc17,Th1 ,Tc1 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

  4. The penetration of plasma sheet into the inner plasmasphere observed by DSP spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The plasma sheet is an important region in the magnetosphere that contains electrons and ions with peak energy fluxes in the few keV range. The hot particles in the plasma sheet are the source of substorm injected particles with higher energy. The plasma sheet ions may move Earthwards and enter the inner magnetosphere during the time of enhanced magnetospheric convection, and become the source population for the ring current. The TC-1 satellite in an equatorial elliptical orbit with an apogee of ∼14 Re provides a good opportunity to study the penetration of plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere, especially outside the geosynchronous orbit. We use the data of ion and electron measured by HIA and PEACE of TC-1 to study the penetration of plasma sheet ions and electrons, and the relation of inner boundary of plasma sheet with Kp,AE and Dst. Finally we compared the observations with theoretic results based on the model in Korth et al. [1999].

  5. Increased Type 1 Immune Response in the Bone Marrow Immune Microenvironment of Patients with Poor Graft Function after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Tong; Kong, Yuan; Song, Yang; Han, Wei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chang, Ying-Jun; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Poor graft function (PGF) is a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The question of whether the bone marrow (BM) immune microenvironment is involved in the pathogenesis of PGF remains unresolved. In total, 10 patients with PGF, 30 matched patients with good graft function after allo-HSCT, and 15 healthy donors were enrolled in this nested case-control study. The Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, and active phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in BM plasma were evaluated using cytometric beads assay. Relative to other subjects, patients with PGF had significantly higher proportions of stimulated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produced IFN-γ (Th1 and Tc1 cells) but notably decreased proportions of IL-4-producing T cells (Th2 and Tc2 cells), resulting in a shift of the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio towards a type 1 response and an elevated percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells. Changes in IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in BM plasma were consistent with the cellular results. Our results suggest that dysregulated T cell responses may contribute to the occurrence of PGF after HSCT. PMID:27131864

  6. Superconductivity in the niobium-rich compound Nb5Se4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The niobium rich selenide compound Nb5Se4 was synthesized at ambient pressure by high-temperature solid–state reaction in a sealed Ta tube. Resistivity and heat capacity measurements reveal that this compound is superconducting, with a Tc = 1.85 K. The electronic contribution to the specific heat γ and the Debye temperature are found to be 18.1 mJmol−1K−2 and 298 K respectively. The calculated electron-phonon coupling constant λep = 0.5 and the ΔCp/γTc = 1.42 ratio imply that Nb5Se4 is a weak coupling BCS superconductor. The upper critical field and coherence length are found to be 1.44 T and 15.1 nm, respectively. - Highlights: • High purity Nb5Se4 is synthesized at high temperature in a sealed metal tube. • The superconductivity of Nb5Se4 is reported for the first time. • The superconducting properties of Nb5Se4 are compared to other Nb-chalcogenides

  7. CTLA-4 (CD152) enhances the Tc17 differentiation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Jonas; Arra, Aditya; Lingel, Holger; Hegel, J Kolja; Huber, Magdalena; Nishanth, Gopala; Jorch, Gerhard; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Schlüter, Dirk; Tedford, Kerry; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2014-07-01

    Although CD8(+) T cells that produce IL-17 (Tc17 cells) have been linked to host defense, Tc17 cells show reduced cytotoxic activity, which is the characteristic function of CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that CTLA-4 enhances the frequency of IL-17 in CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CTLA-4 (CD152) specifically promotes Tc17 differentiation. Simultaneous stimulation of CTLA-4(+/+) and CTLA-4(-/-) T cells in cocultures and agonistic CTLA-4 stimulation unambiguously revealed a cell-intrinsic mechanism for IL-17 control by CTLA-4. The quality of CTLA-4-induced Tc17 cells was tested in vivo, utilizing infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Unlike CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells, CTLA-4(-/-) were nearly as efficient as Tc1 CTLA-4(+/+) cells in LM clearance. Additionally, adoptively transferred CTLA-4(-/-) Tc17 cells expressed granzyme B after rechallenge, and produced Tc1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which strongly correlate with bacterial clearance. CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells demonstrated a high-quality Tc17 differentiation program ex vivo, which was also evident in isolated IL-17-secreting Tc17 cells, with CTLA-4-mediated enhanced upregulation of Tc17-related molecules such as IL-17A, RORγt, and IRF-4. Our results show that CTLA-4 promotes Tc17 differentiation that results in robust Tc17 responses. Its inactivation might therefore represent a central therapeutic target to enhance clearance of infection. PMID:24723371

  8. Heterogeneity in the differentiation and function of CD8⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Visekruna, Alexander; Huber, Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that CD8(+) T cells constitute an important branch of adaptive immunity contributing to clearance of intracellular pathogens and providing long-term protection. These functions are mostly fulfilled by the best characterized subpopulation of CD8(+) T cells, the cytotoxic T lymphocytes (also called Tc1 cells), owing to their ability to kill infected cells and to secrete cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. However, there is growing evidence for alternative CD8(+) T cell fates influencing CD4(+) T-cell-mediated responses in the context of allergy, autoimmunity and infections. Thus, like subpopulations of CD4(+) T cells, also CD8(+) T cells under particular conditions acquire the expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17 or suppressive activity and thereby influence immune responses. The process of CD8(+) T-cell differentiation is dictated by antigen strength, co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines. These environmental cues induce transcription factors further specifying CD8(+) T-cell decision into Tc1, Tc2, Tc9, Tc17 or CD8(+) T regulatory fate. Here, we discuss our current understanding about functional diversity of effector CD8(+) T cells and contribution of transcription factors to this process. PMID:24879097

  9. Transposon Invasion of the Paramecium Germline Genome Countered by a Domesticated PiggyBac Transposase and the NHEJ Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Dubois

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences related to transposons constitute a large fraction of extant genomes, but insertions within coding sequences have generally not been tolerated during evolution. Thanks to their unique nuclear dimorphism and to their original mechanism of programmed DNA elimination from their somatic nucleus (macronucleus, ciliates are emerging model organisms for the study of the impact of transposable elements on genomes. The germline genome of the ciliate Paramecium, located in its micronucleus, contains thousands of short intervening sequences, the IESs, which interrupt 47% of genes. Recent data provided support to the hypothesis that an evolutionary link exists between Paramecium IESs and Tc1/mariner transposons. During development of the macronucleus, IESs are excised precisely thanks to the coordinated action of PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase, and of the NHEJ double-strand break repair pathway. A PiggyMac homolog is also required for developmentally programmed DNA elimination in another ciliate, Tetrahymena. Here, we present an overview of the life cycle of these unicellular eukaryotes and of the developmentally programmed genome rearrangements that take place at each sexual cycle. We discuss how ancient domestication of a piggyBac transposase might have allowed Tc1/mariner elements to spread throughout the germline genome of Paramecium, without strong counterselection against insertion within genes.

  10. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  11. Biodiversity of Bacterial Ecosystems in Traditional Egyptian Domiati Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  12. Biodiversity of bacterial ecosystems in traditional Egyptian Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baradei, Gaber; Delacroix-Buchet, Agnès; Ogier, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial biodiversity occurring in traditional Egyptian soft Domiati cheese was studied by PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bands were identified using a reference species database (J.-C. Ogier et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5628-5643, 2004); de novo bands having nonidentified migration patterns were identified by DNA sequencing. Results reveal a novel bacterial profile and extensive bacterial biodiversity in Domiati cheeses, as reflected by the numerous bands present in TTGE and DGGE patterns. The dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified were as follows: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Aerococcus viridans, Lactobacillus versmoldensis, Pediococcus inopinatus, and Lactococcus lactis. Frequent non-LAB species included numerous coagulase-negative staphylococci, Vibrio spp., Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria halotolerans, Arthrobacter spp./Brachybacterium tyrofermentans. This is the first time that the majority of these species has been identified in Domiati cheese. Nearly all the dominant and frequent bacterial species are salt tolerant, and several correspond to known marine bacteria. As Domiati cheese contains 5.4 to 9.5% NaCl, we suggest that these bacteria are likely to have an important role in the ripening process. This first systematic study of the microbial composition of Domiati cheeses reveals great biodiversity and evokes a role for marine bacteria in determining cheese type. PMID:17189434

  13. BIORREMEDIACIÓN DE UN SUELO CON DIESEL MEDIANTE EL USO DE MICROORGANISMOS AUTÓCTONOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIETA RAMÍREZ OLGA MARIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se aisló y caracterizó bioquímica y molecularmente un consorcio bacteriano capaz de degradar los diferentes hidrocarburos presentes en un combustible diesel,conformado por los siguientes géneros: Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Sanguibacter soli, Arthrobacter sp y Flavobacterium sp, a partir de un suelo contaminado con diesel a escala de laboratorio, y tratado mediante 2 tecnologías de biorremediación: atenuación natural y bioestimulación. Se definió como parámetro de control la concentración de Hidrocarburos Totales del Petróleo (HTP y para el cual, se obtuvo una reducción en la concentración en un periodo de 4 meses de 36,86% para atenuación natural y 50,99% para bioestimulación. La medición de la eficiencia de remoción de hidrocarburos se cuantificó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a masas (GC-MS.

  14. Cloning of genes and developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiotic stresses represent the most limiting factors affecting agricultural productivity. In India more than 60% of total cultivated land is still rainfed and crops experience frequent droughts. Thus, we need to develop transgenic crops tolerant to drought, and other related abiotic stress factors such as salinity, low and high temperature stresses. At the National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR), we have initiated a programme on developing transgenic crops tolerant to a range of abiotic stresses. The major emphasis is on developing transgenic potato, tomato, mustard, rice and wheat. While, transgenic plants of potato. tomato and mustard have already been generated with osmotin gene and are at different stages of testing, other key genes imparting tolerance to abiotic stresses are being isolated from different species for producing transgenic rice and wheat cultivars tolerant to multiple stresses. Genes that have been isolated in our laboratory include ascorbate peroxidase gene (TaApx) and genes encoding transcription factor, CBFs (TaCBF2 and TaCBP3) from a drought tolerant wheat cultivar (C306), Lea1 cDNA from Brassica species, codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, and otsBA operon from E. coli. Apart from these stress-related genes, we have isolated a few stress-inducible promoters for deploying them in gene stacking in developing transgenic crops with enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. The results will be presented. (author)

  15. Direct evidence that ganglioside is an integral component of the thyrotropin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangliosides were extracted from purified human and porcine thyrotropin (TSH) receptors (TSH-R) and were detected by probing with an 125I-labeled sialic acid-specific lectin, Limax flavus agglutinin. Gangliosides copurified with human and porcine TSH-R migrated between monosialoganglioside GM1 and disialoganglioside GD1a. Ceramide glycanase digestion of the purified human TSH-R-associated glycolipid confirmed its ganglioside nature. It was resistant to Vibrio cholerae sialidase, which digest all gangliosides except GM1, but was sensitive to Arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase, which digests all gangliosides including GM1. These findings indicate that the human TSH-R contains ganglioside that belongs to the galactosyl(β1→ 3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyl(β1→ 4)-[N-acetylneuraminyl(α2→ 3)]galactosyl(β1 → 4)glucosyl(β1 → 1)ceramide (GM1) family. Its intimate association with receptor protein implies a key role for ganglioside in the structure and function of the TSH-R

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial populations isolated from diesel-contaminated soil and treated by two bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study bioremediation is presented as an alternative for the recovery of contaminated ecosystems. In this work an experimental diesel spill on pasture land was remediated using two bioremediation technologies: natural attenuation, which is the natural capability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade a xenobiotic component in a determined time, and biostimulation, which consist in the acceleration of the degradation process through the stimulation of the metabolism of indigenous microorganisms by the addition of nutrients (P and N) to the media. Results of respirometry assays indicated that both treatments produced significant levels of hydrocarbon removal but the biostimulation treatment stranded out with 98.17% degradation. Seven bacterial isolates were obtained from these treatments which according to their molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis belong to the genus: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. All isolates were able to metabolize diesel as a carbon and energy source; for this reason and taking into account that for some of these microorganisms their role in bioremediation have not been extensively studied, it is recommended to continue with their evaluation to know their real potential for the solution of environmental problems.

  17. Structural and Functional Basis for Substrate Specificity and Catalysis of Levan Fructotransferase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinseo; Kim, Myung-Il; Park, Young-Don; Shin, Inchul; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Chul Ho; Rhee, Sangkee

    2012-01-01

    Levan is β-2,6-linked polymeric fructose and serves as reserve carbohydrate in some plants and microorganisms. Mobilization of fructose is usually mediated by enzymes such as glycoside hydrolase (GH), typically releasing a monosaccharide as a product. The enzyme levan fructotransferase (LFTase) of the GH32 family catalyzes an intramolecular fructosyl transfer reaction and results in production of cyclic difructose dianhydride, thus exhibiting a novel substrate specificity. The mechanism by which LFTase carries out these functions via the structural fold conserved in the GH32 family is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of LFTase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens in apo form, as well as in complexes with sucrose and levanbiose, a difructosacchride with a β-2,6-glycosidic linkage. Despite the similarity of its two-domain structure to members of the GH32 family, LFTase contains an active site that accommodates a difructosaccharide using the −1 and −2 subsites. This feature is unique among GH32 proteins and is facilitated by small side chain residues in the loop region of a catalytic β-propeller N-domain, which is conserved in the LFTase family. An additional oligosaccharide-binding site was also characterized in the β-sandwich C-domain, supporting its role in carbohydrate recognition. Together with functional analysis, our data provide a molecular basis for the catalytic mechanism of LFTase and suggest functional variations from other GH32 family proteins, notwithstanding the conserved structural elements. PMID:22810228

  18. Structural and functional basis for substrate specificity and catalysis of levan fructotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinseo; Kim, Myung-Il; Park, Young-Don; Shin, Inchul; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Chul Ho; Rhee, Sangkee

    2012-09-01

    Levan is β-2,6-linked polymeric fructose and serves as reserve carbohydrate in some plants and microorganisms. Mobilization of fructose is usually mediated by enzymes such as glycoside hydrolase (GH), typically releasing a monosaccharide as a product. The enzyme levan fructotransferase (LFTase) of the GH32 family catalyzes an intramolecular fructosyl transfer reaction and results in production of cyclic difructose dianhydride, thus exhibiting a novel substrate specificity. The mechanism by which LFTase carries out these functions via the structural fold conserved in the GH32 family is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of LFTase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens in apo form, as well as in complexes with sucrose and levanbiose, a difructosacchride with a β-2,6-glycosidic linkage. Despite the similarity of its two-domain structure to members of the GH32 family, LFTase contains an active site that accommodates a difructosaccharide using the -1 and -2 subsites. This feature is unique among GH32 proteins and is facilitated by small side chain residues in the loop region of a catalytic β-propeller N-domain, which is conserved in the LFTase family. An additional oligosaccharide-binding site was also characterized in the β-sandwich C-domain, supporting its role in carbohydrate recognition. Together with functional analysis, our data provide a molecular basis for the catalytic mechanism of LFTase and suggest functional variations from other GH32 family proteins, notwithstanding the conserved structural elements. PMID:22810228

  19. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ettoumi, Besma

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n = 49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n = 22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche.

  20. Utilization of microbial community potential for removal of chlorpyrifos: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Maya; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Srivastva, Navnita; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) is the most commonly used pesticide in agricultural fields worldwide. Exposure to CP and its metabolites creates severe neuron-disorders in human beings. Improper handling and uncontrolled application of CP by farmers have lead to the contamination of surface and ground water bodies. Biodegradation offers an efficient and cost effective method for the removal of CP and other toxic organophosphorus pesticides from the contaminated environment. The degradation of CP by various microorganisms has been investigated by several researchers over the past few years. This review presents a critical summary of the recent published results on the biodegradation of CP. A diverse range of bacterial species such as Agrobacterium sp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter sp. Arthrobacter sp. Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas sp. etc., fungal species like Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger, Verticillium sp., Acremonium sp. Cladosporium cladosporiodes, etc. and certain algal species viz. Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis, Synechocystis sp., etc., have been shown to degrade CP. The efficacy of these communities for CP degradation in batch and continuous modes has also been discussed but more studies are required on continuous reactors. Also, the available published information on kinetics of biodegradation of CP along with the available results on molecular biological approaches are discussed in this work. PMID:25782532

  1. Cold Stress Tolerance in Psychrotolerant Soil Bacteria and Their Conferred Chilling Resistance in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) under Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Parthiban; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Selvakumar, Gopal; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the culturable diversity of psychrotolerant bacteria persistent in soil under overwintering conditions, evaluate their ability to sustain plant growth and alleviate chilling stress in tomato. Psychrotolerant bacteria were isolated from agricultural field soil samples colleced during winter and then used to study chilling stress alleviation in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv Mill). Selective isolation after enrichment at 5°C yielded 40 bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic studies indicated their distribution in genera Arthrobacter, Flavimonas, Flavobacterium, Massilia, Pedobacter and Pseudomonas. Strains OS211, OB146, OB155 and OS261 consistently improved germination and plant growth when a chilling stress of 15°C was imposed and therefore were selected for pot experiments. Tomato plants treated with the selected four isolates exhibited significant tolerance to chilling as observed through reduction in membrane damage and activation of antioxidant enzymes along with proline synthesis in the leaves when exposed to chilling temperature conditions (15°C). Psychrotolerant physiology of the isolated bacteria combined with their ability to improve germination, plant growth and induce antioxidant capacity in tomato plants can be employed to protect plants against chilling stress. PMID:27580055

  2. [Characterization of communities of heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy and diseased corals in Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleneva, I A; Dautova, T I; Zhukova, N V

    2005-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the heterotrophic microflora of 11 species of healthy corals and of white-band-diseased and yellow-band-diseased corals inhabiting the reefs of Nha Trang Bay (Vietnam), which has been exposed to anthropogenic impact, was performed. Fifty-nine strains of heterotrophic bacteria isolated on Y/K and Endo media were investigated and characterized. All the isolates were identified at the genus level by consideration of the results of analysis of their phenotypic properties, determination of the molar percent of G+C bases in their DNA, and the composition of fatty acids of their lipids. In the composition of the microflora of tissues of healthy corals, gamma-proteobacteria prevailed, with halomonads being dominant among them. In addition, the gram-negative bacteria included Pseudomonas and Vibrio spp., members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) phylogenetic cluster, and Moraxella sp. The gram-positive bacteria revealed included Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Halococcus, and Micrococcus spp., and coryneform bacteria. In the composition of the microflora of the tissues of affected corals, bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and of the genera Planococcus and Arthrobacter, which were not revealed in healthy hydrobionts, were found. The anthropogenic impact is not the sole factor determining the infection of corals. PMID:16315986

  3. Nitric oxide production in celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following bacterial challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Cook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this in vitro investigation, nitric oxide (NO production was induced within celomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia hortensis following microbial challenge. Celomocytes were pre-loaded with the fluorescent indicator 4-amino-5-methylamino-2’, 7’-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA in order to detect the presence of intracellular nitric oxide subsequent to a 16 h incubation with chemically-fixed soil bacteria including Bacillus megaterium, Arthrobacter globiformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Azotobacter chroococcum at a range of multiplicities of infection (MOIs. Flow cytometric analysis measuring increases in relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, which is directly proportional to the amount of intracellular NO produced, permitted determination of statistical significance (p < 0.05 of exposed celomocytes compared to baseline controls. Significant increases in NO were detected reproducibly in celomocytes treated with all bacterial species used. The most prominent results were observed after exposure to Gram positive B. megaterium and A. globiformis where 100 % of earthworms tested exhibited statistically significant increases of RFI at MOIs of 100:1 and 500:1, respectively. Furthermore, significant decreases in NO production in bacteria-stimulated earthworm celomocytes incubated with the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride were observed. These results demonstrate microbial induction of NO synthesis in earthworms and provide evidence of an antimicrobial role of NO in the innate immune system.

