Sample records for arthritis histology ultrastructure

  1. Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective


    Gribbins, Kevin M


    Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the ...

  2. Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective. (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M


    Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the entire ontogenic progression of germ cells through the phases of reptilian spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis). The purpose of this review is to provide an ultrastructural and histological atlas of spermatogenesis in reptiles. The morphological details provided here are the first of their kind and can hopefully provide histological information on spermatogenesis that can be compared to that already known for anamniotes (fish and amphibians), birds and mammals. The data supplied in this review will provide a basic model that can be utilized for the study of sperm development in other reptiles. The use of such an atlas will hopefully stimulate more interest in collecting histological and ultrastructural data sets on spermatogenesis that may play important roles in future nontraditional phylogenetic analyses and histopathological studies in reptiles.

  3. Lipoid proteinosis: clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural investigations. (United States)

    Muda, A O; Paradisi, M; Angelo, C; Mostaccioli, S; Atzori, F; Puddu, P; Faraggiana, T


    The case of a 12-year-old boy with lipoid proteinosis is reported. Physical examination revealed long-standing varicella-like scars and areas of hyperpigmentation on the face and upper limbs with no evidence of photosensitivity, hoarseness, small papules along the free margins of eyelids, tongue firmness with short frenulum, and widespread papular lesions of the oral cavity. Histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed the characteristic skin changes: pink, hyaline-like, strongly periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in the dermis, surrounding blood vessels, and sweat glands; thin (30 to 35 nm) collagen fibrils interspersed in abundant amorphous material; blood vessels surrounded by thickened, multilayered basement membranes, in which layers of typical, homogeneous basement membrane material were alternating with electronlucent areas filled by various amounts of thin, cross-striated fibrils, arranged perpendicularly. These findings are of great interest since they show a complex relationship between type IV and type III-like collagen components.

  4. Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) powders: ultrastructural and histological analysis. (United States)

    Spinelli, M S; Maccauro, G; Graci, C; Cittadini, A; Magnani, G; Sangiorgi, S; Del Bravo, V; Manicone, P F; Raffaelli, L; Muratori, F; Sgambato, A


    Ceramic materials, as Alumina and Zirconia, has made an improvement in the choice of new biomaterials for the load bearing application in dental and orthopaedic implants. These materials has shown mechanical resistance to high stress related to weight bearing and low debris in time. For this reason they are indicated on young patients implant, with high demanding activities and long life expectance. In literature however the risk of chronic inflammation due to chronic wear debris release and the possibility of carcinogenesis, is still to be definitively investigated. Another point to investigate is the acute reaction of the tissue in case of acute release of powders of these materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible local and systemic acute effects of ceramic precursors in form of powders of different size when released into articular joint. Powders of ZTA were implanted in the knee joint of twenty-four New Zealand white adult rabbits, that were sacrificed at 1,3,6, and 12 months. Radiographic, histological and immunoistochemestry analysis were conducted on periprosthetic tissue and peripheral organs, to verifying local host response and systemic toxic effects.

  5. Acute leukemia of adults. Ultrastructural, cytochemical and histologic observations in 100 cases. (United States)

    Glick, A D; Paniker, K; Flexner, J M; Graber, S E; Collins, R D


    In order to establish guidelines for categorization of acute leukemia, marrow histology, special stains, and electron microscopy were performed in 100 adult leukemia cases. Differential counts for each stain were performed, and the results were combined with those obtained by electron microscopy for final classification. Myeloid (non-lymphoid) leukemia was most common (83 cases), and there were 13 lymphoid cases, two cases of erythroleukemia, and two undifferentiated leukemias. Histologic studies of marrow particles revealed significant admixtures of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and abnormal erythroid elements, particularly in acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Interpretations of cytochemical results were confirmed by ultrastructural studies in 90% of the cases. Clinically significant discrepancies between cytochemical and ultrastructural interpretations were rarely found. Only two myeloid and five lymphoid cases did not mark typically with any cytochemical stain. The single most reliable special stain was the periodic acid-Schiff stain, whereas the stain most difficult to interpret was the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase stain. Sudan black stain was particularly helpful in demonstrating Auer rods. Five of six cases unclassified by cytochemistry were categorized by electron microscopy. Although patterns of cytochemical staining were delineated for each type of leukemia, significant intragroup variation in cytochemical reactions was recognized. This study indicates that ultrastructural examination should be routinely used for categorization of cases with equivocal cytochemical findings and for analysis of unclassified cases.

  6. Large-scale tissue clearing (PACT): Technical evaluation and new perspectives in immunofluorescence, histology, and ultrastructure (United States)

    Neckel, Peter H.; Mattheus, Ulrich; Hirt, Bernhard; Just, Lothar; Mack, Andreas F.


    Novel techniques, like CLARITY and PACT, render large tissue specimens transparent and thereby suitable for microscopic analysis. We used these techniques to evaluate their potential in the intestine as an exemplary organ with a complex tissue composition. Immunohistochemistry, light sheet-, and confocal scanning-microscopy enabled us to follow complex three-dimensional structures, like nerve fibers, vessels, and epithelial barriers throughout the entire organ. Moreover, in a systematic electron microscopic study, we analyzed the morphology and preservation of tissue on ultrastructural level during the clearing process. We also connect tissue clearing with classical histology and demonstrate that cleared tissues can be stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Heidenhain’s Azan stain, suggesting potential use in histopathology. These experiments showed that a neutral pH during the clearing process results in much better preservation of tissue ultrastructure and standard stainability. Volume changes of specimens were monitored and quantified during the course of the protocol. Additionally, we employed the technique to visualize the enteric nervous system and the epithelial barrier in post mortem human gut preparations. Our data show the high potential of tissue clearing throughout different tissue types supporting its usefulness in research and diagnosis, and contribute to the technical discussion of ultrastructural tissue-retention. PMID:27680942

  7. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study. (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  8. Histological and ultrastructural study on the medial canthal ligament of blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dan-ping; ZHUO Ye-hong; CAI Jian-hao; XU Nuo; ZHONG Xiu-feng; YU Yang-yang; LAI Zhao-guang; GONG Di; GE Jian


    Background Blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare congenital ophthalmic disorder,characterized by congenital eyelid malformation including bilateral ptosis, shortening of the horizontal eyelid fissure,epicanthus inversus, and increased distance between the inner canthi. In this research, we studied the histological structure and ultrastructure of medial canthal ligament of patients with BPES.Methods Thirty patients with BPES who received plastic surgery at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from March 2006 to January 2008 were studied. There were 17 males and 13 females with an average age of (8.73±3.37) years (3-31 years). The medial canthal ligaments of patients were collected during the plastic surgery to analyze the histological structure by hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Congo red, van Gieson's (VG), Masson trichrome and aldehyde-fuchsin staining. The ultrastructures of the medial canthal ligaments were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fifteen samples of medial canthal ligament from healthy persons with an average age of (9.02±3.12) years (6-30 years) were collected as a control group.Results Morphological and histological study showed that the medial canthal ligaments of BPES patients were composed of collagen fibers, a few elastic fibers and striated muscles. The collagen fibers assemblies were disorganized and the fibrous connective tissues were undergoing hyaline degeneration. The karyopycnosis of fibroblasts was located among the collagen fibrils and the numbers of fibroblasts were decreased. Ultrastructural study with SEM showed that the collagen fibers were larger than normal, irregular and loose. Parts of the collagen fibers were broken and had a coarse surface. Ultrastructural study with TEM showed that the fibroblasts had less cytoplasm, fewer organelles and the nucleus displayed pyknosis.Conclusions The medial canthal ligament in BPES patients is composed

  9. Gross, histological and ultrastructural morphology of the aglomerular kidney in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus. (United States)

    Fogelson, S B; Yanong, R P E; Kane, A; Teal, C N; Berzins, I K; Smith, S A; Brown, C; Camus, A


    Histologic evaluation of the renal system in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus reveals a cranial kidney with low to moderate cellularity, composed of a central dorsal aorta, endothelial lined capillary sinusoids, haematopoietic tissue, fine fibrovascular stroma, ganglia and no nephrons. In comparison, the caudal kidney is moderately to highly cellular with numerous highly convoluted epithelial lined tubules separated by interlacing haematopoietic tissue, no glomeruli, fine fibrovascular stroma, numerous capillary sinusoids, corpuscles of Stannius and clusters of endocrine cells adjacent to large calibre vessels. Ultrastructural evaluation of the renal tubules reveals minimal variability of the tubule epithelium throughout the length of the nephron and the majority of tubules are characterized by epithelial cells with few apical microvilli, elaborate basal membrane infolding, rare electron dense granules and abundant supporting collagenous matrix.

  10. Pancreatic involvement in co-infection visceral leishmaniasis and HIV: histological and ultrastructural aspects

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    CHEHTER Ethel Zimberg


    Full Text Available The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in the co-infection of HIV and Leishmania is rarely reported. We report the case of an HIV-infected adult man co-infected with a disseminated form of leishmaniasis involving the liver, lymph nodes, spleen and, as a feature reported for the first time in the English literature, the pancreas. Light microscopy showed amastigote forms of Leishmania in pancreatic macrophages and immunohistochemical staining revealed antigens for Leishmania and also for HIV p24. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis revealed severe acinar atrophy, decreased zymogen granules in the acinar cytoplasm and also nuclear abnormalities such as pyknosis, hyperchromatism and thickened chromatin. These findings might correspond to the histologic pattern of protein-energy malnutrition in the pancreas as shown in our previous study in pancreas with AIDS and no Leishmania. In this particular case, the protein-energy malnutrition may be due to cirrhosis, or, Leishmania or HIV infection or all mixed. We believe that this case represents the morphologic substratum of the protein energy malnutrition in pancreas induced by the HIV infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate these issues.

  11. Evidence of specialized tissue in human interatrial septum: histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.

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    Lubov B Mitrofanova

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of information on structural organization of muscular bundles in the interatrial septum (IAS. The aim was to investigate histologic and ultrastructural organization of muscular bundles in human IAS, including fossa ovalis (FO and flap valve.Macroscopic and light microscopy evaluations of IAS were performed from postmortem studies of 40 patients. Twenty three IAS specimens underwent serial transverse sectioning, and 17--longitudinal sectioning. The transverse sections from 10 patients were immunolabeled for HCN4, Caveolin3 and Connexin43. IAS specimens from 6 other patients underwent electron microscopy.In all IAS specimens sections the FO, its rims and the flap valve had muscle fibers consisting of working cardiac myocytes. Besides the typical cardiomyocytes there were unusual cells: tortuous and horseshoe-shaped intertangled myocytes, small and large rounded myocytes with pale cytoplasm. The cells were aggregated in a definite structure in 38 (95% cases, which was surrounded by fibro-fatty tissue. The height of the structure on transverse sections positively correlated with age (P = 0.03 and AF history (P = 0.045. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining of the cells for HCN4 and Caveolin3. Electron microscopy identified cells with characteristics similar to electrical conduction cells.Specialized conduction cells in human IAS have been identified, specifically in the FO and its flap valve. The cells are aggregated in a structure, which is surrounded by fibrous and fatty tissue. Further investigations are warranted to explore electrophysiological characteristics of this structure.

  12. Comparative studies on histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary of different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LIU Shaojun; HUANG Weiren; ZHANG Jian; SUN Yuandong; ZHANG Chun; CHEN Song; LIU Jinghui; LIU Yun


    The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, and there was an obvious difference in cell size among different ploidy level fishes. As for the same type of pituitary cells, the cell size was increased gradually with the increasing ploidy level. In the breeding season, the allotetraploid hybrids had higher proportion of gonadotropin cells (GTH) than triploids, and the triploids had higher proportion of GTH than diploids. The results were related to the earlier sexual maturity of allotetraploid hybrids and sterility of triploid cruclan carp. On the other hand, among the three kinds of fishes, the proportion of somatotropin (STH)cells in triploids crucian carp was the highest, whereas that in allotetraploid hybrids was the lowest.The results might be connected with the faster growth rate of triploids and slower growth rate of allotetraploid hybrids. In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season,there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids. This result showed that the sterility of triploid crucian carp might be related to the hormone which was not released from the GTH cells. In a word, the present study indicated that the differences in the structure of pituitary among different ploidy level fishes contributed to their difference in the growth rate and gonadal development.

  13. Metschnikowia cf. typographi and other pathogens from the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus - Prevalence, histological and ultrastructural evidence, and molecular characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Lim, Young Woon; Tkaczuk, Cezary


    Ips sexdentatus (six-spined engraver beetle) from Austria and Poland were dissected and examined for the presence of pathogens. Specimens collected in Austria were found to contain the ascomycetous fungus Metschnikowia cf. typographi. Infection rates ranged from 3.6% to 26.8% at different...... collection sites. M. cf. typographi infected midguts were investigated by histological, ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Extraordinary ultrastructural details are shown, such as ascospores with bilateral flattened flanks resembling alar rims at both sides of their attenuating tube-like ends....... The eugregarine Gregarina typographi was diagnosed most frequently. Infection rates of all I. sexdentatus specimens ranged from 21.4% to 71.9% in Austria and 54.1% to 68.8% in Poland. Other entomopathogenic protists, bacteria, or viruses were not detected....

  14. Reproducibility of the NEPTUNE descriptor-based scoring system on whole-slide images and histologic and ultrastructural digital images. (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Troost, Jonathan P; Nast, Cynthia; Bagnasco, Serena; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi; Gasim, Adil; Liensziewski, Chrysta; Merlino, Lino; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M; Gaut, Joseph; Song, Peter; Holzman, Lawrence; Gibson, Debbie; Kretzler, Matthias; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hewitt, Stephen M


    The multicenter Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) digital pathology scoring system employs a novel and comprehensive methodology to document pathologic features from whole-slide images, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural digital images. To estimate inter- and intra-reader concordance of this descriptor-based approach, data from 12 pathologists (eight NEPTUNE and four non-NEPTUNE) with experience from training to 30 years were collected. A descriptor reference manual was generated and a webinar-based protocol for consensus/cross-training implemented. Intra-reader concordance for 51 glomerular descriptors was evaluated on jpeg images by seven NEPTUNE pathologists scoring 131 glomeruli three times (Tests I, II, and III), each test following a consensus webinar review. Inter-reader concordance of glomerular descriptors was evaluated in 315 glomeruli by all pathologists; interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (244 cases, whole-slide images) and four ultrastructural podocyte descriptors (178 cases, jpeg images) were evaluated once by six and five pathologists, respectively. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader concordance for 48/51 glomerular descriptors with sufficient observations was moderate (0.40transformation. NEPTUNE digital pathology scoring system enables novel morphologic profiling of renal structures. For all histologic and ultrastructural descriptors tested with sufficient observations, moderate-to-excellent concordance was seen for 31/54 (57%). Descriptors not sufficiently represented will require further testing. This study proffers the NEPTUNE digital pathology scoring system as a model for standardization of renal biopsy interpretation extendable outside the NEPTUNE consortium, enabling international collaborations.

  15. Protective effect of lycopene on deltamethrin-induced histological and ultrastructural changes in kidney tissue of rats. (United States)

    El-Gerbed, Mohamed S A


    Deltamethrin is globally used in crop protection and control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases. It has a potent insecticidal activity with an appreciable safety margin. However, a number of studies have demonstrated nephrotoxicity of deltamethrin in mammalian and nonmammalian species. Lycopene, a carotenoid occurring naturally in tomatoes, has attracted considerable attention as an antioxidant. This study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of coadministration of lycopene on deltamethrin toxicity. In this study, male albino rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: group I served as control, which received standard diet; group II received oral administration of deltamethrin (1.28 mg/kg per day) for 30 days; group III received both deltamethrin and lycopene (1 mg/kg per day); group IV received lycopene (1 mg/kg per day). After the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in the serum was measured; the kidney was taken for histological and ultrastructural studies. Deltamethrin significantly increased the TNF-α. The histopathological examination of kidney showed mild necrotic changes. Ultrastructural changes in renal proximal tubules of deltamethrin-treated group included an increased number and irregular shape of mitochondria with sparse fragmented cristae, serious ultrastructural lesions in renal proximal tubular lining cells, vacuolar degeneration in the epithelial cells, increased number of lysosomes and loss of apical microvilli. In addition, focal segmental thickening and the duplication of glomerular basement membrane and podocyte changes were observed. Histopathological and ultrastructural study showed some protective effect of lycopene on kidney tissues.

  16. Protective role of turmeric on histological, ultrastructural and serobiochemical changes in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats

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    B. Ramya


    Full Text Available Aim: Protective role of turmeric was assessed against cisplatin-induced histological and ultra-structural changes in kidney.Materials and Methods: A total of 48 rats were divided into 4 groups of 12 rats in each. Group 1 was kept as sham control,group 2 was treated with cisplatin (@ 2 mg/kg b.wt, intraperitoneally on day 1, 7, 14 and 21, group 3 with turmeric (@ 0.05mg/kg b.wt. p.o. once daily for 28 days and group 4 with cisplatin + turmeric (as per above schedule. Blood was collected atfortnight intervals and serum was separated for estimation of kidney biomarkers. Six rats in each group were then euthanizedon day 14 and 28 for histopathology, and tissue parameters were assayed on day 28.Results: Thibarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUNwere significantly (P < 0.05 increased, while GSH was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in group 2 as compared to othergroups. Histological sections of kidney from group 2 rats showed marked inter-tubular haemorrhages, congestion, markeddilation of tubules, and other lesions of pathological significance. Ultrastructural changes of pathological significance werealso recorded in group 2. Kidney sections of group 4 showed nucleus with uniform size with well differentiated nuclearmembrane and nucleolus, and prominent inter tubular and inter cellular junctions.Conclusion: The study revealed that cisplatin induces nephrotoxicity due to oxidative stress and turmeric was foundbeneficial in countering the adverse effects.

  17. Comparison of histological and ultrastructural changes in mice organs after supplementation with inorganic and organic selenium. (United States)

    Tos-Luty, Sabina; Obuchowska-Przebirowska, Daniela; Latuszynska, Jadwiga; Musik, Irena; Tokarska-Rodak, Malgorzata


    Two organic compounds of selenium, 4-o-totyl-selenosemicarbazide p-chlorobenzoic acid (chain compound) produced at the Chemistry Department of the University Medical School in Lublin, and one inorganic compound of sodium IV selenite (Na(2)SeO(3)) were used. The preparations were used per os in doses of 1 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The studies were conducted on female Swiss mice, covering seven groups of animals, i.e. 6 experimental and 1 control. Histopathologic changes were observed in liver, kidney, lung and heart. Ultrastructural changes were observed in liver and kidney. Our studies indicate a dose-dependent effect of selenium on histopathologic and ultrastructural changes. It is possible therefore, that the extent of excess of selenium exerts a greater influence on a cell than the form of supplemented selenium.

  18. Histology and ultrastructure of the testes of Cobitis loaches from diploid-tetraploid populations

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    Dorota Juchno


    In the testes of tetraploid males only cysts with normal spermatogonia and spermatocytes (pachyten or leptoten stages, containing synaptonemal complexes were observed. Any spermatids or spermatozoa have not been observed. In many cysts of postmeiotic stages we observed planty of degenerative cells showing signs of apoptosis and characterized by strange ultrastructure. Frequently, portions of electron-dense material were observed suggesting degenerative process as a result of chromatin defragmentation. Thereby we confirmed that investigated tetraploid Cobitis males are sterile.

  19. Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Histological Synovitis for Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Jian-Da Ma


    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the correlation between matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 3 and histological synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods. Serum MMP-3 of 62 patients with active RA was detected by ELISA. Serial synovial tissue sections from all RA patients, 13 osteoarthritis, and 10 orthopedic arthropathies patients were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically for MMP-3, CD3, CD20, CD38, CD68, and CD15. Results. The percentage of lining MMP3+ cells was significantly higher in RA patients especially with high grade synovitis and it was significantly correlated with Krenn’s synovitis score r=0.574, P<0.001 and sublining inflammatory cells. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that the association of the percentage of lining MMP3+ cells with activation of synovial stroma, sublining CD68+ macrophages, and CD15+ neutrophils was stronger than other histological indicators. The percentage of lining MMP3+ cells was significantly correlated with serum MMP-3 in RA r=0.656, P<0.001. Serum MMP-3 was higher in RA patients with high grade synovitis than that of low grade synovitis and significantly correlated with synovitis score and activation of synovial stroma subscore (all P<0.05. Conclusion. Serum MMP-3 may be an alternative noninvasive biomarker of histological synovitis and RA diagnosis.

  20. Histological and ultrastructural effect of an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam on dental hard tissue and pulp (United States)

    Vignato, Costantino; Vignato, Giuseppe; Nardelli, Antonella; Baldan, Arianna; Mason, Pier N.


    The purpose of this study was to determine histological and ultrastructural modifications produced by an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam after an in vivo exposure of human molars. Using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam delivered by a 600 micrometers optical fiber and concurrent air and water cooling spray, 14 human third molars with artificial first class cavities were exposed at different power levels (6, 7, and 8 W). All the teeth were extracted at different time periods between 10 and 25 days and prepared for histological examination. The results of the histological examination showed no evidence of degeneration or necrosis of the pulpar tissue. Analysis of the dentinal surfaces after exposure demonstrated that the dentinal tubules are completely closed due to the melted dentin. In conclusion a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with an air and water cooling spray is safe for treatments of class I decay and no necrosis or degeneration of the pulp was found for laser powers of 6, 7, and 8 W.

  1. A histological study of testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in cultured Acrossocheilus fasciatus. (United States)

    Fu, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hu; Yang, Wan-Xi; Zhu, Jun-Quan


    Testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in Acrossocheilus fasciatus (Cypriniformes, Barbinae), a commercial stream fish, were studied using light and electron microscopy. The reproduction cycle in A. fasciatus testes is classified into six successive stages from Stage I to Stage VI. Based on an analysis of previous results, May to July can be confirmed as the best breeding season for A. fasciatus males. During this time, the A. fasciatus testes are in Stage V and the sperm in males is most abundant. In the first reproductive cycle, sexually mature male testes return to Stage III in October, subsequently overwintering at this stage. In the lobular-type testes of A. fasciatus, cystic type spermatogenesis occurs with restricted spermatogonia. All spermatogenic cells at different stages are distributed along the seminiferous lobules, which contain spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. At the end of spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cysts open to release spermatozoa into the lobule lumen. Ultrastructural observation of A. fasciatus spermiogenesis reveals that electron-dense substances appear at the different stages of germ cells, from primary spermatogonia to secondary spermatocytes. We have termed these dense substances as "nuage" when free in the cytoplasm or adjacent to the nuclear envelope, while those close to the mitochondria are called inter-mitochondrial cement. The spermatozoa in A. fasciatus can be classified as type I due to the presence of nuclear rotation. Although the nuclear chromatin in the head of sperm was highly condensed, no acrosome was formed. The cytoplasmic canal, a common ultrastructural feature of Teleostei spermatozoa, was also present in the midpiece. In addition, numerous fused mitochondria were observed. The distal centriole and proximal centriole constituting the centriolar complex were oriented incompletely perpendicular to each other. The flagellum showed a typical 9+2 arrangement pattern

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Bisphenol A on the Histology and Ultrastructure of Prostate and Seminal Vesicle Glands in Rats

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    Asgari Hasanluyi


    Full Text Available Background Bisphenol A is a xenoestrogen, synthesized in large quantities for the production of polymers (polycarbonates, epoxy resins and thermal paper, and is widely used in products of everyday use (packaging, containers and bottles. Data concerning the occurrence of BPA in food, water and indoor environments as well as its appearance in tissues and body fluids of the human body are available in the literature. Male accessory sex glands are also vulnerable to environmental endocrine disruptors with adverse effects in adulthood. The developing prostate gland is particularly sensitive to estrogens and high-dose exposures during a critical developmental window results in intraepithelial prostatic neoplasia (PIN in adult rodent models. Bisphenol A is also an endocrine disruptor. High levels of BPA exposure correlate with increased risk of mammary gland, brain and prostate cancers and have adverse effects on the tissues of the prostate and seminal vesicles. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA doses on the histological structure and ultrastructure of prostate and seminal vesicle glands. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10: A control group and three treatment groups, receiving BPA at doses of 10, 50 and 100 µg/kg. Bisphenol A was administrated intraperitoneally for 15 days. As the prostate and seminal vesicle glands were dissected on the day 16, the structure and ultrastructure histological parameters were analyzed, using light and electron microscopes. Results The main pathological finding observed in the prostrate and seminal vesicle glands, using light microscope, revealed congestion in the connective tissue and vacuolization in the secretory units of epithelial cells and epithelium rupture at 50 and 100 µg/kg doses of BPA. Ultrastructure study showed vacuolization of mitochondria, condensation of nuclei and disappearance of nucleus in the prostate tissue. Pathological

  3. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia presenting multinucleated cells in histology: an ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Sakamoto, F; Hashimoto, T; Takenouchi, T; Ito, M; Nitto, H


    A case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia arising on the face of a woman is reported. Histologically, the uniqueness of this case is the presence of multinucleated cells (MNCs), besides the conventional dermal changes. Electron microscopy showed that some of the apparent MNCs are clusters of endothelial cells forming immature vascular lumens with numerous microvilli, and the other MNCs displayed the recognized features of fibrohistiocytic or myofibroblastic cells. Immunohistochemically, some MNCs were positive for Ulex europaeus agglutinin and Factor VIII-related antigen. From these findings, some of the MNCs are histologically endothelial sprouts, and the others are fibrohistiocytic cells in the present case.

  4. Spinal cord central canal of the German shepherd dog: morphological, histological, and ultrastructural considerations. (United States)

    Marín-García, P; González-Soriano, J; Martinez-Sainz, P; Contreras-Rodríguez, J; Del Corral-Gros, C; Rodríguez-Veiga, E


    This study deals with some macroscopical, microscopical, and ultrastructural aspects of the spinal cord central canal of the German shepherd dog. The caudal end of the spinal cord is constituted by the conus medullaris, which may extend to the first sacral vertebra, the terminal ventricle, and the filum terminale. The latter structure is considered as internum (second to third sacral vertebrae) or externum (fifth caudal vertebra), according to its relation to the dura mater. Occasionally, there is a second anchorage which is close to the level of the sixth caudal vertebra. The central canal is surrounded by a ciliated ependymal epithelium, which differs depending upon the levels. The most caudal part of the filum terminale bears a columnar ciliated ependymal epithelium surrounded by two layers of glia and pia mater, which separate the central canal from the subarachnoid space. Microfil injections show a communication between the cavity and the subarachnoid space, as the plastic is able to pass through the ependymal epithelium. At the level of the terminal ventricle there are real separations of the ependymal epithelium, which seem to connect the lumen of the spinal canal with the subarachnoid space. These structures probably constitute one of the drainage pathways of the cerebrospinal fluid. The diameter of the central canal is related to the age of the animal. However, even in very old animals the spinal cord central canal reaches the tip of the filum terminale and remains patent until death. At the ultrastructural level the ependymal cells present villi, located on cytoplasmic projections, cilia, dense mitochondria, and oval nuclei.

  5. Therapeutic Actions of the Chinese Herbal Formulae with Cold and Heat Properties and Their Effects on Ultrastructures of Synoviocytes in Rats of the Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梢; 吕爱平; 贾宏伟


    The therapeutic actions of Qing Luo Yin (QLY清络饮) with heat property and Wen Luo Yin (WLY温络饮) with cold property on pain, swelling of the ankle, arthritis index and ultrastructures of synoviocytes were compared in rats of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), with tripterygium glycosidorum (TG) used as control. The results indicated that both QLY and WLY could reduce pain, swelling of the ankle and the arthritis index of CIA, and QLY had better effects in reducing the swelling of the ankle and controlling the secondary pathological lesions as compared with WLY. Investigation on the ultrastructures of synoviocytes indicated that both QLY and WLY could reduce the number of Golgi apparatus, rough surface endoplasmic reticulum, dense bodies, matrix filaments and vacuoles so as to suppress the excessive secretion of synoviocytes in rats of CIA.

  6. Retinal aging in the diurnal Chilean rodent (Octodon degus: histological, ultrastructural and neurochemical alterations of the vertical information processing pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina eSzabadfi


    Full Text Available The retina is sensitive to age-dependent degeneration. To find suitable animal models to understand and map this process has particular importance. The degu (Octodon degus is a diurnal rodent with dichromatic color vision. Its retinal structure is similar to that in humans in many respects, therefore, it is well suited to study retinal aging. Histological, cell type-specific and ultrastructural alterations were examined in 6, 12 and 36 months old degus. The characteristic layers of the retina were present at all ages, but slightly loosened tissue structure could be observed in 36-month-old animals both at light and electron microscopic levels. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was observed in Müller glial cells in aging retinas. The number of rod bipolar cells and the ganglion cells was reduced in the aging specimens, while that of cone bipolar cells remained unchanged. Other age-related differences were detected at ultrastructural level: alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and degenerated photoreceptor cells were evident. Ribbon synapses were sparse and often differed in morphology from those in the young animals. These results support our hypothesis that (i the rod pathway seems to be more sensitive than the cone pathway to age-related cell loss; (ii structural changes in the basement membrane of pigment epithelial cells can be one of the early signs of degenerative processes; (iii the loss of synaptic proteins especially from those of the ribbon synapses are characteristic and (iv the degu retina may be a suitable model for studying retinal aging.

  7. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.


    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  8. Histological and ultrastructural characterization of the alimentary system of solifuges (Arachnida, Solifugae). (United States)

    Klann, A E; Alberti, G


    Solifuges are voracious and fast predators. Once having captured a prey item, mostly small arthropods or even small vertebrates, they start feeding on their prey by constant chewing movements with their huge chelicerae. At the same time, they squeeze out the soft tissue that passes the anterior lattice-like part of the mouthparts. The digestion of the food takes place in the midgut, which is anatomically highly complex. It consists of the midgut tube from which numerous prosomal and opisthosomal diverticula and tubular lateral branches arise. The dimorphic epithelium of the midgut tube and the diverticula is constituted of digestive and secretory cells. The digestive cells are characterized by an apical tubulus system and contain nutritional vacuoles, lipids, spherites, and glycogen. Secretory cells contain a huge amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vacuoles. The lateral branches are ultrastructurally similar to Malpighian tubules and are likely involved in excretion. In contrast to the midgut, the epithelium of the hindgut consists of only one type of cell overlain by a thin cuticle. Digested residuals are stored in the hindgut until defecation.

  9. Histological and ultrastructural changes induced by selenium in early experimental gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ping Su; Jun-Min Tang; Yan Tang; Hui-Ying Gao


    AIM: To investigate the effect and significance of selenium in early experimental gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: Weaning male Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control group, experiment control group, low selenium (2 mg/L) group and high selenium (4 mg/L) group. Wistar rat gastric carcinogenesis was induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) (20 mg/kg) gavage daily for 10 d. Na2SeO3 was given by piped drinking 1 wk prior to MNNG gavage. The rats were killed at the 43rd wk. The surface characteristics of gastric mucosa were observed with naked eyes. Histopathologic changes of rat gastric mucosa were observed by HE staining and AB-PAS methods. The changes of cellular ultrastructure were observed under transmission electron microscope. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS.RESULTS: The incidence rate of gastric mucosa erosion,hemorrhage and intestinal metaplasia was 0, 45.5%,66.7%, and 92.9%, respectively (92.9% vs45.5%, P<0.05)in the normal control group, experiment control group,low selenium group, and high selenium group. Leiomyoma formed in the process of inducement of rat gastric carcinoma. Dietary Na2SeO3 (2 and 4 mg/L) slightly increased the incidence rate of leiomyoma (0, 23%, 46.6%, and 46.6%). gastric mucosa did not change in the course of rat gastric carcinogenesis. Dietary Na2SeO3 by pipe drinking could expand the intracellular secretory canaliculus of parietal cells and increase the number of endocrine cells and lysosomes.CONCLUSION: Dietary Na2SeO3 by pipe drinking aggravates gastric erosion, hemorrhage and promotes intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa. The mechanism may be related with the function of parietal cells.