  4. Microbial community in high arsenic shallow groundwater aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-, SO4(2-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.

  5. Contenido microbiológico cultivable del tracto intestinal y polen almacenado de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Nieves Jimena

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron los microorganismos cultivables asociados con Apis mellifera. Las muestras fueron tomadas a partir de polen almacenado (joven y maduro y transportado en corbículas y
    tracto digestivo de abejas forrajeras y recién nacidas. Se aislaron bacterias pertenecientes a los géneros Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Proteus y Arthrobacter y hongos de los géneros Rhizopus, Alternaria y Epicoccum. De acuerdo a sus propiedades bioquímicas, algunas de estas bacterias pueden estar involucradas en la degradación de los compuestos de la capa externa del polen y son adquiridas por las abejas a través del alimento y contacto con otros individuos de la colmena. La presencia de los hongos se explica por su amplia distribución
    en el ambiente, ya que los tres géneros se encuentran comúnmente en el suelo y en las plantas que las abejas pueden seleccionar como fuente de alimento.

  6. Adaptability of microbial inoculators and their contribution to degradation of mineral oil and PAHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five dominant bacteria strains(Acetobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp.) and five fungi strains (Cephalosporium sp. I, Cephalosporium sp. Ⅱ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅰ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅱ and Fusarium sp.) isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil were used to assess the potential capability of mineral oil and PAH enhanced degradation separately and jointly using the batch liquid medium cultivation with diesel oil spiked at 1000 mg/L. The experiment was performed on a reciprocal shaker in the darkness at 25℃ to 30℃ for 100 d. The dynamic variation in the activity of microbial inoculators in each treatment and the degradation of the target pollutants during the period of experiment were monitored. Results showed a more rapid biodegradation of mineral oil and PAHs at the beginning of the experiment (about 20 d) by dominant bacteria, fungi and their mixture than that of the indigenous microorganisms, however, thereafter an opposite trend was exhibited that the removal ratio by indigenous microorganisms was superior to any other dominant treatments and the tendency lasted till the end of the experiment, indicating the limited competitive capability of dominant microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, and the natural selection of indigenous microorganisms for use in the removal of the contaminants. At the end of the experiment, the removal ratio of mineral oil ranged from 56.8 % to 79.2 % and PAHs ranged from 96.8 % to 99.1% in each treatment by microbial inoculators.

  7. Kinetics of zinc toxicity to environmental bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of zinc to Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Proteus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter species isolated from a tropical river and petroleum refinery effluent was assessed using TTC-dehydrogenase activity (DHA inhibition test. At sufficient concentrations, zinc is toxic to these bacterial cells, and the exposure of the cells to zinc ion resulted in repression of dehydrogenase activity. The patterns of these toxic effects can be mathematically described with logistic dose-response models and in a manner similar to the non-competitive inhibition of enzymes. The threshold concentration above which toxic effect is observed ranged from 0.008 mM for Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 0.364 mM for Proteus sp. PLK2. The coefficients of inhibition Ki correlated with the IC50 and indicate that zinc toxicity is dependent on the organism. The Ki and toxicity threshold values predicted from the equations are comparable and are suitable indicators for kinetic analyses of zinc toxicity against bacteria.

  8. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility. PMID:26177415

  9. Histamine-producing bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and their abilities to produce histamine and other biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xia

    2014-08-01

    Using decarboxylation medium and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) were isolated and identified, and the histamine-producing abilities of the isolated HPB were determined. Nine mesophilic strains (H1-H9) isolated from the muscle of blue scad were identified as the genera of HPB, including Arthrobacter bergeri (H1), Pseudomonas sp. (H2, H5 and H6), Psychrobacter sp. (H3), Shewanella baltica (H4 and H7), and Aeromonas salmonicida (H8 and H9), respectively. Results showed that most of the HPB strains were weak on histamine formation (13.0-20.4 mg/l), except for the H8 strain with the ability of producing 115 mg of histamine/l in trypticase soy broth containing 1.0 % L-histidine. As the strongest HPB in blue scad, bacterial strain H8 also presented a strong ability to produce other biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and tryptamine. Therefore, the H8 strain identified as the genus of A. salmonicida was the dominant mesophilic HPB strain for producing histamine and other biogenic amines in blue scad at room temperature. PMID:24668182

  10. Microbial ecology of bacterially mediated PCB biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roles of plasmid mediated and consortia mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation by bacterial populations isolated from PCB contaminated freshwater sediments were investigated. PCB degrading bacteria were isolated by DNA:DNA colony hybridization, batch enrichments, and chemostat enrichment. Analysis of substrate removal and metabolite production were done using chlorinated biphenyl spray plates, reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, Cl- detection, and 14C-labeled substrate mineralization methods. A bacterial consortium, designated LPS10, involved in a concerted metabolic attack on chlorinated biphenyls, was shown to mineralize 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4' CB). The LPS10 consortium was isolated by both batch and chemostat enrichment using 4CB and biphenyl (BP) as sole carbon source and was found to have tree bacterial isolates that predominated; these included: Pseudomonas, testosteroni LPS10A which mediated the breakdown of 4CB and 4,4' CB to the putative meta-cleavage product and subsequently to 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA), an isolate tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp. LPS10B which mediated 4CBA degradation, and Pseudomonas putida by A LPS10C whose role in the consortium has not been determined

  11. Substrate interactions of benzene, toluene, and para-xylene during microbial degradation by pure cultures and mixed culture aquifer slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment is a widespread occurrence. One particular concern is the contamination of drinking water sources by the toxic, water-soluble, and mobile petroleum components benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX). Benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) were degraded by indigenous mixed cultures in sandy aquifer material and by two pure cultures isolated from the same site. Although BTX compounds have a similar chemical structure, the fate of individual BTX compounds differed when the compounds were fed to each pure culture and mixed culture aquifer slurries. The identification of substrate interactions aided the understanding of this behavior. Beneficial substrate interactions included enhanced degradation of benzene-dependent degradation of toluene and p-xylene by Arthrobacter sp. strain HCB. Detrimental substrate interactions included retardation in benzene and toluene degradation by the presence of p-xylene in both aquifer slurries and Pseudomonas incubations. The catabolic diversity of microbes in the environment precludes generalizations about the capacity of individual BTX compounds to enhance or inhibit the degradation of other BTX compounds

  12. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2016-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival ( P < 0.05). Therefore, the healthy shrimp larviculture system harbored a diverse and favorable bacterial flora, which contribute to larval development and are of great importance in exploiting novel probiotics.

  13. Characterization of the prokaryotic diversity through a stratigraphic permafrost core profile from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Li, Dingyao; Cheng, Gang; Mu, Jing; Wu, Qingbai; Niu, Fujun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2016-05-01

    Permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the most sensitive regions to climate warming, thus characterizing its microbial diversity and community composition may be important for understanding their potential responses to climate changes. Here, we investigated the prokaryotic diversity in a 10-m-long permafrost core from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene. We detected 191 and 17 bacterial and archaeal phylotypes representing 14 and 2 distinct phyla, respectively. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum, while archaeal communities were characterized by a preponderance of Thaumarchaeota. Some of prokaryotic phylotypes were closely related to characterized species involved in carbon and nitrogen cycles, including nitrogen fixation, methane oxidation and nitrification. However, the majority of the phylotypes were only distantly related to known taxa at order or species level, suggesting the potential of novel diversity. Additionally, both bacterial α diversity and community composition changed significantly with sampling depth, where these communities mainly distributed according to core horizons. Arthrobacter-related phylotypes presented at high relative abundance in two active layer soils, while the deeper permafrost soils were dominated by Psychrobacter-related clones. Changes in bacterial community composition were correlated with most measured soil variables, such as carbon and nitrogen contents, pH, and conductivity. PMID:27033516

  14. Genomics of Methylotrophy in Gram-Positive Methylamine-Utilizing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. McTaggart

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria have been known for a long period of time, some serving as model organisms for characterizing the specific details of methylotrophy pathways/enzymes within this group. However, genome-based knowledge of methylotrophy within this group has been so far limited to a single species, Bacillus methanolicus (Firmicutes. The paucity of whole-genome data for Gram-positive methylotrophs limits our global understanding of methylotrophy within this group, including their roles in specific biogeochemical cycles, as well as their biotechnological potential. Here, we describe the isolation of seven novel strains of Gram-positive methylotrophs that include two strains of Bacillus and five representatives of Actinobacteria classified within two genera, Arthrobacter and Mycobacterium. We report whole-genome sequences for these isolates and present comparative analysis of the methylotrophy functional modules within these genomes. The genomic sequences of these seven novel organisms, all capable of growth on methylated amines, present an important reference dataset for understanding the genomic basis of methylotrophy in Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria. This study is a major contribution to the field of methylotrophy, aimed at closing the gap in the genomic knowledge of methylotrophy within this diverse group of bacteria.

  15. Evolution of histamine oxidase activity for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Elena; Tonin, Fabio; Vasylieva, Natalia; Marinesco, Stephane; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    Histamine is present to various degrees in many foods, and concentrations in fish samples are considered a good indicator of freshness and hygienic food quality. Seeking for innovative methods to quantify histamine in foods, we used a synthetic gene designed on the sequence of histamine oxidase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes (HOD) as the starting point in this study to develop a biosensor. HOD was expressed in Escherichia coli cells with a yield of ∼7 mg protein/L of fermentation broth. Recombinant wild-type HOD oxidized histamine and tyramine whereas it was inactive toward putrescine and cadaverine (two amines present in fish samples). The putative residues involved in substrate binding were identified by an in silico docking procedure based on a model of the structure of HOD: site-saturation mutagenesis was performed on 8 positions. The most significant changes in kinetic properties were observed for the P143M HOD: this variant showed higher histamine affinity and lower substrate inhibition by tyramine than wild-type enzyme. Biosensor prototypes were produced using both the wild-type and the P143M variant HOD. These biosensors showed a good sensitivity and selectivity with respect to biogenic amines present in food specimens. Accordingly, the HOD-based biosensor was successfully used to assess histamine in fish samples, yielding values in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC analyses but in a few seconds and at a significantly lower cost per analysis. PMID:23995223

  16. Microbiological Analysis of Hemodialysis Water in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh; Yaghoubfar, Rezvan; Hajehasani, Azadeh; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological control of hemodialysis fluid is important for the prevention of hemodialysis-associated illness. Bacterial populations inhabiting a distribution system for hemodialysis water were studied over a 4 month period in five hospitals (one in Tehran, and the others at Alborz). All the samples from the four hospitals at Alborz had colony counts of ≥100 CFU/ml, which at different points of sampling were higher than the maximum recommended values. A total of 80 samples taken at different points in each hospital's hemodialysis distribution system were collected, and 229 planktonic bacteria isolated on R2A medium. No growth was detected by culturing the samples on Blood agar or Mueller-Hinton agar, according to routine procedures currently used in the five hospitals. A representative of isolates from each of 45 different morphotypes were identified using 16S RNA sequencing. A diverse bacterial community, containing predominantly gram-positive members of Kocuria, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium, was detected. Bacteria from the genera Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas were identified, which has been described in the build-up of biofilms. Some of the species reported here may represent a health risk to patients receiving hemodialysis treatment. In conclusion, it is recommended that standard protocols for evaluation of microbial contamination be used for regular monitoring and identification of culturable bacteria. PMID:26919181

  17. Removal of gasoline volatile organic compounds via air biofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by vapor extraction and air-stripping systems can be biologically treated in an air biofiltration unit. An air biofilter consists of one or more beds of packing material inoculated with heterotrophic microorganisms capable of degrading the organic contaminant of concern. Waste gases and oxygen are passed through the inoculated packing material, where the microorganisms will degrade the contaminant and release CO2 + H2O. Based on data obtained from a treatability study, a full-scale unit was designed and constructed to be used for treating gasoline vapors generated by a vapor-extraction and groundwater-treatment system at a site in California. The unit is composed of two cylindrical reactors with a total packing volume of 3 m3. Both reactors are packed with sphagnum moss and inoculated with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms of Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter spp. The two reactors are connected in series for air-flow passage. Parallel lines are used for injection of water, nutrients, and buffer to each reactor. Data collected during the startup program have demonstrated an air biofiltration unit with high organic-vapor-removal efficiency

  18. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. PMID:22884172

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Four Gram-PositiveNickel-Tolerant Microorganisms from Contaminated Riparian Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Gentry, Terry J.; Novak, Michelle T.; Sowder, Andrew G.; Zhou, Jizhong Z.; Bertsch, PaulM.; Morris, Pamela J.

    2006-08-30

    Microbial communities from riparian sediments contaminatedwith high levels of Ni and U were examined for metal-tolerantmicroorganisms. Isolation of four aerobic Ni-tolerant, Gram-positiveheterotrophic bacteria indicated selection pressure from Ni. Theseisolates were identified as Arthrobacter oxydans NR-1, Streptomycesgalbus NR-2, Streptomyces aureofaciens NR-3, and Kitasatosporacystarginea NR-4 based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. A functional genemicroarray containing gene probes for functions associated withbiogeochemical cycling, metal homeostasis, and organic contaminantdegradation showed little overlap among the four isolates. Fifteen of thegenes were detected in all four isolates with only two of these relatedto metal resistance, specifically to tellurium. Each of the four isolatesalso displayed resistance to at least one of six antibiotics tested, withresistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin observed in atleast two of the isolates. Further characterization of S. aureofaciensNR-3 and K. cystarginea NR-4 demonstrated that both isolates expressed Nitolerance constitutively. In addition, both were able to grow in higherconcentrations of Ni at pH 6 as compared to pH 7 (42.6 and 8.5 mM Ni atpH 6 and 7, respectively). Tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn was also examinedin these two isolates; a similar pH-dependent metal tolerance wasobserved when grown with Co and Zn. Neither isolate was tolerant to Cd.These findings suggest that Ni is exerting a selection pressure at thissite for metal-resistant actinomycetes.

  20. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  1. Sterilization of peat by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-radiation on the survival of microorganisms has been quantified for the natural population of two types of peat. Data for several microbial types have been separately determined by regular plating and by indirect statistical probability estimates including, a wholly enclosed 'inverted-bottle' technique for higher dose levels to exclude any possibility of post-treatment contamination. The most persistent microorganisms at intermediate dosage (2.5-3.5 Mrad) were commonly a micrococcus (which closely resembled Micrococcus radiodurans) arthrobacter-like rods, myxobacteria and amoeboid forms. The persistent organisms all survived because of high resistance to γ-irradiation, not because of high initial numbers. The most numerous true bacteria (including spore-formers), actinomycetes, filamentous fungi and yeasts were all readily destroyed. Although the safety margin with the commercially recommended dose of 5 Mrad is low for some of the more resistant organisms, no change is justified at this stage since the organisms most likely to survive such a dose do not seem to seriously affect the subsequent growth and survival of rhizobia. Moreover there would be some risk of radiation-induced peat toxicity if higher doses were applied and some post-irradiation contamination will be difficult to avoid in commercial production. (orig.)

  2. Bioaccumulation of uranium and thorium from the solution containing both elements using various microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of proton, thorium and uranium on the bioaccumulation of thorium and uranium from the solution (pH 3.5) containing uranium and thorium using Streptomyces levoris cells were examined. The amount of thorium accumulated using the cells decreased by the pre-contact between the cells and the solution (pH 3.5) containing no metals, whereas that of uranium was almost unaffected by the treatment. The amount of thorium was almost unaffected by the existence of uranium. On the other hand, the amount of uranium accumulated was strongly affected by the thorium, especially thorium addition after uranium accumulation. The decrease of uranium accumulated by the addition of thorium after the accumulation of uranium was higher than that from the solution containing both elements. Therefore, the contribution of uranium-thorium exchange reaction was higher than that of competition reaction. Accordingly, proton-uranium-thorium exchange reaction was occurred in the accumulation of thorium from the solution containing thorium and uranium. The gram-positive bacteria, such as Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Bacillus subtilis and B. megaterium, has a much higher separation factor as thorium/uranium than that of actinomycetes. These gram-positive bacterial strains can be used for the accumulation of thorium from the solution containing uranium and thorium

  3. Separation of rare earth elements by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective accumulation of rare earth elements in Gram-positive bacteria and actinomycetes was examined. The resting cells of 18 strains having high capacities to accumulate rare earth elements were screened for selectivity using a solution containing 5 elements: Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu. Among the strains tested, Bacillus megaterium accumulated Sm, Streptomyces albus accumulated Lu, and Arthrobacter nicotianae accumulated both Sm and Lu in higher quantities than the other metals. Similar results were also obtained from a solution containing Y and 14 rare elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu). The amount of Sm accumulated in B. megaterium and that of Lu accumulated in S. albus increased as the initial metal concentration increased. S. albus and B. megaterium cells show the highest capacity to accumulate Lu and Sm, respectively, from a solution containing 5 elements, Y, La, Sm, Er, and Lu when each metal concentration ranged from 20 to 100 μM. These results suggest that the separation of these two rare earth elements using microorganisms should be possible. (author)

  4. Bioaccumulation of uranium and thorium from the solution containing both elements using various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, T. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tohwa University, 1-1-1 Chikushigaoka, Fukuoka 815-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: ttsuruta@tohwa-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-09

    The effects of proton, thorium and uranium on the bioaccumulation of thorium and uranium from the solution (pH 3.5) containing uranium and thorium using Streptomyces levoris cells were examined. The amount of thorium accumulated using the cells decreased by the pre-contact between the cells and the solution (pH 3.5) containing no metals, whereas that of uranium was almost unaffected by the treatment. The amount of thorium was almost unaffected by the existence of uranium. On the other hand, the amount of uranium accumulated was strongly affected by the thorium, especially thorium addition after uranium accumulation. The decrease of uranium accumulated by the addition of thorium after the accumulation of uranium was higher than that from the solution containing both elements. Therefore, the contribution of uranium-thorium exchange reaction was higher than that of competition reaction. Accordingly, proton-uranium-thorium exchange reaction was occurred in the accumulation of thorium from the solution containing thorium and uranium. The gram-positive bacteria, such as Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Bacillus subtilis and B. megaterium, has a much higher separation factor as thorium/uranium than that of actinomycetes. These gram-positive bacterial strains can be used for the accumulation of thorium from the solution containing uranium and thorium.

  5. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  6. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 105 to 6.2 x 106 per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 102 to 2.2 x 103 per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 105 per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 ∼ 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation. (author)

  7. Astaxanthin from psychrotrophic Sphingomonas faeni exhibits antagonism against food-spoilage bacteria at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageswari, Anbazhagan; Subramanian, Parthiban; Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Karthikeyan, Sivashanmugam; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukaliannan

    2015-10-01

    Food production and processing industry holds a perpetual relationship with microorganisms and their by-products. In the present study, we aimed to identify beneficial cold-adapted bacteria devoid of any food spoilage properties and study their antagonism against common food-borne pathogens at low temperature conditions. Ten isolates were obtained on selective isolation at 5 °C, which were spread across genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Psychrobacter, Leuconostoc, Rhodococcus, and Arthrobacter. Methanol extracts of strains were found to contain several bioactive metabolites. Among the studied isolates, methanol extracts of S. faeni ISY and Rhodococcus fascians CS4 were found to show antagonism against growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio fischeri at refrigeration temperatures. Characterization of the abundant yellow pigment in methanol extracts of S. faeni ISY through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed the presence of astaxanthin, which, owing to its presence in very large amounts and evidenced to be responsible for antagonistic activity of the solvent extract. PMID:26411893

  8. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, P.; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ to 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 10/sup 2/ to 2.2 x 10/sup 3/ per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 10/sup 5/ per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 approx. 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation.

  9. Biocatalytic Desulfurization Capabilities of a Mixed Culture during Non-Destructive Utilization of Recalcitrant Organosulfur Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Sayed, Wael S.; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Mohamed, Magdy E.; El Nayal, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT). None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS) as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 μM 2-HBP g dry cell weight−1 h−1. PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S) pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology. PMID:26973637

  10. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steel welds; Stainless ko yosetsubu no biseibutsu yuki fushoku no kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Tomoto, K.; Okayama, C.; Matsuda, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Institute; Nishimura, M. [Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakane, T. [Institute for Fermentation, Osaka (Japan); Kaneko, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-06-20

    This paper describes sensitivities of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) for various stainless steels. The failure in the weld joint of SUS steel pipes occurred in about 60 days from the start-up of the sewage treatment plant. Any welding defects were not found, and the corrosion rate of welds was estimated to be 18 mm per year which was too fast. The corrosion was reproduced using the residual liquid from effluent treatment plant in laboratory. Corrosion pits and bacteria adhering around these were observed at the same time. For the experiments using boiled and sterilized waste water, corrosion did not occur. As a result, MIC was confirmed. Seven kinds of bacteria were separated and identified from the waste water. Among individual bacteria separated and incubated, Methylobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed the most strong corrosion properties. It was estimated that these bacteria produced organic acid and its concentration became high locally at the site adhered by bacteria to generate the corrosion. The MIC was observed for several kinds of stainless steels used. There was not a significant difference in anti-corrosion due to the kind of steel. 19 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Removal and Recovery of Uranium using Microorganisms Isolated from North American Uranium Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Tsuruta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some attempts were made to remove and recover uranium that may be present in nuclear fuel effluents and mine tailings using microorganisms isolated from North American uranium deposits. To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, hundreds strains of microorganisms were screened. Of these strains of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium accumulating ability was found in some bacteria isolated from North American uranium deposits. These bacterial strains, such as Arthrobacter and Bacillus sp., can accumulate about 2500 µmol uranium per gram dry wt. of microbial cells within one hour. These microbial cells can remove uranium from the uranium refining waste water with high efficiency. These microbial cells can also accumulate thorium as well as uranium with high efficiency. The microbial cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel have excellent handling characteristics and can be used repeatedly in the adsorption-desorption cycles. These new microorganisms isolated from uranium deposits can be used as an adsorbing agent for the removal of the nuclear fuel elements, which may be present in nuclear fuel effluents, mine tailings and other waste sources.

  12. Isolation and characterization of facultative mixotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from constructed wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soulwène Kouki; Neila Saidi; Fadhel M'hiri; Houda Nasr; Hanène Cherif; Hadda Ouzari; Abdermaceur Hassen

    2011-01-01

    Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been widely studied in constructed wetlands systems,while mixotrophic AOB have been less thoroughly examined.Heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wastewater and rhizospheres of macrophytes of constructed wetlands,and then cultivated in a mixotrophic medium containing ammonium and acetic acid.A molecular characterization was accomplished using ITS-PCR amplification,and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.Results showed the presence of 35 bacteria,among 400 initially heterotrophic isolates,that were able to remove ammonia.These 35 isolates were classified into 10 genetically different groups based on ITS pattern.Then,a collection of 10 isolates were selected because of their relatively high ammonia removal efficiencies (ARE ≥ 80%) and their phylogenetic diversity.In conditions of mixotrophy,these strains were shown to be able to grow (increase of optical density OD660 during incubation with assimilation of nitrogen into cellular biomass) and to oxidize ammonia (important ammonia oxidation efficiencies,AOE between 79% and 87%).Among these facultative mixotrophic AOB,four isolates were genetically related to Firmicutes (Bacillus and Exiguobacterium),three isolates were affiliated to Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) and three other isolates were associated with Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas,Ochrobactrum and Bordetella).

  13. Effect of Shadowing on Survival of Bacteria under Conditions Simulating the Martian Atmosphere and UV Radiation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Shariff; Peeters, Zan; La Duc, Myron T.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft-associated spores and four non-spore-forming bacterial isolates were prepared in Atacama Desert soil suspensions and tested both in solution and in a desiccated state to elucidate the shadowing effect of soil particulates on bacterial survival under simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. All non-spore-forming cells that were prepared in nutrient-depleted, 0.2-μm-filtered desert soil (DSE) microcosms and desiccated for 75 days on aluminum died, whereas cells prepared similarly in 60-μm-filtered desert soil (DS) microcosms survived such conditions. Among the bacterial cells tested, Microbacterium schleiferi and Arthrobacter sp. exhibited elevated resistance to 254-nm UV irradiation (low-pressure Hg lamp), and their survival indices were comparable to those of DS- and DSE-associated Bacillus pumilus spores. Desiccated DSE-associated spores survived exposure to full Martian UV irradiation (200 to 400 nm) for 5 min and were only slightly affected by Martian atmospheric conditions in the absence of UV irradiation. Although prolonged UV irradiation (5 min to 12 h) killed substantial portions of the spores in DSE microcosms (∼5- to 6-log reduction with Martian UV irradiation), dramatic survival of spores was apparent in DS-spore microcosms. The survival of soil-associated wild-type spores under Martian conditions could have repercussions for forward contamination of extraterrestrial environments, especially Mars. PMID:18083857

  14. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG)5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  15. Screening of Microorganisms for Biodegradation of Simazine Pollution (Obsolete Pesticide Azotop 50 WP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszak, Magdalena; Pełech, Robert; Graczyk, Paulina

    2011-09-01

    The capability of environmental microorganisms to biodegrade simazine-an active substance of 2-chloro-s-triazine herbicides (pesticide waste since 2007)-was assessed. An enormous metabolic potential of microorganisms impels to explore the possibilities of using them as an alternative way for thermal and chemical methods of utilization. First, the biotope rich in microorganisms resistant to simazine was examined. Only the higher dose of simazine (100 mg/l) had an actual influence on quantity of bacteria and environmental fungi incubated on substrate with simazine. Most simazine-resistant bacteria populated activated sludge and biohumus (vermicompost); the biggest strain of resistant fungi was found in floral soil and risosphere soil of maize. Compost and biohumus were the sources of microorganisms which biodegraded simazine, though either of them was the dominant considering the quantity of simazine-resistant microorganisms. In both cases of periodic culture (microorganisms from biohumus and compost), nearly 100% of simazine (50 mg/l) was degraded (within 8 days). After the repeated enrichment culture with simazine, the rate of its degradation highly accelerated, and just after 24 h, the significant decrease of simazine (20% in compost and 80% in biohumus) was noted. Although a dozen attempts of isolating various strains responsible for biodegradation of simazine from compost and biohumus were performed, only the strain identified as Arthrobacter urefaciens (NC) was obtained, and it biodegraded simazine with almost 100% efficiency (within 4 days). PMID:21949452

  16. Microbial diversity and isolation of multiple metal-tolerant bacteria from surface and underground pits within the copper mining and smelting complex Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajkić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial diversity of the surface and deep sediment of the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor, Serbia, was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Sequencing analysis of 16S rDNA libraries revealed greater bacterial diversity in the surface sediment of the mining complex (MS in comparison to deeper mine sediment (MU. While in the MS sample members of seven different phylogenetic groups were detected, in the MU sample library representatives of only three different groups were detected. The use of a culture-dependent approach revealed the presence of only three bacterial groups in both samples: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while six isolates exhibiting the highest metal tolerance were members of Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus genera. The most promising isolate, MSI08, was able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of Cd2+ (535 μM, Ni2+(17 mM and Cr6+ (38.5 mM and as such this indigenous strain has potential in the bioremediation of the contaminated surrounds of the city of Bor.

  17. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused different microbial structure and correlation network in lung microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Dai, Wenkui; Qiu, Chuangzhao; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhichuan; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Yuzheng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Han, Lijuan; Li, Yinhu; Zheng, Yuejie

    2016-06-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most serious diseases for children, with which lung microbiota are proved to be associated. We performed 16S rDNA analysis on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for 32 children with tracheomalacia (C group), pneumonia infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) (D1 group) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) (D2 group). Children with tracheomalacia held lower microbial diversity and accumulated Lactococcus (mean ± SD, 45.21%±5.07%, P value Mycoplasma (0.67%±1.25%, P value <0.01) respectively. Bacterial correlation in C group was mainly intermediated by Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Whilst, D1 group harbored simplest microbial correlation in three groups, and D2 group held the most complicated network, involving enriched Staphylococcus (0.26%±0.71%), Massilia (0.81%±2.42%). This will be of significance for understanding pneumonia incidence and progression more comprehensively, and discerning between bacterial infection and carriage. PMID:27293852

  19. Ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic UV filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism. - Highlights: ► Ecotoxicological effects of common used UV filters on aquatic invertebrates. ► Butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene used. ► Sediment based test systems. ► Ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails. ► Other substances showed no effects on any of the tested organism. - Ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails. Butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene showed no effects on any of the tested organism.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  2. Prevalence of the gene trzN and biogeographic patterns among atrazine-degrading bacteria isolated from 13 Colombian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeli, Ziv; Fuentes, Cilia

    2010-09-01

    The following study evaluated the diversity and biogeography of 83 new atrazine-degrading bacteria and the composition of their atrazine degradation genes. These strains were isolated from 13 agricultural soils and grouped according to rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting into 11 major clusters, which showed biogeographic patterns. Three clusters (54 strains) belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, seven clusters (28 strains) were similar to the genus Nocardioides and only one strain was a gram-negative from the genus Ancylobacter. PCR assays for the detection of the genes atzA, B, C, D, E, F and trzN conducted with each of the 83 strains revealed that 82 strains (all gram positive) possessed trzN, 74 of them possessed the combination of trzN, atzB and atzC, while only the gram-negative strain had atzA. A similar PCR assay for the two analogous genes, atzA and trzN, responsible for the first step of atrazine degradation, was performed with DNA extracted directly from the enrichment cultures and microcosms spiked with atrazine. In these assays, the gene trzN was detected in each culture, while atzA was detected in only six out of 13 soils. These results raise an interesting hypothesis on the evolutionary ecology of the two atrazine chlorohydrolase genes (i.e. atzA and trzN) and about the biogeography of atrazine-degrading bacteria. PMID:20597985

  3. Immune tolerance to an intestine-adapted bacteria, Chryseobacterium sp., injected into the hemocoel of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiae; Hwang, Sejung; Cho, Saeyoull

    2016-01-01

    To explore the interaction of gut microbes and the host immune system, bacteria were isolated from the gut of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis larvae. Chryseobacterium sp., Bacillus subtilis, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium, and Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus were cultured in vitro, identified, and injected in the hemocoel of P. brevitarsis seulensis larvae, respectively. There were no significant changes in phagocytosis-associated lysosomal formation or pathogen-related autophagosome in immune cells (granulocytes) from Chryseobacterium sp.-challenged larvae. Next, we examined changes in the transcription of innate immune genes such as peptidoglycan recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides following infection with Chryseobacterium sp. PGRP-1 and -2 transcripts, which may be associated with melanization generated by prophenoloxidase (PPO), were either highly or moderately expressed at 24 h post-infection with Chryseobacterium sp. However, PGRP-SC2 transcripts, which code for bactericidal amidases, were expressed at low levels. With respect to antimicrobial peptides, only coleoptericin was moderately expressed in Chryseobacterium sp.-challenged larvae, suggesting maintenance of an optimum number of Chryseobacterium sp. All examined genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in larvae challenged with a pathogenic bacterium. Our data demonstrated that gut-inhabiting bacteria, the Chryseobacterium sp., induced a weaker immune response than other pathogenic bacteria, E. coli K12. PMID:27530146

  4. Morphology and physiology of facultative autotrophic coryneformic bacteria with ability of carbon monoxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two coryneform bacterial strains (IFAM 1131 and IFAM 1133) capable of living on CO as the sole energy and carbon source were selected from a number of co-tolerant bacteria and studied more closely. Both strains could provisionally be grouped in the genera Arthrobacter. Their ability for hetorotrophic growth with a variety of C-sources and also autotrophic growth under CO and H2 atmospheric conditions characterised the test strains as facultative autotrophs. They could clearly be distinguished from all other CO- and H2-autotrophic bacterial strains described in the literature. Studies on strain IFAM 1131 using 14CO shared that for CO-autotrophic growth, carbon monoxide is oxidised to CO2. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, only found in autotrophically - grown cells, provided evidence for CO2 as the C-source and its fixation via the calvin cycle. The CO-oxidising system was also active in the absence of CO2. Gas chromatographically determined conversion rates for CO-autotrophically-grown static cultures of the strain IFAM 1131 revealed that some 20% of the CO oxidised to CO2 was fixed during logarithmic growth. (orig./MG)

  5. Gram-Positive Nickel Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Riparian Sediments Contaminated with Ni and U on the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowder, A. G.; Khijniak, T. V.; van Nostrand, J.; Bertsch, P. M.; Morris, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    The natural attenuation of pollutants in riparian and wetland systems is driven in large part by the services provided by the diverse microbial communities that thrive in these nutritionally and chemically complex environments. For co-contaminated systems, the presence of heavy metals at excessive levels may alter the structure and function of microbial communities that are essential for the immobilization of inorganics and degradation of organic contaminants. We examined riparian sediments heavily contaminated with U and Ni (1000's of mg/kg) from a small stream on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site that received metallurgical process effluents wastewater over a thirty-year period associated with the production of nuclear materials. Four gram positive bacteria were isolated that displayed marked resistance (5000 mg/kg) to Ni relative to organisms from uncontaminated control locations: Arthrobacter oxydans, Streptomyces galbus, Streptomyces aureofaciens, and Kitasatospora cystarginea. The metal resistance of S. aureofaciens and K. cystarginea was further characterized in growth experiments for resistance to other metals. Ongoing geochemical characterization of U and Ni in terms of solid phase partitioning and aqueous phase speciation and solubility indicate that Ni is more chemically labile and, by extension, bioavailable than U in these aged-contaminated sediments. Accordingly, the isolation of Ni resistant organisms is consistent with greater selective pressure from Ni as a result of its greater bioavailability. These results are placed in context of environmental management and remediation of co-contaminated, biogeochemically complex environments.

  6. A novel aryl acylamidase from Nocardia farcinica hydrolyses polyamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Sonja; Eberl, Anita; Fischer-Colbrie, Gudrun; Pobeheim, Herbert; Kaufmann, Franz; Ribitsch, Doris; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Guebitz, Georg M

    2009-03-01

    An alkali stable polyamidase was isolated from a new strain of Nocardia farcinica. The enzyme consists of four subunits with a total molecular weight of 190 kDa. The polyamidase cleaved amide and ester bonds of water insoluble model substrates like adipic acid bishexylamide and bis(benzoyloxyethyl)terephthalate and hydrolyzed different soluble amides to the corresponding acid. Treatment of polyamide 6 with this amidase led to an increased hydrophilicity based on rising height and tensiometry measurements and evidence of surface hydrolysis of polyamide 6 is shown. In addition to amidase activity, the enzyme showed activity on p-nitrophenylbutyrate. On hexanoamide the amidase exhibited a K(m) value of 5.5 mM compared to 0.07 mM for p-nitroacetanilide. The polyamidase belongs to the amidase signature family and is closely related to aryl acylamidases from different strains/species of Nocardia and to the 6-aminohexanoate-cyclic dimer hydrolase (EI) from Arthrobacter sp. KI72. PMID:18942140

  7. Biocatalytic desulfurization capabilities of a mixed culture during non-destructive utilization of recalcitrant organosulfur compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael eIsmail

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT, benzothiophene (BT, and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT. None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 µM 2-HBP g dry cell weight-1 h-1. PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology.