  10. Osteogenesis imperfecta: Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin revealing novel insights into genotype-phenotype correlation. (United States)

    Balasubramanian, M; Sobey, G J; Wagner, B E; Peres, L C; Bowen, J; Bexon, J; Javaid, M K; Arundel, P; Bishop, N J


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity to fracture. Over 90% of patients with OI have a mutation in COL1A1/COL1A2, which shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In-depth phenotyping and in particular, studies involving manifestations in the skin connective tissue have not previously been undertaken in OI. The aims of the study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in a cohort of patients with OI; to identify common and distinguishing features in order to inform genotype-phenotype correlation; and to identify common and distinguishing features between the different subtypes of OI. As part of the RUDY (Rare Diseases in Bone, Joints and/or Blood Vessels) study, in collaboration with the NIHR Rare Diseases Translational Research Collaboration, we undertook a national study of skin biopsies in patients with OI. We studied the manifestations in the skin connective tissue and undertook in-depth clinical and molecular phenotyping of 16 patients with OI. We recruited 16 patients: analyses have shown that in type 1 collagen mutation positive patients (COL1A1/ COL1A2) (n-4/16) consistent findings included: variable collagen fibril diameter (CFD) and presence of collagen flowers. Histological examination in these patients showed an increase in elastic fibers that are frequently fragmented and clumped. These observations provide evidence that collagen flowers and CFD variability are consistent features in OI due to type 1 collagen defects and reinforce the need for accurate phenotyping in conjunction with genomic analyses.

  11. Histological and Ultrastructural Observation Reveals Significant Cellular Differences between Agrobacterium Transformed Embryogenic and Non-embryogenic Calli of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Hong Shang; Chuan-Liang Liu; Chao-Jun Zhang; Feng-Lian Li; Wei-Dong Hong; Fu-Guang Li


    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a flbrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains, in contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  12. Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton. (United States)

    Shang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Feng-Lian; Hong, Wei-Dong; Li, Fu-Guang


    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  13. Histological, surface ultrastructural, and histochemical study of the stomach of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner

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    Ghosh Saroj Kumar


    Full Text Available The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国辉; 邱玫; 方展强


    Histology and ultrastructure of the kidney in Swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) were studied with microscope and transmission electron microscope.Similar to other teleost, the mesonephros was consisted of renal corpuscle and renal tubules.Renal corpuscles were interspersed in the kidney.The renal tubules were composed of the neck tubule, first and second proximal tubule, distal tubule and the collecting tubule.Lymphoid tissues, including Lymphocyte, Monocyte and Melano - macrophage, were differentiated in the kidney under electron microscope.As a multifunction organ, the characteristic of structure and ultrastructure of the kidney in fish were also discussed in this paper.%应用光镜和透射电镜对剑尾鱼肾脏的组织的超微结构观察的结果表明:肾脏结构与其它硬骨鱼类相似.可以区分淋巴细胞、单核细胞和黑色素巨噬细胞等类型.该文还讨论了肾脏作为鱼类体内一个具有多种生理功能复合器官的结构特点.

  15. Vertebral Development and Ossification in the Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser Baerii), with New Insights on Bone Histology and Ultrastructure of Vertebral Elements and Scutes. (United States)

    Leprévost, Amandine; AzaÏs, Thierry; Trichet, Michael; Sire, Jean-Yves


    In order to improve our knowledge on the vertebral development, structure and mineralization in Acipenseriformes, we undertook a study in a growth series of reared Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) using in toto clear and stain specimens, histological and ultrastructural observations, X-ray micro-tomography, and solid state NMR analyses. Scutes were also studied to compare the tissue structure and mineralization of endoskeletal and dermal skeletal elements. This study completes and clarifies previous investigations on vertebral development and architecture in sturgeons, and brings original data on the structure of (i) the perichondral bone that is progressively deposited around the vertebral elements during ontogeny, (ii) the typical cartilage composing these elements, and (iii) the scutes. In addition we provide data on the mineralization process, on the nature of the bone mineral phase, and on the growth dynamics of the vertebral elements. Anat Rec, 300:437-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Arthritis (United States)

    ... injected into painful joints or given by mouth. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are used to treat autoimmune arthritis. They include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and leflunomide. ...

  17. Development of cycad ovules and seeds. 2. Histological and ultrastructural aspects of ontogeny of the embryo in Encephalartos natalensis (Zamiaceae). (United States)

    Woodenberg, Wynston Ray; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N W; Farrant, Jill M


    Development of the embryo of Encephalartos natalensis from a rudimentary meristematic structure approximately 700 μm in length extends over 6 months after the seed is shed from the strobilus. Throughout its development, the embryo remains attached to a long suspensor. Differentiation of the shoot meristem flanked by two cotyledonary protuberances occurs over the first 2 months, during which peripheral tannin channels become apparent. Tannins, apparently elaborated by the endoplasmic reticulum, first accumulate in the large central vacuole and ultimately fill the channel. By the fourth month of development, the root meristem is apparent and procambial tissue forming discrete vascular bundles can be discerned in the elongating cotyledons. Between 4 and 6 months, mucilage ducts differentiate; after 6 months, when the seed becomes germinable, the embryo is characterised by cotyledons far longer than the axis. Shoot and root meristem cells remain ultrastructurally similar throughout embryo ontogeny, containing small vacuoles, many well-differentiated mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles, abundant polysomes, plastids containing small starch deposits and Golgi bodies. Unusually, however, Golgi bodies are infrequent in other cells including those elaborating mucilage which is accumulated in distended ER and apparently secreted into the duct lumen directly by ER-derived vesicles. The non-meristematic cells accumulate massive starch deposits to the exclusion of any protein bodies and only very sparse lipid, features which are considered in terms of the prolonged period of embryo development and the high atmospheric oxygen content of the Carboniferous Period, when cycads are suggested to have originated.

  18. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the phlebotomine sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae): I. Ultrastructure and histology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango


    Females of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) possess highly variable spermathecae that present several important taxonomic characters. The cause of this diversity remains a neglected field of sandfly biology, but may possibly be due to female post-mating sexual selection. To understand this diversity, a detailed study of the structure and function of the spermathecal complex in at least one of the species was a prerequisite. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, described here is ultrastructure of the spermathecal complex in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. The spermathecal complexes are paired; each consists of a long spermathecal duct, a cylindrical spermathecal body, and a spherical spermathecal gland. Muscle fibres, nerves, tracheoles, and vascular sinuses connect the spermathecal body and duct through the epithelial layers. Spermathecal gland is formed by a typical insect epidermis and consisting of an epithelial layer of class-1 epidermal cells and elaborate glandular cells of class-3 epidermal cells, each having both receiving and conducting ductules (i.e. “end apparatus”) and a “cytological apodeme”, which is a newly described cell structure. The spermathecal body and duct are lined by class-1 epidermal cells and a cuticle, and are enveloped by a super-contracting visceral muscular system. The cuticle consists of rubber-like resilin, and its fibrillar arrangement and chemical nature are described. A well-developed neuromuscular junction exists between the spermathecal gland and the spermathecal body, which are connected to each other by a nerve and a muscle. The spermathecal complexes of the sandfly are compared with those of other insect species. The physiological role and possible evolutionary significance of the different parts of spermathecal complex in the sandfly are inferred from the morphology and behaviour. Post-mating sexual selection may be responsible for the structural uniqueness of the spermathecal

  19. Effect of low-level helium-neon laser therapy on histological and ultrastructural features of immobilized rabbit articular cartilage. (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Ansari, Enayatallah; Gholami, Narges; Bayat, Aghdas


    The present study investigates whether low-level helium-neon laser therapy can increase histological parameters of immobilized articular cartilage in rabbits or not. Twenty five rabbits were divided into three groups: the experiment group, which received low-level helium-neon laser therapy with 13J/cm(2) three times a week after immobilization of their right knees; the control group which did not receive laser therapy after immobilization of their knees; and the normal group which received neither immobilization nor laser therapy. Histological and electron microscopic examinations were performed at 4 and 7 weeks after immobilization. Depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized experiment group, and depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized experiment group were significantly higher than those of relevant control groups (exact Fisher test, p=0.001; student's t-test, p=0.031, respectively). The surfaces of articular cartilages of the experiment group were relatively smooth, while those of the control group were unsmooth. It is therefore concluded that low-level helium-neon laser therapy had significantly increased the depth of the chondrocyte filopodia in four-week immobilized femoral articular cartilage and the depth of articular cartilage in seven-week immobilized knee in comparison with control immobilized articular cartilage.

  20. Histology and Ultrastructure of Incompatible Combination Between Puccinia striiformis and Wheat Cultivars with Low Reaction Type Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhen-sheng; WANG Yao; HUANG Li-li; WEI Guo-rong; ZHAO Jie


    The incompatible combinations between races of Puccinia striiformis and wheat cuitivars withlow reaction type resistance were examined by means of fluorescent microscopy, differential interference con-trast microscopy and electron microscopy. The incompatible combinations consisted of wheat cultivar Niuzhuteplus CY28, Hybrid46 plus CY29 and Tianxuan882 plus CY29, while the compatible combination was wheatcultivar Huixianhong plus CY28. The observation revealed a striking difference in the fungal development andthe host responses between susceptible and resistant wheat cuitivars following infection by the pathogen. Themain histological manifestation of the pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars include inhibitionof hyphal growth, delay of hyphal branching and colony formation, decrease of formation of haustorial mothercells and haustoria, and occurrence of host cell necrosis. The observation by electron microscopy demonstratedthat a series of abnormal changes occurred in intercellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria dur-ing pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars. The cytoplasm became more electron-dense and vac-uoles in the cytoplasm increased in number and size. The cell walls of hyphae, haustorial mother cells werethickened irregularly. The organeiles were disorderly distributed in the cytoplasm and the haustorial mothercells and haustoria lost their physiological function. In the final stage of the pathogen development, the inter-cellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria became necrotic and collapsed. The structural defensereactions such as formation of cell wall apposition, collar and encasement of haustorium were essentially morepronounced in the infected wheat leaves of the resistant cultivars than in the susceptible one. In addition, therelationship between the host resistance expression and the histological and cytological features occurred in theincompatible combination was discussed in this paper.

  1. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

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    João E.V.V. Vitonis


    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the

  2. Cushing's Syndrome from an Ectopic Pituitary Adenoma with Peliosis: A Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study and Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Coire, Claire I.; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman; Smyth, Harley S.; Ezzat, Shereen


    Ectopic pituitary adenoma (EPA) is rare and, to the authors' knowledge, its association with peliosis has not yet been described. The case of a 38-yr-old woman with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's syndrome is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a normal pituitary and a separate mass in the sphenoid sinus. The surgically removed portion of the sellar pituitary contained no adenoma. There was only Crooke's hyaline change in the corticotrophs, indicating exposure to glucocorticoid excess. By histology, the mass in the sphenoid sinus was a congested, chromophobic, partly basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive pituitary adenoma composed of pleomorphic, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-positive, corticotrophs. There was focal immunopositivity for MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Electron microscopy confirmed the diagnosis of corticotroph adenoma. A striking finding, consistent with the diagnosis of peliosis, was the presence of multiple large blood-filled spaces lacking an endothelial lining. The capillaries were dilated, but often appeared empty and the fenestrated endothelium exhibited discontinuities. The cause of peliosis is obscure. It may be that the venous outflow was impaired in this case leading to capillary dilation, congestion, hyperpermeability, rupture, and accumulation of blood in extravascular spaces.

  3. Dynamical changing patterns of histological structure and ultrastructure of liver graft undergoing warm ischemia injury from non-heart-beating donor in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ma; Guo-Dong Wang; Lin-Wei Wu; Rui-De Hu


    AIM: To investigate the histological and ultra-structural characteristics of liver graft during different of warm ischemia time (WIT) in rats and to predict the maximum limitation of liver graft to warm ischemia. METHODS: The rats were randomized into 7 groups undergoing warm ischemia injury for 0, 10, 15, 20, 30,45 and 60 min, respectively. All specimens having undergone warm ischemia injury were investigated dynamically by light and electron microscopy, and histochemistry staining. After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the recovery of morphology of liver grafts after 6, 24 and 48 h was observed. RESULTS: The donor liver from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) underwent ischemia injury both in the warm ischemia period and in the reperfusion period. Morphological changes were positively related to warm ischemia injury in a time-dependent manner during the reperfusion period. The results demonstrated that different degrees of histocyte degeneration were observed when WIT was within 30 min, and became more severe with the prolongation of WIT, no obvious hepatocyte necrosis was noted in any specimen. In the group undergolng warm ischemia injury for 45 min, small focal necrosis occurred in the central area of hepatic lobule first. In the group undergoing warm ischemia injury for 60 min, patchy or diffused necrosis was observed and the area was gradually extended, while hepatic sinusoid endothe lial cells were obviously swollen. Hepatic sinusoid was obstructed and microcirculation was in disorder. CONCLUSION: The rat liver graft undergoing warm ischemia injury is in the reversible stage when the WIT is within 30 min. The 45 min WIT may be a critical point of rat liver graft to endure warm ischemia injury. When the WIT is over 60 min, the damage is irreversible.

  4. Intra-articular vs. systemic administration of etanercept in antigen-induced arthritis in the temporomandibular point. Part I: histological effects

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    Nyengaard Jens R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular joint (TMJ arthritis in children causes alterations in craniomandibular growth. This abnormal growth may be prevented by an early anti-inflammatory intervention. We have previously shown that intra-articular (IA corticosteroid reduces TMJ inflammation, but causes concurrent mandibular growth inhibition in young rabbits. Blockage of TNF-α has already proven its efficacy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis not responding to standard therapy. In this paper we evaluate the effect of IA etanercept compared to subcutaneous etanercept in antigen-induced TMJ-arthritis in rabbits on histological changes using histomorphometry and stereology. This article presents the data and discussion on the anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and IA etanercept. In Part II the data on the effects of systemic and IA etanercept on facial growth are presented. Methods Forty-two rabbits (10 weeks old pre-sensitized with ovalbumin and locally induced inflammation in the temporomandibular joints were divided into three groups: a placebo group receiving IA saline injections in both joints one week after arthritis induction (n = 14, an IA etanercept group receiving 0.1 mg/kg etanercept per joint one week after arthritis induction (n = 14 and a systemic etanercept group receiving 0.8 mg/kg etanercept weekly throughout the 12-week study (n = 14. Arthritis was maintained by giving four inductions three weeks apart. Additional IA saline or etanercept injections were also given one week after the re-inductions. Histomorphometric and unbiased stereological methods (optical fractionator were used to assess and estimate the inflammation in the joints. Results The histomorphometry showed synovial proliferation in all groups. The plasma cell count obtained by the optical fractionator was significantly reduced when treating with systemic etanercept but not with IA etanercept. Semi-quantitative assessments of synovial proliferation and

  5. Aspectos histológicos e ultraestruturais da língua em ratos desnutridos Histological and ultrastructural aspects of the tongue in undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu


    Full Text Available Poucos estudos sobre os efeitos da desnutrição protéico-calórica na mucosa oral são encontrados na literatura. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar os efeitos da desnutrição protéico-calórica na mucosa da língua de ratos adultos, envolvendo microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental foi realizado em trinta ratos Wistar, 15 controles e 15 com desnutrição protéico-calórica. O último grupo recebeu ração em pequena quantidade, com menor conteúdo de caseína, durante 45 dias. Os ratos foram pesados a cada 3 dias, do primeiro (90 dias de vida ao último dia (45 dias de dieta, quando foram sacrificados. Foi realizada eletroforese de proteínas plasmáticas e as línguas foram preparadas para microscopia óptica comum e eletrônica. Para análise estatística utilizou-se análise de variância e teste T de Student. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma significante diminuição no peso e nas proteínas plasmáticas dos ratos com desnutrição protéico-calórica em relação ao grupo controle. A análise histológica não mostrou diferenças entre os dois grupos, e os resultados, com respeito à contagem das papilas filiformes da mucosa lingual pela microscopia eletrônica, não revelou diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A desnutrição protéico-calórica não causa alterações na mucosa da língua de ratos adultos.There are few published studies on the effects of protein-caloric undernourishment on the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to verify the histological and ultrastructural aspects of the tongue mucosa in protein-caloric undernourished adult rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical experimental study was done in thirty Wistar rats, 15 controls and 15 with protein-caloric undernourishment. The last group received ration in small amounts, with a reduced casein content, during 45 days. Rats were weighed every 3 days

  6. Histological and ultrastructural observation of the ink sac of Octopus variabilis%长蛸墨囊的组织学及其墨腺超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚; 王春琳; 詹萍萍; 宋微微; 母昌考; 邵楚; 刘帅


    分析了长蛸墨囊组织学及墨腺细胞的超微结构.结果表明,墨囊由墨囊体、导管和墨腺3部分组成,墨囊壁和导管壁分为外膜、肌肉层、粘膜下层和粘膜层,墨囊壁与肝脏外膜紧密相连,墨囊导管开口于直肠末端近肛门处;墨腺集中在墨囊底部靠近肝脏的一侧,由粘膜上皮细胞向囊腔内增生形成,呈索状,腺体中部含丰富的结缔组织;墨腺细胞分为具有无分泌功能的A型细胞和有分泌功能的B型细胞,微绒毛分布于B型细胞的顶端;墨汁颗粒在墨腺细胞囊泡中形成,并以胞吐或细胞破碎的形式将墨汁颗粒排出.%Octopus variabilis has become one of the most popular seafood for its delicious taste, which has large market demand in China and is advantaged in marine products exports. However, due to the over fishing and water pollution, the natural resource of Octopus variabilis declined rapidly. For this reason,the industry of artificial culturing got rapid development. The Octopus variabilis will spurt the ink when meeting the stimulation originally. The peculiar ink defence system of Octopus variabilis is based on the activity of the highly specialized ink gland which is deputed to the continuous production of the black insoluble melanin pigment that is stored in the ink sac. This organ has been studied in other cephalopod, but the ink gland in Octopus variabilis is different from the others. Therefore, the histology of the ink sac and ultrastructural structure of the ink gland of Octopus variabilis was studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in this paper. The observed results showed that the ink sac was composed of ink sac body, pipe and ink glands. The ink sac of Octopus variabilis opened into the end of the recta near the anus by pipe. The wall of the ink sac and pipe were both composed of epicardial,muscular layer,submucosa layer and mucosa layer. And the epicardial of ink sac wall were stratified squamous

  7. Effects of Sandimmune Neoral on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DA Rats: Characterization by High Resolution Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and by Histology (United States)

    Beckmann, Nicolau; Bruttel, Konrad; Schuurman, Henk; Mir, Anis


    In the present work the time course of collagen-induced arthritis and the effect of Sandimmune Neoral in this model of arthritis were followed in the rat over an extended period of time (70 days) using high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High resolution 3D gradient-echo (TR = 100 ms; TE = 3.8 ms) images with a voxel size of 94 × 81 × 60 μm3were acquired from the hind paw of DA rats (n= 21) at various time points after injection of type II bovine collagen into the tail. Eleven rats were treated with Neoral (15 mg/kg/day p.o. together with vehicle) for 42 days starting at day 14 after collagen injection. The remaining controls received vehicle. Pathomorphological changes associated with the collagen-induced arthritic process, e.g., increase of joint space and cartilage and bone erosion, could be observedin vivoin the control group. In contrast, no changes in the joint architecture were detected in Neoral-treated animals. Indeed, Neoral showed strong anti-inflammatory effects and marked protection against cartilage and bone destruction in this model. Qualitative information derived from the MR images correlated significantly with histological findings.

  8. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using computerised axial tomography with histological and ultrastructural examinations. (United States)

    Toit, Nicole du; Burden, Faith A; Kempson, Sue A; Dixon, Padraic M


    Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

  9. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization. (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira


    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects.

  10. Effect of endothelin-1 receptor antagonists on histological and ultrastructural changes in the pancreas and trypsinogen activation in the early course of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Andrzejewska; Jan W. Dlugosz; Albert Augustynowicz


    AIM: To assess the effect of non-selective ETA/B (LU 302872)and selective ETA (LU 302146) antagonist on pancreatic histology and ultrastructure of acinar cells in connection with trypsinogen activation in early caerulein-induced AP.METHODS: Male Wistar rats with caerulein-induced AP,lasting 4 h, were treated i.p. with 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w.of each antagonist. Edema, inflammatory infiltration,necrosis and vacuolization of acinar cells in the pancreas were scored at 0-3 scale. Free active trypsin (FAT), total potential trypsin (TPT) after activation with enterokinase,and index of trypsinogen activation (%FAT/TPT) were assayed in pancreatic homogenates.RESULTS: In untreated AP, the edema, inflammatory infiltration, necrosis and vacuolization increased as compared to control healthy rats (P<0.01). None of the treatment exerted any meaningful effect on the edema and inflammatory infiltration. The selective antagonist increased slightly the necrosis score to 0.82±0.06 at higher dose (P<0.05) vs 0.58±0.06 in untreated AP. The nonselective antagonist increased slightly the vacuolization score to 2.41±0.07 at higher dose (P<0.01) vs 1.88±0.08in untreated AP. The decrease in the number of zymogen granules, disorganization of endoplasmic reticulum,autophagosomes and cytoplasmic vacuoles were more prominent in treated AP than in untreated AP groups.%FAT/TPT in untreated AP increased about four times (18.4±3.8 vs4.8±1.3 in control group without AP, P<0.001).Treatment of AP with both antagonists did not affect significantly augmented trypsinogen activation.CONCLUSION: The treatment with endothelin-1 receptors (non-selective ETA/B and selective ETA) antagonists has essential effect neither on the edema and inflammatory infiltration nor on trypsinogen activation observed in the early course of caerulein-induced AP. Nevertheless a slight increase of the necrosis and vacuolization score and some of the ultrastructural data could suggest the possibility of their undesired

  11. Histologic and Ultrastructure Studies of Hemangiomas%血管瘤的组织学及超微结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勤田; 李恭才; 顾建章; 张宪生; 陈金典


    作者通过对64例各类血管瘤的光镜和电镜观察,发现生长期草莓状血管瘤和混合性血管瘤的内皮细胞具有胚胎血管内皮的特征,随着其分化成熟,血管瘤可出现退化,而葡萄酒色斑、蔓状血管瘤和海绵状血管瘤其内皮细胞均为成熟的血管内皮,不能自行退化.据此可将血管瘤分为二类.%Various kinds of hemangioma from 68 cases were investigated under histologic examination and electronmicroscope.The endothelium in the growing strawberry and capillary-cavernous hemangiomas had many embryonic characteristics including abundant mitochondrias,rough endoplasmic reticulums and Golgi's conplex in the cytoplasm.Multilaminated base membrahe was found beneath the endothelium.As the children grow up,division of the epithelium mature and the hemangioma may regress gradually,The port-wine stain,cavernous hemangioma and pampiniform show a mature epithelial call with a single layer base membrane and it can't involute.Two embryonic characteristics of the endothelium,one including strawberry and capillary-cavernors hemangioma,and the other port-wine stain cavernous hemangioma and pampiniform hemangioma.It is considered the classification is helpful for the fundamental research and therapy of the hemangioma.

  12. Arthritis - resources (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- Arthritis Foundation -- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞斌; 谢从新; 樊启学; 高超; 方礼豹


    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an important commercial freshwater species in China. Due to its high market value, the culture of this species has increased rapidly in recent years. However, larvae rearing became a major bottleneck because of its high mortality. In order to enhance the success of larvae rearing of P. fulvidraco, we need to know the ontogeny of its digestive system thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to understand the morphological structure and the ultrastructure of digestive tract during the ontogeny of P. fulvidraco. We hope that this information would provide fundamental knowledge for larvae rearing management for this species. The histological and ultrastructural characteristic studies of the stomach and intestine of yellow catfish were carried out from hatching ( Od after hatching ( DAH ) ) until 35 DAH. Larvae were hatched from artificially spawned broodstock and maintained in the laboratory ( water temperature was 23 -25℃). They were fed with zooplankton from 3 to 17 DAH, adding zoobenthos from 10 DAH, and only zoobenthos from 18 to 35 DAH. Development of the digestive tract in yellow catfish followed the general pattern described for other species. At hatching, it consisted of an undifferentiated straight tube laying over the yolk sac. The digestive tract was differentiated into buccopharynx, esophagus, initial stomach, and intestine by 2 DAH. The intestine became differentiated into anterior and posterior regions separated by a valve at 3 DAH. The gastric gland in cardiac stomach appeared at 3 DAH, the same time at the first feeding. In ultrastructure, oxynticopeptic cell contained pepsinogenic granules and abundant tubu-lovesicular systems at 3 DAH. The abundant visible tubulovesicular systems suggested that oxynticopeptic cell was still in rest phase with little hydrogen chloride ( HCl) secreted at the first appearance time. As larvae grew, more pepsinogenic granules but less tubulovesicular systems were found in

  14. Tendon's ultrastructure. (United States)

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea


    The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon's components.

  15. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging allows accurate assessment of the synovial inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis knee joints: a comparison with synovial histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Mette Bjørndal; Stoltenberg, M.; Poggenborg, R.;


    , the average grade of histological synovial inflammation was determined from four biopsies obtained during surgery. A preoperative series of T(1)-weighted dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images was obtained. Parameters characterizing contrast uptake dynamics, including the initial rate of enhancement......) = 0.70, p = 0.001 and rho = 0.74, p = 0.001, respectively). Intraand inter-reader ICCs were very high (0.93-1.00). No Whole slice parameters were correlated to histology. Conclusion: DCE-MRI provides fast and accurate assessment of synovial inflammation in RA patients. Manual outlining of the joint...

  16. Viral arthritis (United States)

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  18. Histological assessment in peripheral nerve tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vctor Carriel; Ingrid Garzn; Miguel Alaminos; Maria Cornelissen


    The histological analysis of peripheral nerve regeneration is one of the most used methods to demonstrate the success of the regeneration through nerve conduits. Nowadays, it is possible to evaluate different parameters of nerve regeneration by using histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The histochemical methods are very sensible and are useful tools to evaluate the extracellular matrix remodeling and the myelin sheath, but they are poorly speciifc. In contrast, the immunohistochemical methods are highly speciifc and are frequently used for the identiifcation of the regenerated axons, Schwann cells and proteins associated to nerve regeneration or neural linage. The ultrastructural techniques offer the possibility to perform a high resolution morphological and quantitative analysis of the nerve regeneration. However, the use of a single histological method may not be enough to assess the degree of regeneration, and the combination of different histological techniques could be necessary.

  19. Juvenile Arthritis (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  20. 先天性肺囊性腺瘤样畸形的超微结构与组织分型对照分析%Comparative analysis in ultrastructure and histological types for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪淳; 俞钢; 张佳立; 郭雪贞


    目的 通过了解先天性肺囊性腺瘤样畸形(CCAM)的超微结构特征,探讨其影像分型与病理分型及电镜下超微结构之间的关系.方法 选取广东省妇幼保健院2014年5月至11月间的CCAM病例,应用增强肺部CT进行影像学分型;将手术标本进行HE染色,并利用电镜技术,对比观察各分型的组织结构.结果 选取8例CCAM作为研究对象,其中男5例,女3例;手术年龄(5.4±1.1)个月.影像学分型中,大囊型(Ⅰ型)(直径>2 cm)2例;小囊型(Ⅱ型)(直径≤2 cm)3例;微囊型(Ⅲ型)3例.病理分型Ⅰ型1例,Ⅱ型4例,Ⅲ型3例.其中1例CT分型为Ⅰ型,病理分型为Ⅱ型;其余均一致.电镜下普遍显示为肺泡腔扩大,肺泡细胞减少,板层小体少,不成熟;微绒毛减少.从电镜角度分析,Ⅰ、Ⅱ型之间,并非有着明显区别.Ⅰ、Ⅱ型共同的特点包括了肺泡腔多以扩大为主,在扩大的肺泡腔之间存在少数受压缩小的肺泡腔;肺泡细胞均出现数量少、不成熟的表现,纤维组织增生.结论 CCAM超微结构分析与临床病理分型存在差异,提示了电镜超微结构分析与病理的结合对于CCAM分型的重要性.需要进一步进行光镜-电镜的对照分型;并结合随访作出相关的预测模型.%Objective To explore relationship between imaging classification and pathological type,and the electron microscopic ultrastructure by observing the ultrastructural features of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM).Methods Children with CCAM in the Guangdong Women and Children Hospital from May 2014 to November 2014,were analyzed,imaging classification was performed according to enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scanning,and the surgical specimens were stained by HE and scanning electron microscope was used to observe the tissue structures of various of CCAM.Results Eight cases were enrolled in this research (5 boys and 3 girls),and the mean age of surgery was (5.4 ± 1.1) month old.According to the

  1. Evolução das lesões histológicas e ultra-estruturais no fígado de ovinos e bovinos experimentalmente intoxicados por Myoporum laetum Histological and ultrastructural evolution of liver lesions in experimental Myoporum laetum poisoning of sheep and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Bonel-Raposo


    Full Text Available Amostras de Myoporum laetum foram colhidas durante a primavera e verão e administradas a cinco ovinos e seis bovinos em doses únicas de 20 e 30 g/kg. Biópsias hepáticas foram colhidas antes (controles e 1, 3 e 7 dias após a dosagem da planta. Estas biópsias foram analisadas histológica e ultra-estruturalmente. Os sinais clínicos, em ovinos, caracterizaram-se, especialmente, por depressão, diminuição dos movimentos ruminais, fezes ressequidas, tenesmo, ranger de dentes, dispnéia e lesões típicas de fotossensibilização. Em bovinos, o quadro clínico foi discreto. Os principais achados histológicos, em ovinos, incluíram vacuolização de hepatócitos, fibrose portal, proliferação de ductos biliares e necrose de hepatócitos periportais. Os estudos ultra-estruturais, em ovinos, revelaram hiperplasia do retículo endoplasmático liso, tumefação de hepatócitos, degranulação e vesiculação do retículo endoplasmático rugoso, presença de cristais aciculares, retenção biliar, tumefação de mitocôndrias e várias outras alterações degenerativas. Em bovinos, tanto os achados histológicos, quanto os ultra-estruturais foram menos evidentes.Green leaves of Myoporum laetum were collected during spring and summer, and administered to five sheep and six steers at dosages of 20 and 30 g/kg. Liver biopsies were taken before (Controls and 1, 3 and 7 days after dosage. In sheep, the clinical signs were depression, rumen hypomotility, dried feces, tenesmus, teeth grinding, dyspnea and typical lesions of photosensitization. In cattle, the clinical picture was much less pronounced. The main histological findings in sheep were vacuolization of hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and necrosis of periportal hepatocytes; the ultrastructural examination revealed hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, hepatocellular hydropic degeneration, presence of crystals and several other degenerative changes. In cattle both

  2. 口虾蛄脑部褐脂质分布、组织学和超微结构特征研究%Morphology and histology of brain and ultrastructure and distribution of lipofuscin in brain of mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范青松; 邢坤; 刘海映; 孙静娴; 陈雷; 刘奇


    为了解口虾蛄Oratosquilla oratoria脑部形态特征,揭示口虾蛄生理年龄与褐脂质( lipofuscin)含量的关系,采用组织切片、荧光成像和透射电镜技术,研究了口虾蛄脑中褐脂质的形态、分布和超微结构特征。结果表明:口虾蛄脑位于眼节之后、头脑甲最前方,体积较小; H. E组织切片下脑部细胞核颗粒呈圆形且均匀分布,直径为10~30μm,并在脑前桥细胞团( protocerebral bridge cell mass)区域分布较多;荧光显微镜下褐脂质颗粒呈黄褐色,直径为1~3μm,均匀分布于脑部;透射电镜下可见褐脂质颗粒多聚集分布于近细胞核区域,外被单层细胞器膜,染色密度较其他区域高且均匀。研究表明,整体上口虾蛄脑部褐脂质分布均匀,其形态与其他甲壳动物脑部褐脂质相似。%Morphology and histology of brain and ultrastructure and distribution of lipofuscin in brain were investi-gated in mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria by biopsy, fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to research the characterization of morphology, distribution and ultrastructure of lipofuscin in the brain. The brain was found in the rear of ophthalmic segment and in the small sharp point of cephalothorax, and histologically the rounded cerebral nucleus with diameter of 10-30 μm was distributed uniformly in the brain, especially aggregated in the protocerebral bridge cell mass. Under fluorescent microscopy, the lipofuscin granules with diameter of 1-3μm were yellow-brown in color and uniformly distributed in the brain. The transmission electron microscope re-vealed that lipofuscin was similar to the lysosome in that both were covered by single-layered organelles membrane, and in the granules filled with homogeneous electron-dense contents. The findings indicated that the lipofuscin granules in brain of the mantis shrimp had similar form to other crustaceans and uniform distribution in brain.

  3. Gonococcal arthritis (United States)

    ... page: // Gonococcal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a ...

  4. Infectious Arthritis (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  5. Psoriatic Arthritis (United States)

    ... your body. Some people with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of the ... physical exam and imaging tests to diagnose psoriatic arthritis. There is no cure, but medicines can help ...

  6. Fungal arthritis (United States)

    ... this page: // Fungal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint ...

  7. Sporotrichal arthritis.



    Sporotrichal arthritis is a rare disease entity. Diagnosis is often difficult and delayed. Presentation may be either monoarticular or polyarticular. A case of polyarticular sporotrichal arthritis which exemplifies these problems is reported.

  8. Psoriatic Arthritis (United States)

    ... Call for Letters of Interest Call for Topics Axial Spondyloarthritis Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Gout Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ... be affected. Psoriatic arthritis in the spine, called spondylitis , causes stiffness in the back or neck, and ...

  9. What Is Reactive Arthritis? (United States)

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  10. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi


    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  11. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken


    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  12. Induction of tolerance with intranasal administration of human cartilage gp-39 in DBA/1 mice - Amelioration of clinical, histologic, and radiologic signs of type II collagen-induced arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, LAB; Coenen-de Roo, CJJ; Helsen, MMA; Lubberts, E; Boots, AMH; van den Berg, WB; Miltenburg, AMM


    Objective. Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) was recently identified as a candidate autoantigen in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, In the present studies, we investigated the capacity of HC gp-39 to interfere in clinical disease induced by an unrelated autoantigen, type II collage

  13. Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis (United States)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding


    Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

  14. Juvenile Arthritis (United States)

    ... increased risk of developing an inflammatory eye problem (iritis or uveitis). Eye inflammation may persist independently of the arthritis. Because iritis usually does not cause symptoms, regular exams by ...

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  16. Posttraumatic Arthritis


    Pickering, Robert D.


    Posttraumatic arthritis (i.e., degenerative joint disease secondary to injury) is a particular problem in young, active patients. It limits the activities of these vigorous individuals, and the compromised joint must be endured for a long time. The knee is used as an example of a joint commonly involved in this process. Conditions predisposing patients to posttraumatic arthritis are discussed, as are some treatment modalities, including rest, ice therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, physio...

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult ...

  18. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations. (United States)

    Du Toit, N; Kempson, S A; Dixon, P M


    Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

  19. Gouty arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, C.R.; Nakayama, D.A.; Lightfoot, R.W. Jr.; Wortmann, R.L.; Carrera, G.F.


    A prospective analysis of 60 patients with gout was undertaken to evaluate the radiographic spectrum of gouty arthritis in patients treated in the era of hypouricemic therapy. Twenty-two of these patients were clinically tophaceous; 36 were considered to have radiographic findings diagnostic of gouty arthritis by strict radiographic criteria. Up to 24% of the patients denied symptoms in joints with radiographic changes of gout; 42% with no evidence of tophi on clinical examination had radiographic changes characteristic of gout. Radiographic assessment can be extremely helpful in the management of gout by documenting the degree and extent of bony involvement, particularly in patients with limited symptoms or without clinical tophi.

  20. Arthritis of the Hand (United States)

    .org Arthritis of the Hand Page ( 1 ) The hand and wrist have multiple small joints that work together to ... a shoelace. When the joints are affected by arthritis, activities of daily living can be difficult. Arthritis ...

  1. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (United States)

    ... are similar, CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gout Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Tendon’s ultrastructure (United States)

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea


    Summary The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon’s components. PMID:23885339

  3. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang


    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  4. Clinico-histologic conferences: histology and disease. (United States)

    Shaw, Phyllis A; Friedman, Erica S


    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical context, promote integration and application of science knowledge, and to foster peer teaching and learning: the Clinico-Histologic Conference (CHC) for the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Histology course. Teams of six students were each assigned specific disease processes and were charged with creating oral presentations and handouts that taught their classmates about the clinical manifestations, etiopathogeneses, diagnoses, and treatments of the assigned processes, along with comparisons of normal histology to the pathology of the disease. Each team also created four questions, some of which were used on Histology written examinations. The physician facilitator evaluated the presentation and handouts. About two-thirds of students agreed the CHC enhanced appreciation of the importance of histology, provided a context for integration and application of basic science to patient care and enhanced their ability to teach their peers. Student feedback demonstrated that the CHCs were successful in promoting teamwork, peer teaching, and the application of histology to diagnose diseases. The authors believe that teaching basic science content in this new format enhanced student learning and application of medical knowledge, and that this new teaching format can be adopted by other medical school courses.

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; McInnes, Iain B


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. Early diagnosis is key to optimal therapeutic success, particularly in patients with well-characterised risk factors for poor outcomes such as high disease activity, presence of autoantibodies, and early joint damage. Treatment algorithms involve measuring disease activity with composite indices, applying a treatment-to-target strategy, and use of conventional, biological, and newz non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. After the treatment target of stringent remission (or at least low disease activity) is maintained, dose reduction should be attempted. Although the prospects for most patients are now favourable, many still do not respond to current therapies. Accordingly, new therapies are urgently required. In this Seminar, we describe current insights into genetics and aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment, therapeutic agents, and treatment strategies together with unmet needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Inhibition of inflammatory arthritis using fullerene nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Dellinger

    Full Text Available Inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis; RA is a complex disease driven by the interplay of multiple cellular lineages. Fullerene derivatives have previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory capabilities mediated, in part, by their ability to prevent inflammatory mediator release by mast cells (MC. Recognizing that MC can serve as a cellular link between autoantibodies, soluble mediators, and other effector populations in inflammatory arthritis, it was hypothesized that fullerene derivatives might be used to target this inflammatory disease. A panel of fullerene derivatives was tested for their ability to affect the function of human skin-derived MC as well as other lineages implicated in arthritis, synovial fibroblasts and osteoclasts. It is shown that certain fullerene derivatives blocked FcγR- and TNF-α-induced mediator release from MC; TNF-α-induced mediator release from RA synovial fibroblasts; and maturation of human osteoclasts. MC inhibition by fullerene derivatives was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and FcγR-mediated increases in cellular reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Based on these in vitro data, two fullerene derivatives (ALM and TGA were selected for in vivo studies using K/BxN serum transfer arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in DBA/1 mice. Dye-conjugated fullerenes confirmed localization to affected joints in arthritic animals but not in healthy controls. In the K/BxN moldel, fullerenes attenuated arthritis, an effect accompanied by reduced histologic inflammation, cartilage/bone erosion, and serum levels of TNF-α. Fullerenes remained capable of attenuating K/BxN arthritis in mast cell-deficient mice Cre-Master mice, suggesting that lineages beyond the MC represent relevant targets in this system. These studies suggest that fullerene derivatives may hold promise both as an assessment tool and as anti-inflammatory therapy of arthritis.

  7. Inhibition of inflammatory arthritis using fullerene nanomaterials. (United States)

    Dellinger, Anthony L; Cunin, Pierre; Lee, David; Kung, Andrew L; Brooks, D Bradford; Zhou, Zhiguo; Nigrovic, Peter A; Kepley, Christopher L


    Inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis; RA) is a complex disease driven by the interplay of multiple cellular lineages. Fullerene derivatives have previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory capabilities mediated, in part, by their ability to prevent inflammatory mediator release by mast cells (MC). Recognizing that MC can serve as a cellular link between autoantibodies, soluble mediators, and other effector populations in inflammatory arthritis, it was hypothesized that fullerene derivatives might be used to target this inflammatory disease. A panel of fullerene derivatives was tested for their ability to affect the function of human skin-derived MC as well as other lineages implicated in arthritis, synovial fibroblasts and osteoclasts. It is shown that certain fullerene derivatives blocked FcγR- and TNF-α-induced mediator release from MC; TNF-α-induced mediator release from RA synovial fibroblasts; and maturation of human osteoclasts. MC inhibition by fullerene derivatives was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and FcγR-mediated increases in cellular reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Based on these in vitro data, two fullerene derivatives (ALM and TGA) were selected for in vivo studies using K/BxN serum transfer arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice. Dye-conjugated fullerenes confirmed localization to affected joints in arthritic animals but not in healthy controls. In the K/BxN moldel, fullerenes attenuated arthritis, an effect accompanied by reduced histologic inflammation, cartilage/bone erosion, and serum levels of TNF-α. Fullerenes remained capable of attenuating K/BxN arthritis in mast cell-deficient mice Cre-Master mice, suggesting that lineages beyond the MC represent relevant targets in this system. These studies suggest that fullerene derivatives may hold promise both as an assessment tool and as anti-inflammatory therapy of arthritis.

  8. Septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ahaideb Abdulaziz


    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increasing number of rheumatoid patients who get septic arthritis. Chronic use of steroids is one of the important predisposing factors. The clinical picture of septic arthritis is different in immunocompromised patients like patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis and management are discussed in this review article.

  9. Septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis


    Al-Ahaideb Abdulaziz


    Abstract There is an increasing number of rheumatoid patients who get septic arthritis. Chronic use of steroids is one of the important predisposing factors. The clinical picture of septic arthritis is different in immunocompromised patients like patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis and management are discussed in this review article.

  10. JNK1, but not JNK2, is required in two mechanistically distinct models of inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denninger, Katja; Rasmussen, Susanne B; Larsen, Jeppe Madura


    JNK1- or JNK2-deficient mice in the collagen-induced arthritis and the KRN T-cell receptor transgenic mouse on C57BL/6 nonobese diabetic (K/BxN) serum transfer arthritis models, we demonstrate that JNK1 deficiency results in protection from arthritis, as judged by clinical score and histological...... evaluation in both models of inflammatory arthritis. In contrast, abrogation of JNK2 exacerbates disease. In collagen-induced arthritis, the distinct roles of the JNK isotypes can, at least in part, be explained by altered regulation of CD86 expression in JNK1- or JNK2-deficient macrophages in response...

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis and cryptogenic organising pneumonitis. (United States)

    Rees, J H; Woodhead, M A; Sheppard, M N; du Bois, R M


    We describe three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with non-specific pulmonary symptoms, a restrictive defect in lung function and bilateral changes on chest radiograph. Lung histology showed characteristic features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis and treatment with steroids produced significant improvement. The clinical and laboratory features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis (otherwise known as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia, 'BOOP') are discussed and compared with those of bronchiolitis obliterans with which the condition should not be confused. Cryptogenic organising pneumonitis should be considered as one of the pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, but lung biopsy is essential to make the diagnosis.

  12. [Rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Strunk, J; Lange, U; Müller-Ladner, U


    The development of novel anti-rheumatic drugs revolutionizes currently therapeutic strategies and diagnostic management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, facilitating the goal of true remission instead of only symptomatic treatment as in former years. Since early treatment is known to be crucial for the longterm outcome, imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and high-frequency ultrasonography including Doppler sonography, which allow direct visualization of very early pathologic alterations of synovitis, or even initial destruction, become increasingly important. Besides the established therapy with methotrexate, new drugs such as leflunomide or the use of various combination therapies have been successfully introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium. Especially the introduction of cytokine-antagonists such as TNF-a inhibitors target the aim of remission. In addition, the upcoming therapeutic agents, which influence very effectively the inflammatory and destructive process need also to be integrated into the concert of different therapeutic strategies in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which includes the mandatory complementary factors such as physiotherapy, ergotherapy and orthopedic surgery.

  13. HistologiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo


    HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl.......HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl....

  14. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease (United States)

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.


    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  15. {sup 166}Ho-chitosan as a radiation synovectomy agent - antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sug Jun; Lee, Soo Yong; Jeon, Dae Geun; Lee, Jong Seok [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Radiation synovectomy is a noninvasive therapy that has been investigated as an alternative to surgical synovectomy. It has been successfully employed in the treatment of synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory arthropathies. In this study, we developed experimental animal model for radiation synovectomy. A model system in which a single injection of ovalbumin into the knee joints of previously sensitized rabbits consistently produced a chronic arthritis which was histologically similiar to human rheumatoid arthritis. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  16. Imaging Reactive Oxygen Species in Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tsung Chen


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritides. Luminol was used as the primary reporter of ROS and photons resulting from the chemiluminescence reaction were detected using a super-cooled CCD photon counting system. Luminol was injected intravenously into groups of animals with different models of arthritis. Imaging signal correlated well with the severity of arthritis in focal and pan-arthritis as determined by histological measurement of ROS by formazan. Measurements were highly reproducible, sensitive, and repeatable. In vivo chemiluminescence imaging is expected to become a useful modality to elucidate the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of arthritides and in determining therapeutic efficacy of protective therapies.

  17. Imaging reactive oxygen species in arthritis. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tsung; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Weissleder, Ralph


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritides. Luminol was used as the primary reporter of ROS and photons resulting from the chemiluminescence reaction were detected using a super-cooled CCD photon counting system. Luminol was injected intravenously into groups of animals with different models of arthritis. Imaging signal correlated well with the severity of arthritis in focal and pan-arthritis as determined by histological measurement of ROS by formazan. Measurements were highly reproducible, sensitive, and repeatable. In vivo chemiluminescence imaging is expected to become a useful modality to elucidate the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of arthritides and in determining therapeutic efficacy of protective therapies.

  18. Ultrastructural changes in non-specific duodenitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Xin Wang; Li-Jiang Liu; Jing Guan; Xiao-Ling Zhao


    AIM: To investigate the ultrastructural and morphological changes of non-specific duodenitis (NSD) in an attempt to grade them according to the extent of the lesions.METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the mucosa of duodenal bulb of 44 patients selected from the patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for epigastric discomforts. From each patient, two pinch biopsies on the same area were obtained from duodenal bulb. One was for scanning electron microscopy and the other was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Warthin-Starry silver and both were then examined under light microscope. A total of 12 specimens (three from each degree of the normal and Ⅰ-Ⅲ of NSD diagnosed and graded by histology) selected from the 44patients were dehydrated, critical point dried, coated with gold palladium and examined under a JEOL JSM-30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 20 kV.RESULTS: According to the ultrastructural morphologic changes, non-specific duodenitis was divided into normal (as control group), mild, moderate and severe degrees according to results of SEM. The normal villi of duodenal bulb were less than 0.2 mm. There were inflammation cells,occasionally red blood cells and macrophages on the mucosal epithelial surface. Erosion and desquamation of epithelium could be seen. Three cases (25%, 3/12) had gastric metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection could be found in 5 cases (41.67%, 5/12) in duodenal bulb mucosa. The most distinctive feature was the ulcer-like defect on the surface of epithelial cells.CONCLUSION: Non-specific duodenitis is a separate entity disease caused by different factors. SEM is of value as an aid in the diagnosis of mucosal diseases of duodenum.

  19. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions (United States)

    ... of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and ankylosing spondylitis. Modifiable risk ... involve the following: Medications. Nonpharmacologic therapies. Physical or occupational therapy. Splints or joint assistive aids. Patient education and ...

  20. Forms of Arthritis (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis (image) (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...

  2. Arthritis in America (United States)

    ... part of aging. The most common types are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, and fibromyalgia. Arthritis costs ... file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: March 7, 2017 Page last updated: March 7, 2017 ...

  3. Sex and Arthritis (United States)

    ... Call for Letters of Interest Call for Topics Axial Spondyloarthritis Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Gout Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ... fibromyalgia , scleroderma , osteoarthritis , rheumatoid ... spondylitis , Raynaud’s phenomenon and juvenile arthritis also may experience: ...

  4. Imaging in Psoriatic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Østergaard, Mikkel; Terslev, Lene


    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by arthritis and often enthesitis in patients with psoriasis, presenting a wide range of manifestations in various patterns. Imaging procedures are primarily conventional radiography, ultrasonography (US), and magnetic...

  5. Arthritis and the Feet (United States)

    ... some of the complaints—inflammation, pain, stiffness, excessive warmth, injuries. Even bunions can be manifestations of arthritis. Arthritis may be treated in many ways. Patient education is important. Physical therapy and exercise may be indicated, accompanied by ...

  6. In Vivo Quantitative Measurement of Arthritis Activity Based on Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan in Inflammatory Arthritis: More Active than Passive Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Soon Park


    Full Text Available We demonstrated that arthritis could be visualized noninvasively using hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nanoparticles labeled with Cy5.5 (HGC-Cy5.5 and an optical imaging system. Activated macrophages expressing Mac-1 molecules effectively phagocytosed HGC-Cy5.5, which formed spherical nanoparticles under physiologic conditions. We estimated the applicability of HGC-Cy5.5 to quantitative analysis of arthritis development and progression. Near-infrared fluorescence images, captured after HGC-Cy5.5 injection in mice with collagen-induced arthritis, showed stronger fluorescence intensity in the active arthritis group than in the nonarthritis group. According to the progression of arthritis in both collagen-induced arthritis and collagen antibody-induced arthritis models, total photon counts (TPCs increased in parallel with the clinical arthritis index. Quantitative analysis of fluorescence after treatment with methotrexate showed a significant decrease in TPC in a dose-dependent manner. Histologic evaluation confirmed that the mechanism underlying selective accumulation of HGC-Cy5.5 within synovitis tissues included enhanced phagocytosis of the probe by Mac-1-expressing macrophages as well as enhanced permeability through leaky vessels. These results suggest that optical imaging of arthritis using HGC-Cy5.5 can provide an objective measurement of disease activity and, at the same time, therapeutic responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Structural and Ultrastructural Aspects of Folliculogenesis in Didelphis albiventris, the South-American Opossum


    Cesario, Maria Dalva [UNESP; Michelin Matheus, Selma M. [UNESP


    The ovarian histology, the structural and the ultrastructural characteristics of the folliculogenesis in Didelphis albiventris were described in detail. Recent studies suggest that methatherian mammals have unusual reproductive cycle but there are few informations regarding the marsupials reproductive life. Despite of the opossum folliculogenesis pattern resembles methatherian and eutherian pattern in many aspects, the analysis shows some peculiar features of the oocyte structure and ultrastr...

  8. How undifferentiated arthritis evolves into chronic arthritis. (United States)

    van der Woude, D; Toes, R E M; Scherer, H U


    Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is a frequently occurring clinical presentation with a variable outcome. While some forms of UA will spontaneously remit, other forms will progress to chronic arthritis; an outcome that would preferably be prevented. Which immunological factors are normally at the basis of resolution of inflammation, and what, on the other hand, causes inflammation to persist? This review provides an overview of the immunological mechanisms involved in these two scenarios, including specific examples of how these mechanisms apply, or can be influenced in rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, what do we know about risk factors for chronic arthritis, such as the development of autoantibodies? The recent years have provided many insights concerning risk factors for autoantibody-positive versus autoantibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis, which are discussed along with a possible pathophysiological model incorporating autoantibodies into the larger process of disease development. Finally, the evolution of the autoantibody response over time is described.

  9. Fungal arthritis simulating juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.


    Haapasaari, J; Essen, R V; Kahanpää, A; Kostiala, A A; Holmberg, K; Ahlqvist, J


    Petriellidium boydii is often isolated from maduromycosis but has recently been associated with arthritis. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy developed chronic purulent arthritis of the knee after a bicycle accident. Culture of aspirate grew no pathogens and antibiotic treatment had no effect. Culture of synovial fluid grew P boydii, which responded initially to amphotericin but reappeared after six months. Subsequent treatment with miconazole was stopped after development of haematuria. The...

  10. Infections and arthritis. (United States)

    Mathew, Ashish Jacob; Ravindran, Vinod


    Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can all cause arthritis of either acute or chronic nature, which can be divided into infective/septic, reactive, or inflammatory. Considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques in the recent decades resulting in better treatment outcomes in patients with infective arthritis. Detection of emerging arthritogenic viruses has changed the epidemiology of infection-related arthritis. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis is increasingly being recognized. We discuss the various causative agents of infective arthritis and emphasize on the approach to each type of arthritis, highlighting the diagnostic tests, along with their statistical accuracy. Various investigations including newer methods such as nucleic acid amplification using polymerase chain reaction are discussed along with the pitfalls in interpreting the tests.

  11. Effect of raloxifene on arthritis and bone mineral density in rats with collagen-induced arthritis. (United States)

    Hayashi, Ikuta; Hagino, Hiroshi; Okano, Toru; Enokida, Makoto; Teshima, Ryota


    We studied the effect of raloxifene (RAL) on arthritis and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Seven-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: rats without CIA (CNT), CIA rats that underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and were treated with RAL (CIA + OVX + RAL), CIA rats that underwent OVX and were treated with vehicle (CIA + OVX + Veh), CIA rats that had sham surgery and were treated with RAL (CIA + sham + RAL), and CIA rats that had sham surgery and were treated with vehicle (CIA + sham + Veh). RAL was orally administered at 10 mg/kg every day for 3 weeks, beginning 1 week after initial sensitization until death at 4 weeks. Every week until death, we evaluated hind paw thickness and arthritis score. BMD was measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the distal metaphysis and the diaphysis of the femur; we also performed histomorphometry of the proximal tibia and histological evaluation of arthritis. RAL administration suppressed hind paw thickness and arthritis score and prevented decreases in BMD and cortical thickness. In the histomorphometric analysis, bone-resorption parameters were significantly lower in the RAL groups than in the Veh groups. RAL significantly inhibited synovial proliferation in CIA rats. RAL effects on arthritis and bone were apparent regardless of whether an animal had undergone OVX. RAL could suppress arthritis and bone loss in estrogen-replete or -depleted rats. These findings, using an animal model, indicate the potential usefulness of RAL as an effective treatment for premenopausal RA patients as well as postmenopausal ones.

  12. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (United States)

    ... arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... wrists, or knees. It also affects the eyes. Spondyloarthritis of children resembles the disorder in adults and ...

  13. What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (United States)

    ... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (in Vietnamese bằng ... his or her own body tissues. Researchers are learning many things about why and how this happens. ...

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  15. Arthritis and Veterans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    One in three veterans has arthritis. This podcast provides information on how veterans can improve their quality of life with physical activity and other arthritis management strategies.  Created: 11/9/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/9/2015.

  16. Ultrastructural basis of acute renal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D. Vuzevski (Vojislav)


    textabstractAn attempt was made: I. to demonstrate the evolution and the time of onset of the ultrastructural morphological changes in the renal parenchyma and blood vessels, as well as the ultrastructural feature of the interstitial cellular infiltration in acute rejection of kidney allografts; 2.

  17. Oncocytic carcinoid of lung: an ultrastructural analysis. (United States)

    Scharifker, D; Marchevsky, A


    A 52-year-old man with a typical carcinoid tumor of the lung in which the tumor cells displayed marked oncocytic metaplasia is presented. The clinicopathologic and ultrastructural differences with so-called oncocytic of the lung are discussed. The potential of Kulchitsky cell derivatives to undergo oncocytic metaplasma is documented ultrastructurally.

  18. Severe inflammatory arthritis and lymphadenopathy in the absence of TNF


    Campbell, Ian K.; O’Donnell, Kristy; Lawlor, Kate E.; Wicks, Ian P


    It has been postulated that TNF has a pivotal role in a cytokine cascade that results in joint inflammation and destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To evaluate this, we examined the response of TNF-deficient (Tnf–/–) mice in two models of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced by injection of chick type II collagen (CII) in CFA. Tnf–/– mice had some reduction in the clinical parameters of CIA and, on histology, significantly more normal joints. However, severe disease was evid...

  19. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E


    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  20. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis


    Holmqvist, Marie E


    This thesis is based on four different studies, all focusing on co-morbidities in rheumatoid arthritis. Diabetes mellitus is assessed as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis, the temporal relationship between ischemic heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and the extent of coronary stenosis in rheumatoid arthritis, is studied. The rationale for this is that patients with rheumatoid arthritis suffer an increased risk of ischemic heart disease that cannot be explained by traditional risk fa...

  1. 人感染高致病性禽流感病毒H5N1的病理学和病原学特点%Histologic and ultrastructural studies of the patient died of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 祝庆余; 余琦; 王巍; 王一平


    Objective To explore histopathologic and ultrastructural characteristics of human avian influenza (AI) infection and related etiological pathogenesis.Methods Postmortem lung and heart samples were collected from the patient who died of avian influenza virus infection on November 29,2003 in China.Light and electron microscopy,immunohistochemistry and histochemistry were used to investigate the pathological changes.Results The main pathological findings included extensive pulmonary consolidation,hemorrhage,pulmonary edema and local hemorrhagic infarct.The lamina of alveoli and bronchioles were abundantly filled with protein-rich fluid,erythrocytes,fibrin and cell debris admixed with many neutrophilis.macrophages,lymphocytes and a few of monokaryon and multinuclear giant cells.Hyaline membranes were formed.Local pulmonary tissues were heavily damaged by hemorrhage and necrosis.Alveolar septum was disintegrated.Mesenchymal edema with a few of macrophages infiltration of heart was found.Electron microscopy showed the avian influenza A virus-like particles (type C and type A) of 80~120 nm diameter and envelopes in the cytoplasm of pneumocytes and endothelial cells.Conclusions Fatal pneumonia associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) infection leads to extensive pulmonary consolidation,edema and marked hemorrhagic necrosis and inflammation.Electron microscopy can identify avian influenza A virus-like particles.The findings may offer an important theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的 探讨人感染禽流行性感冒病毒的病理学及病原学特点.方法 应用透射电镜、光镜、组织化学和免疫组织化学方法对发生在2003年11月中国内地人禽流感死亡尸检病例1例进行观察研究.行病原体分离培养鉴定、全基因组序列测定和动物致病性观察以确定病原学特点.结果 肺部病理改变主要表现为广泛性肺实变,肺出血、肺水肿及坏死.肺泡腔内充

  2. Non-surgical synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis. Results obtained by radio-synoviorthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbarre, F.; Menkes, J.C.


    The different radioactive isotopes used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by non-surgical synovectomy are discussed. The results of ..beta.. irradiation on the synovium are compared in a double blind trial using yttrium isotopes. Some cases of polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis and their therapy with ..beta.. emitters are described. Histological and biological changes after synoviorthesis and the results of this therapy are compared with surgical synovectomy.

  3. [Septic arthritis and spondylitis]. (United States)

    Fujikawa, Yosuke


    Septic arthritis and spondylitis in elderly adult are uncommon disease. But symptoms and signs of septic arthritis and spondylitis are an important medical emergency, with high mortality and morbidity. Delayed or inadequate treatment can result in irreversible joint destruction and neurological condition. Early diagnoses as well as prompt and effective treatment are essential for avoiding severe outcomes. In spite of advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, the incidence of septic arthritis and spondylitis appears to have been increased. The aging of the population, the widespread use of immunosuppressant therapies, including systemic corticosteroids, cytokines and anticytokines, and growing resistance to conventional antibiotics seem to be the major cause.

  4. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes. (United States)

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin


    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea.

  5. [Changes of ultrastructure of the capillary endotheliocytes of ischemized and nonaffected muscular tissue after transplantation of human hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver in experiment in vivo]. (United States)

    Saliutin, R V; Zadorozhna, T D; Medvets'kyĭ, E B; Driuk, M F; Petrenko, A Iu


    In experiment was investigated ultrastructure of the capillaries endothelial cells and histological peculiarities of muscular tissue on various stages after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver (HSCFL). There was proved, that in ischemic environment HSCFL stimulate processes of angiogenesis, and in the case of transplantation into intact muscular tissue they are differentiating into the tissue macrophages, not interfering with muscular tissue structure.

  6. Histology without xylene. (United States)

    Buesa, René J; Peshkov, Maxim V


    After the hazardous effects of xylene became indisputable in the 1970s, many potential substitutes became available, some with as many if not more hazards. This article discusses the inadequacy of 5 vegetable oils as substitutes, as well as the characteristics of 22 D-limonene-based substitutes, all less effective in their chemical role, some capable of inducing health problems, and costing more than twice as much as xylene. Some of the 35 alkane-based substitutes discussed are effective for tissue processing, less toxic, with a cost about the same as xylene, but are not very effective for dewaxing and other staining tasks. Isopropanol (2-propanol) alone or mixed with molten paraffin is a technically acceptable and cost-effective substitute for xylene for tissue processing, but in this study, we demonstrate that the best clearing agents from the sectioning quality and diagnostic value point of view, with automated or manual protocols, are mixtures of 5:1 and 2:1 isopropanol and mineral oil, followed by undiluted mineral oil, all at 50 degrees C, making them a safer and cheaper substitute than xylene. Using a 1.7% dishwasher soap aqueous solution at 90 degrees C to dewax before staining and oven drying the stained sections before coverslipping will eliminate xylene from the staining tasks. Tissue processors retorts and conduits can be dewaxed with a 2% solution of a strong glassware laboratory detergent. These 4 methodologies will make the histology laboratory xylene-free but, due to the natural resistance to change, many histotechs will be reluctant to adopt them if they think that their technical expertise could be jeopardized, and the only way these changes will succeed is if the pathologists, as stewards of the histology laboratory, commit to their implementation.

  7. Treatment of experimental murine arthritis with transdermal photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Ratkay, Leslie G.; Chowdhary, R. K.; Neyndorff, Herma C.; Levy, Julia G.; Waterfield, J. D.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative, monoacid ring A (BPD), and transdermal light was able to significantly treat symptoms of adjuvant-enhanced arthritis in MRL-lpr mice. Clinical and histological evaluation showed that PDT was able to modify the progression of adjuvant-enhanced arthritis up to 10 days after induction. When PDT was used on arthritic joints displaying swelling, it prevented further deterioration of clinical symptoms (76%, 16/21). However, it did not significantly effect the histopathologic parameters. As we have previously reported that mitogen activated MRL-lpr splenocytes were shown to be more susceptible to in vitro PDT we postulate that our findings reflect a selective destruction of adjuvant activated lymphocytes in the circulation and/or joints. The application of PDT to eliminate activated cells responsible for the inflammatory reaction at the arthritic site may have significant clinical implications for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P


    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  9. Arthritis in Children (United States)

    ... Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial ... Content Article Body Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that produces swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Although it is typically thought of as a ...

  10. Arthritis and IBD (United States)

    ... pain and stiffness in the lower spine and sacroiliac joints (at the bottom of the back). Interestingly, and ... addition to causing arthritis of the spine and sacroiliac joints, ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation of the eyes, ...

  11. Radiological features of experimental staphylococcal septic arthritis by micro computed tomography scan (United States)

    Fatima, Farah; Fei, Ying; Ali, Abukar; Mohammad, Majd; Erlandsson, Malin C.; Bokarewa, Maria I.; Nawaz, Muhammad; Valadi, Hadi; Na, Manli


    Background Permanent joint dysfunction due to bone destruction occurs in up to 50% of patients with septic arthritis. Recently, imaging technologies such as micro computed tomography (μCT) scan have been widely used for preclinical models of autoimmune joint disorders. However, the radiological features of septic arthritis in mice are still largely unknown. Methods NMRI mice were intravenously or intra-articularly inoculated with S. aureus Newman or LS-1 strain. The radiological and clinical signs of septic arthritis were followed for 10 days using μCT. We assessed the correlations between joint radiological changes and clinical signs, histological changes, and serum levels of cytokines. Results On days 5–7 after intravenous infection, bone destruction verified by μCT became evident in most of the infected joints. Radiological signs of bone destruction were dependent on the bacterial dose. The site most commonly affected by septic arthritis was the distal femur in knees. The bone destruction detected by μCT was positively correlated with histological changes in both local and hematogenous septic arthritis. The serum levels of IL-6 were significantly correlated with the severity of joint destruction. Conclusion μCT is a sensitive method for monitoring disease progression and determining the severity of bone destruction in a mouse model of septic arthritis. IL-6 may be used as a biomarker for bone destruction in septic arthritis. PMID:28152087

  12. So-called "papillary and cystic neoplasm of the pancreas." An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Kamisawa, T; Fukayama, M; Koike, M; Tabata, I; Okamoto, A


    A case of so-called "papillary and cystic neoplasm of the pancreas" (PCNP) was reported and investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. A tumor of the pancreatic head in a 21-year-old female was curatively resected. The tumor was cystic and histologically consisted of uniform cells in papillary and solid structure. Although there was no immunoreactivity for pancreaticogut hormones or secretory products of the pancreas in the tumor cells, most of the tumor cells were diffusely immunoreactive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Some neurosecretory granules were detected in the tumor cells ultrastructurally. Both facts suggested endocrine cell character of the tumor. Certain cases of PCNP might show a differentiation to endocrine cells.