  8. Biocatalytic Desulfurization Capabilities of a Mixed Culture during Non-Destructive Utilization of Recalcitrant Organosulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Sayed, Wael S; Abdul Raheem, Abdul Salam; Mohamed, Magdy E; El Nayal, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biodesulfurization potential of a mixed culture AK6 enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons-polluted soil with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur source. In addition to DBT, AK6 utilized the following compounds as sulfur sources: 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT), benzothiophene (BT), and 4,6- dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT). None of these compounds supported the growth of AK6 as the sole carbon and sulfur source. AK6 could not grow on dibenzylsulfide (DBS) as a sulfur source. The AK6 community structure changed according to the provided sulfur source. The major DGGE bands represented members of the genera Sphingobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus. Sphingobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were abundant across all cultures utilizing any of the tested thiophenic S-compounds. Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus spp. were restricted to the 4-MDBT culture. The 4-MDBT culture had the highest species richness and diversity. Biodesulfurization of DBT by resting cells of AK6 produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in addition to trace amounts of phenylacetate. AK6 transformed DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl with a specific activity of 9 ± 0.6 μM 2-HBP g dry cell weight(-1) h(-1). PCR confirmed the presence in the AK6 community of the sulfur-specific (4S) pathway genes dszB and dszC. Mixed cultures hold a better potential than axenic ones for the development of a biodesulfurization technology. PMID:26973637

  9. Characterization of bacterial communities associated with Brassica napus L. growing on a Zn-contaminated soil and their effects on root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán, Blanca; Croes, Sarah; Weyens, Nele; Lobo, M Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and plants can enhance biomass production and metal tolerance of the host plants. This work aimed at isolating and characterizing the cultivable bacterial community associated with Brassica napus growing on a Zn-contaminated site, for selecting cultivable PGPB that might enhance biomass production and metal tolerance of energy crops. The effects of some of these bacterial strains on root growth of B. napus exposed to increasing Zn and Cd concentrations were assessed. A total of 426 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated from the soil, the rhizosphere, and the roots and stems of B. napus. The diversity of the isolated bacterial populations was similar in rhizosphere and roots, but lower in soil and stem compartments. Burkoholderia, Alcaligenes, Agrococcus, Polaromonas, Stenotrophomonas, Serratia, Microbacterium, and Caulobacter were found as root endophytes exclusively. The inoculation of seeds with Pseudomonas sp. strains 228 and 256, and Serratia sp. strain 246 facilitated the root development of B. napus at 1,000 µM Zn. Arthrobacter sp. strain 222, Serratia sp. strain 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 228 and 262 increased the root length at 300 µM Cd. PMID:27159736

  10. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis.

  11. 牛乳中产耐高温蛋白酶嗜冷菌的分离及鉴定研究%Study on Isolation and Identification of Thermotolerant Protease-producing Psychrophiles in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 曹志军; 母智深; 李艳梅

    2009-01-01

    本实验采用单一性底物甲板分离法和Folin法,通过观察蛋白酶水解圈大小和测定该酶活力,从牛乳中共获得10株产耐高温蛋白酶的嗜冷菌.对菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化性状进行系统研究.鉴定结果表明,上述10个细菌菌株分别属于气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、巴斯德氏菌属(Pasteurella)、黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium)、变形菌属(Proteus)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、微球菌属(Micrococcus)、片球菌属(Pediococcus)、乳球菌属(Lactococcus)和明串球菌属(Trichococcus).

  12. 牛乳中产耐高温蛋白酶嗜冷菌的分离及鉴定研究%Studies on Isolating of Identification of Psychrophilies Producing Thermotolerant Protease in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 曹志军; 李艳梅

    2008-01-01

    本文采用单一性底物平板分离法和Folin法,观察其水解圈大小和测酶活力.从牛乳中共获得10株产耐高温蛋白酶的嗜冷菌.对菌体形态、染色反应、培养性状、生理生化性状进行了系统研究.鉴定结果表明.上述10个细菌菌株分别属于气单胞菌属(Aeromonas)、巴斯德氏菌属(Pasteurella)、黄杆菌属(Flavobacteriurn)、变形菌属(Proteus)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter)、短杆菌属(Brevibacterium)、微球菌属(Micrococcus)、片球菌属(Pediococcus)、乳球菌属(Lactococcus)和明串球菌属(Trichococcus).

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  14. [Bacteria that degrade low-molecular linear epsilon-caprolactam olygomers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esikova, T Z; Akatova, E V; Taran, S A

    2014-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with the unique ability to utilize low-molecular linear caprolactam olygomers (nylon olygomers) were isolated from soil samples contaminated with industrial wastes of epsilon-caprolactam. Based on the properties studied and also on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, the strains BS2,BS3, BS9, BS38, and BS57 were classified to the general Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Microbacteriun, Gulosibacter, and Achromobacter, respectively. All of the strains also utilized 6-aminohexanoic and adipic acids, which are intermidiates of the epsilon-caprolactam catabolism. This indirectly points to the fact that degradation of olygomers in these bacteria occurs via the monomer degradation pathway. The BS9 and BS57 strains utilized only olygomers of the epsilon-caprolactam, while BS2, BS3, and BS38 also degraded epsilon-caprolactam and its homologs, enantolactam and caprylolactam, which differentiates the latter from the previously known degraders of olygomers and suggests the presence in these strains of enzymes with lactam hydrolase activity, in addition to 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase. PMID:25707105

  15. Survival of cheese-ripening microorganisms in a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouard, Nadège; Magne, Laurent; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Foligné, Benoît; Picque, Daniel; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of nine microorganisms (six bacteria and three yeasts) from the microflora of surface-ripened cheeses were subjected to in vitro digestive stress in a three-compartment "dynamic gastrointestinal digester" (DIDGI). We studied the microorganisms (i) grown separately in culture medium only (ii) grown separately in culture medium and then mixed, (iii) grown separately in culture medium and then included in a rennet gel and (iv) grown together in smear-ripened cheese. The yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Kluyveromyces lactis and Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly resistant to the whole DIDGI process (with a drop in viable cell counts of less than Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Arthrobacter arilaitensis were clearly more sensitive to the overall digestive process than when grown in pure cultures. Lactococcus lactis displayed poorer survival in gastric and duodenal compartments when it had been grown in cheese. In vivo experiments in BALB/c mice agreed with the DIDGI experiments and confirmed the latter's reliability. PMID:26611167

  16. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettoumi, Besma; Chouchane, Habib; Guesmi, Amel; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Neifar, Mohamed; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n=49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n=22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche. PMID:27242145

  17. Diversity and novelty of actinobacteria in Arctic marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Cao, Tingfeng; Ying, Jianxi; Yang, Yanliu; Ma, Lingqi

    2014-04-01

    The actinobacterial diversity of Arctic marine sediments was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. A total of 152 strains were isolated from seven different media; 18 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Results showed that the 18 isolates belonged to a potential novel genus and 10 known genera including Actinotalea, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Kytococcus, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, and Pseudonocardia. Subsequently, 172 rDNA clones were selected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis from 692 positive clones within four actinobacteria-specific 16S rDNA libraries of Arctic marine sediments, and then these 172 clones were sequenced. In total, 67 phylotypes were clustered in 11 known genera of actinobacteria including Agrococcus, Cellulomonas, Demequina, Iamia, Ilumatobacter, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Phycicoccus, Propionibacterium, and Pseudonocardia, along with other, unidentified actinobacterial clones. Based on the detection of a substantial number of uncultured phylotypes showing low BLAST identities (<95 %), this study confirms that Arctic marine environments harbour highly diverse actinobacterial communities, many of which appear to be novel, uncultured species. PMID:24519808

  18. Characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from Antarctic rock and soil samples from the McMurdo-Dry Valleys (South-Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J.; Hirsch, P.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the Ross Desert (McMurdo-Dry Valleys). From these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. They were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. Six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera Micrococcus (M. roseus, M. agilis) or Deinococcus. In spite of their coccoid morphology, the remaining nine strains had to be associated with coryneform bacteria (Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium), because of their cell wall composition and G+C ratios. Most of the strains were psychrotrophic, but one strain was even obligately psychrophilic, with a temperature maximum below 20 degrees C. Red cocci had in vitro pH optima above 9.0 although they generally originated from acid samples. Most isolates showed a preference for sugar alcohols and organic acids, compounds which are commonly known to be released by lichens, molds and algae, the other components of the cryptoendolithic ecosystem. These properties indicate that our strains are autochthonous members of the natural Antarctic microbial population.

  19. Sialylation Facilitates the Maturation of Mammalian Sperm and Affects Its Survival in Female Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue; Pan, Qian; Feng, Ying; Choudhury, Biswa P; Ma, Qianhong; Gagneux, Pascal; Ma, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Establishment of adequate levels of sialylation is crucial for sperm survival and function after insemination; however, the mechanism for the addition of the sperm sialome has not been identified. Here, we report evidence for several different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment of the mature sperm sialome. Directly quantifying the source of the nucleotide sugar CMP-beta-N-acetylneuraminic acid in epididymal fluid indicates that transsialylation occurs in the upper epididymis. Western blots for the low-molecular-mass sialoglycoprotein (around 20-50 kDa) in C57BL/6 mice epididymal fluid reflect that additional sialome could be obtained by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored sialoglycopeptide incorporation during epididymal transit in the caput of the epididymis. Additionally, we found that in Cmah (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase)-/- transgenic mice, epididymal sperm obtained sialylated-CD52 from seminal vesicle fluid (SVF). Finally, we used Gfp (green fluorescent protein)+/+ mouse sperm to test the role of sialylation on sperm for protection from female leukocyte attack. There is very low phagocytosis of the epididymal sperm when compared to that of sperm coincubated with SVF. Treating sperm with Arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase (AUS) increased phagocytosis even further. Our results highlight the different mechanisms of increasing sialylation, which lead to the formation of the mature sperm sialome, as well as reveal the sialome's function in sperm survival within the female genital tract. PMID:27075617

  20. Effect of Carbon Sources on the Biomass Build-Up and Degradation of Rubber Processing Industry Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Girish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber processing industry effluent represents a serious environmental pollution problem especially for underground and surface water. Wastewater collected from rubber processing industry was characterized for their pollution characteristics. Analysis showed that the biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, total solids (TS, ammonia and phosphate were high when compared to effluent discharge standard for industrial wastewater. Four bacterial species were isolated from the wastes and were identified as Arthrobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Pseudomonas sp. A bacterial consortium was constituted by mixing proportionately these four bacteria and used in effluent aerobic biotreatment. Complex carbon sources such as bagasse, corn-cob, rice straw, wheat bran, molasses, corn steep liquor, were screened for their effect on growth of the consortium constituted. Highest biomass production was in molasses followed by rice straw hydrolysate, wheat bran hydrolysate and bagasse hydrolysate. However, the inoculum grown on rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysate caused maximum degradation in terms of reduction in various parameters such as BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, NH4+ and PO43, about 70 to 80% reduction was observed. From the results of the present study it could be inferred that the constituted consortium could effectively be used for the treatment of effluents from rubber processing industry and rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysate could be used for mass production of effective consortium.

  1. Cell lysis and superoxide dismutase activities of highly radioresistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly radioresistant bacterium, Arthrobacter radiotolerans, has been isolated from the radioactive hot spring of Misasa, and it does not sporulate, it is Gram-positive, and its color is pink to red. This bacterium shows the highest resistance to gamma-ray among Gram-positive resistants, but the lytic enzyme capable of lysing the cells of strong radioresistants and the surface structure of the cells are little known except those about Micrococcus radiodurans. The cells of the M. radiodurans can be lysed by Achramobacter lyticus enzyme, and electron microscopic observation and chemical analysis revealed the mutilayered surface structure of the cells consisting of an inner membrane, a mucopeptide wall layer and a very outer layer. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was studied, and the relatively high SOD activity of the M. radiodurans was found. The SOD function acts against the threat posed by the reactive superoxide radical being generated biologically, photochemically and radiochemically in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this paper, it is reported that the lytic enzyme No.2 obtained from Cytophaga sp., containing N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine amidase, peptidase and endopeptidase, and showing broad lytic spectra, was able to lyse the cells of A. radiotolerans and four radioresistant micrococci, and the radioresistant bacteria showed relatively high SOD activity except M. sp. 248. It is well known that superoxide anions are generated by aerobic irradiation, and are toxic to microbial cells. (Kako, I.)

  2. Prokaryotic complex of newly formed soils on nepheline-containing industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Kalmykova, V. V.

    2010-06-01

    The characteristics are given of the prokaryotic complex participating in the processes of the primary soil formation on nepheline-containing waste and depending on the time of the waste disposal and degree of reclamation. The total population density of the bacteria determined with the method of fluorescent microscopy in “pure” sand ranged within 0.34—0.60 billion CFU/g soil; in the reclaimed sand under different vegatation communities, from 2.6 to 7.2 billion CFU/g soil. Gram-positive bacteria dominate in the prokaryotic complex of the nepheline sands, whereas the Grarrmegative ones dominate in the zonal soils. The bacteria predominating in the nepheline sands were classified on the basis of the comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the 16S rRNA genes within the Actinobacteria class (Arthrobacter boritolerans, A. ramosus, Rhodococcusfascians, Micrococcus luteus, and Streptomyces spp.). The evolution of the microbial community in the nepheline sands in the course of their reclamation and in the course of their overgrowing by plants proceeds in way toward the microbial communities of the zonal soils on moraine deposits.

  3. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds. PMID:26507390

  4. Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from different sources possess two highly conserved copies of the rRNA operon .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, T H; Alexander, S M; Cooper, L F; Gilpin, M L

    2000-07-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the rRNA genes and the 5' flanking region were determined for R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209T from overlapping products generated by PCR amplification from the genomic DNA. Comparison of the sequences with rRNA genes from a variety of bacteria demonstrated the close relatedness between R. salmoninarum and the high G+C group of the actinobacteria, in particular, Arthrobacter species. A regulatory element within the 5' leader of the rRNA operon was identical to an element, CL2, described for mycobacteria. PCR, DNA sequence analysis, and DNA hybridisation were performed to examine variation between isolates from diverse sources which represented the four 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequevars previously described for R. salmoninarum. Two 23S-5S rRNA intergenic spacer sequevars of identical length were found. DNA hybridisation using probes complementary to 23S rDNA and 16S rDNA identified two rRNA operons which were identical or nearly identical amongst 40 isolates sourced from a variety of countries. PMID:11016696

  5. Development of a specific biotinylated DNA probe for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, H; Qian, B; Despres, B; Kibenge, F S; Heaney, S B; Rainnie, D J

    1995-10-01

    A specific DNA probe for the identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), was developed from one of 3 clones pRS47, pRS49, and pRS26 of 5.1 kb, 5.3 kb, and 11.3 kb, respectively. The biotinylated pRS47/BamHI insert probe was tested on 3 dilutions of DNA extracted from 3 strains of R. salmoninarum and from 1 strain each of Arthrobacter protophormiae, Aeromonas salmonicida, Corynebacterium aquaticum, Carnobacterium piscicola, Listonella anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio ordalii, and Yersinia ruckeri. In a dot blot assay, this probe hybridized only with the DNA from the R. salmoninarum strains. When used on kidney samples from fish challenged with R. salmoninarum, the dot blot hybridization assay with the probe was found to be as sensitive as culture. In a fluorescent antibody test, samples that were negative in culture and dot blot hybridization showed no more than one fluorescing cell in 50 microscopic fields examined. This DNA probe, therefore, has the potential for use in the diagnosis of BKD of fish. PMID:8548693

  6. Microbial succession in the traditional Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor fermentation process as evaluated by SSU rRNA profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenliang; Li, Ke; Liu, Seng; Xing, Yage; Li, Mingyuan; Che, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The community succession of microbes inhabited in the fermenting lees of Luzhou-flavor liquor was investigated based on small-subunit rRNA culture independent method. All sequences recovered from fermenting lees respectively fell into the genera of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pelobacter, Actobacter, Serratia, Burkholderia, Rhodoccous, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Leptotrichia, Methanocuuleus, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Pichia, Talaromyces, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fomitopsis and Trichosporon. The fungal Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and Talaromyces were most abundant in the lees fermented for 1 day, the fungal Eurotium and the bacteria Burkholderia, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were dominant in the lees fermented for 7 days, only the bacteria Lactobacillus, Burkholderia were prevalent in the lees fermented for 60 days. Most genera almost existed in the fermenting lees, while their distributions were significantly different in 1, 7 and 60 days fermented lees. The prokaryotic community similarity coefficient was from 0.5000 to 0.5455 and followed to 0.1523, and that of eukaryotic community was from 0.5466 to 0.5259 and to 0.3750 when compared at species level. These results suggested that many microbes in lees have community successions associated with fermenting and that such successions maybe contribute the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavor liquor and is main reasons that the characteristic flavor factors are produced. PMID:23180546

  7. Actinobacterial diversity in limestone deposit sites in Hundung, Manipur (India and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam eNimaichand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on actinobacterial diversity in limestone habitats are scarce. This paper reports profiling of actinobacteria isolated from Hundung limestone samples in Manipur, India using ARDRA as the molecular tool for preliminary classification. A total of 137 actinobacteria were clustered into 31 phylotypic groups based on the ARDRA pattern generated and representative of each group was subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Generic diversity of the limestone isolates consisted of Streptomyces (15 phylotypic groups, Micromonospora (4, Amycolatopsis (3, Arthrobacter (3, Kitasatospora (2, Janibacter (1, Nocardia (1, Pseudonocardia (1 and Rhodococcus (1. Considering the antimicrobial potential of these actinobacteria, 19 showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the bacterial and candidal test pathogens, while 45 exhibit biocontrol activities against at least one of the rice fungal pathogens. Out of the 137 actinobacterial isolates, 118 were found to have at least one of the three biosynthetic gene clusters (PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS. The results indicate that 86% of the strains isolated from Hundung limestone deposit sites possessed biosynthetic gene clusters of which 40% exhibited antimicrobial activities. It can, therefore, be concluded that limestone habitat is a promising source for search of novel secondary metabolites.

  8. Isolation and characterization of novel chitinolytic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkök, Sümeyra; Görmez, Arzu

    2016-04-01

    Chitin, a linear polymer of β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine units, is one of the most abundant biopolymers widely distributed in the marine and terrestrial environments. It is found as a structural component of insects, crustaceans and the cell walls of fungi. Chitinases, the enzymes degrading chitin by cleaving the β-(1-4) bond, have gained increased attention due to their wide range of biotechnological applications, especially for biocontrol of harmful insects and phytopathogenic fungi in agriculture. In the present study, 200 bacterial isolates from Western Anatolia Region of Turkey were screened for chitinolytic activity on agar media amended with colloidal chitin. Based on the chitin hydrolysis zone, 13 isolates were selected for further study. Bacterial isolates with the highest chitinase activity were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter oxydans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Brevibacillus reuszeri, Kocuria erythromyxa, Kocuria rosea, Novosphingobium capsulatum, Rhodococcus bratislaviensis, Rhodococcus fascians and Staphylococcus cohnii by MIS and BIOLOG systems. The next aims of the study are to compare the productivity of these bacteria quantitatively, to purify the enzyme from the most potent producer and to apply the pure enzyme for the fight against the phytopathogenic fungi and harmful insects.