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis Management How to Give a Subcutaneous Injection Connect With ...

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spondylitis News Osteoarthritis News Gout News Osteoporosis News Lupus News Fibromyalgia News Patient Corner Arthritis Drug Information ... Connect With Us Johns Hopkins Rheumatology Arthritis Center Lupus Center Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center Myositis Center ...

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any advice you receive from your rheumatologist. Click A Link Below To Play Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms and ... About Victoria Ruffing, RN Ms. Ruffing has been a member of the Arthritis Center since 2000, currently ...

  16. Effect of omeprazole on symptoms and ultrastructural esophageal damage in acid bile reflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo Calabrese; Anna Fabbri; Mauro Bortolotti; Giovanna Cenacchi; Scialpi Carlo; Desiree Zahlane; Mario Miglioli; Giulio Di Febo


    AIM: To value whether omeprazole could induce the healing of DIS and regression of symptoms in patients with DGER.METHODS: We enrolled 15 symptomatic patients with a pathological esophageal 24-h pH-metry and bilimetry.Patients underwent endoscopy and biopsies were taken from the distal esophagus. Specimens were analyzed at histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Patients were treated with omeprazole 40 mg/d for 3 mo and then endoscopy with biopsies was repeated. Patients with persistent heartburn and/or with an incomplete recovery of DIS were treated for 3 more months and endoscopy with biopsies was performed.RESULTS: Nine patients had a non-erosive reflux disease at endoscopy (NERD) while 6 had erosive esophagitis (ERD). At histology, of the 6 patients with erosive esophagus,5 had mild esophagitis and 1 moderate esophagitis. No patients with NERD showed histological signs of esophagitis.After 3 mo of therapy, 13/15 patients (86.7%, P<0.01)showed a complete recovery of DIS and disappearance of heartburn. Of the 2 patients treated for 3 more months,complete recovery of DIS and heartburn were achieved in one.CONCLUSION: Three or 6 mo of omeprazole therapy led to a complete regression of the ultrastructural esophageal damage in 86.7% and in 93% of patients with DGER, NERD and ERD respectively. The ultrastructural recovery of the epithelium was accompanied by regression of heartburn in all cases.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis 101 2010 E.S.C.A.P.E. Study Patient Update Transitioning the JRA Patient to an Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis Management How ...

  18. Th17 cytokines and arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lubberts (Erik)


    textabstractTh17 cells are implicated in human autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although it has not been established whether this persistent destructive arthritis is driven by Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis as has b

  19. Characterization and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis by photoacoustic imaging: a study on adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin; Shao, Xia; Chamberland, David L.; Girish, Gandikota


    Neovascularity also known as angiogenesis is an early feature of inflammatory arthritis disease. Therefore, identifying the development of neovascularity is one way to potentially detect and characterize arthritis. Laser-based photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality which may aid in detection of both early and continued development of neovascularity. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of PAI to measure angiogenesis, for the purpose of evaluating and monitoring inflammatory arthritis after treatment. The imaging results on an arthritis rat model demonstrate that 1) there is noticeable enhancement in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints when compared to the normal joints, and 2) there is noticeable decrease in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints after treatment when compared to the untreated arthritic joints. In order to validate the findings from PAI, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) and histology on the same joints. The diameters of the ankle joints, as a clinical score of the arthritis, were also measured at each time point.

  20. [Arthritis and clinical history]. (United States)

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S


    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  1. Dermatoglyphics in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranath R


    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been referred to Division of Human Genetics for counselling. Qualitative dermatoglyphics comprising of finger print pattern, interdigital pattern, hypothenar pattern and palmar crease were studied on 26 female and 11 male rheumatoid arthritis patients. Comparison between patient male and control male; and patient female and control female has been done. ′Chi′ square test was performed. In male patients, with hands together, arches were increased, loops/ whorls were decreased. Partial Simian crease was significantly increased. In the right hand, patterns were increased in the 3rd interdigital area. On the other hand, in female patients there was a significant increase in whorls and decrease in loops on the first finger on both the hands, increase in arches on the 3rd finger; both arches and whorls on the 4th finger of left hand. Present study has emphasized that dermatoglyphics could be applied as a diagnostic tool to patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis]. (United States)

    Herlin, Troels


    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  3. A Study on the Ultrastructure and Gene Location of Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明华; 张东生; 肖尚喜; 武影; 郑际烈; 孔祥银


    Objective To ascertain the histological characteristics of hereditary gingival fibromatosis and the location of HGF gene. Methods A pedigree analysis of HGF was made. The ultrastructure of gingival overgrown tissue was observed by electron microscopy (EMS) and the location of the HGF gene defined with microsatellite markers. Results The HGF consisted of coarse collagen bundles and fibrocytes, epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, etc. were abnormally arranged; the HGF locus had been mapped to chromosome 5q13-q22. Conclusion The gingival pathological changes resemble "hamartoma" and the findings have implications for identification of the underlying genetic basis of HGF.

  4. Ultrastructural investigation of human sperm from asthenozoospermic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sh. Khayat


    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of the flagellum is highly conserved and is composed of a number of cytoskeletal elements whose proper assembly is critical for sperm motility. Ultrastructural mechanisms damage as cause of asthenozoospermia development are discussed.

  5. Ultrastructural investigation of human sperm from asthenozoospermic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sh. Khayat


    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of the flagellum is highly conserved and is composed of a number of cytoskeletal elements whose proper assembly is critical for sperm motility. Ultrastructural mechanisms damage as cause of asthenozoospermia development are discussed.

  6. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma


    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  7. Psoriatic Arthritis Registries. (United States)

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Varisco, Valentina; Ditto, Maria Chiara; Benucci, Maurizio; Atzeni, Fabiola


    The introduction of new biological drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis has led to the creation of a number of registries in Europe and the United States. Most of them are sponsored by national rheumatology societies, and provide information that is useful in clinical practice concerning the clinical characteristics, efficacy, and safety of all licensed biological drugs. Their findings also help to improve our understanding of the quality of life and working ability of patients receiving biological drugs, and suggest methods for allocating resources. However, there are only a few registries for psoriatic arthritis, and efforts should be made to increase their number to obtain further reliable and useful data.

  8. Histological and Ultrastructural Effects of Ultrasound-induced Cavitation on Human Skin Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bani, MD


    Conclusions: This study further strengthens the current notion that noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound cavitation is a promising and safe technology for localized reduction of fat and provides experimental evidence for its specific mechanism of action on the adipocytes.

  9. The renal histology and ultrastructure in rats given methylmercury and ethanol in combination. (United States)

    Rumbeiha, W K; Yamashiro, S; Bhatnagar, M K


    The effects of combined administration of methylmercury (MeHg) and ethanol (EtOH) on renal morphology were examined in the rat. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each as follows: group 1 was given feed ad libitum with no treatment; group 2 was restricted to 70 mL of feed daily with no treatment; groups 3-6 were restricted to 70 mL of feed daily and gavaged with distilled water, MeHg alone, EtOH alone, or MeHg in combination with EtOH, respectively, daily for 45 days. The ingestion of MeHg and EtOH in combination caused severe structural renal lesions which involved the glomerulus and all segments of the uriniferous tubule. Only with this combination treatment (group 6) was glomerular pathology observed; accumulations of platelets and inflammatory cells, fibrosis and thickening of the mesangium were observed in the glomerulus. There was also severe tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized by tubular atrophy, accumulation of inflammatory cells especially neutrophils, and increased collagen deposition in the same group. In contrast, the ingestion of either MeHg or EtOH produced less severe lesions mainly in the proximal tubular epithelium. This study suggests that EtOH enhanced the nephrotoxicity of MeHg.

  10. Histological and ultrastructure changes in Medicago sativa in response to lead stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the recent years, human activities such industry and agriculture promote heavy metal release into the environment. Lead is the most contaminant metals in environment which adversely affects both plant and human life. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of Pb on structural characteristics in Medicago sativa L. 30 days plants treated with Pb in 5 treatments (0,120, 240, 500, 1000µM Pb with 3 repeat in per treatment for 10 days. Histochemical method of lead detection revealed significant accumulation of this metal in cortex and xylem tissues in roots and in stems lead deposits on cell wall of collenchymas tissues. The analysis of scanning electron micrographs of the leaf surface of M. sativa grown on hydroponic culture treated with Pb showed an increase in the size of guard cells in adaxial surface and decrease in abaxial surface, decrease in size of stomata aperture and closure of stomata in 1000 µM Pb in medium. Alternation of epicuticular waxes is one of the most important of pollution symptoms, in our study, alteration in structure and deposition of epicuticular waxes were observed. Also anatomical characteristics of stem and root affected by Pb contamination. Under Pb toxicity, anatomical symptoms including increase the diameter of stems and root as well as amplified vascular bundles and pith area were obsreved.

  11. Pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. Histology, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlations of 101 cases. (United States)

    Doglioni, C; Laurino, L; Dei Tos, A P; De Boni, M; Franzin, G; Braidotti, P; Viale, G


    The occasional finding within the gastric mucosa of unidentified epithelial cells with morphological features closely resembling those of pancreatic acinar cells has prompted us to investigate a retrospective series of 8,430 consecutive gastric biopsies and of 126 surgical specimens of gastric resection and total gastrectomy. The aims of the study were to morphologically and immunocytochemically characterize these cells, to define their actual prevalence in a large series of unselected cases, and to assess the clinicopathologic correlates of their occurrence. Pancreatic acinar-like cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm, which was acidophilic and finely granular in the apical and middle portions and basophilic in the basal compartment, have been identified in 101 cases (84 gastric biopsies and 17 gastrectomies). These cells, arranged in nests or in variably sized lobules among the gastric glands, were morphologically indistinguishable from pancreatic acinar cells, both by light and by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they were consistently immunoreactive for pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen and, in 75% of the cases, for pancreatic alpha-amylase. The appearance of these cells within the gastric mucosa was correlated significantly with chronic gastritis (p = 0.032) and with the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal and pyloric types of gastric metaplasia (p = 0.021). The findings indicate that this is a previously unrecognized pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, clinically and morphologically distinct from pancreatic heterotopia.

  12. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  13. Neonatal septic arthritis. (United States)

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E


    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  14. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  15. Arthritis Pain Reliever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Learn more about the benefits of physical activity and the types and amounts of exercise helpful for people with arthritis.  Created: 12/27/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/27/2011.

  16. Meningeal tumors histologically mimicking meningioma. (United States)

    Barresi, Valeria; Caffo, Maria; Branca, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Rosario; Tuccari, Giovanni


    A number of meningeal neoplastic lesions may radiologically and clinically simulate meningioma. In the present paper, we review meningeal non-meningothelial tumors which may also mimic different histotypes of meningioma at the histological examination. Awareness that these lesions exist may facilitate their recognition and correct diagnosis, which is of fundamental importance for prognosis and an appropriate therapeutic approach. Histological and immunohistochemical clues for the differential diagnosis are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D'Angelo


    Full Text Available Imaging of psoriatic arthritis (PsA is important for two reasons: the differential diagnosis from other arthritides and the assessment of structural damage that can be inhibited by the new drugs such as the anti-TNFα agents. Plain film radiographic findings of peripheral arthritis have been important in elaborating the concept of PsA as a separate disease entity. Characteristic aspects of psoriatic peripheral arthritis help the differentiation from rheumatoid arthritis. High-resolution ultrasonography (US, US combined with power Doppler (PDUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to image joint synovitis of PsA. Radiologic features of spondylitis associated with psoriasis are similar to spondylitis associated with reactive arthritis and differ from those of primary ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the spondylitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. MRI is very sensitive for the early diagnosis of sacroiliitis. There have been no MRI studies on the spine of patients with PsA. In primary AS bone oedema in the vertebral bodies is an indicator of active disease and can ameliorate during anti-TNFα therapy. Historically, plain film radiography have played a pivotal role in defining enthesitis lesions of SpA. However, entheseal bone changes appear late. US and MRI have proved to be a highly sensitive and non invasive tools. Recent US and MRI studies on both finger and toe dactylitis have established that dactylitis is due to flexor tenosynovitis and marked adjacent soft tissue swelling with a variable degree of small joint synovitis. There is no evidence of enthesitis of the insertion of the flexor digitorum tendons and of the attachment of the caspsule of the digit joints. Key words: Enthesitis, dactylitis, spondyloarthritis, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, imaging

  18. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis: "You Are Not Alone." (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid Arthritis: "You Are Not Alone." Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... Alternative Medicine—Rheumatoid Arthritis ... ...

  20. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  1. Ultrastructure of sporulation in Haplosporidium armoricanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wakefield, S.J.


    An ultrastructural study was carried out on the tissues of an oyster (Ostrea edulis), heavily infected with Haplosporidium armoricanum (van Banning, 1977), that had been fixed in Carson¿s fixative. The well-fixed tissues revealed details of sporulation and of the spores, which had not been previousl

  2. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Grover, Madhusudan; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Lurken, Matthew S.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Parkman, Henry P.; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Hasler, William L.; Uenalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Koch, Kenneth L.; Calles, Jorges; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A.; Farrugia, Gianrico


    The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders. As part of the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, full thickness gastric body biopsies from 20 diabetic and 20 idiopathic g

  3. Clinical management of septic arthritis. (United States)

    Sharff, Katie A; Richards, Eric P; Townes, John M


    Septic arthritis is a rheumatologic emergency as joint destruction occurs rapidly and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate diagnosis can be particularly challenging in patients with underlying inflammatory joint disease. This review outlines the risk factors for septic arthritis and summarizes the causative bacterial organisms. We highlight advances in antibiotic management with a focus on new drugs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and discuss the use of adjunctive therapies for treatment of septic arthritis in adults.

  4. Myofibrosarcoma of the upper jawbones: a clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study of two cases. (United States)

    Bisceglia, M; Tricarico, N; Minenna, P; Magro, G; Pasquinelli, G


    Two problematic spindle cell sarcomas involving upper jawbones in two adult male patients have been studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy, and respectively graded as low-grade malignancy and high-grade malignancy. While any single methodological study did not allow confident classification of them into one or other of the classical categories of spindle cell sarcomas (fibrosarcoma versus leiomyosarcoma), the overall contribution from all three methodologies ultimately allowed them to be categorized as sarcomas with myofibroblastic differentiation. Histologically, both tumors had morphological features of an amalgama between neoplastic fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemically, both tumors expressed reactivity only for muscle specific actin and alpha smooth muscle actin, in addition to vimentin. Ultrastructurally, both tumors, while showing fibroblast-like cytoplasmic features, had a spurious and imperfectly organized cell surface defying convincing classification into any of specific categories (i.e., both appeared in terms of ultrastructure as poorly differentiated sarcoma, the former with low level of smooth muscle differentiation and possibly the presence of some fibronexus component, the latter with no smooth muscle differentiation but with possible evidence of very rare fibronectin fibril). Therefore, on balance, the most tenable diagnosis seemed to us that of a myofibrosarcoma in both cases. This work is presented considering the fact that myofibrosarcoma currently represents a topical theme of debate, and that this is the first report in medical literature concerning with myofibrosarcomas of the head and neck area in adults.

  5. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  6. Histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis of the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair in a rat model. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Gotoh, Masafumi; Ohta, Keisuke; Honda, Hirokazu; Ohzono, Hiroki; Shimokobe, Hisao; Shiba, Naoto; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro


    Successful rotator cuff repair requires biological anchoring of the repaired tendon to the bone. However, the histological structure of the repaired tendon-bone interface differs from that of a normal tendon insertion. We analysed differences between the normal tendon insertion and the repaired tendon-bone interface after surgery in the mechanical properties, histomorphometric analysis, and 3-dimensional ultrastructure of the cells using a rat rotator cuff repair model. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent complete cuff tear and subsequent repair of the supraspinatus tendon. The repaired tendon-bone interface was evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. At each time point, shoulders underwent micro-computed tomography scanning and biomechanical testing (N = 6), conventional histology and histomorphometric analysis (N = 6), and ultrastructural analysis with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) tomography (N = 4). We demonstrated that the cellular distribution between the repaired tendon and bone at 12 weeks after surgery bore similarities to the normal tendon insertion. However, the ultrastructure of the cells at any time point had a different morphology than those of the normal tendon insertion. These morphological differences affect the healing process, partly contributing to re-tearing at the repair site. These results may facilitate future studies of the regeneration of a normal tendon insertion.

  7. A new test method for the standardized evaluation of changes in the ultrastructure of chondrocytes. (United States)

    Annefeld, M


    By means of a new ultrastructural test system, which is based on standardized morphometry and statistical evaluation, we are able for the first time to quantify changes in the cell metabolism of chondrocytes in the articular cartilage. To compare anti-inflammatory substances of different structure, different absorption characteristics and pharmacokinetics as regards their effect on rat cartilage, we used an equieffective dosage of the different anti-inflammatory drugs. Dexamethasone as steroidal and indomethacin and phenylbutazone as classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were administered in an ED50 dosage referred to provoked arthritis over 12 weeks, using the same mode of administration. The standardized results of untreated rats weighing 300 and 450 g were used as the controls. Dexamethasone brings about massive degenerative changes in the ultrastructure of the vital chondrocyte. Under indomethacin and phenylbutazone the metabolic activity of the chondrocyte is inhibited to a much lesser extent. The damage to the chondrocyte after treatment with dexamethasone, indomethacin and phenylbutazone cannot be regarded as minimal but in some cases is tolerable as regards the benefit/risk ratio in the treatment of rheumatoid diseases.

  8. Protein arginine deiminase 4 inhibition is sufficient for the amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis. (United States)

    Willis, V C; Banda, N K; Cordova, K N; Chandra, P E; Robinson, W H; Cooper, D C; Lugo, D; Mehta, G; Taylor, S; Tak, P P; Prinjha, R K; Lewis, H D; Holers, V M


    Citrullination of joint proteins by the protein arginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes is recognized increasingly as a key process in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This present study was undertaken to explore the efficacy of a novel PAD4-selective inhibitor, GSK199, in the murine collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were dosed daily from the time of collagen immunization with GSK199. Efficacy was assessed against a wide range of end-points, including clinical disease scores, joint histology and immunohistochemistry, serum and joint citrulline levels and quantification of synovial autoantibodies using a proteomic array containing joint peptides. Administration of GSK199 at 30 mg/kg led to significant effects on arthritis, assessed both by global clinical disease activity and by histological analyses of synovial inflammation, pannus formation and damage to cartilage and bone. In addition, significant decreases in complement C3 deposition in both synovium and cartilage were observed robustly with GSK199 at 10 mg/kg. Neither the total levels of citrulline measurable in joint and serum, nor levels of circulating collagen antibodies, were affected significantly by treatment with GSK199 at any dose level. In contrast, a subset of serum antibodies reactive against citrullinated and non-citrullinated joint peptides were reduced with GSK199 treatment. These data extend our previous demonstration of efficacy with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine and demonstrate robustly that PAD4 inhibition alone is sufficient to block murine arthritis clinical and histopathological end-points.

  9. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement (United States)

    Amerongen, Helen


    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  10. Ultrastructural, histochemical, and biochemical studies of two cases with amylase, ACTH, and beta-MSH producing tumor. (United States)

    Gomi, K; Kameya, T; Tsumuraya, M; Shimosato, Y; Zeze, F; Abe, K; Yoneyama, T


    Two cases of intrathoracic tumor, different in histology and accompanied by hyperamylasemia, were studied ultrastructurally, histochemically, and biochemically. The ultrastructure of the tumor cell cytoplasm showed many zymogen granules in case 1 and smaller cored granules in addition to zymogen granules in case 2. Both tumors contained not only a large amount of amylase, which was electrophoretically of saliva type with three components, but also significant amounts of immunoreactive ACTH and beta-MSH. Starch film and immunofluorescence showed that the tumor cells stored amylase. It was concluded from these findings that the tumor cells ectopically producing amylase, which showed differentiation toward the cells with zymogen production, could differentiate toward the cells of ACTH-MSH system at the same time.

  11. Attenuation of oxidative stress and alteration of hepatic tissue ultrastructure by D-pinitol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Sivakumar, Selvaraj; Palsamy, Periyasamy; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai


    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of D-pinitol on hyperglycaemia mediated oxidative stress by analysing the hepatic antioxidant competence, pro-inflammatory cytokines and ultrastructural changes in liver tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of D-pinitol (50 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in significant (p pinitol instigated a significant escalation in the levels of hepatic tissue non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activities enzymatic antioxidants of diabetic rats with significant (p pinitol on the hepatic tissues from oxidative stress-induced liver damage. These biochemical observations were complemented by histological and ultrastructural examination of liver section. Thus, the present study demonstrates the hepatoprotective nature of D-pinitol by attenuating hyperglycaemia-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

  12. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis. (United States)

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  13. Septic arthritis in adult horses. (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M


    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  14. Kartagener syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Rébora, Martin Esteban; Cuneo, Julia Ana; Marcos, Josefina; Marcos, Juan Carlos


    We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient, affected with Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia), who developed seropositive and erosive rheumatoid arthritis. According to our review, there are only 6 cases reported so far with this association without a definite etiopathogenic linkage recognized in common. Chronic infections resulting from the ciliary dysfunction might be a trigger for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Psoriatic arthritis as a mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berthelot


    Full Text Available There is no doubt that inflammatory arthritis/enthesitis and psoriasis coexist more frequently than would be expected by chance: for instance, in a study of 1285 patients with psoriasis seen in an hospital, 483 (38% were suffering from arthritis/ enthesitis, including 40 patients classified as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA (3%, 177 (14% as undifferentiated arthritis (UA, and 266 (21% as Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA (1. Although lower percentages have been noticed in the general population with psoriasis (6% of PsA in an extensive study of 1844 patients with psoriasis (2, they were superior to 5% (i.e. at least 5 times greater than the figures found for patients without psoriasis (3-7.

  16. Plantar fibromatosis: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. (United States)

    de Palma, L; Santucci, A; Gigante, A; Di Giulio, A; Carloni, S


    The analogies between plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren's disease (palmar fibromatosis) are well known. The latter is clinically more frequent and has been the object of extensive immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, with a view to investigating its pathogenesis. By contrast, such data on plantar fibromatosis are quite scarce. A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study was performed on nodule tissue from six patients who were subjected to total fasciectomy for plantar fibromatosis. The study of myofibroblasts revealed features suggestive of their fibroblastic origin and evidenced a cytoskeleton and an extracellular filamentous system that could enable myofibroblasts to generate and exert the intracellular forces that contribute to the contraction of the aponeurosis. These aspects are similar to those observed in Dupuytren's disease and seem to lend support to the theory that the two diseases are expressions of the same disorder.

  17. Fluorescence imaging of experimental rheumatoid arthritis in vivo using a fast flying-spot scanner (United States)

    Berger, J.; Voigt, J.; Seifert, F.; Ebert, B.; Macdonald, R.; Gemeinhardt, I.; Gemeinhardt, O.; Schnorr, J.; Taupitz, M.; Vater, A.; Vollmer, S.; Licha, K.; Schirner, M.


    We have developed a flying-spot scanner for fluorescence imaging of rheumatoid arthritis in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range following intravenous administration of contrast agents. The new imaging system has been characterized with respect to linearity, dynamic range and spatial resolution with the help of fluorescent phantoms. In vivo experiments were performed on an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, NIR-fluorescence images of early stages of joint inflammation have been compared with findings from contrast enhanced MR imaging and histology.

  18. Histological evaluation of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine levator palpebralis superior muscle histologically in patients with congenital blepharoptosis and to investigate the relationship between these findings and age, sex and degree of blefaroptosis in this patient group.Materials and methods: Levator muscle of 13 patients with congenital ptosis, who had applied to Dicle University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Clinic and had undergone levator palpebralis superior muscle resection between january 2009-january 2010, has been examined histopathologically in Histology and Embriology Deparment. During preoperative period, ptosis amount, levator function (LF, tear functions, Bell’s phenomenon and jaw-winking phenomenon were evaluated. All patients underwent resection of levator palpebralis superior muscle. Received postoperative levator muscle was examined by light microscopy.Results: The average age of 9 (69.2% male and 4 (30.8% female cases were 10.61 ± 4.77 (4- 19 years. In histological examination, the quality and quantity of the levator muscle fibrils have been assessed. There was no relationship detected between histological features of levator palpebralis superior muscle and patient’s age and gender (p>0.05. Patients with weak levator palpebralis superior muscle were detected to have fatty degeneration histologically. The higher the levator palpebralis superior muscle function revealed decreased fatty degeneration and increased skeletal muscle fibrils.Conclusion: More ultrastructural studies in larger populations are needed to support the relationship between structure and function of levator palpebralis superior muscle in patients with congenital blepharoptosis.

  19. Ultrastructure of the mouse spinal cord ependyma.


    Bjugn, R; Haugland, H K; Flood, P R


    This study was done in order to investigate the normal ultrastructure of well-preserved mouse spinal canal ependyma using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The ependymal lining was found to consist of a simple, cuboidal epithelium essentially similar to the unspecialized cuboidal ependyma of the brain ventricles. Apart from great variation in kinociliary density, no intracellular difference was noted between the ependymal cells. In contrast to earlier findings, indications...

  20. Combination therapy for pain management in inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthritis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramiro; H. Radner; D. van der Heijde; A. van Tubergen; R. Buchbinder; D. Aletaha; R.B.M. Landewé


    Despite optimal therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, many people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) continue to have persistent pain that may require additional therapy. To assess the benefits and safety of combination pain therapy for people with IA (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosi

  1. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis. (United States)

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides.

  2. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin


    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  3. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis. (United States)

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan


    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  4. A novel model of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease in SKG mice. (United States)

    Keith, Rebecca C; Powers, Jennifer L; Redente, Elizabeth F; Sergew, Amen; Martin, Richard J; Gizinski, Alison; Holers, V Michael; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Riches, David W H


    Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is associated with increased mortality in up to 10% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lung exposure to cigarette smoke has been implicated in disease development. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the development of RA-ILD, in part due to the lack of an appropriate mouse model. The objectives of this study were (i) to test the suitability of SKG mice as a model of cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia in the setting of autoimmune arthritis, and (ii) to determine the role of lung injury in the development of arthritis in SKG mice. Lung tissues were evaluated in arthritic SKG mice by quantifying cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage, static compliance, collagen levels, and infiltrating cell phenotypes by flow cytometry and histology. Lung injury was induced by exposure to cigarette smoke or bleomycin. Arthritic SKG mice developed a patchy cellular and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia associated with reduced static compliance, increased collagen levels, and accumulation of inflammatory cells. Infiltrating cells comprised CD4+ T cells, B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke or initiation of lung injury with bleomycin did not cause arthritis. The pattern of lung disease suggests that arthritic SKG mice represent an authentic model of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in RA-ILD patients. The lack of arthritis development after cigarette smoke or lung injury suggests that a model where breaches in immunologic tolerance are induced by lung inflammation and injury alone may be overly simplistic.

  5. Appearance normalization of histology slides. (United States)

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc


    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  6. Anal anatomy and normal histology. (United States)

    Pandey, Priti


    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  7. Water-soluble fullerene (c60 inhibits the development of arthritis in the rat model of arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Yudoh


    Full Text Available Kazuo Yudoh1, Rie Karasawa1, Kayo Masuko2, Tomohiro Kato2 1Institute of Medical Science, 2Department of Biochemistry, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, JapanAbstract: Recently, it has been demonstrated that oxygen free radicals have an important role as a signaling messenger in the development of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis, suggesting the implication of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of arthritis. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of a strong free-radical scavenger, water-soluble fullerene (C60, as a protective agent against synovitis in arthritis, both in vitro and in vivo. In the presence or absence of C60 (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 µM, human synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages were incubated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (10.0 ng/mL, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the individual cells were analyzed. C60 significantly suppressed the TNF-α-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro. Adjuvant induced arthritic rats were used as an animal model of arthritis. Rats were divided into two subgroups: control and treatment with C60 at 10.0 µM. The left ankle joint was injected intraarticularly with water-soluble C60 (20 µl in the C60-treated group, while, as a control, the left ankle joint in the control rats received phosphate-buffered saline (20 µl, once weekly for eight weeks. Ankle joint tissues were prepared for histological analysis. In adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, intra-articular treatment with C60 in vivo reduced synovitis and alleviated bone resorption and destruction in the joints, while control ankle joints showed progression of synovitis and joint destruction with time. These findings indicate that C60 is a potential therapeutic agent for inhibition of arthritis.Keywords: fullerene, inflammation, arthritis, synovitis, bone resorption

  8. Adapting lean to histology laboratories. (United States)

    Buesa, René J


    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  9. [The effect of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on the ultrastructure of chondrocytes in the rat. Electron microscope and morphometric study]. (United States)

    Annefeld, M; Raiss, R; Cleres, C


    In order to obtain indications regarding the different influences of antiinflammatory drugs on the articular cartilage, the effects of a steroidal drug (dexamethasone) and of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory substances (indometacin and phenylbutazone) on the ultrastructure of the chondrocyte were examined in comparison with tiaprofenic acid (Surgam). Using an equiefficient dosage of the active principles, referred to the ED50 in the model of adjuvant arthritis in the rat, the synthetic apparatus of the chondrocytes was stimulated by tiaprofenic acid while it was diminished by indometacin and phenylbutazone and particularly by dexamethasone.

  10. Pain and microcrystalline arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramonda


    Full Text Available Microcrystals are responsible for some of the most common and complex arthropathies which are often accompanied by intense, severe pain and inflammatory reactions. The main pathogens are crystals of monosodium urate (MSU, responsible for the gout, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, which deposits also in various clinical forms of arthopathies, and basic calcium phosphate associated with osteoarthritis. In this context, the microcrystal arthritis is characterized by multiple, acute attacks followed by chronic pain, disability, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Given their chronic nature, they represent an ever more urgent public health problem. MSU and CPP crystals are also able to activate nociceptors. The pain in mycrocrystalline arthritis (MCA is an expression of the inflammatory process. In the course of these diseases there is an abundant release of inflammatory molecules, including prostaglandins 2 and kinins. Interleukin-1 represents the most important cytokine released during the crystal-induced inflammatory process. Therefore, clinically, pain is the most important component of MCA, which lead to functional impairment and disability in a large proportion of the population. It is fundamental to diagnose these diseases as early as possible, and to this aim, to identify appropriate and specific targets for a timely therapeutic intervention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika


    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  12. Radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacherl, M.


    An introductory summary of the imaging-diagnosis will be given. The necessity of acquiring a catalogue of application to particular imaging methods is emphasized. Discussion of step by step diagnosis regarding rheumatologic questions is given on example of the hand. Technically insufficient radiographs and bad habits during diagnostic analysis are pointed out. Radiologic problems in differentiating arthritis/osteoarthrosis will be mentioned. The discussion of these points is followed by outlining the radiology of rheumatoid arthritis and the complexity of this disease. Introduction of a new stage classification. Finally twelve basic radiologic types of rheumatoid arthritis will be presented.

  13. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Kjetil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the efficacy of standard fish oil has been the subject of research in arthritis, the effect of krill oil in this disease has yet to be investigated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a standardised preparation of krill oil and fish oil in an animal model for arthritis. Methods Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study. There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. Severity of arthritis was determined using a clinical scoring system. Arthritis joints were analysed by histopathology and graded. Serum samples were obtained at the end of the study and the levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17 and TGF-β were determined by a Luminex™ assay system. Results Consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control. Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score. Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-1α and IL-13. Conclusions The study suggests that krill oil may be a useful intervention strategy against the clinical and histopathological signs of inflammatory arthritis.

  14. Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study? (United States)

    Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi


    One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 μM MEHP) and treatment group (100 μM MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

  15. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.


    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were link

  16. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells in subserosa of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Hansen, Alastair;


    We studied the ultrastructure of interstitial cells in the subserosal/adventitial layer in human colon. An interstitial cell type with an ultrastructure intermediate between fibroblast-like cells (FLC) and interstitial cells of Cajal was identified (IC-SS). IC-SS had thin and flattened branching...

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner RAVE: The Rheumatoid Arthritis Vital Education Initiative Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the Rheumatic Diseases Our Research Patient-Centered ...

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series (United States)

    ... Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner RAVE: The Rheumatoid Arthritis Vital Education Initiative Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the Rheumatic Diseases Our Research Patient-Centered ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: psoriatic arthritis (United States)

    ... PubMed Nograles KE, Brasington RD, Bowcock AM. New insights into the pathogenesis and genetics of psoriatic arthritis. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links Copyright ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    ... D; Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Concannon P, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Rich SS, Deloukas P, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Rodriguez-Rodriguez L, Ärlsetig L, Martin J, ...

  1. Therapy strategies in psoriatic arthritis. (United States)

    Coates, Laura C


    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous condition with a myriad of different clinical presentations. It commonly affects the skin and musculoskeletal system causing psoriasis, peripheral arthritis, axial arthritis, enthesitis and dactylitis. Many patients also have related conditions, such as those within the metabolic syndrome and associated spondyloarthritis (SpA) conditions including inflammatory bowel disease and uveitis. Any therapeutic strategy must be tailored to the individual patient, taking into account her/his complete clinical presentation and comorbidities. New treatment recommendations from the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) provide evidence based recommendations on effective therapies for the management of each different manifestation of PsA, and how treatment may be affected by comorbidities (1). However, the limited evidence comparing different treatment strategies in PsA is recognised as a limitation in these recommendations and further information is detailed below.

  2. Dermatitis herpetiformis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal Archana


    Full Text Available A 35- year-old deaf and dumb woman with clinical and histopothological diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiforrnis (DH is reported for its rare association with rheumatoid arthritis (PA.

  3. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  4. Arthritis in America PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  5. Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome. (United States)

    White, J G


    The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder in which peripheral blood platelets are relatively large, vacuolated, and almost devoid of cytoplasmic granulation. In the present study we have evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of platelets from 2 patients with the GPS to determine precisely which organelles are missing from their cells. The findings indicate that gray platelets contain normal numbers of mitochondria, dense bodies, peroxisomes, and lysosomes but specifically lack alpha-granules. Preliminary studies of megakaryocytes from 1 of the 2 patients suggest that the defect in granule formation may lie at the level of the Golgi zone.

  6. Artritis Temprana Early Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hasta la década de los años ochenta se consideraba a la artritis reumatoide (AR como una enfermedad poco frecuente, de gravedad leve a moderada, que tenía una evolución lentamente, progresiva hacia el daño articular y la incapacidad. El aborde terapéutico convencional hasta ese momento, era el tratamiento clásico de la pirámide.Until the early the eighties was considered rheumatoid arthritis to (RA as a rare disease of mild to moderate severity, which had a slowly evolution towards joint damage and disability. The conventional therapeutic option until then, was the classic treatment of the pyramid.

  7. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  8. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt


    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  9. Physiotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Kavuncu, Vural; Evcik, Deniz


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and painful clinical condition that leads to progressive joint damage, disability, deterioration in quality of life, and shortened life expectancy. Even mild inflammation may result in irreversible damage and permanent disability. The clinical course according to symptoms may be either intermittent or progressive in patients with RA. In most patients, the clinical course is progressive, and structural damage develops in the first 2 years. The aim of RA management is to achieve pain relief and prevent joint damage and functional loss. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation applications significantly augment medical therapy by improving the management of RA and reducing handicaps in daily living for patients with RA. In this review, the application of physiotherapy modalities is examined, including the use of cold/heat applications, electrical stimulation, and hydrotherapy. Rehabilitation treatment techniques for patients with RA such as joint protection strategies, massage, exercise, and patient education are also presented.

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-vesicular skin plaques: rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis* (United States)

    Manriquez, Juan; Giesen, Laura; del Puerto, Constanza; Gonzalez, Sergio


    A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asymptomatic, symmetrical erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance. Histology characteristically reveals a dense, neutrophilic infiltrate with leucocitoclasis but without other signs of vasculitis. Lesions may resolve spontaneously or with RA treatment. This case illustrates an uncommon skin manifestation of active rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27579747

  11. Biologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanov Nemanja


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis (JIA are chronic, inflammatory, systemic, auto-immune diseases characterized by chronic arthritis leading to progressive joint erosions. The individual functional and social impact of rheumatoid arthritis is of great importance. Disability and joint damage occur rapidly and early in the course of the disease. The remarkably improved outcomes have been achieved initiating biologic therapy with close monitoring of disease progression. Biologic agents are drugs, usually proteins, which can influence chronic immune dysregulation resulting in chronic arthritis. According to the mechanism of action these drugs include: 1 anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, infiximab, adalimumab; 2 IL-1 blocking drugs (anakinra; 3 IL-6 blocking drugs (tocilizumab; 4 agents blocking selective co-stimulation modulation (abatacept; 5 CD 20 blocking drugs (rituximab. Biologics targeting TNF-alpha with methotrexate have revolutionized the treatment of RA, producing significant improvement in clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes not seen previously. The new concept of rheumatoid arthritis treatment defines early diagnosis, early aggressive therapy with optimal doses of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and, if no improvement has been achieved during six months, early introduction of biologic drugs. The three-year experience of biologic therapy in Serbia has shown a positive effect on disease outcome.

  12. A histological study of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq U. Hassan


    Full Text Available The work of anatomists and pathologists in the role of study of prostate has been significant. Starting from earlier times till modern time, the study of prostate has been a dynamic one and the basic anatomical knowledge of the prostate has undergone much change apart from the new techniques, micro invasive procedures and the chemotherapeutic approach for various disorders of the gland. The present study was based on the microscopic examination of Prostatic tissue of individuals with individual tissues of different age groups. The present study involved 40 cases which were further subdivided into various age groups and characteristic histological changes were noted. The study presents an assessment of age changes in prostate in elderly in Kashmiri population with pathological significance. Besides the histological study is of great importance in staging of diseases of prostate and especially in modern era where the incidence and prevalence of prostatic diseases is on rise. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 557-562

  13. Histology of the first fish (United States)

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.


    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  14. Morphological and ultrastructural evaluation of the golden retriever muscular dystrophy trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle. (United States)

    Lessa, Thais Borges; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Márcio Nogueira; Brólio, Marina Pandolphi; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease, characterized by atrophy and muscle weakness. The respiratory failure is a common cause of early death in patients with DMD. Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a canine model which has been extensively used for many advances in therapeutics applications. As the patients with DMD, the GRMD frequently died from cardiac and respiratory failure. Observing the respiratory failure in DMD is one of the major causes of mortality we aimed to describe the morphological and ultrastructural data of trachea, lungs (conductive and respiratory portion of the system), and diaphragm muscle using histological and ultrastructural analysis. The diaphragm muscle showed discontinuous fibers architecture, with different diameter; a robust perimysium inflammatory infiltrate and some muscle cells displayed central nuclei. GRMD trachea and lungs presented collagen fibers and in addition, the GRMD lungs showed higher of levels collagen fibers that could limit the alveolar ducts and alveoli distension. Therefore, the most features observed were the collagen areas and fibrosis. We suggested in this study that the collagen remodeling in the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle may increase fibrosis and affect the trachea, lungs, and diaphragm muscle function that can be a major cause of respiratory failure that occur in patients with DMD.

  15. Crystalline Ultrastructures, Inflammatory Elements, and Neoangiogenesis Are Present in Inconspicuous Aortic Valve Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dorfmüller


    Full Text Available Morbidity from calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD is increasing. Recent studies suggest early reversible changes involving inflammation and neoangiogenesis. We hypothesized that microcalcifications, chemokines, and growth factors are present in unaffected regions of calcific aortic valves. We studied aortic valves from 4 patients with CAVD and from 1 control, using immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectrography. We revealed clusters of capillary neovessels in calcified (ECC, to a lesser extent in noncalcified (ECN areas. Endothelial cells proved constant expression of SDF-1 in ECC, ECN, and endothelial cells from valvular surface (ECS. Its receptor CXCR4 was expressed in ECC. IL-6 expression correlated with CXCR4 staining and presence of lymphocytes. VEGF was expressed by ECS, its receptor by ECC and ECN. Crystalline ultrastructures were found on the surface of histologically noncalcified areas (HNCAs, spectrography revealed calcium hydroxylapatite. Our results demonstrate that crystalline ultrastructures are present in HNCAs, undergoing neoangiogenesis in an inflammatory context. These alterations could be an early witness of disease and an opening to therapy.

  16. Continuous monitoring of arthritis in animal models using optical imaging modalities (United States)

    Son, Taeyoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Saseong; Jang, Won Seuk; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Wan-Uk


    Given the several difficulties associated with histology, including difficulty in continuous monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of optical imaging modalities-cross-polarization color (CPC) imaging, erythema index (EI) imaging, and laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging-for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models. C57BL/6 mice, used for the evaluation of arthritis, were divided into three groups: arthritic mice group (AMG), positive control mice group (PCMG), and negative control mice group (NCMG). Complete Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil, and saline were injected into the footpad for AMG, PCMG, and NCMG, respectively. LSC and CPC images were acquired from 0 through 144 h after injection for all groups. EI images were calculated from CPC images. Variations in feet area, EI, and speckle index for each mice group over time were calculated for quantitative evaluation of arthritis. Histological examinations were performed, and the results were found to be consistent with those from optical imaging analysis. Thus, optical imaging modalities may be successfully applied for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models.

  17. [Ultrastructural changes in the lung in acute adult respiratory distress syndrome]. (United States)

    Szemenyei, K; Széll, K; Kádas, L


    Morphological alterations of the lung in respiratory distress syndrome of adults (ARDS) were analyzed in 10 cases with traumatic-and septic shock, laryngitis subglottica descendens and bronchopneumonia. For the better understanding of the pathomechanism of the disease in addition to the standard methods, first of all ultrastructural alterations were studied. Two phases of the morphologic alterations could be distinguished, the phase of the destruction and the phase of the repair. These two processes are not sharply distinguishable. Genesis of the characteristic histological alterations (damage to the epithelial and endothelial cells, formation of hyaline membranes, microcoagulation, proliferation of the type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts, fibrosis) is discussed, with regard to the data of the literature.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-vesicular skin plaques: rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis


    Manriquez,Juan; Giesen, Laura; Puerto,Constanza del; Gonzalez, Sergio


    Abstract: A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asym...

  19. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia. (United States)

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Luppi, Stefania; Boscolo, Rita; Martinelli, Monica; Zweyer, Marina; Trevisan, Elisa


    Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  20. Observation of the Ultrastructure in Syphilitic Chancres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaodong(张晓东); ZHOU Jing(周晶); WANG Dequan(王德权); WU Haiyan(吴海燕); SONG Fangji(宋芳吉)


    Objective:To study the occurrence and development of primary syphilis from a morphological and structural aspect.Method: The ultrastructural pathological changes of syphilitic chancre were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Results: The pathological changes of syphilitic chancre occur mainly in the dermal layer, manifested as partial thinning or lysis of the capillary basal membrane,proliferation of capillary endothelial cells, thickening of some collagen fibers and rupture of collagen fibers surrounding T.pallidum, structural disruption of the axous of terminal nerves,disarrangement of the sheath of the myelinated nerve fibers with separation of laminae and the attachment of T. Pallidum on its outer membrane, appearance of slightly swollen T.pallidum in the plasma of the capillary endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells containing T. Pallidum and its debris frequently lined by a clear sheath.Conclusion: The pathogenesis and injury of mechanism in primary syphilis can be explained morphologically by its characteristic ultrastructural pathological changes.

  1. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.


    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  2. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha. (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P


    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda.

  3. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ricci


    Full Text Available Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of different human mesenchymal stem cells after in vitro expansion: a technical review

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    M. Miko


    Full Text Available Transmission electron microscopy reveals ultrastructural details of cells, and it is a valuable method for studying cell organelles. That is why we used this method for detailed morphological description of different adult tissuederived stem cells, focusing on the morphological signs of their functions (proteosynthetic activity, exchange with external environment, etc. and their comparison. Preparing a specimen from the cell culture suitable for transmission electron microscopy is, however, much more challenging than routine tissue processing for normal histological examination. There are several issues that need to be solved while working with cell pellets instead of solid tissue. Here we describe a simple protocol for the isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from different adult tissues, with applications to stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Since we are working with population of cells that was obtained after many days of passaging, very efficient and gentle procedures are highly necessary. We demonstrated that our semi-conservative approach regarding to histological techniques and processing of cells for transmission electron microscopy is a well reproducible procedure which results in quality pictures and images of cell populations with minimum distortions and artifacts. We also commented about riskiest steps and histochemical issues (e.g., precise pH, temperature while preparing the specimen. We bring full and detailed procedures of fixation, post-fixation, infiltration, embedding, polymerization and contrasting of cell obtained from in vitro cell and tissue cultures, with modifications according to our experience. All this steps are essential for us to know more about adult stem cells derived from different sources or about other random cell populations. The knowledge about detailed ultra-structure of adult stem cells cultured in vitro are also essential for their using in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  5. Ultrastructural and Molecular Characterisation of an Heterosporis-Like Microsporidian in Australian Sea Snakes (Hydrophiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber K Gillett

    Full Text Available Four sea snakes (two Hydrophis major, one Hydrophis platurus, one Hydrophis elegans were found washed ashore on different beaches in the Sunshine Coast region and Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia between 2007-2013. Each snake had multiple granulomas and locally extensive regions of pallor evident in the hypaxial and intercostal musculature along the body. Lesions in two individuals were also associated with vertebral and rib fractures. Histological examination revealed granulomas scattered throughout skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and fractured bone. These were composed of dense aggregates of microsporidian spores surrounded by a mantle of macrophages. Sequences (ssrRNA were obtained from lesions in three sea snakes and all revealed 99% similarity with Heterosporis anguillarum from the Japanese eel (Anguillarum japonica. However, ultrastructural characteristics of the organism were not consistent with those of previous descriptions. Electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle revealed large cysts (not xenomas bound by walls of fibrillar material (Heterosporis-like sporophorocyst walls were not detected. The cysts contained numerous mature microsporidian spores arranged in small clusters, sometimes apparently within sporophorous vesicles. The microspores were monomorphic, oval and measured 2.5-3.0 μm by 1.6-1.8 μm. They contained isofilar polar filaments with 11 (infrequently 9-12 coils arranged in two ranks. This is the first published report of a microsporidian infection in hydrophiid sea snakes. This discovery shows microsporidia with molecular affinities to Heterosporis anguillarum but ultrastructural characters most consistent with the genus Pleistophora (but no hitherto described species. Further studies are required to determine whether the microsporidian presented here belongs to the genus Heterosporis, or to a polymorphic species group as suggested by the recognition of a robust Pleistophora

  6. Ultrastructural and Molecular Characterisation of an Heterosporis-Like Microsporidian in Australian Sea Snakes (Hydrophiinae). (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Ploeg, Richard; O'Donoghue, Peter J; Chapman, Phoebe A; Webb, Richard I; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C


    Four sea snakes (two Hydrophis major, one Hydrophis platurus, one Hydrophis elegans) were found washed ashore on different beaches in the Sunshine Coast region and Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia between 2007-2013. Each snake had multiple granulomas and locally extensive regions of pallor evident in the hypaxial and intercostal musculature along the body. Lesions in two individuals were also associated with vertebral and rib fractures. Histological examination revealed granulomas scattered throughout skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and fractured bone. These were composed of dense aggregates of microsporidian spores surrounded by a mantle of macrophages. Sequences (ssrRNA) were obtained from lesions in three sea snakes and all revealed 99% similarity with Heterosporis anguillarum from the Japanese eel (Anguillarum japonica). However, ultrastructural characteristics of the organism were not consistent with those of previous descriptions. Electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle revealed large cysts (not xenomas) bound by walls of fibrillar material (Heterosporis-like sporophorocyst walls were not detected). The cysts contained numerous mature microsporidian spores arranged in small clusters, sometimes apparently within sporophorous vesicles. The microspores were monomorphic, oval and measured 2.5-3.0 μm by 1.6-1.8 μm. They contained isofilar polar filaments with 11 (infrequently 9-12) coils arranged in two ranks. This is the first published report of a microsporidian infection in hydrophiid sea snakes. This discovery shows microsporidia with molecular affinities to Heterosporis anguillarum but ultrastructural characters most consistent with the genus Pleistophora (but no hitherto described species). Further studies are required to determine whether the microsporidian presented here belongs to the genus Heterosporis, or to a polymorphic species group as suggested by the recognition of a robust Pleistophora/Heterosporis clade by

  7. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  8. Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk (United States)

    ... Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk Treating inflammation linked to ... TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with rheumatoid arthritis may have an increased risk for a heart ...

  9. Introduction: arthritis and myositis. (United States)

    Katz, James D; Nayyar, Geeta


    In this chapter background medical information pertinent to the use of MRI and/or ultrasound in various musculoskeletal conditions is presented. Appreciation of the genetic, biochemical, histological, and immunological features of rheumatic diseases will be of benefit to the technician responsible for performing and interpreting these types of interrogations. For example, recognizing that cartilage disorder predates bone findings in osteoarthritis will help identify early versus late degenerative findings. Similarly, understanding the fibrovascular nature of rheumatoid pannus will help guide the use of more sophisticated ultrasound techniques such as power Doppler.

  10. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: two case reports and review of literature

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    Spoerl David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are typically detected in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, but are also present in a number of chronic inflammatory non-vasculitic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Rare cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, a vasculitic disorder frequently associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been described in literature. Case presentation We report two middle-aged female patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and symptoms reminiscent of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Despite the lack of antibodies specific for proteinase 3 and the absence of a classical histology, we report a probable case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the first patient, and consider rheumatoid vasculitis in the second patient. Conclusion Taken together with previous reports, these cases highlight that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies have to be evaluated very carefully in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence appear to have a low diagnostic value for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Instead they may have prognostic value for assessing the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. 9 CFR 311.7 - Arthritis. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for...

  12. Therapeutical approach to rheumatoid arthritis

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    Paraskevi Gourni


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial joints, and loss of the function leading to disability. The ultimate goal in managing RA is to prevent joint damage and to maintain functional ability. Although, οver the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the factors that are crucial in regulating this disease, still the managment of the disease remains difficult.Aim : Τhe aim of the present study was the evaluation of the therapeutical approch on rheumatoid arthritis. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between therapy and rheumatoid arthritis.Results : The majority of research studies showed thatthe main therapy on rheumatoid arthritis included medication therapy, modification of everyday living ensuring rest, physical exercise and finally surgical procedure. Individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, apart from physical problems usually cope with mental disorders, that exert a negative indluence on their quality of life.Conclusively :Information and early screening of high risk may decrease the long-term consequnences on health. Monitoring from a group of specialists should serve as a cornerstone when planning a program of intervention.

  13. Differential Diagnosis of Polyarticular Arthritis. (United States)

    Pujalte, George G A; Albano-Aluquin, Sheila A


    Polyarticular arthritis is commonly encountered in clinical settings and has multiple etiologies. The first step is to distinguish between true articular pain and nonarticular or periarticular conditions by recognizing clinical patterns through the history and physical examination. Once pain within a joint or joints is confirmed, the next step is to classify the pain as noninflammatory or inflammatory in origin. Noninflammatory arthritis, which is mostly related to osteoarthritis, has a variable onset and severity and does not have inflammatory features, such as warm or swollen joints. Osteoarthritis usually presents with less than one hour of morning stiffness and pain that is aggravated by activity and improves with rest. A review of systems is usually negative for rashes, oral ulcers, or other internal organ involvement. In contrast, inflammatory arthritis generally causes warm, swollen joints; prolonged morning stiffness; and positive findings on a review of systems. Once inflammatory arthritis is suspected, possible diagnoses are sorted by the pattern of joint involvement, which includes number and type of joints involved, symmetry, and onset. The suspicion for inflammatory arthritis should be confirmed by the appropriate serologic/tissue and/or imaging studies in the clinical setting or in consultation with a subspecialist.

  14. [Pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Lequerré, Thierry; Richez, Christophe


    These last years were especially marked by the best understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms at the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in the processes of joint inflammation and joint destruction. RA is more and more considered as a syndrome with at least two clinical entities with different phenotype and profiles: seronegative RA and seropositive RA. In RA with ACPA, it is the process of immunization, that is the immunological reaction against citrullinated peptides, that leads to the disease. The peptide citrullination is directly favored by environmental factors such as tobacco, infection to Porphyromonas gingivalis and alcohol. The immunization supposes a genetic predisposition including approximately 22 genetic factors including the molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and PTPN22. Finally, joint damage result at the same time from an excess of destruction (RANK/RANKL, TNFalpha) and from a defect of bone reparation by the way Wnt/Frizzled. It is thanks to the best understanding of RA physiopathology that leads to development of targeted treatments and specially processing for this disease.

  15. Prostaglandins and Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Mohammad Javad Fattahi


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex inflammatory disease leading to bone and cartilage destruction, whose cause remains obscure. Accumulation of genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and dysregulated immune responses are necessary for mounting this self-reacting disease. Inflamed joints are infiltrated by a heterogeneous population of cellular and soluble mediators of the immune system, such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, cytokines, and prostaglandins (PGs. Prostaglandins are lipid inflammatory mediators derived from the arachidonic acid by multienzymatic reactions. They both sustain homeostatic mechanisms and mediate pathogenic processes, including the inflammatory reaction. They play both beneficial and harmful roles during inflammation, according to their site of action and the etiology of the inflammatory response. With respect to the role of PGs in inflammation, they can be effective mediators in the pathophysiology of RA. Thus the use of agonists or antagonists of PG receptors may be considered as a new therapeutic protocol in RA. In this paper, we try to elucidate the role of PGs in the immunopathology of RA.

  16. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

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    E. Lubrano


    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  17. Overview of the radiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

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    Cohen, P.A.; Job-Deslandre, C.H.; Lalande, G.; Adamsbaum, C


    Plain films remain the basic tool for diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this paper, we review the new classification of JIA: systemic arthritis, oligoarthritis (persistent), oligoarthritis (extended), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor negative), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor positive), enthesitis related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and unclassified arthritis. We will also review regional abnormalities of three stages: an early stage, an intermediate stage, a late stage, as well as the differential diagnosis.

  18. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor correlates with therapeutic effects of losartan in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. (United States)

    Wang, Di; Hu, Shanshan; Zhu, Jie; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Zhou, Aiwu; Wu, Yujing; Zhao, Wendi; Huang, Qiong; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qingtong; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei


    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan ameliorates rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an experimental model. In RA, AT2R mainly opposes AT1R, but the mechanism by which this occurs still remains obscure. In the present study, we investigated the role of AT2R in the treatment of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) by losartan. Adjuvant-induced arthritis rats were treated with losartan (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) and methotrexate (MTX; 0.5 mg/kg) in vivo from day 14 to day 28. Arthritis was evaluated by the arthritis index and histological examination. Angiotensin II, tumour necrosis factor-α, and VEGF levels were examined by ELISA. The expression of AT1R and AT2R was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. After stimulation with interleukin-1β in vitro, the effects of the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (10(-8) -10(-5)  M) on the chemotaxis of monocytes induced by 10% foetal calf serum (FCS) were analysed by using Transwell assay. Subsequently, the therapeutic effects of CGP42112 (5, 10 and 20 μg/kg) were evaluated in vivo by intra-articular injection in AIA rats. After treatment with losartan, the down-regulation of AT1R expression and up-regulation of AT2R expression in the spleen and synovium of AIA rats correlated positively with reduction in the polyarthritis index. Treatment with CGP42112 inhibited the chemotaxis of AIA monocytes in vitro, possibly because of the up-regulation of AT2R expression. Intra-articular injection with CGP42112 (10 and 20 μg/kg) ameliorated the arthritis index and histological signs of arthritis. In summary, the present study strongly suggests that the up-regulation of AT2R might be an additional mechanism by which losartan exerts its therapeutic effects in AIA rats.

  19. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis * (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Guan, Pei-gang; Tao, Gang; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Hyde, Kevin David


    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town, Jinyun County, Zhejiang Province of China. In this paper, ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented, and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon. Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction, and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane. Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium. In addition, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U. coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae). PMID:23549851

  20. The effect of age on mitochondrial ultrastructure. (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Franks, L M


    The ultrastructure of perfused livers and of mitochondrial fractions from 6-month-old and 30-month-old C57/BL mice were studied. In old mice the liver cell mitochondria were enlarged and rounded with a light 'foamy', vacuolated matrix, short cristae and a loss of dense granules. Quantitative studies showed a 60% increase in the mean size and an increased proportion of larger mitochondria in intact 30-month-old perfused livers. Endothelial and Kupffer cell mitochondria were smaller than those of the parenchymal cells. Mitochondria in pellets prepared from 6- and 30-month-old livers were rounded and condensed, although there were a few larger and 'foamy' mitochondria in the preparations from old mice. Up to 47% of large mitochondria in the old livers were lost during cell fractionation.

  1. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Ustilago coicis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-ze ZHANG; Pei-gang GUAN; Gang TAO; Mohammad Reza OJAGHIAN; Kevin David HYDE


    Ustilago coicis causes serious smut on Coix lacryma-jobi in Dayang Town,Jinyun County,Zhejiang Province of China.In this paper,ultrastructural assessments on fungus-host interactions and teliospore development are presented,and molecular phylogenetic analyses have been done to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of the taxon.Hyphal growth within infected tissues was both intracellular and intercellular and on the surface of fungus-host interaction,and the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane were separated by a sheath comprising two distinct layers between the fungal cell wall and the invaginated host plasma membrane.Ornamentation development of teliospore walls was unique as they appeared to be originated from the exosporium.In addition,internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) sequence data showed that U.coicis is closely related to Ustilago trichophora which infects grass species of the genus Echinochloa (Poaceae).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shabanova


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is connected with need to expand the arsenal of treatment methods patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study examined the efficacy of biobehavioral therapy in a comprehensive program of treatment patients with rheumatoid arthritis (medical therapy in combination with biobehavioral therapy. It has been shown when compared with the control group (isolated drug therapy maintaining  clinical  response  in  short-term  follow-up  study  in  the  intervention  group.  Statistically    significant relationship the volitional control of the alpha rhythm of EEG (increased power of the alpha rhythm with a reduction in pain intensity in the in neurofeedback program and positive dynamics of the main characteristics of the alpha rhythm have been drmonstrated. Inclusion in the treatment program of arthritis biobehavioral approach has reduced the dose of pain medication, so reducing aggression of pharmacotherapy.

  3. Ultrastructure of spore development in Scutellospora heterogama. (United States)

    Jeffries, Peter; Robinson-Boyer, Louisa; Rice, Paul; Newsam, Ray J; Dodd, John C


    The ultrastructural detail of spore development in Scutellospora heterogama is described. Although the main ontogenetic events are similar to those described from light microscopy, the complexity of wall layering is greater when examined at an ultrastructural level. The basic concept of a rigid spore wall enclosing two inner, flexible walls still holds true, but there are additional zones within these three walls distinguishable using electron microscopy, including an inner layer that is involved in the formation of the germination shield. The spore wall has three layers rather than the two reported previously. An outer, thin ornamented layer and an inner, thicker layer are both derived from the hyphal wall and present at all stages of development. These layers differentiate into the outer spore layer visible at the light microscope level. A third inner layer unique to the spore develops during spore swelling and rapidly expands before contracting back to form the second wall layer visible by light microscopy. The two inner flexible walls also are more complex than light microscopy suggests. The close association with the inner flexible walls with germination shield formation consolidates the preferred use of the term 'germinal walls' for these structures. A thin electron-dense layer separates the two germinal walls and is the region in which the germination shield forms. The inner germinal wall develops at least two sub-layers, one of which has an appearance similar to that of the expanding layer of the outer spore wall. An electron-dense layer is formed on the inner surface of the inner germinal wall as the germination shield develops, and this forms the wall surrounding the germination shield as well as the germination tube. At maturity, the outer germinal wall develops a thin, striate layer within its substructure.

  4. Histologic analysis of postmeniscectomy osteonecrosis. (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yasukazu; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Kimura, Masashi


    Bone marrow signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after meniscectomy have been reported as evidence of postmeniscectomy osteonecrosis, but this pathology is unclear. We conducted a study to follow-up cases with bone marrow signal changes on MRI after meniscectomy and investigate the pathology of underlying lesions. Of 136 patients with no presurgical evidence of osteonecrosis, 29 had juxta-articular bone marrow signal changes on MRI after arthroscopic meniscectomy and subsequently underwent conservative therapy. In 6 of these 29 patients, clinical symptoms and radiographic changes began deteriorating. Based on the Koshino classification, 4 of the 6 patients had Stage-2 knee osteonecrosis and 2 had Stage-3. Arthroscopic and pathologic examinations were performed. Arthroscopic findings were fibrillation (all 6 cases), fissuring (4), ulceration (2), and eburnation (2). Histologic analysis confirmed subchondral bone fractures in all 6 cases, but osteonecrotic lesions were detected only in 2 cases with obvious radiologic deterioration. Postmeniscectomy osteonecrosis might result from subchondral bone fractures. Fracture healing is worse in patients with comorbidities than in those without it; comorbidities might be a risk factor for osteonecrosis.

  5. [Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis: clinical and ultrastructural study of a case]. (United States)

    Peteiro, C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Zulaica, A; Caeiro, J L; Beiras, A; Toribio, J


    A case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis associated with bilateral Dupuytren's disease and xanthelasmas of the eyelids is described. Ultrastructural examination showed electron-dense intracytoplasmic granules, collagen entrapment and interdigitation of adjacent cytoplasmic membranes.

  6. Ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, LC; Liem, RSB; deBont, LGM


    Purpose: This study analyzed the ultrastructural characteristics of the synovial membrane in various stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and developed a classification of this involvement based on these morphologic characteristics. Patients and Methods: Synovial membr

  7. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  8. Cutaneous manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis

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    Bhanu Prakash


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a multisystem autoimmune disease, affecting the joints predominantly, and extra-articular sites like skin, lungs, heart etc. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR in collaboration with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR in 2010, revised the 1987 ACR classification criteria for RA. The criteria covered four areas (joint involvement, serodiagnosis, acute phase reactants, duration of arthritis and established a point value on a scale of 0 to 10. Patients with a value of 6 or higher are classified as having RA.

  9. [Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Branimir Anić; Miroslav Mayer


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease that primarily affects joints. Etiology and the pathogenesis of RA are complex, involving many types of cells, among others macrophages, T and B cells, fibro- blasts, chondrocytes and dendritic cells. Despite well documented role of many genes and epigenetic modifications in the development and evolution of the disease, in most RA patients there is no clear predisposing factor present. Environmental factors involved in RA pathogenesis are cigarette smoke, industrial pollutants like silica crystals, disturbances of intestinal, lung, and oral microbiota and some specific bacterial and viral infectious agents and their components. In the initial disease stage there are qualitative and quantitative disturbances ofpeptide citrulination as well as other protein modifications, followed by antigen presenting cell (APC) (macrophages and dendritic cells) and fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) activation. Some microbes foster this processes by APC and FLS direct and indirect activation. In the second stage APC's elicit specific humoral B cell re- sponse resulting in specific antibodies production and T cell autoreactivity. Inherited and acquired defects in T and B cell responses caused by repeated activation of innate immunity as well as loss of tolerance, elicit chronic autoimmune inflammation, primarily of synovial membranes, and development of cellular panus. Pathologic activation of the osteoclasts and release of the immune system effector molecules and the proteolytic enzymes damage the cartilage, bone and tendons composition and structure. Persistent inflammation through its complex mechanisms results in many systemic and extraarticular RA manifestations of almost all organ systems, resulting in severe complications and comorbidities such as rheumatoid lung, carditis, vasculitis, cahexia, anemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebrovascular vascular disease, lymphoma, osteoporosis, depression etc

  10. Systemic but no local effects of combined zoledronate and parathyroid hormone treatment in experimental autoimmune arthritis.

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    Kresten Krarup Keller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. RESULTS: Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. CONCLUSIONS: No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated.

  11. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

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    Yaakov A Levine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model. METHODS: Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed. RESULTS: Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p = 0.02, a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p = 0.02 and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p = 0.01 with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p = 0.02, accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders.

  12. Esquemas de histología



    Cuarenta y siete diagramas de estructuras histológicas extraídas de un atlas de histología, obra de Radivoj Vase Krstić. Forty-seven diagrams of histological structures from an atlas of histiology by Radivoj Vase Krstić.