  9. Profiling microbial community structures across six large oilfields in China and the potential role of dominant microorganisms in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Jiwei; Jiang, Lei; Sun, Zhilei; Fu, Meiyan; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-10-01

    Successful bioremediation of oil pollution is based on a comprehensive understanding of the in situ physicochemical conditions and indigenous microbial communities as well as the interaction between microorganisms and geochemical variables. Nineteen oil-contaminated soil samples and five uncontaminated controls were taken from six major oilfields across different geoclimatic regions in China to investigate the spatial distribution of the microbial ecosystem. Microbial community analysis revealed remarkable variation in microbial diversity between oil-contaminated soils taken from different oilfields. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) further demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical parameters, including soil moisture and sulfate concentrations, were among the factors that influenced the overall microbial community structure and composition. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vast majority of sequences were related to the genera Arthrobacter, Dietzia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Marinobacter, many of which contain known oil-degrading or oil-emulsifying species. Remarkably, a number of archaeal genera including Halalkalicoccus, Natronomonas, Haloterrigena, and Natrinema were found in relatively high abundance in some of the oil-contaminated soil samples, indicating that these Euryarchaeota may play an important ecological role in some oil-contaminated soils. This study offers a direct and reliable reference of the diversity of the microbial community in various oil-contaminated soils and may influence strategies for in situ bioremediation of oil pollution. PMID:26078113

  10. Characterization and in-vivo evaluation of potential probiotics of the bacterial flora within the water column of a healthy shrimp larviculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; He, Yaoyao; Wen, Chongqing

    2015-11-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal bacterial flora associated with shrimp larviculture systems contributes to probiotic screening and disease control. The bacterial community of the water column over a commercial Litopenaeus vannamei larval rearing run was characterized with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 27 phylotypes at the species level were isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the V3-V5 region of 16S rRNA genes showed a dynamic bacterial community with major changes occurred from stages zoea to mysis during the rearing run. The sequences retrieved were affiliated to four phyla, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, with the family Rhodobacteraceae being the most frequently recovered one. Subsequently, 13 representative strains conferred higher larval survival than the control when evaluated in the in-vivo experiments; in particular, three candidates, assigned to Phaeobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp., and Microbacterium sp., significantly improved larval survival (P probiotics.

  11. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  12. New software for raw data mask processing increases diagnostic ability of myocardial SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased activity of myocardial perfusion tracer technetium-99m in liver and hepatobiliary system causes streak artifacts, which may affect clinical diagnosis. We developed a mask-processing tool for raw data generated using technetium-99m as a myocardial perfusion tracer. Here, we describe improvements in image quality under the influence of artifacts caused by high accumulation in other organs. A heart phantom (RH-2) containing 15 MBq of pertechnetate was defined as model A. Model B was designed in the same phantom containing ten times of cardiac radioactivity overlapping with other organs. Variance in the vertical profile count in the lower part of the myocardial inferior wall and in the myocardial circumferential profile curve were investigated in a phantom and clinical cases using our raw data masking (RDM) software. The profile variances at lower parts of myocardial inferior walls were 965.43 in model A, 1390.11 in model B and 815.85 in B-RDM. The mean ±SD of myocardial circumferential profile curves were 83.91±7.39 in model A, 69.61±11.45 in model B and 82.68±9.71 in model B-RDM. For 11 clinical images with streak artifacts, the average of the variance significantly differed between with and without RDM (3.95 vs. 21.05; P<0.05). For 50 clinical images with hepatic accumulation artifacts, the average of the variance on vertical profiles on images with and without RDM significantly differed (5.99 vs. 15.59; P<0.01). Furthermore, when a segment with <60% uptake in polar maps was defined as abnormal, the average extent score of 1 h (Tc-1h), 5 min of RDM (Tc-0h-RDM) and 5 min of non-RDM (Tc-0h-non-RDM) were 2.25±3.12, 2.35±3.16, and 1.37±2.41, respectively. Differences were significant between Tc-1h and Tc-0h-non-RDM (P<0.005) but not between Tc-1h and Tc-0h-RDM. Batch processing was enabled in all frames by shifting the myocardium to the center of rotation using this software. The waiting time between infusion and image acquisition should be decreased

  13. The siRNA cocktail targeting interleukin 10 receptor and transforming growth factor-β receptor on dendritic cells potentiates tumour antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y-H; Hong, S-O; Kim, J H; Noh, K H; Song, K-H; Lee, Y-H; Jeon, J-H; Kim, D-W; Seo, J H; Kim, T W

    2015-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising therapeutic agents in the field of cancer immunotherapy due to their intrinsic immune-priming capacity. The potency of DCs, however, is readily attenuated immediately after their administration in patients as tumours and various immune cells, including DCs, produce various immunosuppressive factors such as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β that hamper the function of DCs. In this study, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the expression of endogenous molecules in DCs, which can sense immunosuppressive factors. Among the siRNAs targeting various immunosuppressive molecules, we observed that DCs transfected with siRNA targeting IL-10 receptor alpha (siIL-10RA) initiated the strongest antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell immune responses. The potency of siIL-10RA was enhanced further by combining it with siRNA targeting TGF-β receptor (siTGF-βR), which was the next best option during the screening of this study, or the previously selected immunoadjuvant siRNA targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) or Bcl-2-like protein 11 (BIM). In the midst of sorting out the siRNA cocktails, the cocktail of siIL-10RA and siTGF-βR generated the strongest antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity. Concordantly, the knock-down of both IL-10RA and TGF-βR in DCs induced the strongest anti-tumour effects in the TC-1 P0 tumour model, a cervical cancer model expressing the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E7 antigen, and even in the immune-resistant TC-1 (P3) tumour model that secretes more IL-10 and TGF-β than the parental tumour cells (TC-1 P0). These results provide the groundwork for future clinical development of the siRNA cocktail-mediated strategy by co-targeting immunosuppressive molecules to enhance the potency of DC-based vaccines. PMID:25753156

  14. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Interleukin (IL-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR.  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry.  Plasma  levels  of  IL-35, interferon (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 12 were analyzed by Pearson’s test.IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmaticscompared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients  and  healthy  controls.  More importantly,  plasma  IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2 cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma.Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. 

  15. Complexos de elementos emissores de radiação gama e de electrões Auger para diagnóstico e/ou terapia do cancro

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Teresa Sofia Araújo, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Química (Química Inorgânica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Novos ligandos do tipo pirazolo-diamina com as unidades intercaladoras alaranjado de acridina (L1, L3), 9-acridina ácido carboxílico (L2, L4) e antraceno (L5), na posição 4 do anel de pirazolilo, foram sintetizados e caracterizados. A sua coordenação à unidade fac-[M(CO)3]+ (M=Re,99mTc) originou complexos do tipo fac-[M(CO)3(κ3-L)]+/2+ em que: L=L1: M= Re (Re1), 99mTc (Tc1); ...

  16. Effects of radiation dose reduction in digital radiography using wavelet-based image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Tsai, D.Y.; Lee, Y.; Matsuyama, E. [Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746, Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8518 (Japan); Kojima, K., E-mail: tsai@clg.niigata-u.ac.j, E-mail: kojima@hamamatsu-u.ac.j [Department of Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, Hamamatsu University, 1230, Miyakodacho, Kita-ku, Hamamatsu, 431-2102 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of the use of wavelet transform on dose reduction in computed radiography (CR). The physical properties of the processed CR images were measured using the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), contrast-to-noise ratio, and peak signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, visual evaluation was performed by Scheffe's pair comparison method. Experimental results showed that sigmoid-type transfer curves for wavelet coefficient weighting adjustment could improve the MTF, and three soft-threshold methods could improve the NPS at all spatial frequency ranges. Moreover, our visual evaluation showed that an approximately 40% reduction in exposure dose might be achieved with the sigmoid-type transfer curve in hip joint radiography. (13th tc1/tc7 symposium fundamental and applied metrology september 01-03, 2010, london, uk)

  17. Effective mass of 4He atom in superfluid and normal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formula for the temperature dependence of the effective mass of a 4He atom in the superfluid and normal phases is obtained. This expression for the effective mass allows one to eliminate infra-red divergences, being applicable at all temperatures, except for a narrow fluctuation region 0.97<< approx T/Tc<=1. In the high and low temperature limits, as well as in the interactionless limit, the obtained expression reproduces the well known results. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the phase transition temperature Tc∼2.18 K are calculated, by using the formula obtained for the effective mass. In the framework of the approach proposed in this work, the small critical index η is determined in the random phase approximation. The obtained value corresponds to the well known result

  18. Trigonal lattice distortion and ferro-quadrupole ordering in phase IV of CexLa1-xB6 (x=0.75 and 0.70)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-temperature lattice effects of the Kondo compounds CexLa1-xB6 (x=0.75 and 0.70) with a Γ8 ground state have been investigated by dilatometric measurements. In an ordered phase IV below TC=1.6 K (1.4 K) for x=0.75 (0.70), the lattice length along the [001] direction reveals an increase, while the length along the [111] direction shows an appreciable decrease. This lattice distortion is described in terms of the trigonal strain yz>=zx>=xy>≠0 with Γ5 symmetry in addition to a volume expansion εB=εxx + εyy + εzz with full symmetry Γ1. The trigonal strain in phase IV indicates a ferro-quadrupole ordering of yx>=zx>=xy>≠0. (author)

  19. Unusual field-driven anisotropy of the low-lying ferromagnetic state in NdOs4As12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the low-temperature specific heat C(T) of the filled skutterudite compound NdOs4As12, which undergoes a ferromagnetic transition at Tc = 1.10K. In the absence of an external field B, the C(T) results show a Schottky-like anomaly at 0.93 K whose origin is attributed to a lowering of the Th cubic point symmetry of the Nd3+ ions rather than to an impact of the molecular field. More intriguingly, however, for B = 0.25 T applied parallel to the [111] direction, a sharp peak in C(T) occurs at T* ≈ 0.7K. This is in striking contrast to B || [100] where the Curie temperature is essentially unchanged. While more experimental input is needed to resolve the nature of a T* phase, our observations point at anomalous field- driven ground-state properties of ferromagnetic NdOs4As12

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  1. Predicting and Screening Dielectric Transitions in a Series of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Double Perovskites via an Extended Tolerance Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Yu, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    Extended Goldschmidt tolerance factor t is applied to the hybrid double perovskites (MA)2 [B'B''(CN)6 ] (MA=methylammonium cation) to predict and screen dielectric transitions in 121 compounds through the correlations among t, the radius of the B component rB and the transition temperature Tc , based on experimental results from model compounds. For (MA)2 [B'Co(CN)6 ], it is concluded that: i) when t>0.873, the cubic phase would be stable below 298 K; ii) when 0.873>t>0.805, the cubic phase would be stable between 298 and 523 K; iii) the larger the rB , the higher the Tc of the perovskite (Tc (1/2) ∝rB ); and iv) the Tc of the hybrid perovskites can be well tuned by doping the B components. PMID:27060616

  2. Evaluation of creep damage of IN738LC superalloy used for turbine blade by ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IN738LC(Ni-base superalloy) alloy was crept undo. various creep stresses at 900 C degrees Microstructural analysis (change of γ' length and width with creep), measurement of mechanical properties(Vickers hardness) and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation(velocity, attenuation coefficient, nonlinear parameter) were performed to investigate the effect of creep on the relationship between experimental parameters. The ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation result showed that the longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity did not change with creep damage, while the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient increased from 6.2 dB/mm to 8.0 dB/mm. In particular, tile ultrasonic nonlinear parameter(β') increased from 0.7 tc 1.3 indicating that measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter could be strong tool to evaluate the creep damage of metallic materials.

  3. Summary of CNCOSPAR Activities 2002-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Secretariat of Chinese Committee on Space Research

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 In Brief In this report, we summarize the major activities of CNCOSPAR from the year 2002to 2004. During this period, many things happened such as Beijing won the 2006COSPAR scientific assembly, the first Chinese Committee of COSPAR handed over its responsibility to the second committee, etc. During this period, the space science activities developed also very fast. China has sent its first scientific satellite, the first satellite TC-1 of the Double Star Program, into space. China also has a major break through in the manned space flight by a very successful mission of Shenzhou manned space flight. On board of this spacecraft, is the first Chinese astronaut Mr. Liwei Yang. This made China the third country in the world who has the ability that the launch manned space missions independently.

  4. Critical behavior of vortices in epitaxial Tl-2201 films at zero external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Q.; Johansson, L.-G.; Ivanov, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    The resistive transition and current-voltage characteristics of a Tl-2201 superconducting microbridge are measured close to the critical temperature in zero external magnetic field. The dissipation mechanism is studied by analyzing dV/dI and power dissipation P(= IV) as functions of transport current. The Jc-T curves exhibit three distinct types of behavior depending on temperature. In the low temperature regime, the critical current density is proportional to (1 - T/Tc). At intermediate temperatures, thermally activated flux creep dominates and Jc is proportional to 1 - n(T/Tc) - m(T/Tc)2. In the high temperature regime, Jc is equal to the G-L depairing current. The depinning current, Jc1, is determined, taking into account thermally activated flux motion and flux motion induced by the transport current. Jc1 depends linearly on temperature and vanishes at 82 K, Jc1 = Jc1(0) (1 - T/Tc1).

  5. Evolution of Superconducting and Hidden Order Phases in URu2Si2 under Applied Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity measurements performed under applied hydrostatic pressure and in magnetic fields have been used to probe the hidden order (HO) and superconducting (SC) states of URu2Si2, which have ambient-pressure transition temperatures T0 = 17.5 K and Tc = 1.5 K, respectively. T0 increases with applied pressure and a distinct kink in its pressure dependence is observed at 15 kbar; this feature is associated with the onset of antiferromagnetism. The pressure dependence of the SC upper critical field has been measured with the external field aligned parallel to both crystalline axes. The SC phase is smoothly suppressed to a critical pressure of about 15 kbar and no qualitative change in the critical field curves is observed. The co-evolution of the HO and SC phases is discussed within the context of a model in which the two phases compete for Fermi surface fraction. (authors)

  6. Superconductivity and the high-field ordered phase in the heavy-fermion compound PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconductivity is observed in the filled skutterudite compound PrOs4Sb12 below a critical temperature Tc = 1.85 K and appears to develop out of a nonmagnetic heavy Fermi liquid with an effective mass m* ∼ 50 me, where me is the free electron mass. Features associated with a cubic crystalline electric field are present in magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements, yielding a Pr3+ energy level scheme consisting of a Γ3 nonmagnetic doublet ground state, a low-lying Γ5 triplet excited state at ∼10 K, and Γ4 triplet and Γ1 singlet excited states at much higher temperatures. Measurements also indicate that the superconducting state is unconventional and consists of two distinct superconducting phases. At high fields and low temperatures, an ordered phase of magnetic or quadrupolar origin is observed, suggesting that the superconductivity may occur in the vicinity of a magnetic or quadrupolar quantum critical point

  7. High-Precision Monte Carlo Simulation of the Ising Models on the Penrose Lattice and the Dual Penrose Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Yukihiro; Okabe, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    We study the Ising models on the Penrose lattice and the dual Penrose lattice by means of the high-precision Monte Carlo simulation. Simulating systems up to the total system size N = 20633239, we estimate the critical temperatures on those lattices with high accuracy. For high-speed calculation, we use the generalized method of the single-GPU-based computation for the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm of Monte Carlo simulation. As a result, we estimate the critical temperature on the Penrose lattice as Tc/J = 2.39781 ± 0.00005 and that of the dual Penrose lattice as Tc*/J = 2.14987 ± 0.00005. Moreover, we definitely confirm the duality relation between the critical temperatures on the dual pair of quasilattices with a high degree of accuracy, sinh (2J/Tc)sinh (2J/Tc*) = 1.00000 ± 0.00004.

  8. Chicken Cytochrome P450 1A5 Is the Key Enzyme for Metabolizing T-2 Toxin to 3'OH-T-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Shang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of T-2 toxin and its metabolites into the edible tissues of poultry has potential effects on human health. We report that T-2 toxin significantly induces CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 expression in chicken embryonic hepatocyte cells. The enzyme activity assays of CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 heterologously expressed in HeLa cells indicate that only CYP1A5 metabolizes T-2 to 3'OH-T-2 by the 3'-hydroxylation of isovaleryl groups. In vitro enzyme assays of recombinant CYP1A5 expressed in DH5α further confirm that CYP1A5 can convert T-2 into TC-1 (3'OH-T-2. Therefore, CYP1A5 is critical for the metabolism of trichothecene mycotoxin in chickens.

  9. New Record of Two Marine Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-San Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two marine hypotrichous ciliates, Anteholosticha petzi and Ponturostyla enigmatica, were collected from the Yellow Sea and the Korea Strait, respectively, and described using live observation and protargol-impregnated specimens. Furthermore, the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of each was sequenced and compared to previously annotated sequences retrieved from the GenBank. Anteholosticha petzi is characterized by 3 frontal cirri (FC, 2 frontoterminal cirri (FTC, 8-12 transverse cirri (TC, 1 buccal cirrus (BC, 9-12 midventral pairs (MP, 3 bipolar dorsal kineties (DK, and 3 types of colorless cortical granules. Ponturostyla enigmatica is characterized by 8 FC, 5 ventral cirri (VC, 5-7 TC, 6-7 marginal rows (MR on each side, 4 complete and 2-3 partial DK, and greenish cortical granules. This is the first identification and description of these 2 species, A. petzi and P. enigmatica, in South Korea.

  10. Evaluation of clinical usefulness of myocardial perfusion imaging with tetrofosmin in patients with ischemic heart disease. Comparison with [sup 201]Tl SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ichiya, Yuichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1994-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of [sup 99m]Tc-1, 2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethane (tetrofosmin) and compared it with [sup 201]Tl. The subjects consisted of 12 patients including 8 patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI), 2 with effort angina, one with stable angina and one with myocarditis. The tetrofosmin SPECT images were obtained during exercise and at rest. The quality of tetrofosmin SPECT images was equal or slightly superior to that of [sup 201]Tl. And the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of tetrofosmin for the detection of coronary stenosis and/or obstruction were equal to that of [sup 201]Tl. We conclude that tetrofosmin is useful in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. (author).