    Kuppa; Yerukala; Dema; Sujith; Venkateswar Reddy


    Septic Arthritis also known as infectious arthritis, can be bacterial or fungal arthritis. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that is caused by an infection. Typically, Septic Arthritis affects one large joint in the body such as knee or hip. Generally, Septic Arthritis is present with complete absorption of the head of the ...

  14. Ultrastructural changes resulting from keratin-9 gene mutations in two families with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. (United States)

    Navsaria, H A; Swensson, O; Ratnavel, R C; Shamsher, M; McLean, W H; Lane, E B; Griffiths, D; Eady, R A; Leigh, I M


    Palmoplantar keratoderma of Voerner type (or epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of keratinization with histologic features of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. We studied members of two large unrelated kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, and biopsy specimens of lesional palmar skin from both families confirmed the histologic changes of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Whorls of abnormally aggregated keratin filaments were seen ultrastructurally to be associated with signs of cellular disintegration in spinous and granular cells. Direct sequencing of genomic DNA samples obtained from several members of each family established the substitution of a highly conserved arginine by tryptophan (R162W) in the 1A region of the alpha-helical rod domain of keratin 9. This arginine residue in a highly conserved region of keratins 1 and 10 is affected by disruptive missense point mutations in many patients with bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma. An equivalent position in the sole and palm restricted keratin 9 appears to be the mutation hot spot in epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. To date, R162W is the most prevalent genetic defect reported in this genodermatosis.

  15. Ultrastructural Mapping of the Zebrafish Gastrointestinal System as a Basis for Experimental Drug Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfine Cheng


    Full Text Available Research in the field of gastroenterology is increasingly focused on the use of alternative nonrodent model organisms to provide new experimental tools to study chronic diseases. The zebrafish is a particularly valuable experimental platform to explore organ and cell structure-function relationships under relevant biological and pathobiological settings. This is due to its optical transparency and its close-to-human genetic makeup. To-date, the structure-function properties of the GIS of the zebrafish are relatively unexplored and limited to histology and fluorescent microscopy. Occasionally those studies include EM of a given subcellular process but lack the required full histological picture. In this work, we employed a novel combined biomolecular imaging approach in order to cross-correlate 3D ultrastructure over different length scales (optical-, X-ray micro-CT, and high-resolution EM. Our correlated imaging studies and subsequent data modelling provide to our knowledge the first detailed 3D picture of the zebrafish larvae GIS. Our results provide unequivocally a limit of confidence for studying various digestive disorders and drug delivery pathways in the zebrafish.

  16. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  17. Handout on Health: Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    ... immunodeficiency. This discovery led to the idea that drugs blocking Janus kinases would suppress the immune system and might be protective against the damaging inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and certain other autoimmune diseases. NIH AMP Program: The NIH awarded grants to ...

  18. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R


    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards...

  19. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van


    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  20. Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)


    Clavel C, Arnaud J, Nogueira L, et al. Epitopes of human fibrin recognized by the rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies to citrullinated... Clavel C, Chapuy-Regaud S, Al Badine R, Mechin MC, et al. Peptidyl arginine deiminase type 2 (PAD-2) and PAD-4 but not PAD-1, PAD-3, and PAD-6 are

  1. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;


    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  2. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H;


    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...

  3. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette


    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  4. Gold nephropathy. Ultrastructural, fluorescent, and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.K.; Swain, R.P.; Watabe, N.; Brackett, N.C. Jr.; Pilia, P.; Hennigar, G.R.


    The nephrotic syndrome developed in a patient receiving therapy with gold for rheumatoid arthritis. The results of a histopathological examination of the renal biopsy specimen were unremarkable. Immunofluorescent studies showed deposits of immunoglobulins and C3 in a granular pattern in the glomerular basement membranes. Ultrastructurally, the discrete osmiophilic immune complexes were epimembranous. By x-ray microanalysis, gold that was complexed with sulfur was present in proximal tubular cytoplasmic vacuoles and nuclei. Gold and sulfur could not be demonstrated in glomerular epimembranous deposits. The results of these studies suggest that immune complex deposition does not involve gold and sulfur acting as haptens. Gold-salt therapy may result in damage to proximal tubules that leak renal tubular antigens, which in turn complex with autoantibody and produce an autoimmune membranous nephropathy. The evidence for this mechanism is not convincing. Although the data indicate an immune-complex cause for gold-salt nephropathy, the incident antigen (or antigens) and mechanism of action remain unidentified.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Panafidina


    Full Text Available The peak onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA is at 30-55 years of age. At this age, the patients have also other concomi- tant diseases (comorbidities that affect the course and prognosis of RA, the choice of its treatment policy, quality of life of the patients. Objective: to identify the most important and common comorbidities in patients with RA. Subjects and methods. Two hundred patients (median age 55 [46; 61] years were enrolled; there was a preponderance of women (82.5% with median disease duration 5 [1; 10] years, seropositive for IgM rheumatoid factor (83.0% and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (81.6% with moderate and high disease activity (median DAS28 value 3.9 [3.1; 4.9]. Varying degrees of destructive changes in hand and foot joints were radiologically detected in 71.2% of the patients; 64.5% of the patients had Functional Class II. Methotrexate was given to 69.5% of the patients; therapy with biological agents was used in 21.0% of the cases. 15.5% of the patients did not receive DMARD or biologics. 43.0% of the patients with RA received glucocorticoids. Results. Comorbidities were present in 72.0% of the patients with RA. The most common diseases were hypertension (60.0%, dyslipidemia (45.0%, fractures at various sites (29.5%, and coronary heart disease (21.0%. Myocardial infarction and stroke were observed in 1.5 and 1.0% of cases, respectively. There was diabetes mellitus (DM in 7.5% of the cases and osteoporosis in 15.5% of the patients. 81.7% of the patients with RA and hypertension and 80.0% of those with RA and DM received antihypertensive and sugar-lowering therapy, respectively. At the same time the RA patients with dyslipidemia and osteoporosis received specific drugs far less frequently (30.0 and 29.0%, respectively. Conclusion. Comorbidities are frequently encountered in RA. By taking into account the fact that cardiovascular dis- eases are a main cause of death in RA; it is necessary to adequately and timely

  6. Correlated TEM, SEM, and histological observations of filiform papillae of the cow tongue. (United States)

    Steflik, D E; Singh, B B; Mckinney, R V; Boshell, J L


    The ultrastructural and histological characteristics of the filiform papillae of the cow tongue are described. These large, conical papillae display a fully keratinized external projection, which demonstrates a dominant hard keratin core partially ensheathed by soft keratin. This biostructure differentiates from a dominant posterior cell line, leading to the hard keratin core, and a thinner anterior cell line which, with contributions from an interpapillary cell line, appears responsible for an attenuating sheath of soft keratin around the hard keratin core. The hard keratin cell line differentiates from cells devoid of keratohyalin granules (KHG), which are rich in thick bundles of tonofilaments. The soft keratin cell line differentiates from cells containing both eosinophil and basophil KHG and dispersed tonofilaments. The bovine filiform papilla also appears similar in biostructure to the mammalian hair shaft and the 'filiform hairs' of the rat penis.

  7. Histological and Histochemical Analyses of the Cuttlebone Sac of the Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  8. Structure Function Estimated From Histological Tissue Sections. (United States)

    Han, Aiguo; O'Brien, William D


    Ultrasonic scattering is determined by not only the properties of individual scatterers but also the correlation among scatterer positions. The role of scatterer spatial correlation is significant for dense medium, but has not been fully understood. The effect of scatterer spatial correlation may be modeled by the structure function as a frequency-dependent factor in the backscatter coefficient (BSC) expression. The structure function has been previously estimated from the BSC data. The aim of this study is to estimate the structure function from histology to test if the acoustically estimated structure function is indeed caused by the scatterer spatial distribution. Hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections from dense cell pellet biophantoms were digitized. The scatterer positions were determined manually from the histological images. The structure function was calculated from the extracted scatterer positions. The structure function obtained from histology showed reasonable agreement in the shape but not in the amplitude, compared with the structure function previously estimated from the backscattered data. Fitting a polydisperse structure function model to the histologically estimated structure function yielded relatively accurate cell radius estimates ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, two types of mouse tumors that have similar cell size and shape but distinct cell spatial distributions were studied, where the backscattered data were shown to be related to the cell spatial distribution through the structure function estimated from histology. In conclusion, the agreement between acoustically estimated and histologically estimated structure functions suggests that the acoustically estimated structure function is related to the scatterer spatial distribution.

  9. Diffuse damage to central nervous system in progressive rheumatoid arthritis complicated by cerebral hermorrhage after radioisotope cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnowska-Dziduszko, E.; Lazarowicz, J. (Instytut Psychoneurologiczny, Warsaw (Poland))


    Presented case reveals unusual reaction of central nervous system in the course of progressive rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral hemorrhage as a rare complication after radioisotope investigation of cerebro-spinal fluid spaces. Female, 58 years old which was treated for 22 years for progressive rheumatoid arthritis developed during last 3 years of life a psychoorganic syndrome with temporal epilepsy and slight left sided hemiparesis. After radioisotope cisternography appeared decerebration followed by death. On autopsy the hemorrhagic foci were found in left cerebral hemisphere and in the brain stem. Histological finding was generalized severe damage to interstitial vessels diagnosed as fibrinotic, necrotizing degeneration of capillary and arteriolar wall, significant proliferation of microglia in the white matter and brain stem. Chronic inflammatory infiltrates were present in leptomeninges. Pathogenesis of findings in connection with progressive rheumatoid arthritis and complications due to cisternography is discussed.

  10. Panniculitis: an unusual presenting manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Fragoulis, George E; Stamopoulos, Paraskevas; Barbatis, Calypso; Tzioufas, Athanasios G


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting primarily the joints but also other organs including skin. Panniculitis is an extremely rare manifestation of the disease manifesting mainly as reddish, ulcerative painful nodules and papules, usually in the legs. Histopathologically, it is characterised by liponecrobiosis, granulocytic and histiocytic infiltrates and vasculopathy. Herein, we describe a middle-aged woman with past medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and unremarkable family history, who presented with symmetrical polyarthritis, low grade fever and painful subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen. Her laboratory tests showed high acute phase reactants, positive rheumatoid factor and anti-Ro autoantibodies and negative anti-CCP. Surgical resection and histological examination of the nodules revealed neutrophilic lobular panniculitis associated with RA. She was treated with low doses of glucocorticosteroids and methotrexate. The latter was substituted with leflunomide due to toxicity. The patient had significant clinical and laboratory improvement.

  11. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese


    Full Text Available A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  12. Functional ultrastructure of the plant nucleolus. (United States)

    Stępiński, Dariusz


    Nucleoli are nuclear domains present in almost all eukaryotic cells. They not only specialize in the production of ribosomal subunits but also play roles in many fundamental cellular activities. Concerning ribosome biosynthesis, particular stages of this process, i.e., ribosomal DNA transcription, primary RNA transcript processing, and ribosome assembly proceed in precisely defined nucleolar subdomains. Although eukaryotic nucleoli are conservative in respect of their main function, clear morphological differences between these structures can be noticed between individual kingdoms. In most cases, a plant nucleolus shows well-ordered structure in which four main ultrastructural components can be distinguished: fibrillar centers, dense fibrillar component, granular component, and nucleolar vacuoles. Nucleolar chromatin is an additional crucial structural component of this organelle. Nucleolonema, although it is not always an unequivocally distinguished nucleolar domain, has often been described as a well-grounded morphological element, especially of plant nucleoli. The ratios and morphology of particular subcompartments of a nucleolus can change depending on its metabolic activity which in turn is correlated with the physiological state of a cell, cell type, cell cycle phase, as well as with environmental influence. Precise attribution of functions to particular nucleolar subregions in the process of ribosome biosynthesis is now possible using various approaches. The presented description of plant nucleolar morphology summarizes previous knowledge regarding the function of nucleoli as well as of their particular subdomains not only in the course of ribosome biosynthesis.

  13. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1. (United States)

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H


    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  14. Spermatozoon ultrastructure in two monorchiid digeneans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Quilichini


    Full Text Available Spermatological characteristics of species from two monorchiid genera, Opisthomonorchis and Paramonorcheides, have been investigated, for the first time, by means of transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of Opisthomonorchis dinema and Paramonorcheides selaris share several characters such as the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9+“1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, granules of glycogen and similar morphologies of the anterior and posterior extremities. The slight differences between the male gamete of O. dinema and P. selaris are the length of the first axoneme and the position of the second mitochondrion. This study also elucidates the general morphology of the spermatozoon in all monorchiid species described so far, which corresponds to a unique spermatozoon type. Other interesting finds concern the spermatological similarities between monorchiid spermatozoa and the mature spermatozoon reported in the apocreadiid Neoapocreadium chabaudi. These similarities allow us to suggest a close phylogenetical relationship between the Monorchiidae and the Apocreadiidae, although more studies are needed, especially in the unexplored taxa.

  15. Effect of androgen deprivation on penile ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou-JunSHEN; Xie-LaiZHOU; Ying-LiLU; Zhao-DianCHEN


    Aim:To investigate the ultrastructural changes of penile corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea in rats treated with castration or finasteride.Methods:Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats of nine weeks old were randomly divided into three groups with 6 rats each,Group A served as the control,Group B was castrated and Group C,treated with finasteride,Four weeks later,rats were anesthetized and blood samples obtained for the determination of serum testosterone(T)and dihydrotestosterone(DHT) levels;penile tissues were taken for scanning electron microscopy.Results:The T,free T and DHT levels in Group B and the DHT level in Group C were significantly lower than those in Group A(P0.05).Elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of Group A were very rich and arranged regularly and undulatedly,but in Group B,most of the elastic fibers were replaced by collagenous fibers.In Group C,the tunica albuginea was mainly composed of thick and irregular-arranged collagenous fibers.In Group A,there were abundant smooth muscle fibers in the trabeculae of corpus cavernosum,but they were much less in Group C and scarce or even disappeared in Group B.In Groups B and C,the diminished/disappeared smooth muscle fibers were replaced by irregularly arranged collagenous fibers.Conclusion:In rats,androgen is essential for maintaining the normal structure of penile tunica albuginea and corpus carvenosum.

  16. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses. (United States)

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence


    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  17. Endomorphins in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and experimental arthritis. (United States)

    Jessop, David S; Fassold, Alexander; Wolff, Christine; Hofbauer, Rafael; Chover-Gonzalez, Antonio; Richards, Louise J; Straub, Rainer H


    The opioid tetrapeptides endomorphins (EM)-1 and EM-2 are widely expressed in central nervous system and immune tissues of rats and humans. Their analgesic properties are well characterized but they also have anti-inflammatory properties. EM-1 significantly attenuated the onset of hindpaw inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of EMs in T cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts in synovial tissues from patients with osteo- or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In an ex vivo superfusion system, EM-1 potently inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from synovial tissues from patients with osteo- or RA. These results demonstrate that EMs are endogenously synthesized within human immune cells and have the potential to act as potent therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. We discuss the clinical potential for EM analogues chemically modified to resist proteolytic degradation and identify modified protease-resistant analogues with enhanced bioactivity.

  18. Polyarticular septic arthritis in an immunocompetent patient. (United States)

    Clements, J; Dinneen, A; Heilpern, G


    Septic arthritis is an uncommon condition with an incidence of 2-3/100,000. It is clinically notable, however, as it is a rapidly destructive joint disease with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Polyarticular septic arthritis has an estimated incidence of 15% of all cases of infectious arthritis. We report a case of polyarticular septic arthritis with involvement of bilateral shoulders and wrist to highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment as well as the high mortality rates associated with this condition. Bilateral septic shoulder arthritis poses a challenge to treat, and its significance should not be underestimated as even with early surgical intervention and aggressive antibiotic and fluid resuscitation death is a sad but perhaps not uncommon outcome. It is therefore imperative that the diagnosis of polyarticular septic arthritis is kept prominent in the physician's mind when confronted with a patient with symptomatic polyarthralgia.

  19. Acromioclavicular septic arthritis and sternoclavicular septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis. (United States)

    Corey, Sally A; Agger, William A; Saterbak, Andrew T


    Acromioclavicular (AC) and sternoclavicular (SC) septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis are rare, especially in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of septic AC joint with pyomyositis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles and a separate case with septic SC joint with pyomysitis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both patients had similar presentations of infections with Staphylococcus aureus and were successfully treated with surgical incision and drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  20. Septic arthritis due to Roseomonas mucosa in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving infliximab therapy. (United States)

    Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Stefanou, Ioanna; Kalatzis, Konstantinos; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis; Avlamis, Athina


    We report a case of septic arthritis due to Roseomonas mucosa in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving infliximab therapy. This is the first report of septic arthritis due to R. mucosa, and infliximab therapy might be a predisposing factor because this infection was never reported in the pre-anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy period.

  1. Adaptations to the air breathing in the posterior intestine of the catfish (Corydoras aeneus, Callichthyidae). A histological and ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Podkowa, Dagmara; Goniakowska-Witalińska, Lucyna


    A light and transmission electron microscopic study of the intestine of catfish C. aeneus shows that the anterior part of the intestine is a site of digestion and absorption and its structure is typical of that of other teleostean fishes. However, in this species the thin-walled posterior intestine is adapted to air breathing. In this region mucosa is smooth and lined with respiratory epithelium with capillary network. Several types of cells are observed in the epithelium: flattened respiratory epithelial cells with short microvili, goblet cells, scarce epithelial cells with numerous longer microvilli, and two types of endocrine cells (EC). The solitary brush cells with several long and thick microvilli described here are the first observation of such cells in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes. Bodies of respiratory epithelial cells lie between capillaries. Their cytoplasm, apart from typical organelles contains dense and lamellar bodies, which are a site of accumulation of surfactant. In regions where capillaries are covered by thin cytoplasmic sheets of respiratory epithelial cells, a thin (0.24-3.00 microm) air-blood barrier is formed, thus enabling gas exchange. Epithelial cells with longer microvilli do not participate in the formation of the air-blood barrier and are probably responsible for absorbtion. EC of the closed type are dispersed within the epithelium. Their cytoplasm contains characteristic round or oval dense core vesicles 69 to 230 nm in diameter. The role of EC and brush cells in the regulation of processes related to absorbtion, and to respiration, is disscused.

  2. Histology and ultrastructure of pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica Latreille (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in workers and queens of different ages. (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana Beani; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda


    The paper presents a study of the pericardial cells of Scaptotrigona postica an eusocial Brazilian stingless bee. Light and electron microscopy was used in a comparative study on workers and queens of different ages, exerting different functions in the colony. The pericardial cells are found only in the pericardial sinus, mainly in groups around the dorsal vessel. Each cell is enclosed by the basal membrane and its peripheral region is characterized by folds of the plasma membrane, which form canals and loops. The points where the plasma membrane folds is frequently closed by diaphragms, that along with the basal lamina form a barrier to substances from hemolymph. Along the membrane limiting the canals and loops, an intense endocytic activity through coated vesicles takes place indicating a selective absorption of hemolymph components. In older individuals, workers or queens, the cells exhibit larger quantities of cytoplasm inclusions, heterogeneous vacuoles containing the final products of intracellular digestion, and autophagic vacuoles with concentric membranous structures. The pericardial cells general morphology is in accordance with the role in processing metabolites captured from hemolymph and storage of indigested residues.

  3. Gross morphology, histology, and ultrastructure of the alimentary system of Ricinulei (Arachnida) with emphasis on functional and phylogenetic implications. (United States)

    Talarico, Giovanni; Lipke, Elisabeth; Alberti, Gerd


    Ricinuleid functional mouthparts are the cucullus, the chelicerae, the pedipalps, and the labrum. These structures are movably jointed to the rest of the prosoma, most likely protruded upon hydrostatic hemolymph pressure and retracted by prosomal muscles. Seta-like protrusions from the labrum and the pedipalpal coxae form a sieve-like filter inside the preoral cavity and the mouth. Although the tip of the labrum can be elevated upon muscle constriction, ingestion of large, solid food particles is unlikely. The mouth has a crescent-shaped cross section. The cuticle-lined, also crescent-shaped pharynx is equipped with a large dilator muscle but lacks antagonistic constrictor muscles. It represents a precerebral sucking pump. The triangular to Y-shaped, cuticle-lined esophagus is equipped with constrictor and dilator muscles. Its posterior part represents a postcerebral sucking pump. Four blind ending diverticula ramify from the anterior prosomal part of the entodermal midgut tube. Two of these diverticula remain inside the prosoma and form few short branches. The other two extend through the pedicel into the opisthosoma and ramify and coil there. A stercoral pocket protrudes ventrally out of the midgut tube. The most distal part of the midgut tube is modified into a contractile rectal gland. Its secretions may have defensive or physiological functions. A short anal atrium is formed by the cuticle-lined ectodermal hindgut which opens at the end of the three-segmented metasoma. The telescoping segments of the metasoma are protruded by hemolymph pressure and retracted by muscles.

  4. Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate undifferentiated arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, K


    A high sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory and destructive changes in inflammatory joint diseases makes magnetic resonance imaging potentially useful for assigning specific diagnoses, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in arthritides, that remain undifferentiated after...... conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographic examinations. With recent data as the starting point, the present paper describes the current knowledge on magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated arthritis....

  5. Equine Septic Arthritis and Serum Amyloid A


    Ludwig, Elsa Karen


    Bacterial infection within a joint, septic arthritis, is a serious condition in horses that can lead to long-term joint disease if the infection is not resolved quickly. Equine septic arthritis is diagnosed primarily based on clinical signs and synovial fluid cytology. Septic synovial fluid is characterized by significant elevations in total protein (TP) and total nucleated cell count (TNCC). However, in some cases it can be difficult to distinguish between septic arthritis and non-septic joi...

  6. Polyarticular septic arthritis following septic circumcision. (United States)

    Millar, Tim M; McGrath, Patrick; McConnachie, Charles C


    Ritual circumcision during an initiation ceremony for young adults is common practice in parts of South Africa. We report on a case of polyarticular septic arthritis in a seventeen-year-old man following septicaemia after circumcision, resulting in severe fixed flexion deformities of both knees. This case illustrates an unusual cause of polyarticular septic arthritis and the treatment difficulties associated with delayed presentation. It is also a reminder of the consequences of untreated acute septic arthritis.

  7. Septic arthritis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. (United States)

    Wang, Dingyuan Alvin; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah


    Septic arthritis has long been considered an orthopedic emergency. Historically, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus have been the most common causes of septic arthritis worldwide but in the modern era of biological therapy and extensive use of prosthetic joint replacements, the spectrum of microbiological causes of septic arthritis has widened considerably. There are also new approaches to diagnosis but therapy remains a challenge, with a need for careful consideration of a combined medical and surgical approach in most cases.

  8. Diagnosis by ultrastructural study of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgarejo-Moreno P


    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, also known as ciliary immotility (SIC syndrome is an inherited disorder that includes a group of diseases in which respiratory cilia are immobile, ciliary movement is dyskinetic and ineffective or no cilia . The aim of this study is to determine the ciliary ultrastructure in patients with suspected DCP. Method: In 8 patients with suspected DCP nasal mucosa biopsy is performed with endoscopy at the inferior turbinate in the middle third by the ENT service under local anesthesia. Results: Of the 8 cases studied in 2 cases no ciliary ultrastructural level defects were found. In two cases with abnormal ciliary ultrastructure is present Kartagener syndrome. In a case no cilia were observed in the nasal mucosa. Discussion: The DCP and SIC are synonymous terms from clinical and pathogenetic view: immobility and dyskinesia lead to an absence of mucociliary transport, stasis of respiratory secretions with their consequences: chronic infections of lower respiratory tract and from birth . The most common ultrastructural defect is the total or partial absence of dynein. Conclusions: The ultrastructural study allows the diagnosis of PCD because genetic diagnosis is complicated and therefore get an early diagnosis of this condition which serves to improve the morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  9. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  10. Effect of Tindurin on Immunopathogenesis Mechanism of Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Saadat


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the sequestration of various leukocyte subpopulations within both the developing pannus and synovial space. This study was undertaken to examine the therapeutic potency of tindurin in experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA was induced by intradermally immunization of Lewis rats at the base of the tail. The paws and knees were then removed for histopathology and radiography analysis. Using fibrosarcoma cell line the apoptosis process was measured by Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL method. Our data showed that the i.p. injection of tindurin to arthritic rats induced a significant reduction in paw edema. Histopathological assessment showed reduced inflammatory cells infiltrate, tissue edema and bone erosion in joints of treated rats. Moreover, our results in radiography were in line with histological findings as well as tindurin was found to induce apoptosis of treated cells in comparison with positive, negative and non-treated ones. Our findings revealed the therapeutic effect of tindurin in experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with methotrexate as a choice drug.

  11. Photoacoustic tomography to identify angiogenesis for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin; Girish, Gandikota; Chamberland, David


    Identifying neovascularity, i.e. angiogenesis, as a feature of inflammatory arthritis, can help in early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), as a hybrid imaging modality, relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. In this study, we used PAT to identify the changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis, through the study on a well-established adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, revealed that there was a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histological analysis of both the normal and the arthritic rats correlated well with the imaging findings. The results from this study suggest that the emerging PAT technology could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory joint diseases.

  12. Retinal occlusive vasculer disorder and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ortak


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease that affected older women with many ocular manifestations. Also, these systemic diseases can cause retinal vein occlusion and arterial occlusion that lead to serious and permanent visual loss. Rheumatoid arthritis's the most common manifestation is that retinal vasculitis and retinal vascular complications are associated with this complication. In this review, retinal vascular occlusive diseases are presented to associated with rheumatoid arthritis in literature. Rheumatoid arthritis and its complications have been outlined and was made to create a new perspective. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 71-73

  13. Galectin-3: A key player in arthritis. (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yéléhé-Okouma, Mélissa; Ea, Hang-Korng; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Reboul, Pascal


    Arthritis is more and more considered as the leading reason for the disability in the world, particularly regarding its main entities, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The common feature of arthritis is inflammation, which is mainly supported by synovitis (synovial inflammation), although the immune system plays a primary role in rheumatoid arthritis and a secondary one in osteoarthritis. During the inflammatory phase of arthritis, many pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators are secreted by infiltrating immune and resident joint cells, which are responsible for cartilage degradation and excessive bone remodeling. Amongst them, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, galectin-3, has been reported to be highly expressed and secreted by inflamed synovium of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Furthermore, galectin-3 has been demonstrated to induce joint swelling and osteoarthritis-like lesions after intra-articular injection in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying its pathophysiological role in arthritis have not been fully elucidated. This review deals with the characterization of arthritis features and galectin-3 and summarizes our current knowledge of the contribution of galectin-3 to joint tissue lesions in arthritis.

  14. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology. (United States)

    de Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida


    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e., skeletonized or "dry bone") tissue samples. This review discusses these differences and describes how they affect the histological analysis of paleopathological specimens. First, we provide a summary of some general challenges related to the histological analysis of palaeopathological specimens. Second, the reader is introduced in bone tissue histology and bone tissue dynamics. The remainder of the paper is dedicated to the diagnostic value of dry bone histology. Its value and limitations are illustrated by comparing several well-studied paleopathological cases with similar contemporary, clinical cases. This review illustrates that due to post-mortem loss of soft tissue, a limited number of disorders display pathognomonic features during histological analysis of skeletonized human remains. In the remainder of cases, histology may help to narrow down the differential diagnosis or is diagnostically unspecific. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary diagnostic approach therefore remains essential. Clin. Anat. 29:831-843, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T


    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  16. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Touger-Decker, R


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Clinimetric criteria of rheumatoid arthritis

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    Domenico Galasso


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease, mainly poli-artycular, among wide-spread chronic inflammatory diseases, that cause pain, functional limitation, damage and joints deformations, and disability. It is characterized by turns of active inflammation and remission phases. Inflammation degree and persistence are associated to a bad functional prognosis and progressive joint disability. These patients management require a continuous valuation of inflammatory activity index of disease both therapeutic management and to prevent disablement process. We focus on many valuation index of joint disability and functional damage. Very important are both the scales of auto-values concerning the pain and the joint swelling and clinical data get by physician to valuate activity index of disease as defined by DAS28. Significant data come by health-related quality of life, disability and by AIMS2 (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale.

  18. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

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    Kobayashi Akiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  19. Metabolite Space of Rheumatoid Arthritis


    van Wietmarschen, Herman; van der Greef, Jan


    Metabolites play numerous roles in the healthy and diseased body, ranging from regulating physiological processes to providing building blocks for the body. Therefore, understanding the role of metabolites is important in elucidating the etiology and pathology of diseases and finding targets for new treatment options. Rheumatoid arthritis is a complex chronic disease for which new disease management strategies are needed. The aim of this review is to bring together and integrate information a...

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis as psychic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kaas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of psychic problems of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory motor system disease with comprehensive impact on the patient's life. The disease is often considered an exclusively physical disease. But such approach is insufficient because the disease is accompanied by motor limitations of different intensities, by pain and by fatigue that cause considerable exhaustion to the patient. The patients often must give up their hobbies and in some cases even their jobs. In most serious cases, even common daily activities including self–servicing actions become an obstacle to the patient. It is therefore logical that the psyche of a patient with such disease is considerably strained. One of the partial goals of the study consisted in mapping the subjectively perceived quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in facet 8, "negative feelings", and in ascertaining whether there is statistically significant relation to facets 1, "pain and discomfort", and 2, "energy and fatigue". Another goal consisted in comparing the subjectively perceived quality of life between men and women with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as between population of rheumatoid arthritis patients and control healthy population. The study was implemented within the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice number 120/2012/S, „Reflection of quality of life in nursing", under use of two standardized questionnaires, WHOQOL–100 and HAQ. This article presents exclusively the data acquired based on the WHOQOL–100 questionnaire. The research set consisted of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis from all over the Czech Republic. The size of the set was determined by a statistician at 200 individuals suffering from the disease, in a ratio of 150 women and 50 men. The selection set was derived from the basic set of rheumatoid arthritis patients and

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis as psychic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kaas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of psychic problems of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory motor system disease with comprehensive impact on the patient's life. The disease is often considered an exclusively physical disease. But such approach is insufficient because the disease is accompanied by motor limitations of different intensities, by pain and by fatigue that cause considerable exhaustion to the patient. The patients often must give up their hobbies and in some cases even their jobs. In most serious cases, even common daily activities including self-servicing actions become an obstacle to the patient. It is therefore logical that the psyche of a patient with such disease is considerably strained. One of the partial goals of the study consisted in mapping the subjectively perceived quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in facet 8, "negative feelings", and in ascertaining whether there is statistically significant relation to facets 1, "pain and discomfort", and 2, "energy and fatigue". Another goal consisted in comparing the subjectively perceived quality of life between men and women with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as between population of rheumatoid arthritis patients and control healthy population. The study was implemented within the research project of the Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice number 120/2012/S, "Reflection of quality of life in nursing", under use of two standardized questionnaires, WHOQOL-100 and HAQ. This article presents exclusively the data acquired based on the WHOQOL-100 questionnaire. The research set consisted of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis from all over the Czech Republic. The size of the set was determined by a statistician at 200 individuals suffering from the disease, in a ratio of 150 women and 50 men. The selection set was derived from the basic set of rheumatoid arthritis patients and can

  2. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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    Ewa Jednacz


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  3. Ultrastructure of Oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Mei BAO; Qun HE; Quan-Xi WANG; Guo-Wei TIAN; Jian-Guo CAO


    The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The nucleus in the young egg is rounded with an uneven outline. As it develops, it becomes amoeboid and extends nuclear protrusions that are not only sac-like nuclear evaginations like those often seen in the oogenesis of other ferns, but also mushroom-like and finger-like, with an opening at their end allowing the nucleolus material to flow out from the openings. This has not been observed previously. The nuclear protrusions differ from Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. in the absence of sheets of nuclear membrane in the form of a closed ring. As the egg matures, the nucleus transforms into a tuber-like structure with a smooth surface, lying transversely in the egg cell. In the immature egg, vesicles almost encircle the nucleus twice and are most remarkable. In the maturing egg, the vesicles are distributed at the periphery, except for at the top of the egg, and affect the formation of the separation cavity and extra egg membrane. Simultaneously, vesicles from the venter canal cell move to the egg and take part in the formation of separation cavity and extra egg membrane. In the mature egg, a large number of small vesicles containing fragments of lamellae or osmiophilic material emerge from the cytoplasm. The origin of these vesicles is obscure. Irregular plastids containing a cylindrical starch grain dedifferentiated progressively.Mitochondria seem to have been undeveloped during the process, but return to normal at later stages of oogenesis. There is a high frequency of ribosomes in the mature egg. Microtubules, rarely seen in the eggs ofD. filix-mas (L.) Schott. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, have been observed inside the plasmalemma of the maturing egg in D. crassirhizoma.

  4. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases]. (United States)

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R


    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Nakai, M; Goto, T


    The ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were elucidated by observation with several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryo-microscopy. The virus particle consists of an envelope, a core and matrix. The virus particles were observed extracellularly as having one of three profiles: (1) a centric or an eccentric electron-dense core, (2) rod-shaped electron-dense core, and (3) doughnut-shaped. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high resolution electron cryo-microscopy to be globular, and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Many projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially head parts, were found to vary in each projection. By isolation with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, HIV-1 cores were confirmed to consist of p24 protein by immunogold labeling. When the virus enters the cell, two entry modes were found: membrane fusion and endocytosis. No structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm after viral entry. In HIV-1-infected cells, positive reactions by immuno-labeling suggest that HIV-1 Gag may be produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by cytoskeletons. Then a crescent electron-dense layer was first formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle was released from the cell surface. Several cell clones producing defective particles were isolated from MT-4/HIV-1 cells. Among them, doughnut-shaped or teardrop-shaped particles were seen to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins faced each other against the inner electron dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein.

  6. Cell Ultrastructure of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Shoot Tips During Cryopreservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-biao; CAI Zi-guo; GU Qing-qing; ZHANG Qiu-ming


    The changes in the cell ultrastructure of in vitro cultured shoot tips from dwarf genotype of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Ganmi 5) during cryopreservation were investigated. Shoot tips were preserved in liquid nitrogen using vitrification, and the cell ultrastructure was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The regular ultrastructure of the cell wall, cell membrane and nucleus of shoot tips could be damaged during the freezing and thawing associated with preservation using liquid nitrogen. The cell plasmolysis was increased and freezing tolerance was improved after preculturing and dehydrating in a preservation and vitrification solution (PVS2 ) (30% glycerol (Gly)+ 15% ethylene glycol (EG)+ 15% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) + 0.4 mol L-1 sucrose). The structure of some cells with low degree of injury and reversible damage was similar to that of the control and they could undergo normal cell division and differentiation. Besides, they could recover automatically and regenerate after their reculture.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    There are many reports that cells (protoplasts) separated from the thallus of Porphyra by enzyme can develop to normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores. But there are few investigations on the subcellular structure of the isolated vegetative cell for comparison with the subcellular structure of monospores. To clarify whether the separated and cultured cells undergo the same or similar ultrastructure changes during culture and germination as monospores undergo in their formation and germination, we observed their ultrastructure, compared them with those of the monospore and found that the ultrastructure of separated and cultured cells did not have the characteristic feature as that of monospore formation, such as production of small and large fibrous vesicles, but was accompanied by vacuolation and starch mobilization like that in monospore germination. The paper also discusses the relations between monospores and separated and cultured cells.

  8. Ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in Porcellio scaber under stress. (United States)

    Znidaršič, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana


    Cellular ultrastructure varies in accordance with physiological processes, also reflecting responses to environmental stress factors. Ultrastructural changes of the hepatopancreatic cells in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc or cadmium in their food were identified by transmission electron microscopy. The exclusive structural characteristic of the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to metal-dosed food was grain-like electrondense deposits (EDD) observed in the intercellular spaces and in vesicles of B cells. In addition, hepatopancreatic cells of metal-exposed animals displayed non-specific, stress-indicating alterations such as cellular disintegration, the reduction of energetic reserves (lipid droplets, glycogen), electron dense cytoplasm, ultrastructural alterations of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex and mitochondria.

  9. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is effective in a murine model of experimental Cryptosporidium parvum ultrastructural studies of the ileum. (United States)

    Al-Mathal, Ebtisam M; Alsalem, Afaf A


    The current treatments for cryptosporidiosis are ineffective, and there is an urgent need to search for more effective and safer alternatives. One such alternative may be treatments derived from natural resources. The pomegranate peel has been used effectively in traditional medicine to cure diarrhea and dysentery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel suspension as a treatment for Cryptosporidium parvum infection. In this study, the effects of this treatment on the ultrastructure of both the intestinal epithelial layer of infected nursling mice and the parasite were observed with a transmission electron microscope. The histological study focused on the examination of the microvilli, columnar epithelium, goblet cells, lamina propria, and crypts of Lieberkuhn. Examination of the ileums of infected mice that received the pomegranate peel suspension demonstrated that the general structure of the ileal tissue of these mice was similar to that of the control group. In the infected mice treated with the suspension, but not the infected/untreated mice, there was an improvement in all ultrastructure aspects at 28days post-inoculation. The study of the ultrastructure of the parasite (C. parvum) in mice treated with the suspension showed that there was decomposition in the parasite to the extent that in some cases we were unable to identify the stage of the parasite due to the severe degeneration. Significant decomposition of the nutrition organ was also observed. Additionally, microgamonte and macrogamonte were not observed in the suspension-treated group, explaining the disappearance of the sexual phases of the parasite in the lumens of this group. In all, this examination demonstrated the restoration of the normal structures of villi and the disappearance of acute symptoms in the suspension-treated mice and showed that the suspension directly affected the parasite at various stages of its development and led to

  10. Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome in an adolescent with short bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Pereira, Ester; Estanqueiro, Paula; Almeida, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; Tellechea, Oscar; Salgado, Manuel


    Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome (BADAS) is a neutrophilic dermatosis, characterized by the occurrence of arthritis and skin lesions related to bowel disease with or without bowel bypass. We report an unusual case of BADAS in a 15-year-old white male with congenital aganglionosis of the colon and hypoganglionosis of the small intestine and multiple bowel surgeries in childhood complicated by short bowel syndrome. He presented with recurrent peripheral polyarthritis, tenosynovitis, and painful erythematous subcutaneous nodules located on the dorsolateral regions of the legs and on the dorsa of the feet. Histological examination disclosed a neutrophilic dermatosis confirming the diagnosis of BADAS.Although an uncommon disease, especially at pediatric age, it is important to evoke the diagnosis of BADAS in children and adolescents with bowel disease, because treatment options and prognosis are distinct from other rheumatologic conditions.

  11. The potential use of microcalorimetry in rapid differentiation between septic arthritis and other causes of arthritis. (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Hügle, T; Daikeler, T; Voide, C; Borens, O; Trampuz, A


    Current diagnostic methods in differentiating septic from non-septic arthritis are time-consuming (culture) or have limited sensitivity (Gram stain). Microcalorimetry is a novel method that can rapidly detect microorganisms by their heat production. We investigated the accuracy and time to detection of septic arthritis by using microcalorimetry. Patients older than 18 years of age with acute arthritis of native joints were prospectively included. Synovial fluid was aspirated and investigated by Gram stain, culture and microcalorimetry. The diagnosis of septic arthritis and non-septic arthritis were made by experienced rheumatologists or orthopaedic surgeons. Septic arthritis was diagnosed by considering the finding of acute arthritis together with findings such as positive Gram stain or positive culture of synovial fluid or positive blood culture. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing septic arthritis and the time to positivity of microcalorimetry were determined. Of 90 patients (mean age 64 years), nine had septic arthritis, of whom four (44 %) had positive Gram stain, six (67 %) positive synovial fluid culture and four (44 %) had positive blood culture. The sensitivity of microcalorimetry was 89 %, the specificity was 99 % and the mean detection time was 5.0 h (range, 2.2-8.0 h). Microcalorimetry is an accurate and rapid method for the diagnosis of septic arthritis. It has potential to be used in clinical practice in diagnosing septic arthritis.

  12. Report - Recurrent hip arthritis diagnosed as juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A case report. (United States)

    Chang, Tung-Ming; Yang, Kuender D; Yong, Su-Boon


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. It is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with arthritis of unknown etiology that begins before the age of 16 and persists for longer than 6 weeks. In this report, the case of a child who suffered recurrent alternative hip arthritis with bilateral hip arthritis is examined, in which he was finally diagnosed as suffering from Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A 14-year-old boy of Taiwanese origin presented with a normal birth and developmental history. At the age of 10, right-side hip joint pain was experienced, which later migrated to the left side. On further inspection, synovium hypertrophy, cartilage erosion and hip turbid fluid accumulation were found and aseptic arthritis was presumed to be the primary cause. However, after re-examining both his clinical history and presentation, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was the final diagnosis. Any child presenting with repeat joint swelling are at risk of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is still to be the case if symptoms recede or heal and no initial diagnosis is made. Therefore, a better understanding of the risk of recurrent arthritis is needed. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that Juvenile idiopathic arthritis should be suspected at all times when a child suffers from recurrent aseptic arthritis of the hip joint.

  13. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C


    BACKGROUND: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was first applied to study placental ultrastructure in the 1950's. We review those early studies and mention the scientists that employed or encouraged the use of TEM. FINDINGS: Among the pioneers Edward W. Dempsey was a key figure who attracted...... many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University...

  14. Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Islam, S; Ribeiro, A A C M; Loesch, A


    The present study investigated the ultrastructural features of the basilar artery of the largest rodent species, the capybara. The study suggests that the general ultrastructural morphological organization of the basilar artery of the capybara is similar to that of small rodents. However, there are some exceptions. The basilar artery of the capybara contains a subpopulation of 'granular' vascular smooth muscle cells resembling monocytes and/or macrophages. The possibility cannot be excluded that the presence of these cells reflects the remodelling processes of the artery due to animal maturation and the regression of the internal carotid artery. To clarify this issue, more systemic studies are required involving capybaras of various ages.

  15. [Morphological and Ultrastructural Features in the Characterization of Microsporidia]. (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Algı, Gönül; Güner, Beyza Gonca


    The members of the Microsporidia are single-celled, eukaryotic, obligate intracellular parasites. They infect a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The studies on Microsporidia are of considerable interest because of that they cause desirable and undesirable infections in different animals. That situation requires identification of these organisms correctly. The identification of Microsporidia needs relatively more complex studies. Morphological and ultrastructural studies play important role in the identification of these organisms. In the present study, a working knowledge on the morphological and ultrastructural features of Microsporidia are given.

  16. Morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular description of Unicapsula fatimae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of whitespotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) in Omani waters. (United States)

    Al-Jufaili, Sarah H; Freeman, Mark A; Machkevskyi, Volodymyr K; Al-Nabhani, Abdulrahman; Palm, Harry W


    Investigations regarding the parasite fauna of wild whitespotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) Park, 1797 revealed white, spherical, loosely attached cysts measuring 896 (375-1406) μm in diameter in the inner endothelial wall of the esophagus and stomach. Mature spores inside these cysts corresponded to the original description of spores belonging to the genus Unicapsula Davis, 1924. Unicapsula fatimae n. sp. spores were 6.23 (5.60-6.60) μm in length and 6.80 (6.12-7.39) μm in width. The length of large polar capsule was 2.62 (2.18-2.97) μm and width was 2.65 (2.32-2.90) μm, and the extended large polar capsule filament length was 15.50 (11.71-19.99) μm. Transmission electron microscope images of the plasmodia revealed a complex cyst structure that was unique among other Unicapsula spp. Ultrastructural details of the host-parasite interface and developmental stages of a species from the Unicapsula genus are described for the first time. Histology of an infected esophagus revealed some abnormalities and changes in the host tissue around the infection site, including hypertrophy of host esophagus epithelial cells and hyperplasia of host glandular tubules. The parasite presented here has been added to the genus Unicapsula using comparative morphological analysis and ultrastructural investigations supported by 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA molecular analysis.

  17. Male internal reproductive structures of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): vas deferens morphology and spermatozoal ultrastructure. (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Klaus, Sebastian; Tudge, Christopher C


    Pea crabs of the subfamily Pinnotherinae (Pinnotheridae) have a high investment in reproduction and an outstanding reproductive output, probably as an adaptation to the required increase in reproductive rate due to the pinnotherids small size and their parasitic, host-dependant way of life. In the present study, we investigate the male internal reproductive structures and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Pinnotheres pisum and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres by histological methods and both scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. In the Brachyura, the male internal reproductive systems generally consist of paired testes and corresponding vasa deferentia where spermatozoa develop and mature. Spermatozoal ultrastructure of the investigated pinnotherids conforms to the thoracotreme type, however, N. pinnotheres has an accessory opercular ring and a periopercular rim, neither of which are present in spermatozoa of P. pisum. Spermatozoa are enclosed within spermatophores in the secretory proximal vas deferens. Two types of secretions were observed in P. pisum and N. pinnotheres: an electron dense substance secreted in the proximal vas deferens involved in spermatophore formation, and large electron-luscent vesicles constituting the seminal plasma in the medial and distal vas deferens. The medial vas deferens is strongly widened compared to other brachyurans to purpose storing spermatophores embedded in seminal plasma. Tubular appendices, which produce and store large amounts of seminal plasma, arise from the distal region of the vas deferens. The appendices extend into the ventral cephalothorax and also in the first pleomere. The latter being an exceptional location for reproductive structures among male brachyurans.

  18. Salidroside ameliorates arthritis-induced brain cognition deficits by regulating Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway. (United States)

    Zhu, Lingpeng; Chen, Tong; Chang, Xiayun; Zhou, Rui; Luo, Fen; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yue; Yang, Ying; Long, Hongyan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Tianhua; Ma, Chunhua


    The prevalence of cognitive impairment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was increasingly serious nowadays. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether salidroside (Sal) could alleviate arthritis-induced cognition deficits and examine the relationship between the impairment and Rho/ROCK/NF-κB pathway. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established by the injection of chicken type II collagen (CII), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Arthritic lesions of CIA rats were assessed by arthritis index score, swelling of paws and histological analysis. Cognitive deficits symptoms of CIA rats were monitored through Morris water maze test. The contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in hippocampus and serum were significantly reduced with salidroside (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg) treatment compared with those in the CIA group. In parallel, we demonstrated that the expressions of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, p-NF-κBp65, p-IκBα, p-IKKα and p-IKKβ were enhanced accompanying the investigation arthritis-induced cognition deficits, which were remarkably down-regulated by salidroside and confirmed by the results obtained from western blot and immunohistochemistry. LC-MS/MS results ascertained that Sal could enter into the blood and brain tissues to exhibit the protective effect on arthritis-induced cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, it was assumed that Sal might be a potential therapeutic candidate to treat arthritis-induced brain cognition deficits through the regulation of Rho/ROCK/NF-κB signaling.

  19. Ultrastructure of oval cells in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on the stage of liver fibrosis: The first pediatric study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Joanna Maria Lotowska; Dariusz Marek Lebensztejn


    AIM: To investigate the ultrastructure of oval ceils in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on their location in areas of collagen fibroplasia.METHODS: Morphological investigations were conducted on biopsy material obtained from 40 children,aged 3-16 years with chronic hepatitis B. The stage of fibrosis was assessed histologically using the arbitrary semiquantitative numerical scoring system proposed by Ishak et al. The material for ultrastructural investigation was fixed in glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and processed for transmission-electron microscopic analysis.RESULTS: Ultrastructural examination of biopsy specimens obtained from children with chronic hepatitis B showed the presence of two types of oval cells, the hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatic-like cells. These cells were present in the parenchyma and were seen most commonly in areas of intense periportal fibrosis (at least stage 2 according to Ishak et al) and in the vicinity of the limiting plate of the lobule. The activated nonparenchymal hepatic cells, i.e. transformed hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells were seen in close proximity to the intermediate hepatic-like cells.CONCLUSION: We found a distinct relationship between the prevalence of oval cells (hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatocyte-like cells) and fibrosis stage in pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  20. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of endocrine cells in the larval stomach of the frog Rana temporaria tadpoles: a comparison with adult specimens. (United States)

    Villaro, A C; Rovira, J; Bodegas, M E; Burrell, M A; García-Ros, D; Sesma, P


    According to immunostaining and ultrastructural patterns, Rana temporaria tadpole stomach displays a well-differentiated endocrine population comprising, at least, six cellular types: ECL, EC [serotonin], D [somatostatin] - all three of them abundant -, P [bombesin] - less numerous -, CCK-8 [cholecystokinin/gastrin] and A [glucagon/glicentin] - both very scarce. Larval endocrine cells are mainly located in the surface epithelium and show open or closed morphologies. Cellular diversity is similar in tadpoles and frogs, with the exception of immunoreactivity for gastrin-17, found in adults in numerous cells. Larval cells display mature ultrastructural traits, although with smaller secretory granules. The different distribution of endocrine cells, which in adults are preferentially located in the glands, probably refers to different functional requirements. However, the rich vascular plexus present in larval mucosa may be an efficient transport medium of surface hormones to-gastric targets. The enhancement in adults of endocrine population and correlative increase in hormonal secretion indicates a more active functional role, probably related to the shift from herbivorous to carnivorous habits. In summary, the tadpole gastric endocrine population, although not as numerous as that of adult frogs, displays histological traits that indicate a relevant (immunoreactive and ultrastructural properties, cellular diversity) and specific (surface location, relative abundance of open-type cells) role of local regulatory factors in amphibian larval gastric function.

  1. Echocardiographic versus histologic findings in Marfan syndrome. (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Han, Jiancheng; Chen, Jian; Nixon, J V Ian


    This retrospective study attempted to establish the prevalence of multiple-valve involvement in Marfan syndrome and to compare echocardiographic with histopathologic findings in Marfan patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery. We reviewed echocardiograms of 73 Marfan patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery from January 2004 through October 2009. Tissue histology was available for comparison in 29 patients. Among the 73 patients, 66 underwent aortic valve replacement or the Bentall procedure. Histologic findings were available in 29 patients, all of whom had myxomatous degeneration. Of 63 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 had thickened aortic valves. The echocardiographic findings in 18 patients with mitral involvement included mitral prolapse in 15. Of 11 patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation as determined by echocardiography, 4 underwent mitral valve repair and 7 mitral valve replacement. Histologic findings among mitral valve replacement patients showed thickened valve tissue and myxomatous degeneration. Tricuspid involvement was seen echocardiographically in 8 patients, all of whom had tricuspid prolapse. Two patients had severe tricuspid regurgitation, and both underwent repair. Both mitral and tricuspid involvement were seen echocardiographically in 7 patients. Among the 73 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for Marfan syndrome, 66 had moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, although their valves manifested few histologic changes. Eighteen patients had mitral involvement (moderate or severe mitral regurgitation, prolapse, or both), and 8 had tricuspid involvement. Mitral valves were most frequently found to have histologic changes, but the tricuspid valve was invariably involved.

  2. Arthritis and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Santos, Alexandra; Faria, Emília; Silva, Jorge; Malcata, Armando; Chieira, Celso


    Primary immunodeficiencies are defined as genetically determined functional and/or quantitative abnormalities in one or more of the components of the immune system. Immunodeficiency and arthritis can be related, although the mechanisms are not always clear. Different causes for immunodeficiency can secondarily be found in patients with arthritis; on the other hand, arthritis can be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Arthritis occurs chiefly in humoral primary immunodeficiencies, namely in X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency, and may be one of the warning signs for primary immunodeficiency. We report a case of arthritis as the presenting feature of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In X-linked agammaglobulinemia, arthritis may be a consequence of infection, most notably by Mycoplasma, or of immune dysfunction itself. In children, and occasionally in young adults, a combination of arthritis and hypogammaglobulinemia should suggest primary immunodeficiency, although other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia must be excluded. Physicians evaluating patients with arthritis should be aware of this fact so that an early diagnosis can be pursued as it is of extreme importance in the optimal management and prognosis of these patients.

  3. Symptomatic manubriosternal joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis.



    The manubriosternal joint is commonly involved in rheumatoid arthritis but rarely gives rise to symptoms. A patient is reported with seropositive, erosive rheumatoid arthritis, who developed symptoms resembling pleuritic pain, arising from synovitis of the manubriosternal joint. Treatment with intra-articular steroid injection resolved these symptoms rapidly.

  4. Symptomatic manubriosternal joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Doube, A; Clarke, A K


    The manubriosternal joint is commonly involved in rheumatoid arthritis but rarely gives rise to symptoms. A patient is reported with seropositive, erosive rheumatoid arthritis, who developed symptoms resembling pleuritic pain, arising from synovitis of the manubriosternal joint. Treatment with intra-articular steroid injection resolved these symptoms rapidly.

  5. Autoimmune correlation of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis


    Lalitha Tanjore Arunachalam


    Rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, both, chronic inflammatory diseases share certain common diagnostic, pathological, immunogenetic and therapeutic features. A recently discovered enzymatic mimicry between human and bacterial species is novel and it opens up a new terrain for therapeutic blockade in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette;


    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  7. Treatment of early rheumatoid and undifferentiated arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimans, Lotte


    This thesis focuses on different aspects of treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and undifferentiated arthritis (UA), based on the results of three intervention studies; the IMPROVED-study, the BeSt study and the PROMPT study. This thesis discusses the results of different treatment

  8. Patient education for adults with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsma, R.P.; Kirwan, J.R.; Taal, E.; Rasker, H.J.J.


    Patient education shows short-term benefits for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of patient education interventions on health status (pain, functional disability, psychological well-being and disease activity) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  9. Psoriatic arthritis: from pathogenesis to therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Oliver


    Psoriatic arthritis is a multigenic autoimmune disease that involves synovial tissue, entheseal sites and skin, and that may result in significant joint damage. Although there are no diagnostic tests for psoriatic arthritis, research has identified consistent features that help to distinguish the condition from other common rheumatic diseases. Comparison of HLA-B and HLA-C regions in psoriatic arthritis with those in psoriasis without joint involvement demonstrates significant differences, such that psoriatic arthritis cannot be viewed simply as a subset of genetically homogeneous psoriasis. T-cell receptor phenotypic studies have failed to identify antigen-driven clones, and an alternative hypothesis for CD8 stimulation involving innate immune signals is proposed. Finally, imaging studies have highlighted entheseal involvement in psoriatic arthritis, and it is possible that entheseal-derived antigens may trigger an immune response that is critically involved in disease pathogenesis.

  10. Brucellar sternoclavicular arthritis, the forgotten complication. (United States)

    Mousa, A M; Muhtaseb, S A; Al-Mudallal, D S; Marafie, A A; Habib, F M


    Of 511 cases of brucellosis studied between December 1983 and February 1986, four (0.8%) had sternoclavicular (STCL) arthritis. Two were male and two female, and only one was younger than 50 years old. All four cases had significantly high specific IgG antibody titres (1 of 1280), measured by the indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) test, and two had Brucella melitensis isolated from their blood. In two cases, STCL arthritis was the presenting problem, and it was associated in one with ankle arthritis, hepatitis, renal impairment, orogenital ulcers and a haematological picture of myelodysplasia; in the other it was a relapsing STCL arthritis. In the remaining two cases, STCL arthritis was part of an extensive osteoarticular disease, which was associated in one with cachexia, liver cirrhosis, heart failure and prostatitis with urine retention, and in the other with severe thrombocytopenia. Excellent results were obtained from six to eight weeks' therapy with streptomycin, rifampicin and cotrimoxazole or tetracycline.

  11. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. (United States)

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J


    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy.

  12. Current concepts in the treatment of gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Fang, Zhen-hua; Waizy, Hazibullah


    Gouty arthritis is an extremely painful condition that causes functional impairment. Gouty arthritis has become increasingly complex because of multiple comorbidities, iatrogenic factors and hyperuricemia that is refractory to treatment. In this review, we present a general overview of gouty arthritis including its pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, predisposing factors and prophylactic therapy for preventing gouty arthritis flares.

  13. Hernia sacs: is histological examination necessary? (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar


    The hernia sac is a common surgical pathology specimen which can occasionally yield unexpected diagnoses. The College of American Pathologists recommends microscopic examination of abdominal hernias, but leaves submission of inguinal hernias for histology to the discretion of the pathologist. To validate this approach at a tertiary care centre, we retrospectively reviewed 1426 hernia sacs derived from inguinal, femoral and abdominal wall hernias. The majority of pathologies noted were known to the clinician, including herniated bowel, lipomas and omentum. A malignancy was noted in three of 800 inguinal hernias and seven of 576 abdominal wall hernias; five of these lesions were not seen on gross examination. Other interesting findings in hernia sacs included appendices, endometriosis, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour, and pseudomyxoma peritoneii. All hernia sacs should be examined grossly as most pathologies are grossly visible. The decision to submit inguinal hernias for histology may be left to the discretion of the pathologist, but abdominal and femoral hernias should be submitted for histology.

  14. Histology image search using multimodal fusion. (United States)

    Caicedo, Juan C; Vanegas, Jorge A; Páez, Fabian; González, Fabio A


    This work proposes a histology image indexing strategy based on multimodal representations obtained from the combination of visual features and associated semantic annotations. Both data modalities are complementary information sources for an image retrieval system, since visual features lack explicit semantic information and semantic terms do not usually describe the visual appearance of images. The paper proposes a novel strategy to build a fused image representation using matrix factorization algorithms and data reconstruction principles to generate a set of multimodal features. The methodology can seamlessly recover the multimodal representation of images without semantic annotations, allowing us to index new images using visual features only, and also accepting single example images as queries. Experimental evaluations on three different histology image data sets show that our strategy is a simple, yet effective approach to building multimodal representations for histology image search, and outperforms the response of the popular late fusion approach to combine information.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Spirulina in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadelis Remirez


    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of microalgae Spirulina was studied in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. Four days after the intra-articular injection of zymosan (15 mg/ml, Spirulina (100 and 400 mg/kg per-orally was administered to animals for 8 days. The mice were than killed and β-glucuronidase was measured in the synovial fluid. Each knee joint was totally removed for histopathological studies. Spirulina significantly reduced the levels of β-glucuronidase that had been increased by zymosan. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed inhibition of the inflammatory reaction, whereas no destruction of cartilage, well-preserved chondrocytes, and normal rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were seen. The anti-arthritic effect exerted by Spirulina as shown in this model may be at least partly due to the previously reported anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of its constituent, phycocyanin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-inflammatory effect of Spirulina in an experimental model of arthritis.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates the progression of K/BxN serum transfer arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Brines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is induced in many cell types as a defense mechanism against stress. We have investigated the possible role of endogenous HO-1 in the effector phase of arthritis using the K/BxN serum transfer model of arthritis in HO-1 heterozygous and homozygous knock-out mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Arthritis was induced in C57/Black-6 xFVB (HO-1(+/+, HO-1(+/- and HO-1(-/- mice by intraperitoneal injection of 150 µl serum from arthritic K/BxN mice at days 0 and 2. Blood was collected and animals were sacrificed at day 10. Histological analysis was performed in ankle sections. The levels of inflammatory mediators were measured in serum and paw homogenates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Multiplex technology. The incidence of arthritis was higher in HO-1(+/- and HO-1(-/- groups compared with HO-1(+/+. The inflammatory response was aggravated in HO-1(+/- mice as shown by arthritic score and the migration of inflammatory cells that could be related to the enhancement of CXCL-1 production. In addition, the HO-1(+/- group showed proteoglycan depletion significantly higher than HO-1(+/+ mice. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were increased in arthritic HO-1(-/- mice, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor and some cytokines such as interferon-γ showed a reduction compared to HO-1(+/+ or HO-1(+/- mice. In addition, down-regulated gene expression of ferritin, glutathione S-reductase A1 and superoxide dismutase-2 was observed in the livers of arthritic HO-1(+/- animals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Endogenous HO-1 regulates the production of systemic and local inflammatory mediators and plays a protective role in K/BxN serum transfer arthritis.

  17. The role of lipopolysaccharide injected systemically in the reactivation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice (United States)

    Yoshino, Shin; Ohsawa, Motoyasu


    We investigated the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the reactivation of autoimmune disease by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice in which autoimmunity to the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) was involved.CIA was induced by immunization with CII emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of LPS from E. coli were i.p. injected on day 50.Arthritis began to develop on day 25 after immunization with CII and reached a peak on day 35. Thereafter, arthritis subsided gradually but moderate joint inflammation was still observed on day 50. An i.p. injection of LPS on day 50 markedly reactivated arthritis on a dose-related fashion. Histologically, on day 55, there were marked oedema of synovium which had proliferated by the day of LPS injection, new formation of fibrin, and intense infiltration of neutrophils accompanied with a large number of mononuclear cells. The reactivation of CIA by LPS was associated with increases in anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies as well as various cytokines including IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α. LPS from S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and K. neumoniae and its component, lipid A from E. coli also reactivated the disease. Polymyxin B sulphate suppressed LPS- or lipid A-induced reactivation of CIA.These results suggest that LPS may play an important role in the reactivation of autoimmune joint inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:10742285

  18. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Song, Hou-Pan; Li, Xin; Yu, Rong; Zeng, Guang; Yuan, Zhen-Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Hui-Yong; Cai, Xiong


    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans.

  19. Histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitrenko


    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is the most common histopathology occurring in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Over the past decades, there have been various attempts to classify the variants of hippocampal neuronal cell loss in relation to postoperative outcome. However, no consensus on the common international definition and classification of MTS has been reached. The article describes the modern histological classification based on a semiquantitative hippocampal cell loss model. The publications dealing with the histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis are reviewed. 

  20. [Histological aspects of naso-ethmoidal tumors]. (United States)

    Carnot, F


    Among malignant neoplasms of the sino-nasal tract, tumors of the nasal vault have special features: their higher incidence in woodworkers, their frequent local recurrence and invasiveness in the skull base. Histologically too, they are peculiar by the predominance of the glandular tumors, of colonic or enteric type especially. Microscopic examination allows histological grading of these adenocarcinoma. Squamous carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are less frequent than in other parts of the sinonasal tract. Rare other tumors, often undifferentiated, can be diagnosed by immuno-staining as esthesioneuroblastomas, malignant melanomas, neuro-endocrine carcinomas, malignant lymphomas or sarcomas. A retrospective study of 147 patients yielded similar data.

  1. Neprhrotic syndrome in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with adalimumab: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Portuesi


    Full Text Available The pathogenetic role of TNFα in inflammatory diseases has been known for a long time and has modified the therapeutic approach towards this pathology. All over the word, about 400.000 patients have been treated with biological anti-TNFα drugs. Particular attention has been taken for the safety of their use. Let us describe a case of 60 year old man affected by rheumatoid arthritis who has developed nephrotic syndrome with histological pattern typical of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, without autoantibodies.

  2. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Kroeck, M.A.; Villalba, A.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Burreson, E.M.


    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exit

  3. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing (United States)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  4. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro


    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  5. Ultrastructure of platelets in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. (United States)

    Maldonado, J E; Gilchrist, G S; Brigden, L P; Bowie, E J


    The platelets of a patient with the Bernard-Soulier syndrome were studied by electron microscopy. The main abnormalities were the presence of giant and often round platelets, hypertrophic and frequently widely dilated open canalicular system, disorganized microtubules, and platelets with sparse or absent granulation. Although well defined, these ultrastructural morphologic aberrations are not considered diagnostic or pathognomonic of the syndrome.

  6. Ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti (Anoplura, Echinophthiriidae by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores del Carmen Castro


    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti Werneck, 1955, mainly the external chorionic features of the egg, is described through electronic microscopy techniques. This species was first cited in Argentina, infesting Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1873. The morphological adaptations of adults and nymphs are described in both species of Proechinophthirus parasitic on Otariidae: P. fluctus (Ferris, 1916 and P. zumpti.

  7. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L


    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  8. Tissue section AFM: In situ ultrastructural imaging of native biomolecules (United States)

    Graham, Helen K.; Hodson, Nigel W.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Millward-Sadler, Sarah J.; Garrod, David; Scothern, Anthea; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Cox, Thomas R.; Erler, Janine T.; Trafford, Andrew W.; Sherratt, Michael J.