  11. Sleeping Beauty transposase structure allows rational design of hyperactive variants for genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Franka; Wiedemann, Lisa; Zuliani, Cecilia; Querques, Irma; Sebe, Attila; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Barabas, Orsolya

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases. PMID:27025571

  12. Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Temperature Impact on Passivation and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seif, J.; Krishnamani, G.; Demaurex, B.; Martin de Nicholas, S.; Holm, N.; Ballif, C.; De Wolf, S.

    2015-03-23

    Photovoltaic devices deployed in the field can reach operation temperatures (T) as high as 90 °C [1]. Hence, their temperature coefficients (TC1) are of great practical importance as they determine their energy yield. In this study we concentrate on T-related lifetime variations of amorphous/crystalline interfaces and study their influence on the TCs of the individual solar cell parameters. We find that both the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) are influenced by these lifetime variations. However, this is only a minor effect compared to the dominant increase of the intrinsic carrier density and the related increase in dark saturation current density. Additionally, in this paper we will show that the TCVoc does not depend solely on the initial value of the Voc [2, 3], but that the structure of the device has to be considered as well.

  13. Jahn-Teller induced nematic orbital order in tetragonal Sr2VO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssier, J.; Giannini, E.; Stucky, A.; Černý, R.; Eremin, M. V.; van der Marel, D.

    2016-03-01

    Using high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) on high purity powders, we resolved the structure and a b symmetry of the intriguing compound Sr2VO4 from room temperature down to 20 K to an unprecedented level of accuracy. Upon cooling, this set of data unambiguously reveals a second-order phase transition lowering the symmetry from tetragonal to orthorhombic at a temperature Tc 2=136 K. The observation of an orthorhombic distortion of the a b plane is attributed to nematic phase formation supported by local Jahn-Teller (JT) dynamical instability. At TN=105 K, spins order and at Tc 1=100 K the tetragonal structure is recovered with an elongated c axis.

  14. Fully gapped superconductivity in Ni-pnictide superconductors BaNi2As2 and SrNi2P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed low-temperature specific heat C and thermal conductivity κ measurements on the Ni-pnictide superconductors BaNi2As2 (Tc = 0.7K) and SrNi2P2 (Tc = 1.4K). The temperature dependences C(T) and κ(T) of the two compounds are similar to the results of a number of s-wave superconductors. Furthermore, the concave field responses of the residual κ for BaNi2As2 rules out the presence of nodes on the Fermi surfaces. We postulate that fully gapped superconductivity could be universal for Ni-pnictide superconductors. Specific heat data on Ba0.6La0.4Ni2As2 shows a mild suppression of Tc and Hc2 relative to BaNi2As2.

  15. Acoustic susceptibility of an insulating spin-glass in an applied magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Doussineau, P.; Levelut, A.; Schön, W.

    1991-01-01

    The propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves of frequency between 30 MHz and 800 MHz has been studied in the insulating spin-glass (CoF2)0.5(BaF2)0.2(NaPO3)0.3. This was achieved in the temperature range 1.2 to 4.2 K which includes the critical temperature Tc=1.8 K, with an applied magnetic field up to 9 Teslas. The results are the following. i) The velocity shows an anisotropic bahaviour. It depends on the angle between the field and the acoustic wavevector. ii) The initial slope of the ve...

  16. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Nesladek, Jiri J. Mares, Dominique Tromson, Christine Mer, Philippe Bergonzo, Pavel Hubik and Jozef Kristofik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on superconductivity (SC found in thin B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films, prepared by the PE-CVD technique. The thickness of the films varies from about 100 to 400 nm, the films are grown on low-alkaline glass at substrate temperatures of about 500–700 °C. The SIMS measurements show that films can be heavily doped with boron in concentrations in the range of 3×1021 cm−3. The Raman spectra show Fano resonances, confirming the substitutional B-incorporation. The low temperature magnetotransport measurements reveal a positive magnetoresistance. The SC transition is observed at about Tc=1.66 K. A simple theory exploiting the concept of weak localization accounting for this transition is proposed.

  17. Double Star/Cluster observation of neutral sheet oscillations on 5 August 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhang

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous Cluster observations have shown that the flapping motions of the Earth's magnetotail are of internal origin and that kink-like waves are emitted from the central part of the tail and propagate toward the tail flanks. The newly launched Double Star Program (DSP TC-1 satellite allows us to investigate neutral sheet at 10-13 Re in the tail. Using conjunctions with Cluster we will have simultaneous observations at 10-13 and 16-19 Re of these flapping motions. In this paper, we present the first results of neutral sheet oscillations observed by the Cluster and Double Star satellites on 5 August 2004.

  18. Effects of radiation dose reduction in digital radiography using wavelet-based image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of the use of wavelet transform on dose reduction in computed radiography (CR). The physical properties of the processed CR images were measured using the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), contrast-to-noise ratio, and peak signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, visual evaluation was performed by Scheffe's pair comparison method. Experimental results showed that sigmoid-type transfer curves for wavelet coefficient weighting adjustment could improve the MTF, and three soft-threshold methods could improve the NPS at all spatial frequency ranges. Moreover, our visual evaluation showed that an approximately 40% reduction in exposure dose might be achieved with the sigmoid-type transfer curve in hip joint radiography. (13th tc1/tc7 symposium fundamental and applied metrology september 01-03, 2010, london, uk)

  19. The observations of high energy electrons and associated waves by DSP satellites during substorm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double Star Program (DSP) is a CNSA-ESA cooperation mission. DSP consists of two satellites: Equatorial satellite (TC-1) and Polar satellite (TC-2). This paper presents important observations of long duration loss of high energetic electrons and relevant waves in the recovery phase of substorm, that are made by LFEW and HEED of the polar satellite of DSP (TC-2). The HEED of TC-2 observed a loss event of high energetic electrons which lasted about 4 minute. At the same time, the LFEW of TC-2 observed a wave burst. The wave burst began 1 minute earlier than the loss event of energetic electrons. The frequency of waves ranges form 600 Hz to over 10 kHz. The analyses of wave characteristics indicate that the wave was whistler-mode. Thus it is very possible that the loss of high energy electrons was caused by wave activities through wave-particle interactions

  20. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T) at...

  1. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Ping Li; Jiong Yang

    2015-01-01

     Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR).  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc)1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry...

  2. Exploiting IL-17-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to improve cancer immunotherapy in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Nelson, Michelle H; Bailey, Stefanie R; Bowers, Jacob S; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Rubinstein, Mark P; Himes, Richard A; Paulos, Chrystal M

    2016-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is one the most effective approaches for treating patients with tumors, as it bolsters the generation and persistence of memory T cells. In preclinical work, it has been reported that adoptively transferred CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes that secrete IL-17A (i.e., Th17 and Tc17 cells) regress tumors to a greater extent than IFN-γ(+)Th1 or Tc1 cells in vivo. Herein, we review the mechanisms underlying how infused Th17 and Tc17 cells regress established malignancies in clinically relevant mouse models of cancer. We also discuss how unique signaling cues--such as co-stimulatory molecules (ICOS and 41BB), cytokines (IL-12 and IL-23) or pharmaceutical reagents (Akt inhibitors, etc.)--can be exploited to bolster the therapeutic potential of IL-17(+) lymphocytes with an emphasis on using this knowledge to improve next-generation clinical trials for patients with cancer. PMID:26825102

  3. Maxwell's equal area law for Lovelock Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We present the construction of Maxwell's equal area law for the Guass-Bonnet AdS black holes in $d=5,6$ and third order Lovelock AdS black holes in $d=7,8$. The equal area law can be used to find the number and location of the points of intersection in the plots of Gibbs free energy, so that we can get the thermodynamically preferred solution which corresponds to the first order phase transition. We have the radius of the small and larger black holes in the phase transition which share the same Gibbs free energy. The latent heat can also be calculated. For the third order Lovelock AdS black holes in $d=8$, the first order phase transition can be found in $T_t

  4. Supersymmetry, p-brane duality, and hidden spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global superalgebra with 32 supercharges and all possible central extensions is studied in order to extract some general properties of duality and hidden dimensions in a theory that treats p-branes democratically. The maximal number of dimensions is 12, with signature (10,2), containing one space and one time dimension that are hidden from the point of view of perturbative ten-dimensional string theory or its compactifications. When the theory is compactified on Rd-1,1 circle-times Tc+1,1 with d+c+2=12, there are isometry groups that relate to the hidden dimensions as well as to duality. Their combined intersecting classification schemes provide some properties of nonperturbative states and their couplings. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Superconducting properties of Rh9In4S4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Lin, Qisheng; Xie, Weiwei; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Miller, Gordon J.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and crystallographic, thermodynamic, and transport properties of single crystalline Rh9In4S4 were studied. The resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements all clearly indicate bulk superconductivity with a critical temperature, Tc˜ 2.25 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ and the Debye temperature (ΘD) were found to be 34 mJ mol-1 K-2 and 217 K, respectively. The observed specific heat jump, Δ C /γ Tc =1.66 , is larger than the expected BCS weak coupling value of 1.43. Ginzburg-Landau (GL) ratio of the low-temperature GL-penetration depth, λGL≈ 5750 Å, to the GL-coherence length, ξGL≈ 94 Å, is large: κ ˜ 60 . Furthermore, we observed a peak effect in the resistivity measurement as a function of both temperature and magnetic field.

  6. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomei Sara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers. Results The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers. Conclusion The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules.

  7. Evaluating the modal split of overland transportation of general cargo in Brazil using a market share model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gildemir Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology developed to evaluate the modal split of land transport of general cargo in Brazil and possible reasons for the prevalence of road transport over rail, using a market share model. No studies were found using the market share model for planning cargo transport, in spite of its generic nature which makes it readily applicable to any market, service, utility or commodity. The methodology was applied in three transport corridors, two groups of general cargo and enabled us to establish that Brazilian rail operations are still uncompetitive in terms of logistics costs when transporting general cargo of high aggregate value. Moreover, transport supply is a determinant factor for the greater use of road transport in Brazil’s general cargo transport matrix, and the demand for general cargo transport in Brazil is elastic in relation to this factor. For low aggregate value general cargo (AV1, a 1% reduction in the gap between road and railway supply leads to an increase in the railway market share of 4.5% through TC1 (São Paulo - Porto Alegre - São Paulo, 4.9% through TC2 (Santos - Brasilia - Santos, and 3.3% through TC3(São Paulo - Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo. For high aggregate value general cargo (AV2, this elasticity was more pronounced. A 1% reduction in the gap between road and railway transport supply leads to an increase in the railway market share of 4.2% through TC1, 11.9% through TC2, and 9.6% through TC3.

  8. Eradication of large tumors expressing human papillomavirus E7 protein by therapeutic vaccination with E7 fused to the extra domain a from fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Cristina; Berraondo, Pedro; Durantez, Maika; Martínez, Marta; Casares, Noelia; Arribillaga, Laura; Rudilla, Francesc; Fioravanti, Jessica; Lozano, Teresa; Villanueva, Lorea; Sarobe, Pablo; Borrás, Francisco; Leclerc, Claude; Prieto, Jesús; Lasarte, Juan José

    2012-08-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. It is well established that chronic infection of the genital tract by various mucosatropic human papillomavirus (HPV) types causes cervical cancer. Cellular immunity to E7 protein from HPV (HPVE7) has been associated with clinical and cytologic resolution of HPV-induced lesions. Thus, we decided to test if targeting of HPVE7 to dendritic cells using a fusion protein containing the extra domain A (EDA) from fibronectin, a natural ligand for TLR4, and HPVE7 (EDA-HPVE7) might be an efficient vaccine for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. We found that EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein was efficiently captured by bone marrow derived dendritic cells in vitro and induced their maturation, with the upregulation of maturation markers and the production of IL-12. Immunization of mice with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein induced antitumor CD8(+) T cell responses in the absence of additional adjuvants. Repeated intratumoral administration of EDA-HPVE7 in saline was able to cure established TC-1 tumors of 5-7 mm in diameter. More importantly, intravenous injection with EDA-HPVE7 in combination with the TLR ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC), or with low doses of cyclophosphamide and the TLR9 ligand CpG-B complexed in cationic lipids, were able to eradicate large established TC-1 tumors (1.2 cm in diameter). Thus, therapeutic vaccination with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein may be effective in the treatment of human cervical carcinoma. PMID:21898393

  9. Efficacy of DNA vaccines forming e7 recombinant retroviral virus-like particles for the treatment of human papillomavirus-induced cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescaille, Geraldine; Pitoiset, Fabien; Macedo, Rodney; Baillou, Claude; Huret, Christophe; Klatzmann, David; Tartour, Eric; Lemoine, François M; Bellier, Bertrand

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in the development of anogenital tumors and also in the development of oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, where HPV-16, expressing the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, is the most frequent serotype. Although vaccines encoding L1 and L2 capsid HPV proteins are efficient for the prevention of HPV infection, they are inadequate for treating established tumors. Hence, development of innovative vaccine therapies targeting E6/E7 is important for controlling HPV-induced cancers. We have engineered a nononcogenic mutated E7-specific plasmo-retroVLP vaccine (pVLP-E7), consisting of plasmid DNA, that is able to form recombinant retrovirus-based virus-like particles (VLPs) that display E7 antigen into murine leukemia virus Gag proteins pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G). pVLP-E7 vaccinations were studied for their ability to generate specific immune responses and for induction of protective immunity against tumor cell challenge in preventive and therapeutic models. The produced VLPs induce the maturation of human dendritic cells in vitro and mount specific E7 T cell responses. Intradermic vaccinations of mice with pVLP-E7 show their efficacy to generate antigen-specific T cell responses, to prevent and protect animals from early TC-1 tumor development compared with standard DNA or VLP immunizations. The vaccine efficacy was also evaluated for advanced tumors in mice vaccinated at various time after the injection of TC-1 cells. Data show that pVLP-E7 vaccination can cure mice with already established tumors only when combined with Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) and TLR9 agonists. Our findings provide evidence that pVLPs, combining the advantages of DNA and VLP vaccines, appear to be a promising strategy for the treatment of HPV-induced cancers. PMID:23521528

  10. Immunization with Human Papillomavirus 16 L1+E2 Chimeric Capsomers Elicits Cellular Immune Response and Antitumor Activity in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Toledo, Gabriela; Schädlich, Lysann; Alonso-Castro, Ángel Josabad; Monroy-García, Alberto; García-Rocha, Rosario; Guido, Miriam C; Gissmann, Lutz; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Development of cervical cancer is associated with persistent infections by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Although current HPV L1-based prophylactic vaccines prevent infection, they do not help to eliminate prevalent infections or lesions. Our aims were (i) to generate a vaccine combining prophylactic and therapeutic properties by producing chimeric capsomers after fusion of the L1 protein to different fragments of E2 from HPV 16, and (ii) to evaluate their capacity to generate an antitumoral cellular response, while conserving L1 neutralizing epitopes. Chimeric proteins were produced in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-affinity chromatography. Their structure was characterized using size exclusion chromatography, sucrose gradient centrifugation, electron microscopy, and anti-L1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All chimeric proteins form capsomers and heterogeneous aggregates. One, containing part of the carboxy-terminal domain of E2 and its hinge region (L1Δ+E2H/NC, aa 206-307), conserved the neutralizing epitope H16.V5. We then evaluated the capacity of this chimeric protein to induce a cytotoxic T-cell response against HPV 16 E2. In (51)Cr release cytotoxicity assays, splenocytes from C57BL/6 immunized mice recognized and lysed TC-1/E2 cells, which express and present endogenously processed E2 peptides. Moreover, this E2-specific cytotoxic response inhibited the growth of tumors of TC-1/E2 cells in mice. Finally, we identified an epitope (aa 292-301) of E2 involved in this cytotoxic response. We conclude that the L1Δ+E2H/NC chimeric protein produced in bacteria can be an effective and economically interesting candidate for a combined prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine that could help eliminating HPV16-positive low-grade cervical lesions and persistent viral infections, thus preventing the development of lesions and, at the same time, the establishment of new infections. PMID:27058179

  11. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  12. The effects of citrus extract (Citrox©) on the naturally occurring microflora and inoculated pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella enterica, in a model food system and the traditional Greek yogurt-based salad Tzatziki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiraki, Maria I; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial effect of citrus extract (at 1 mL/kg [TC1] and 2 mL/kg [TC2]) on the naturally occurring microflora and inoculated pathogens (Bacillus cereus and Salmonella enterica, at ca. 6 log cfu/g) in the traditional Greek yogurt-based salad Tzatziki during storage under vacuum at 4 or 10 °C was examined. We also examined the effect of citrus extract (Citrox(©)) against the two aforementioned pathogens in tryptic soy broth (TSB). Of the two treatments, TC2 yielded the lowest yeast counts, irrespective of temperature, resulting in approximately 2 (4 °C) and 3 (10 °C) log reductions on the final day of storage (70 and 30 days, respectively). Although panelists preferred the TC1-treated salad, the TC2-treated product was sensorily acceptable. Therefore, at the concentrations used, Citrox had no negative sensorial effect on the Tzatziki. During storage, the Bacillus populations in the Citrox-treated Tzatziki samples progressively decreased, showing major declines from days 12 and 28 (at 10 and 4 °C, respectively). Citrox, especially at 2 mL/kg, had a significant effect on the survival of B. cereus. S. enterica showed major declines in all untreated Tzatziki samples from day 0-70 (4 °C) and from day 0-30 (10 °C), with averages of 2.5 and 2.8 log cfu/g, respectively. The results indicate that Citrox (at 1 and 2 mL/kg) is effective, from a safety standpoint, for reducing Bacillus and Salmonella spp. in Tzatziki. In addition, 2% citrus extract also showed a higher inhibitory effect against B. cereus and S. enterica grown in TSB than 1% citrus extract. PMID:26678142

  13. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

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    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  14. Selective Changes in the Immune Profile of Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes After Different Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Regimens for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess how neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens modulate the immune system state in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), in the setting of advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients undergoing chemotherapy only (nonirradiated, NI-TDLN) and chemoradiation with lower-dose (39.6 Gy, LD-TDLN) and higher-dose radiation (50 Gy, HD-TDLN) were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. Results: Enlarging our previous data, LD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an enhanced antitumor response as compared with NI-TDLN, namely a significant Th1 and Tc1 polarization and a lower amount of the potent CD4+Foxp3+CD25high regulatory T cell (Treg) subset identified by neuropilin-1 expression. Conversely, compared with NI-TDLN, HD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an impaired antitumor response, namely a significantly inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio, a higher Nrp1+Treg frequency, and a higher frequency of CCR4+Treg, a Treg subset facilitated in migrating out from TDLN to suppress the immune response against distant cancer cells. Moreover, the Th1 and Tc1 polarization induced by LD radiation was lost, and there was an unfavorable tolerogenic/immunogenic dendritic cell ratio compared with LD-TDLN. Conclusions: Even minor differences in radiation dose in neoadjuvant regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer are crucial for determining the balance between a tolerogenic and an efficacious antitumor immune response in TDLN. Because most of the anticancer immune response takes place in TDLN, the present findings also emphasize the importance of chemoradiation protocols in the context of immunotherapeutic trials.

  15. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15 slows cancer development but increases metastases in TRAMP prostate cancer prone mice.

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    Yasmin Husaini

    Full Text Available Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15, a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily, is over-expressed by many common cancers including those of the prostate (PCa and its expression is linked to cancer outcome. We have evaluated the effect of MIC-1/GDF15 overexpression on PCa development and spread in the TRAMP transgenic model of spontaneous prostate cancer. TRAMP mice were crossed with MIC-1/GDF15 overexpressing mice (MIC-1(fms to produce syngeneic TRAMP(fmsmic-1 mice. Survival rate, prostate tumor size, histopathological grades and extent of distant organ metastases were compared. Metastasis of TC1-T5, an androgen independent TRAMP cell line that lacks MIC-1/GDF15 expression, was compared by injecting intravenously into MIC-1(fms and syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. Whilst TRAMP(fmsmic-1 survived on average 7.4 weeks longer, had significantly smaller genitourinary (GU tumors and lower PCa histopathological grades than TRAMP mice, more of these mice developed distant organ metastases. Additionally, a higher number of TC1-T5 lung tumor colonies were observed in MIC-1(fms mice than syngeneic WT C57BL/6 mice. Our studies strongly suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 has complex actions on tumor behavior: it limits local tumor growth but may with advancing disease, promote metastases. As MIC-1/GDF15 is induced by all cancer treatments and metastasis is the major cause of cancer treatment failure and cancer deaths, these results, if applicable to humans, may have a direct impact on patient care.

  16. Genetic stability of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine vector seed library expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, JIE; CHEN, KE-DA; GAO, MENG; CHEN, GANG; JIN, SU-FENG; ZHUANG, FANG-CHENG; WU, XIAO-HONG; JIANG, YUN-SHUI; LI, JIAN-BO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the genetic stability of a master seed bank (MSB) and a working seed bank (WSB) of an adenovirus vector vaccine expressing the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7 fusion proteins (Ad-HPV16E6E7). Microscopic examination and viral infectious efficacy were used to measure the infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB. Polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the stability of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target gene insertion, while western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression levels of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target protein. A C57BL/6 mouse TC-1 tumor cell growth inhibition model was used to evaluate the biological effect of Ad-HPV16E6E7 administration. The infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 6.31×109 IU/ml and 3.0×109 IU/ml, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of the inserted target genes and target proteins were found to be stable. In the mouse TC-1 tumor inhibition analysis, when the virus titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 109 IU/ml, the tumor inhibition rate was 100%, which was significantly different when compared with the control group (χ2MSB=20.00 and χ2WSB=20.00; P<0.01). Therefore, the Ad-HPV16E6E7 vaccine seed bank is genetically stable and meets the requirements for vaccine development. PMID:25780403

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells differentially modulate effector CD8+ T cell subsets and exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Justin D; Smith, Matthew D; Calabresi, Peter A; Whartenby, Katharine A

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a promising candidate for inflammatory suppression and disease amelioration, especially of neuro-inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Auto-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells acquire pathogenic IFNγ-producing- (Type I) and IL-17A-producing- (Type 17) effector phenotypes in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although MSC have been extensively demonstrated to suppress pathogenic effector CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell-mediated EAE, surprisingly few studies have addressed their modulation of effector CD8+ T cells represented in MS or their impact on CD8+ T cell-mediated EAE. We find that MSC differentially modulate CD8+ T cell development depending on effector T cell subtype. MSC drive activated low-IFNγ producers toward an enhanced high-IFNγ Tc1-like phenotype but strongly inhibit the production of IL-17A and Tc17 polarization in vitro. These observations are underscored by differential MSC modulation of T cell activation, proliferation, and signature transcription factor up-regulation. In addition, effector CD8+ T cells co-cultured with MSC exhibited increased production of IL-2, a molecule known to enhance IFNγ, yet suppress IL-17A, production. Based on these in vitro effects on CD8+ T cells, we next evaluated their impact on the severity of EAE. To better evaluate CD8+ T cells, we immunized mice with MOG37-50 , which is a CD8-targeted epitope. Our results revealed a worsening of disease, consistent with their in vitro stimulation of Tc1 cells. These findings highlight the emerging duality of MSC in immune modulation and provide implications for their future use in immune-related diseases. PMID:24911892

  18. The role of Th17/Tc17 peripheral blood T cells in psoriasis and their positive therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdóttir, J H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Ólafsson, J H; Fridriksson, Th; Agnarsson, B A; Davíðsson, S; Valdimarsson, H; Lúðvíksson, B R

    2013-12-01

    It is known that NB-UVB therapy can suppress a broad range of immune cells, but the additional effect of bathing in geothermal seawater still remains unclear. To study the influence of treatment on the expression of circulating immune cells contributing to the pathogenesis of psoriasis, six patients with psoriasis were treated with bathing in geothermal seawater two times daily combined with NB-UVB five times/week for 2 weeks and six patients were treated with NB-UVB therapy three times/week for 8 weeks. Disease severity (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, PASI), chemokines, inflammatory cytokines, T cells and Toll-like receptors in the blood and skin samples were evaluated on enrolment (W0) and at 1 (W1), 3 (W3) and 8 (W8) weeks. Compared with healthy controls, psoriasis patients with active disease had significantly higher proportion of peripheral CLA+ T cells expressing CCR10 and CD103 and T cells with both Th1/Tc1 (CD4+/CD8+ IFN-γ+ or TNF-α+ cells) and Th17/Tc17 (CD4+CD45R0+IL-23R+, CD4+/CD8+ IL-17A+ or IL-22+ cells) phenotypes. Both treatments gave a significant clinical effect; however, bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy was more effective than NB-UVB therapy alone. This clinical improvement was reflected by a reduction in circulating CLA+ peripheral blood T cells and by a decreased Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the inflammatory response in psoriasis is predominantly driven by both CD4+ and CD8+ skin-homing tissue retaining T cells of the Th17/Tc17 lineages. PMID:24111693

  19. Differential Frequency of CD8+ T Cell Subsets in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Various Clinical Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zahra; Doosti, Rozita; Beheshti, Masoumeh; Janzamin, Ehsan; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Izad, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a pathogenic role for CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cells in Multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on cytokine profile, Tc cells can be divided into different subsets: IFN-γ (Tc1), IL-4 (Tc2), IL-10 (Tc10), IL-17 (Tc17), IL-21 (Tc21), IL-22 (Tc22) and TNF-α producing cells. In this study we evaluated the frequency of Tc cell subsets and the serum level of Tc17 differentiation cytokines in MS patients with different clinical patterns. We analyzed Tc cell subsets percentage in peripheral blood of relapsing-remitting (RRMS) (n = 28), secondary-progressive (SPMS) (n = 10) and primary-progressive (PPMS) (n = 4) MS patients in comparison to healthy controls (n = 15) using flow cytometry. Serum level of TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-23 were measured by ELISA. We showed elevated levels of Tc1 and Tc17 cells in SPMS and RRMS patients in relapse phase, respectively (P = 0.04). Interestingly, the percentage of TNF-α producing CD8+ T cells in relapse and remission phase of RRMS and SPMS patients were higher than controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.004, P = 0.01, respectively) and Tc21 increased in remission phase of RRMS compared to SPMS (P = 0.03). We also found higher frequency of CD8+ IFN-γ+ TNF-α+ IL-17+ T cells in relapse phase of RRMS compared to remission phase, SPMS patients and controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively). TGF- β increased in sera of RRMS patients in remission phase (P = 0.03) and SPMS (P = 0.05) compared to healthy subjects. Increased level of Tc17 and CD8+ IFN-γ+ TNF-α+ IL-17+ T cells in relapse phase highlights the critical role of IL-17 in RRMS pathogenesis. PMID:27467597

  20. Peripheral T lymphocyte subset imbalances in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Cai, Chunyan; Feng, Jinyan; Li, Xuejing; Wang, Yingshuo; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2014-02-13

    Inflammatory mediators (i.e. cytokines) play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathophysiological processes during EV71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Different T cell subsets have distinct cytokine secretion profiles, and alteration in the T cell subsets frequency (imbalance) during infection leads to changed cytokine patterns. However, the effects of EV71 infection on T cell subsets were not clear. The objective of this study was to determine whether EV71-induced HFMD can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells) and the cytokine they produced (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A and TGF-β1), as well as distinct responses to EV71 infection. We found that when compared to the control group, the percentage of Th1 and Tc1 cells was significantly higher in mild and severe HFMD group. Similar results were found in the Th1/Th2 ratio and IFN-γ levels. On the other hand, the percentage of Th17 cells and IL-17A levels were the highest in severe HFMD cases, and lowest in controls. Similar trend was also found for the Th17/Treg cell ratio. An optimal cutoff value of 2.15% for Th17 cell and 6.72 pg/ml for IL-17A provided a discriminatory value for differentiating the severity of HFMD cases by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. These findings reveal that the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg imbalance exist in HFMD patients, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, which may have potential value as biomarkers. PMID:24316007

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  2. Immune responses of recombinant adenovirus-5 vector vaccine of human papillomavirus type 16 E6E7 and its anti-tumor effects in mice%表达人乳头瘤病毒16型E6E7重组腺病毒疫苗对小鼠的免疫和抗肿瘤效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 陈刚; 金素凤; 高孟; 庄昉成; 李剑波; 姜云水; 毛子安

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价HPV16 E6E7的复制缺陷型重组5型腺病毒(PK-HPV-ad5)治疗性疫苗对实验小鼠免疫应答和抗肿瘤的生物学效应.方法 使用基因重组技术构建PK-HPV-ad5疫苗,并通过小鼠免疫试验,检测小鼠总抗体和特异性IFNγ,同时将造模小鼠分成疫苗组和对照组,分别对其进行抑瘤试验、TC-1肿瘤细胞挑战试验和肿瘤切除后防复发试验.结果 HPV16 E6E7诱导的总抗体第12天的水平相对较高(1:400~1:600);3批次疫苗特异性IFNγ在第14天与对照组比较分别升高8.6、5.9和8.9倍,差异有统计学意义(t=15.721、6.967和14.342,P均<0.01).抑瘤试验表明疫苗剂量为107IU/只时小鼠肿瘤生长率为0,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(确切概率法,P<0.01),3批次疫苗验证有效剂量为107IU/只时肿瘤抑制率可达80%(8/10)以上.TC-1肿瘤细胞挑战试验结果显示:小鼠先接种疫苗能引起特异性的免疫应答,并能保护90%(9/10)的小鼠免受TC-1肿瘤细胞的攻击;肿瘤切除后防止复发试验提示在注射相同剂量疫苗时,对104个/只和105个/只肿瘤细胞造模小鼠,第0、5天免疫组肿瘤复发数少于第5,8天免疫组(1/10,4/10 vs 8/10,7/10).结论 PK-HPV-ad5疫苗能诱导小鼠产生特异性的免疫应答,对抗肿瘤复发有治疗潜力.%Objective To evaluate the immune responses and anti-tumor effects of replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus-5 vector vaccine of human papillomavirus type 16 E6E7 as a theraputic vaccine (PK-HPV-ad5) in mouse models.Methods PK-HPV-ad5 vaccine was constructed by gene recombination technique.HPV16E6E7 total antibody and specific IFNγ of the vaccine were detected by mouse immune experiment.The model mice were divided into vaccine group and control group,and were used for anti-tumor test,TC-1 tumor cell challenge test and evaluation of tumor excision combined with vaccine to prevent tumor recurrence.Results HPV16 E6E7 total antibody increased to a

  3. 小鼠骨髓间充质干细胞减轻胰岛移植物排斥反应的作用%The effect of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on islet graft rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春艳; 李富荣; 王新根; 齐晖; 任莉莉; 周汉新; 邓绍平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨同种异基因小鼠骨髓间充质干细胞(MSC)与胰岛联合移植对胰岛移植物的免疫调节作用.方法 将18只糖尿病模型小鼠随机分成3组:(1)糖尿病组,不进行任何移植;(2)胰岛移植组,在无菌操作下将10μl纯化后的200个胰岛移植于受者的左肾包膜下;(3)胰岛+MSC移植组,除与胰岛移植组进行相同的移植外,还在胰岛移植前3、2、0d经受者尾静脉分别注射1×106个MSC.移植后,连续监测非空腹血糖至第30 d;第14和28 d对移植部位的左肾进行组织病理学观察;采集外周血进行免疫荧光染色,流式细胞术分析TH1/TH2、Tc1/Tc2细胞的比值、初始和记忆T淋巴细胞的变化、以及骨髓来源的树突状细胞(DC)成熟度和功能的变化.结果 与胰岛移植组比较,胰岛+MSC移植组血糖明显降低,移植部位炎症细胞浸润明显减轻,移植物的存活时间延长;TH1和Tc1细胞明显下降,TH2和Tc2细胞升高,TH1/TH2和Tc1/Tc2细胞比值显著下降;初始T淋巴细胞和记忆T淋巴细胞下调;DC成熟度降低,分泌白细胞介素12(IL-12)的能力下降.结论 MSC与胰岛联合移植可通过对T淋巴细胞和树突状细胞的免疫调节作用,减轻胰岛移植物的排斥反应,从而延长移植胰岛的存活时间.%Objective To investigate the immune regulatory effects of allogeneic bone marrowderived mesenchyrnal stem cells (MSCs) co-transplanted with islets. Methods The 18 diabetic mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: Diabetic group, without any transplantation; Islet transplantation group, in a sterile operation, with 10 μl purified islets (about 200 islets)transplantation to the left renal subcapsule of recipients; Islet + MSCs transplantation group, in addition to transplantation as the former group, 1 × 106 MSCs were given to the recipients via tail vein on 3, 2 and 0 days before islet transplantation. Blood glucose in recipient mice was monitored for 30consecutive days after

  4. Bacterial diversity in soil in response to different plans, phosphate fertilizers and liming Diversidade bacteriana do solo em resposta a diferentes plantas, fertilizantes fosfatados e calagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of bacterial isolates from soil in response to different plants (control, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Cajanus cajan, fertilization (control, simple superphosphate and rock phosphate and liming (with and without lime was evaluated. Phenotypic and physiological characteristics of the isolates were recorded and organized in a file to identify the bacteria. Among the isolates, 95% were Gram-positive and 5% Gram-negative rods. Soil cultivated with B. ruziziensis favored the nonsporing Gram-positive and Gram-negative rods compared to soils with C. cajan or uncultivated. Number of spore-forming Gram-positive rods were higher in plots with superphosphate than in unfertilized soil or soil fertilized with rock phosphate. In unfertilized plots, larger number of Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was obtained than in fertilized plots. Unlimed plots favored spore-forming Gram-positive rods, Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods, while with liming a larger proportion of nonsporing Gram-positive rods was found. From 7 to 86% of the total isolates utilized different carbohydrates. The recording data used in this experiment was effective in the isolates identification, and might be useful for diagnosis of soil bacteria. Bacillus, Cellulomonas, Rhodococcus, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus and Arthrobacter were the genera more commonly found. Bacterial diversity was enhanced in limed, unfertilized and plant cultivated plots.Este estudo avaliou a diversidade de bactérias isoladas do solo em resposta a diferentes plantas (controle, Brachiaria ruziziensis e Cajanus cajan, fertilizantes (controle, superfosfato simples e fosfato de rocha e calagem (com e sem calcário. As características fenotípicas e fisiológicas dos isolados foram registradas e organizadas em um arquivo para identificar as bactérias. Entre os isolados, 95% foram de bactérias Gram positivas e 5% bacilos Gram negativos. B. ruziziensis favoreceu mais os bacilos

  5. Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Cook, Simon; Elliott, David; Sen, Robin

    2016-04-01

    following 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetics. Basal ice communities comprised a mix of soil and glacial bacteria, with higher proportion of ice-related bacteria in dispersed cryofacies (Polaromonas sp, Flavobacterium xinjiangense) and a water (Arthrobacter agilis) and soil-related microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp) in the debris bands, similar to sub-glacial sediment. During debris band formation, microorganisms from bedrock and overridden soils can be entrained into the ice matrix and those which have adapted to icy conditions can proliferate, explaining the higher viable bacterial counts on dispersed ice as well as higher proportions of glacial isolated-related microorganisms. Once the subglacial sediment and basal ice are released from the glacier and as soil age increases, increased representation of soil-related microbiota (Arthrobacter alpinus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) were identified. The results in this study suggest cultivable communities shift in two directions: firstly, within the basal ice layer from subglacial sediment, dominated by soil and water communities towards dispersed ice with a high proportion of glacial communities. The other shift occurs when subglacial sediment is released into the forefront, where the composition changes towards a soil-like microbiota with increase in soil age.

  6. Optimization of polysaccharides production by bacteria isolated from soil Otimização das condições de produção de polissacarídeos por bactérias isoladas do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Messias Bueno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Six polysaccharide-producing bacteria, isolated from soil samples and identified as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter (Strains 3B, 4B, 7B, 21B, 18E and 21D, were tested for the yield of polysaccharides produced during growth in two culture media: one containing glucose and the other sucrose (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. The yield was quantified measuring the viscosity of the broth, using the Poiscuille equation. The effect of temperature and pH of the culture media was investigated. The largest polysaccharide yield was obtained when the concentration of the carbon source was lower than 2%. Glucose and sucrose stimulated the polysaccharide production in a similar way. When the initial pH of the fermentation broth was increased from 5.0 up to 7.0, there was an increase in polysaccharide production. However, higher values (pH=8.0 caused a decrease in polysaccharide production. With regard to temperature, 30ºC was shown to be optimum, since higher or lower temperatures had a negative effect on saccharide production.Seis bactérias produtoras de polissacarídeos isoladas de amostras do solo (3B, 4B, 7B, 21B, 18E e 21D pertencentes aos gêneros Pseudomonas e Arthrobacter, foram testadas quanto ao rendimento da produção de polissacarídeos em dois caldos de cultura: um com glicose e outro com sacarose, nas concentrações de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5%. O rendimento foi calculado medindo-se a viscosidade dos caldos, através da equação de Poiseuille. Também foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de incubação (25, 30 e 35ºC e o do pH (5, 6, 7 e 8 dos meios de cultura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que concentrações da fonte de carbono até 2% apresentaram os maiores rendimentos do polissacarídeo. Glicose e sacarose estimularam a produção de polissacarídeos de forma similar. Quando o pH inicial do caldo de fermentação aumentou de 5,0 para 7,0 ocorreu um aumento da produção do polissacarídeo. Entretanto, valores mais altos (pH=8,0 causaram uma diminuição na

  7. Isolation and Identification of Psychrotrophic Bacteria in Normal Temperature Soils and Their Properties of Cold-Adapted Enzymes Production%常温土壤中耐冷茵的分离、鉴定及产酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易浪波; 舒琅; 唐云涛; 朱越; 杜次; 彭清忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen cold-adapted microorganisms from normal temperature soils,and identify the isolated strains preliminarily and assay their cold-active enzyme production. Methods: Cold-adapted microorganisms were isolated from normal temperature soils at the campus of Jishou university by enrichment culture at 2℃. The isolated strains were identified by bacterial morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics,and using phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The cold-adapted enzyme production of these bacteria was analyzed by substrate hydrolysis experiments. Results: Six strains of psychrotrophic bacteria,named afterJSBP-1~JSBP-6,were isolated from the normal temperature soil samples,and identified as Pseudomonas sp.,Jan-thinobacterium sp. And Arthrobacter sp. Respectively by morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics,and the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. JSBP-1 had the capability of producing more cold-adapted protease,JSBP-2 and JSBP-6 had the capability of producing more cold-adapted amylase at 5℃ and \\5℃ respectively,and JSBP-5 could produce more cold-active lipase only at 5℃. Conclusion: There are a certain amount of cold-adapted microorganisms in normal temperature soils,of which Pseudomonas sp. Is one of predominant populations. These microorganisms are potential resources of producing cold-adapted enzymes.%目的:从常温土壤中筛选冷适应微生物,并进行初步鉴定和产低温酶分析.方法:采集吉首大学校园内土壤样品,通过低温富集培养筛选冷适应微生物;通过形态观察、生理生化特性检测和基于16S rRNA基因序列的系统发育分析,对分离的菌株进行初步鉴定;利用平板筛选法检测其产低温酶特性.结果:分离获得6株耐冷细菌JSBP-1~JSBP-6,初步鉴定其分属假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、紫色杆菌属(Janthinobacterium)和节杆菌属(Arthrobacter);在5℃和15C培养条件下,菌株JSBP-1

  8. 新疆油污土壤中石油烃降解菌筛选及鉴定%Screen and identification of oH-degrading bacteria from oil polluted soil in Xingjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉萍; 王红英; 刘素辉; 倪萍; 马海梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify petroleum-degrading bacteria from oil-polluted soil in Karamay of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Methods By enriching the polluted soil with petroleum hydrocarbons as the only carbon source,the oil-degradation bacterium from oil-contaminated soil was screened and identified by its 16S rDNA sequencing. Then basic local alignment search tool( BLAST) was used to indicate the sequence of the isolates from the GenBank. Results Totally 18 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from oil-polluted soil. The sequence of its 16S rDNA indicated that there were 98% of homology to the representative strains. The main strain were Pseudomonas sp. , Planococcus sp. , Arthrobacter sp. ,Psychrobacter sp. ,Brevibacillus agri sp. ,and Brevundimonas sp.. The bacteria strains from different oil-polluted soil were different and there were more bacteria strains in heavy oil-polluted soil. Conclusion The main strain was Pseudomonas sp. In oil-polluted soid and the bacteria strains were different in different oil-polluted soil.%目的 从新疆克拉玛依油田油污土壤中筛选具有降解能力的菌株,为今后构建本源石油降解微生物菌群提供技术支持和菌种储备.方法通过以石油烃为唯一碳源的选择培养基的分离培养,获得能够利用石油烃为碳源的菌株,并通过16S rDNA序列测定方法对菌株进行鉴定.结果分离得到18株能以石油作为唯一碳源和能源的石油降解菌株,通过序列分析,初步鉴定为假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)、动性球菌属(Planococcus sp.)、节杆菌属(Arthrobacter sp.)、嗜冷杆菌(Psychrobacter sp.)、短杆菌属(Brevibacillus agri sp.)等5类.在不同土壤中分离出的降解菌株不同,含油量较高的土壤中种类较多.结论新疆克拉玛依油田油污土壤中的石油降解菌株以假单胞菌属为主,而且随着污染严重程度的不同降解菌株的种类也不同.

  9. Microbial Community Profile and Water Quality in a Protected Area of the Caatinga Biome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Alvares Cardoso Lopes

    Full Text Available The Caatinga is a semi-arid biome in northeast Brazil. The Paraguaçú River is located in the Caatinga biome, and part of its course is protected by the National Park of Chapada Diamantina (PNCD. In this study we evaluated the effect of PNCD protection on the water quality and microbial community diversity of this river by analyzing water samples obtained from points located inside and outside the PNCD in both wet and dry seasons. Results of water quality analysis showed higher levels of silicate, ammonia, particulate organic carbon, and nitrite in samples from the unprotected area compared with those from protected areas. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that Burkholderiales was abundant in samples from all three sites during both seasons and was represented primarily by the genus Polynucleobacter and members of the Comamonadaceae family (e.g., genus Limnohabitans. During the dry season, the unprotected area showed a higher abundance of Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp., which are frequently associated with the presence and/or degradation of arsenic and pesticide compounds. In addition, genes that appear to be related to agricultural impacts on the environment, as well as those involved in arsenic and cadmium resistance, copper homeostasis, and propanediol utilization, were detected in the unprotected areas by metagenomic sequencing. Although PNCD protection improves water quality, agricultural activities around the park may affect water quality within the park and may account for the presence of bacteria capable of pesticide degradation and assimilation, evidencing possible anthropogenic impacts on the Caatinga.

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTIPICA Y MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS AISLADAS DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO CON DIESEL Y SOMETIDO A DOS TECNOLOGÍAS DE BIORREMEDIACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARRIETA R. OLGA M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta la biorremediación como alternativa para la recuperación de ecosistemas contaminados. En este trabajo se realizó un derrame experimental de diesel sobre un suelo de pastoreo, el cual fue remediado haciendo uso de dos tecnologías de biorremediación: atenuación natural; conocida como la capacidad natural de los microorganismos nativos para degradar en un tiempo determinado cualquier compuesto xenobiótico, y bioestimulación; conocida como la adición al medio de nutrientes (fosforo y nitrógeno con el fin de estimular el metabolismo de los microorganismos nativos, logrando con esto acelerar el proceso de degradación. Los resultados de la prueba de respirometría indicaron que ambos tratamientos produjeron valores significativos de remoción del hidrocarburo pero el tratamiento de bioestimulación se destacó con el 98,17% de degradación. Se obtuvieron siete aislamientos bacterianos a partir de las siembras realizadas, según la caracterización molecular pertenecen a los géneros: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus y Flavobacterium. Todos los aislamientos fueron capaces de metabolizar el diesel como fuente de carbono y energía; por ello y teniendo en cuenta que para algunos de estos microorganismos su papel en biorremediación no ha sido estudiado extensivamente, se recomienda continuar con su evaluación para conocer cuál es realmente su potencial para la solución de problemas ambientales.

  11. Production of Levan by Bacillus licheniformis for Use as a Soil Sealant in Earthen Manure Storage Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Manure application is not permitted on frozen land in Canada and therefore, manure management and storage are the primary issues facing the agri-food industry. Low-cost, effective and environmentally safe earthen manure storage (EMS facilities will lower costs and help make the livestock industry more competitive and efficient. The goal of this study was to develop a biological sealing technology for earthen manure storages. The results showed that it is feasible to use a growing culture of Bacillus licheniformis to produce a non viscous water insoluble levan. Levan can only be produced by Bacillus licheniformis during the growth mode. No levan was produced during the death phase. About 0. 36 g of levan was produced per gram of sucrose which is 91. 1% of theoretical yield. The polymer can be used as a plugging agent to plug the pores of high permeability soils. From the biological and biochemical characteristics of the Bacillus licheniformis, it appears that the organism is capable of producing levan from sucrose under most field and soil conditions. As a soil organism, Bacillus licheniformis should be able to compete with most common soil species such as Arthrobacter and Bacillus. The bacteria could be grown either in the non-polysaccharide producing mode or in the polysaccharide producing mode. The first would permit distribution of the bacteria to the lower soil layers but would delay the production of the polysaccharide due to the lag period required to produce the enzyme (levansucrase. Upon production of levan, pore spaces would close and hence, the hydraulic conductivity would be substantially reduced.

  12. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  13. Microbial community characterization and functional gene quantification in RDX-degrading microcosms derived from sediment and groundwater at two naval sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernanda Paes; Cupples, Alison M

    2016-08-01

    The explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has long been recognized as a problematic environmental pollutant, and efforts to remediate contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater have been going on for decades. In recent years, much interest has focused on using bioremediation to clean up these sites. The current study investigated the microorganisms (16S rRNA genes, Illumina) and functional genes (xenA, xenB, and xplA) linked to RDX biodegradation in microcosms composed of sediment or groundwater from two Navy sites. For this, experiments included sediment samples from three depths (5 to 30 ft) from two wells located in one Navy site. In addition, the groundwater upstream and downstream of an emulsified oil biobarrier was examined from another Navy site. Further, for the groundwater experiments, the effect of glucose addition was explored. For the sediment experiments, the most enriched phylotypes during RDX degradation varied over time, by depth and well locations. However, several trends were noted, including the enrichment of Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, and Sporolactobacillus in the sediment microcosms. For the groundwater-based experiments, Pseudomonas, unclassified Rhodocyclaceae, Sphingomonas, and Rhodococcus were also highly abundant during RDX degradation. The abundance of both xplA and xenA significantly increased during RDX degradation compared to the control microcosms for many treatments (both groundwater and sediment microcosms). In a limited number of microcosms, the copy number of the xenB gene increased. Phylotype data were correlated with functional gene data to highlight potentially important biomarkers for RDX biodegradation at these two Navy sites. PMID:27118012

  14. Phylogenetic diversity of alkaline protease-producing psychrotrophic bacteria from glacier and cold environments of Lahaul and Spiti, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwan, Richa; Gulati, Arvind; Kasana, Ramesh Chand

    2010-04-01

    The diversity of proteolytic bacteria associated with a glacier and cold environment soils from three different locations in Lahaul and Spiti, India was investigated. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were isolated in pure culture. Subsequently these strains were screened for protease-production and one hundred nine showed protease production. From these protease producing psychrotrophic bacteria twenty showing high enzyme production at low temperature and alkaline pH were characterized and identified. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that none of the strains showed 100% identity with the validly published species of various genera. Isolates belonged to three classes i.e. Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Mycoplana, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. The optimal growth temperature ranged from 10 to 28 degrees C and interestingly, high levels of enzyme productions were measured at growth temperatures between 15 and 25 degrees C, for most of the isolates in plate assay. Most of the isolates were found to produce at least two other hydrolytic enzymes along with protease. The crude protease from one strain was active over broad range of temperature and pH with optima at 30 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The protease activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol. While Na(+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid did not showed much effect on protease activity. The results enrich our knowledge on the psychrotrophic bacterial diversity and biogeographic distribution of enzyme producing bacteria in western Himalaya. PMID:20082368

  15. A mineralogical characterization of biogenic calcium carbonates precipitated by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from cryophilic polar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronholm, J; Schumann, D; Sapers, H M; Izawa, M; Applin, D; Berg, B; Mann, P; Vali, H; Flemming, R L; Cloutis, E A; Whyte, L G

    2014-11-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3(s) ) can be driven by microbial activity. Here, a systematic approach is used to identify the morphological and mineralogical characteristics of CaCO3(s) precipitated during the heterotrophic growth of micro-organisms isolated from polar environments. Focus was placed on establishing mineralogical features that are common in bioliths formed during heterotrophic activity, while in parallel identifying features that are specific to bioliths precipitated by certain microbial phylotypes. Twenty microbial isolates that precipitated macroscopic CaCO3(s) when grown on B4 media supplemented with calcium acetate or calcium citrate were identified. A multimethod approach, including scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), was used to characterize CaCO3(s) precipitates. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that complete CaCO3(s) crystal encrustation of Arthrobacter sp. cells was common, while encrustation of Rhodococcus sp. cells did not occur. Several euhedral and anhedral mineral formations including disphenoid-like epitaxial plates, rhomboid-like aggregates with epitaxial rhombs, and spherulite aggregates were observed. While phylotype could not be linked to specific mineral formations, isolates tended to precipitate either euhedral or anhedral minerals, but not both. Three anhydrous CaCO3(s) polymorphs (calcite, aragonite, and vaterite) were identified by μ-XRD, and calcite and aragonite were also identified based on TEM lattice-fringe d value measurements. The presence of certain polymorphs was not indicative of biogenic origin, although several mineralogical features such as crystal-encrusted bacterial cells, or casts of bacterial cells embedded in mesocrystals are an indication of biogenic origin. In addition, some features such as the formation of vaterite and bacterial entombment appear to be linked to certain phylotypes. Identifying

  16. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. PMID:26156136

  17. Bacterial contamination of orally-consumed crude herbal remedies:A potential source for multi-drug resistant patho-gens in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.G.Oyero; A.O.B.Oyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The acceptability of herbal remedies for alleviating discomforts and ill-health has become very pop-ular,on the account of the increasing cost of allopathic medicine for personal health maintenance.The observ-able non-adherence of herbalists to the established World Health Organization (WHO)/National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC)regulations for the quality control of herbal medicines is an issue for concern.In view of this,34 popular and widely consumed crude herbal remedies in southwestern,Ni-geria were screened for compliance with standard limits for bacterial contamination,bacteria flora and their an-tibiotic susceptibility pattern.Methods:Isolates recovered from samples were identified using the cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics.They were also tested for drug sensitivity using standard proce-dures.Results:A heavy bacteria load ranging from 3.00 ×103 -9.58 ×105 CFU /ML and 1.20 ×105 -5.41 ×105 CFU /ML was observed for water and spirit extracted preparations respectively.The bacteria flora cum contaminants were:Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus subtilis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus,Lactobacillus plantarum,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Escherichia coli,streptococcus,Shigella, Neisseria,Arthrobacter,Kurthia and Clostridium species.All the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.Conclusion:The crude herbal preparations consumed in Nigeria failed to comply with the internation-ally recognized standards regarding bacteria load and flora.The presence of MDR pathogens is of greatest con-cern.It poses a great risk to consumer's health and could be a source of introducing MDR organisms into the human population.There is the need for the enforcement of established guidelines to ensure the safety of these preparations.

  18. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  19. Stereospecific microbial reduction of 4,5-dihydro-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl-1H-1)-benzazepin+ ++-2-o ne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R N; Robison, R S; Szarka, L J; Kloss, J; Thottathil, J K; Mueller, R H

    1991-11-01

    A key intermediate, (3R-cis)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(trifluorome thyl)- 2H-1-benzazepin-2-one (compound II or SQ32191), with high optical purity was made by the stereoselective microbial reduction of the parent ketone 1. Several strains of bacterial and yeast cultures were screened for the ability to catalyse the stereoselective reduction of 4,5-dihydro-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-1-benzazepin++ +-2,3-dione [compound I or SQ32425]. Microorganisms from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Alkaligenes, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Hansenula, and Candida reduced compound I to compound II with 60-70% conversion yield. In contrast, microorganisms from the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter reduced compound I stereospecifically to (trans)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(trifluoromet hyl-2H- 1-benzazepin-2-one (compound III or SQ32408). Among various cultures evaluated, N. salmonicolor SC6310 effectively catalysed the transformation of compound I to compound II with 96% conversion yield at 1.5-2.0 gl-1 concentration. Compound II was isolated and identified by NMR analysis, mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic sample. Preparative scale fermentation process and transformation process were developed using cell suspensions of N. salmonicolor SC6310 to catalyse the transformation of compound I to compound II. The isolated compound II had a melting point of 222 degrees C (reference 221-223 degrees C), optical rotation of +130.4 (reference +128 degrees C), and optical purity of greater than 99.9% as analyzed by NMR and chiral HPLC. PMID:1368001

  20. Role of electrostatics at the catalytic metal binding site in xylose isomerase action: Ca(2+)-inhibition and metal competence in the double mutant D254E/D256E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxreiter, M; Böcskei, Z; Szeibert, A; Szabó, E; Dallmann, G; Naray-Szabo, G; Asboth, B

    1997-06-01

    The catalytic metal binding site of xylose isomerase from Arthrobacter B3728 was modified by protein engineering to diminish the inhibitory effect of Ca2+ and to study the competence of metals on catalysis. To exclude Ca2+ from Site 2 a double mutant D254E/D256E was designed with reduced space available for binding. In order to elucidate structural consequences of the mutation the binary complex of the mutant with Mg2+ as well as ternary complexes with bivalent metal ions and the open-chain inhibitor xylitol were crystallized for x-ray studies. We determined the crystal structures of the ternary complexes containing Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ at 2.2 to 2.5 A resolutions, and refined them to R factors of 16.3, 16.6, and 19.1, respectively. We found that all metals are liganded by both engineered glutamates as well as by atoms O1 and O2 of the inhibitor. The similarity of the coordination of Ca2+ to that of the cofactors as well as results with Be2+ weaken the assumption that geometry differences should account for the catalytic noncompetence of this ion. Kinetic results of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme showed that the significant decrease in Ca2+ inhibition was accompanied by a similar reduction in the enzymatic activity. Qualitative argumentation, based on the protein electrostatic potential, indicates that the proximity of the negative side chains to the substrate significantly reduces the electrostatic stabilization of the transition state. Furthermore, due to the smaller size of the catalytic metal site, no water molecule, coordinating the metal, could be observed in ternary complexes of the double mutant. Consequently, the proton shuttle step in the overall mechanism should differ from that in the wild type. These effects can account for the observed decrease in catalytic efficiency of the D254E/D256E mutant enzyme. PMID:9188736