    Conventional approaches for ultrastructural high-resolution imaging of biological specimens induce profound changes in bio-molecular structures. By combining tissue cryo-sectioning with non-destructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging we have developed a methodology that may be applied by the non-specialist to both preserve and visualize bio-molecular structures (in particular extracellular matrix assemblies) in situ. This tissue section AFM technique is capable of: i) resolving nm–µm scale features of intra- and extracellular structures in tissue cryo-sections; ii) imaging the same tissue region before and after experimental interventions; iii) combining ultrastructural imaging with complimentary microscopical and micromechanical methods. Here, we employ this technique to: i) visualize the macro-molecular structures of unstained and unfixed fibrillar collagens (in skin, cartilage and intervertebral disc), elastic fibres (in aorta and lung), desmosomes (in nasal epithelium) and mitochondria (in heart); ii) quantify the ultrastructural effects of sequential collagenase digestion on a single elastic fibre; iii) correlate optical (auto fluorescent) with ultrastructural (AFM) images of aortic elastic lamellae. PMID:20144712

  9. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed...

  10. Hypertextual Ultrastructures: Movement and Containment in Texts and Hypertexts (United States)

    Coste, Rosemarie L.


    The surface-level experience of hypertextuality as formless and unbounded, blurring boundaries among texts and between readers and writers, is created by a deep structure which is not normally presented to readers and which, like the ultrastructure of living cells, defines and controls texts' nature and functions. Most readers, restricted to…

  11. Cardiovascular involvement in psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Gennaro Colonna


    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically determined and immunomediated inflammatory skin disease that affects 2-3% of the Caucasian population. A considerable proportion of these patients develop a form of inflammatory arthritis known as psoriatic arthritis (PsA, although the prevalence of this has not been well defined. Patients with PsA have a higher mortality rate than the general population and the risk of mortality is related to disease severity at the time of presentation. Endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis have been found in patients with PsA without any cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, and experts believe that CVD is one of the leading causes of death, as it is in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Various disease-related mechanisms may be involved in the development of premature vascular damage in both cases, including an increased synthesis of proinflammatory mediators (such as cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, autoantibodies against endothelial cell components, perturbations in T-cell subsets, genetic polymorphisms, hyperhomocysteinemia, oxidative stress, abnormal vascular repair, and iatrogenic factors. In a recent study of 22 patients with PsA without any signs of CVD, we found that the plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA levels were significantly high and coronary flow reserve (CFR was significantly reduced. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between CFR and plasma ADMA levels in the PsA group. The significant correlation between the reduced CRF and increased ADMA levels suggests that, like patients with early RA, PsA patients suffer from endothelial dysfunction and impaired coronary microcirculation. Active PsA is a risk factor for CVD, and so PsA patients should be screened for subclinical forms of the disease and its risk factors, and an early treatment approach should be adopted.

  12. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto


    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  13. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Todesco


    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA has been classically defined as an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. However, in comparison with other relevant inflammatory arthropathies, in which a definite diagnosis is frequently possible only by means of laboratory investigations, in PsA true laboratory diagnostic markers are lacking. Some markers are utilised more to differentiate other diseases than to characterise PsA. For example in polyarticular PsA, which may be in some cases indistinguishable from RA, the rheumatoid factor (RF or the more specific and recently introduced antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP, may be useful to better identify RA. However, RF was found in 5% to 13% of patients with PsA, and anti-CCP may be observed in almost similar percentage. The determination of ESR and/or CRP is frequently disappointing in PsA, since they are both elevated in only half of the patients with PsA. However, ESR and/or CRP are included in the most utilised response criteria for RA, such as ACR and DAS, and, in addition are also considered reliable in the assessment of PsA. Furthermore, elevated levels of ESR have been proposed as one of the best predictors of damage progression and, in addition, a low ESR seems protective, while an ESR >15 mm/h is one of the factors associated with an increased mortality in PsA. The synovial fluid (SF effusion is much higher in PsA, in comparison with other arthropathies. When available, SF analysis may offer additive information useful for the diagnosis, such as the increased number of leukocytes, which underlines the inflammatory nature of the effusion even in a patient with normal serum levels of acute phase response. We found that elevated IL-1 levels in SF of patients with early disease (<6 months, may be predictive of an evolution in polyarticular form at follow-up. This observation is in keeping with the crucial role that inflammatory cytokines play in PsA, probably related to a genetic

  15. Psoriatic arthritis: genetics and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mathieu


    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis is a complex disease affecting primarily peripheral and axial joints and entheses together with the skin. The pathogenesis is characterized by a genetic background and by inflammatory mechanisms which may be triggered by environmental factors. Several susceptibility genes have been investigated; they include HLA genes, genes within the HLA region and genes outside the HLA region. T cells, including the recently described subset Th17, are thought to play an important role in the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Some of these findings allowed novel therapeutic interventions or opened new promising approaches in treatment. The most relevant data of the literature are summarized and discussed.

  16. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 13 cases of melanotic schwannoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-ying; ZHANG Yuan-heng; YANG Guang-hua; CHEN Hui-jiao; WEI Bing; KE Qi; GUO Hua; YE Lü; BU Hong; YANG Ke


    omentum lesion. The pigment was shown to be positive for the Fontana-Masson and negative for Prussian blue and PAS. Immunohistochemical staining for S-100, Leu-7, HMB-45, Melan-A, and vimentin were strongly positive. Linear immunoreactions of both laminin and collagen Ⅳ was detected in all patients. Ultrastructurally, numerous elongated tumor-cell processes, duplicated basement membrane and melanosomes were observed in all developmental stages.Conclusions Histologically, melanotic schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannoma composed of melanin-producing cells with ultrastructural features of schwann cells. Distinguishing between this tumor and malignant melanoma is of paramount importance in planning of management. Immunohistochemically, combined use of laminin and collagen Ⅳ is valuable in distinguishing melanotic schwannoma from malignant melanoma. Wide local resection and additional radiotherapy should be advocated. Further studies including cytogenetic or molecular biology are still required to better delineate melanotic schwannoma from malignant melanoma. Appropriate long-term follow-up is needed for all melanotic schwannomas.

  17. Observations on the sexual segment of the kidney of snakes with emphasis on ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus. (United States)

    Sever, David M; Rheubert, Justin L; Gautreaux, Jillian; Hill, Toren G; Freeborn, Layla R


    The sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) is an accessory sex structure in male lizards and snakes (Squamata). We describe histology of the SSK in 12 species of snakes, including one from the basal Scolecophidia, Leptotyphlops dulcis, and from the more advanced Alethinophidia, species from the Acrochordidae (Acrochordus granulatus), Homalopsidae (Cerberus rynchops), Uropeltidae (Teretrurus sanguineus), and eight species from the Elapidae, including six species of sea snakes. We also describe the ultrastructure of the SSK of the sea snake, Pelamis platurus. The SSK of L. dulcis does not include the ureter but does include distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) and collecting ducts. In all other snakes examined, the SSK is limited to the DCTs and does not differ in histology by any consistent character. We found apparently mature individuals of several species with inactive SSKs. Hypertrophied SSKs give positive reactions for protein secretions but variable reactions for carbohydrates. Ultrastructure of the SSK of P. platurus reveals nuclei situated medially in the epithelium and mature electron dense secretory vacuoles in other areas of the cytoplasm. Product release is apocrine. Junctional complexes only occur at the luminal border, and intercellular canaliculi become widened and are open basally. No cytologically unique characters occur in the SSK of P. platurus. The ancestral condition of the SSK in squamates is the presence of simple columnar epithelium specialized for secretion of a protein + carbohydrate product that matures and is released seasonally.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Septic Arthritis also known as infectious arthritis, can be bacterial or fungal arthritis. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that is caused by an infection. Typically, Septic Arthritis affects one large joint in the body such as knee or hip. Generally, Septic Arthritis is present with complete absorption of the head of the Femur in infants. A case was encountered in which the complete absorption of the femoral head was seen in adults also

  19. Segmentation of histological structures for fractal analysis (United States)

    Dixon, Vanessa; Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro


    Pathologists examine histology sections to make diagnostic and prognostic assessments regarding cancer based on deviations in cellular and/or glandular structures. However, these assessments are subjective and exhibit some degree of observer variability. Recent studies have shown that fractal dimension (a quantitative measure of structural complexity) has proven useful for characterizing structural deviations and exhibits great potential for automated cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Computing fractal dimension relies on accurate image segmentation to capture the architectural complexity of the histology specimen. For this purpose, previous studies have used techniques such as intensity histogram analysis and edge detection algorithms. However, care must be taken when segmenting pathologically relevant structures since improper edge detection can result in an inaccurate estimation of fractal dimension. In this study, we established a reliable method for segmenting edges from grayscale images. We used a Koch snowflake, an object of known fractal dimension, to investigate the accuracy of various edge detection algorithms and selected the most appropriate algorithm to extract the outline structures. Next, we created validation objects ranging in fractal dimension from 1.3 to 1.9 imitating the size, structural complexity, and spatial pixel intensity distribution of stained histology section images. We applied increasing intensity thresholds to the validation objects to extract the outline structures and observe the effects on the corresponding segmentation and fractal dimension. The intensity threshold yielding the maximum fractal dimension provided the most accurate fractal dimension and segmentation, indicating that this quantitative method could be used in an automated classification system for histology specimens.

  20. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry. (United States)

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  1. Ultrastructural effect of sildenafil citrate on corpus cavernosum and other genital organs in female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kilinc; M.I.Guenduez; B.H.Guemues; S.Vatansever; F.Kaymaz


    Aim:To determine the ultrastructural effects of sildenafil on the female genital organs.Methods:Twenty female cycling Wistar albino rats weighing 250±20 g were randomly divided into two groups of 10 each.Rats of one group were gavaged with 0.5mg·kg-1·d-1 of sildenafil 3 days in a week for 4 weeks and the other served as the controls.After cessation of treatment animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under methoxyflurane anaesthesia.The clitoris,vagina,uterus and bartholin glands were taken at the estrous and were fixed with 10% formalin solution for light microscopy and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and osmic acid for electron microscopy.Results:Under the light microscope,the fibrocollageous tissue was found increased,the capillaries enlarged and the connecting tissue elements increased in the corpus cavernosum in the treated group.On electron microscopy,increased connective tissue,fibroblasts with notched nucleus,shorten immature collagen fibers without striation were seen.Abundant foldings and penetration with collagen bundles were observed in the basal membrane.Large connection complexes,especially gap junctions among the wide capillary endothelial cells were observed.Conclusion:There are evident histological changes due to sildenafil citrate in female rat corpus cavernosum.The clitoris and bartholin glands were the most effected organs.While the histopathological changes of clitoral tissue could be expected,and increase in the mass of bartholin gland was surprised.

  2. Olmesartan attenuates tacrolimus-induced biochemical and ultrastructural changes in rat kidney tissue. (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Nadeem, Ahmed; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Alabidy, Ali D; Almukhallafi, Ali F


    Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine) of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D.; Clayton, Fred C.; Florell, Scott R.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Campbell, Michael S.; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Leachman, Sancy A.


    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively. PMID:28170433

  4. Ultrastructural and Biochemical Evaluation of the Effect of Endosulfan on Mice Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Caglar


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of endosulfan on mice liver as ultrastructural together with biochemical data, and also by light microscopy to evaluate. Materials and Methods: 12 male albino mice weighing between 26-30g were used. Mice were divided into two equal groups. For group receiving endosulfan, endosulfan (13 mg/kg/day, body weight dissolved in nut oil was administered orally to mice via intragastric-during 10 days. The control group received only nut oil. At the end of the 10th day, all the mice were sacrificed with cervical dislocation. Tissue samples were taken for histological examination and biochemical analysis (SOD; superoxide dismutase, GSH; glutathione peroxidase, CAT; catalase, G6PD; glucose-6-phosphate dehidrogenase, MDA; malondialdehyde. Results: Disruption of inner membrane of mitochondria, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, the presence of large lipid droplets and vacuolar structures were observed in some hepatocytes. Prominent vacuolization was seen in light microscopic observation. There was an increment in activities of G6PD, SOD, GSH and MDA. However, there was a decrease in CAT activity. Conclusion: It may be considered that the adverse effect of endosulfan on mice liver may be due to direct toxic effect of endosulfan and induction of oxidative stress. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 274-284

  5. An ultrastructural study of the kidney of normal, copper poisoned and thiomolybdate-treated sheep. (United States)

    Gooneratne, S R; Howell, J M; Aughey, E


    Histological, ultrastructural and kidney function techniques were used to assess changes in the kidney of sheep given either copper (Cu) or Cu and the Cu complexing agent thiomolybdate (TM), or TM alone. Kidney function was normal in sheep given Cu and TM together or TM alone. In these animals the cells lining cortical tubules accumulated Cu within numerous, large, electron-dense lysosomes. Sheep given Cu alone developed haemolysis, impaired kidney function and a variety of morphological defects including an increase in number of large lysosomes in cells of the cortical tubules. There was a breakdown of the glomerular endothelial lining and fusion of foot processes. Cells of the cortical tubules showed degeneration and necrosis and an increase in microbodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cortical and medullary blood vessels were dilated, with evidence of breakdown of the endothelial lining. Copper appeared to injure kidney tissue at three sites, tubular epithelium, glomerular basal lamina and capillary blood vessels. Changes reported here are similar to the renal lesions in cadmium toxicity.

  6. Olmesartan Attenuates Tacrolimus-Induced Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Kidney Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif O. Al-Harbi


    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. The absence of correlations between a clinical classification and ultrastructural findings in amelogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckman, B.; Lundgren, T.; Engstroem, E.U.; Falk, L.K.L.; Chabala, J.M.; Levi-Setti, R.; Noren, J.G. (Dept. of Pedodontics, Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden))


    This study was performed to examine whether a clinical classification of different phenotypes of amelogenesis imperfecta could be discernible at the ultrastructural level. 17 primary teeth from 16 children with hypomineralization, hypomaturation, or hypoplastic variants of the disease were collected for histologic studies of the enamel by means of polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Polarization microscopy showed that the enamel was hypomineralized; in 6 teeth a wavy configuration of the enamel prisms also appeared. Three histomorphologic main types could be discerned. In 10 of the teeth extensive hypermineralization of the bulk of the enamel was found. 1 tooth had an unusually tick enamel with only a thin normally mineralized surface layer. SIMS images showed less pronounced signals from Ca[sup 2+] and Na[sup +], but with stronger signals from Cl[sup -] and CN[sup -], representing the organic component of enamel. The SEM images showed an irregular prism pattern with marked interprismatic areas. Irrespective of the clinical appearance or the herediatary pattern the main findings were hypomineralized enamel with or without wavy bands. Neither of the analytical methods used in this paper distinguishes between the clinical phenotypes of amelogenesis imperfecta. 35 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Ankle arthritis predicts polyarticular disease course and unfavourable outcome in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjörnsson, Anna-Clara; Aalto, Kristiina; Broström, Eva W;


    the first eight years of disease. Ankle arthritis was least common in the persistent oligoarticular category (25%) and most common in children with extended oligoarticular (83%) and polyarticular RF-negative (85%) JIA. Children who developed ankle arthritis during the first year of disease were younger......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors associated with ankle arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: 440 children with JIA were followed for eight years in a prospective Nordic population-based cohort study. Data...... on remission was available for 427 of these children. Occurrence of clinically assessed ankle arthritis was analysed in relation to JIA category, clinical characteristics and remission data eight years after disease onset. RESULTS: In 440 children with JIA, 251 (57%) experienced ankle arthritis during...

  9. Cutaneous necrobiotic conditions associated with rheumatoid arthritis: important extra-articular involvement. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presents with various skin conditions as extra-articular manifestations. Rheumatoid nodule is the representative specific skin lesion, histologically exhibiting central necrosis (necrobiosis) surrounded by palisaded macrophages, and being further perivascularly infiltrated with inflammatory cells in the outer regions. Also, there are several skin lesions which histologically show necrobiotic conditions with altered connective tissue degeneration. Necrobiosis may be closely associated with the pathogenesis of RA, i.e., collagen degeneration, recruitment of activated neutrophils, production of various cytokines, and vascular injury. On the other hand, rheumatoid nodule is suggested to develop during therapies with certain drugs such as methotrexate and biologics. These findings may be a clue to understanding the pathomechanisms of rheumatoid nodules. This paper describes several necrobiotic conditions associated with RA, and also discusses the possible pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of rheumatoid nodules. Necrobiosis is the major pathologic condition of cutaneous involvement associated with RA.

  10. New Colors for Histology: Optimized Bivariate Color Maps Increase Perceptual Contrast in Histological Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Nikolas Kather

    Full Text Available Accurate evaluation of immunostained histological images is required for reproducible research in many different areas and forms the basis of many clinical decisions. The quality and efficiency of histopathological evaluation is limited by the information content of a histological image, which is primarily encoded as perceivable contrast differences between objects in the image. However, the colors of chromogen and counterstain used for histological samples are not always optimally distinguishable, even under optimal conditions.In this study, we present a method to extract the bivariate color map inherent in a given histological image and to retrospectively optimize this color map. We use a novel, unsupervised approach based on color deconvolution and principal component analysis to show that the commonly used blue and brown color hues in Hematoxylin-3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB images are poorly suited for human observers. We then demonstrate that it is possible to construct improved color maps according to objective criteria and that these color maps can be used to digitally re-stain histological images.To validate whether this procedure improves distinguishability of objects and background in histological images, we re-stain phantom images and N = 596 large histological images of immunostained samples of human solid tumors. We show that perceptual contrast is improved by a factor of 2.56 in phantom images and up to a factor of 2.17 in sets of histological tumor images.Thus, we provide an objective and reliable approach to measure object distinguishability in a given histological image and to maximize visual information available to a human observer. This method could easily be incorporated in digital pathology image viewing systems to improve accuracy and efficiency in research and diagnostics.

  11. Complementary medicine in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Atzeni


    Full Text Available Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for chronic conditions has increased in recent years. CAM is immensely popular for musculoskeletal conditions and patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA frequently try CAM. This review summarises the trial data for or against CAM as a symptomatic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Collectively the evidence demonstrates that some CAM modalities show significant promise, e.g. acupuncture, diets, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, massage, supplements. However, for the great majority of these therapies no evidencebased (clinical randomized trials results are available. CAM is usually used in addition to, and not as a substitute for conventional therapies. The motivation of patients to try CAM is complex; the willingness to take control of their healthcare, the desire to try everything available, the mass-media pressure and the erroneous notion that CAM is without risks. In fact, none of these treatments is totally devoid of risks. While the use of complementary and alternative modalities for the treatment of RA continues to increase, rigorous clinical trials examining their efficacy are needed before definitive recommendations regarding the application of these modalities can be made.

  12. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida


    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5-1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000-157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  13. Chronic Lyme disease arthritis: review of the literature and report of a case of wrist arthritis. (United States)

    Scerpella, T A; Engber, W D


    A case of Lyme arthritis with advanced degenerative changes localized to the midcarpal joint was treated with a limited wrist arthrodesis with relief of pain and improved function. Chronic Lyme arthritis occurs as the third stage of Lyme disease. Serologic testing and a history of a characteristic rash may be helpful in the diagnosis. Radiographic and histopathologic findings are nonspecific, with both degenerative and inflammatory characteristics. Intravenous antibiotics provide an effective treatment of chronic Lyme arthritis.

  14. Chronic joint symptoms and prior arthritis diagnosis in community surveys: implications for arthritis prevalence estimates.


    Feinglass, Joe; Nelson, Cynthia; Lawther, Timothy; Chang, Rowland W.


    OBJECTIVES: Alternative definitions of arthritis in community surveys provide very different estimates of arthritis prevalence among older Americans. This telephone interview study examines prevalence estimates based on the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) arthritis case definition. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 851 Chicago residents age 45 and older. Logistic regression was used to compare the age and sex controlled prevalence of poor health, restricted ac...

  15. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt


    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...

  16. Fungal arthritis of the wrist caused by Candida parapsilosis during infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Miura, Toshiki; Morita, Euan; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae


    A 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who had been treated with infliximab, presented with uncontrollable wrist arthritis. Fungal arthritis caused by Candida parapsilosis was confirmed by examining her aspirated joint fluid. Her infliximab therapy was interrupted, and antifungal therapy with fluconazole was started. After the fungal infection had been ameliorated, surgical debridement and arthrodesis of the wrist joint were conducted, and her symptoms completely resolved. Although fungal arthritis is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis of exacerbated monoarthritis in patients treated with biological agents.

  17. Rapidly progressing polyarticular septic arthritis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Sandeep; LeBel, Marie-Eve


    Septic arthritis is an orthopedic emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Polyarticular involvement is a relatively rare phenomenon occurring primarily in high-risk patients. In this article, we report the rare case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with an acute episode of septic arthritis involving most of the joints of the body. Surprisingly, his bilateral total hip arthroplasties were completely unaffected. Unusual polyarticular presentations of septic arthritis, though rare, must still be considered within the differential diagnosis by all healthcare providers when treating certain high-risk groups.

  18. A Comparative Metabolomic Evaluation of Behcet's Disease with Arthritis and Seronegative Arthritis Using Synovial Fluid. (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Hwang, Jiwon; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk


    Behcet's disease (BD) with arthritis is often confused with seronegative arthritis (SNA) because of shared clinical symptoms and the lack of definitive biomarkers for BD. To investigate possible metabolic patterns and potential biomarkers of BD with arthritis, metabolomic profiling of synovial fluid (SF) from 6 patients with BD with arthritis and 18 patients with SNA was performed using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 123 metabolites were identified from samples. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis showed clear discrimination between BD with arthritis and SNA. A set of 11 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers for BD using variable importance for projection values and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Compared with SNA, BD with arthritis exhibited relatively high levels of glutamate, valine, citramalate, leucine, methionine sulfoxide, glycerate, phosphate, lysine, isoleucine, urea, and citrulline. There were two markers identified, elevated methionine sulfoxide and citrulline, that were associated with increased oxidative stress, providing a potential link to BD-associated neutrophil hyperactivity. Glutamate, citramalate, and valine were selected and validated as putative biomarkers for BD with arthritis (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 61.1%). This is the first report to present potential biomarkers from SF for discriminating BD with arthritis from SNA. The metabolomics of SF may be helpful in searching for potential biomarkers and elucidating the clinicopathogenesis of BD with arthritis.

  19. 78 FR 36305 - Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune... Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis) and Dysbaric... inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Disability...

  20. 78 FR 65450 - Agency Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune... (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis...-Degenerative Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis) and...

  1. Ultra-estrutura dos mastócitos de diferentes tipos histológicos de mastocitoma em cães Mast cell ultrastructure in different types of canine mast cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.R. Sueiro


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as diferenças ultraestruturais de mastócitos neoplásicos de diferentes tipos histológicos de mastocitoma em cães, usando microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Os resultados mostraram que o núcleo e os grânulos citoplasmáticos são as estruturas mais indicadas para se avaliar o grau de anaplasia celular e o estádio de indiferenciação do tumor.The objective of this work was study the ultrastructural differences among the different histologic types of mast cell tumors in dogs collected in vivo. The ultrastructural analyses showed that the nuclei and cytoplasmic granules characteristics are the best structures to be appointed on evaluating the undifferentiation stage of this tumor.

  2. B-cell depletion inhibits arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, but does not adversely affect humoral responses in a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. (United States)

    Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Hancock, Gerald E; Kunz, Arthur; Hegen, Martin; Zhou, Xiaochuan X; Sheppard, Barbara J; Lamothe, Jennifer; Li, Evelyn; Ma, Hak-Ling; Hamann, Philip R; Damle, Nitin K; Collins, Mary


    We report the development of a mouse B cell-depleting immunoconjugate (anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody [mAb] conjugated to calicheamicin) and its in vivo use to characterize the kinetics of CD22+ B-cell depletion and reconstitution in murine primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. The effect of B-cell depletion was further studied in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination model. Our results show that (1) the immunoconjugate has B-cell-specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity; (2) B-cell reconstitution starts in the bone marrow and spleen around day 30 after depletion and is completed in all tissues tested by day 50; (3) B-cell depletion inhibits the development of clinical and histologic arthritis in the CIA model; (4) depletion of type II collagen antibody levels is not necessary for clinical and histologic prevention of CIA; and (5) B-cell depletion does not adversely affect memory antibody responses after challenge nor clearance of infectious virus from lungs in the RSV vaccination model. These results demonstrate for the first time that only B-cell reduction but not type II collagen antibody levels correlate with the prevention of arthritis and represent key insights into the role of CD22-targeted B-cell depletion in mouse autoimmunity and vaccination models.

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase, a key contributor in the pathogenesis of experimental periodontal disease and experimental arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Gully

    Full Text Available To investigate the suggested role of Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD in the relationship between the aetiology of periodontal disease and experimentally induced arthritis and the possible association between these two conditions.A genetically modified PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis W50 was produced. The effect of this strain, compared to the wild type, in an established murine model for experimental periodontitis and experimental arthritis was assessed. Experimental periodontitis was induced following oral inoculation with the PAD-deficient and wild type strains of P. gingivalis. Experimental arthritis was induced via the collagen antibody induction process and was monitored by assessment of paw swelling and micro-CT analysis of the radio-carpal joints. Experimental periodontitis was monitored by micro CT scans of the mandible and histological assessment of the periodontal tissues around the mandibular molars. Serum levels of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA and P. gingivalis were assessed by ELISA.The development of experimental periodontitis was significantly reduced in the presence of the PAD-deficient P. gingivalis strain. When experimental arthritis was induced in the presence of the PAD-deficient strain there was less paw swelling, less erosive bone damage to the joints and reduced serum ACPA levels when compared to the wild type P. gingivalis inoculated group.This study has demonstrated that a PAD-deficient strain of P. gingivalis was associated with significantly reduced periodontal inflammation. In addition the extent of experimental arthritis was significantly reduced in animals exposed to prior induction of periodontal disease through oral inoculation of the PAD-deficient strain versus the wild type. This adds further evidence to the potential role for P. gingivalis and its PAD in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and exacerbation of arthritis. Further studies are now needed to elucidate the

  4. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery (United States)

    ... Matters NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team ... may play a role in triggering the disease. Genetic factors are also thought to play a role. ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes


    Full Text Available Objective: to elucidate the role of peripheral arthritis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS and its impact on therapy choice in daily practice of rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 330 consecutive patients with AS referred to rheumatologists during 4 months in 24 cities and towns of the Russian Federation. A specially designed clinical schedule was filled out for all the patients. Results. Peripheral arthritis was present in 47% of patients, including in 17 and 46% who had upper and lower limb joint involvement, respectively. Patients with peripheral arthritis had higher ESR, BASDAI and ASDAS-ESR levels. They were also found to have more marked functional disorders than the patients with its isolated axial variant. The clinical signs of hip joint involvement were detected in 56% of the patients and they were bilateral in 43%. In the rheumatologists' opinion, 24 (8% needed total hip joint replacement. Conclusion. Peripheral arthritis aggravates AS.

  6. Management of melioidosis osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. (United States)

    Shetty, R P; Mathew, M; Smith, J; Morse, L P; Mehta, J A; Currie, B J


    Little information is available about several important aspects of the treatment of melioidosis osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. We undertook a retrospective review of 50 patients with these conditions in an attempt to determine the effect of location of the disease, type of surgical intervention and duration of antibiotic treatment on outcome, particularly complications and relapse. We found that there was a 27.5% risk of osteomyelitis of the adjacent bone in patients with septic arthritis in the lower limb. Patients with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of an adjacent bone were in hospital significantly longer (p = 0.001), needed more operations (p = 0.031) and had a significantly higher rate of complications and re-presentation (p = 0.048). More than half the patients (61%), most particularly those with multifocal bone and joint involvement, and those with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of an adjacent bone who were treated operatively, needed more visits to theatre.

  7. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;


    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  8. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Feng He


    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  9. Visualisation of subchondral erosion in rat monoarticular arthritis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, T.A. [Herchel Smith Lab. for Medicinal Chemistry, Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Everett, J.R. [Herchel Smith Lab. for Medicinal Chemistry, Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Hall, L.D. [SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Betchworth (United Kingdom); Harper, G.P. [Herchel Smith Lab. for Medicinal Chemistry, Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Hodgson, R.J. [SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Harlow (United Kingdom); James, M.F. [SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Harlow (United Kingdom)


    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate antigen-induced monoarticular arthritis (AIMA) in the rat. In sagittal, spin-echo images of the knee, characteristic parallel bands, in the order dark-light-dark, were consistently observed 5-8 days after arthritis induction; the bands ran concentric with, and just beneath, the femoral and tibial articular surfaces. Concurrent radiology, histology and MRI (chemical shift-selective imaging and contrast enhancement with magnetisation transfer and gadolinium) established that the phenomenon reflected subchondral erosion, not artefact. The outer hypointense band corresponded to calcified cartilage underlying the articular surface. The central hyperintense band reflected inflammatory matrix displacing normal haematopoietic tissue immediately subchondrally; here, trabecular bone had mostly disappeared, but adjacent articular cartilage, although under attack and lacking proteoglycan, appeared structurally normal. The inner hypointense band reflected deeper, truncated trabeculae within inflammatory matrix, layered with pallisading osteoblast-like cells. This study exemplifies the power of MRI for revealing localised joint pathology non-invasively, and shows that rat AIMA shares many pathological features with arthritis in human beings. (orig.)

  10. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  11. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan


    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  12. Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0408 5c... pathogenesis of RA that can ultimately be targeted to prevent RA. This project has proposed to use a unique set of serum samples and clinical data

  13. ▼ Apremilast for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. (United States)


    ▼ Apremilast (Otezla - Celgene Europe Ltd.) is a novel orally administered immunomodulatory medicine licensed for the treatment of plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. The company suggests that it has demonstrated proven and durable efficacy in both conditions and has a favourable safety profile with no requirement for drug-specific pre-screening or ongoing laboratory monitoring. Here we review the evidence on the safety and efficacy of apremilast in the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

  14. Clinical management of septic arthritis in cattle. (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Francoz, David


    Synovial fluid, ultrasound, and radiographic imaging are common diagnostic tools for septic arthritis. Mycoplasma septic arthritis is suspected in calves with clinical signs of otitis and pneumonia. Commonly affected joints are carpus, stifle, and tarsus. Treatment strategy must include long-term antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, and joint lavage. Knowledge of communication and boundaries for commonly affected joints is essential to perform joint lavage and arthrotomy.

  15. Innovative medicines for treatment of psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitan A.l.


    Full Text Available The problem of effective treatment of psoriatic arthritis has not been solved yet. The search for new therapeutic options is very active in many directions. At the stage of clinical trials are drugs that block interleukin-17-a (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab, drugs that suppress interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 (ustekinumab. To modern means to ensure psoriatic arthritis include drugs that are inhibitors of small molecules orkinase pathways (apremilast, tofacitinib.

  16. [Septic arthritis of thoracic facet joint]. (United States)

    Ben Abdelghani, K; Gérard-Dran, D; Combe, B


    Septic arthritis of the facet joint is a rare condition. We report a case of septic arthritis of both a thoracic facet joint and a wrist. Clinical manifestations were consistent with a spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated infection of facet joints of T1 and T2. A surgical biopsy of the wrist isolated a type B streptococcus. The same organism was found in urine culture. The patient had an uneventful recovery on antibiotics.

  17. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Liu; Kai-Jie Wang


    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of the intervention treatment with different doses ofCaptopril onTNF-αcontents in serum of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) rats, and to provide the theoretical proofs for clinical application ofCaptopril in treatments of rheumatoid diseases. Methods:FiftyWistar rats were randomly divided into5 groups, namely,GroupA,GroupB, GroupC,GroupD,GroupE with10 ratsin each group.Injection ofFreund’s complete adjuvant was employed to establish adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats.GroupA was model group; after model establishment, rats were treated with20 mL normal saline as placebo(ip.).Rats inGroupB were treated with8 mg/kg cyclophosphamide(ip.).Rats inGroupC,D andE were intraperitoneally injected with30 mg/kg,100 mg/kg and300 mg/kgCaptopril respectively.Rats in each group were subjected to continuous treatment for3 weeks, and then sacrificed.Eyeballs of rats were excised and blood was collected.TNF-αcontent in serum were detected usingELISA; each group rats were compared for the hind legs arthrocele.Right ankle tissues of rats were collected to prepare section, and microscopic observation of pathological changes was performed. Results:TNF-αcontent in serum ofGroupA rats was significantly higher than that of rats in other4 groups(P0.05).FromDay8, ankle arthrocele of rats inGroupsB,C,D andE was obviously relieved compared with that ofGroupA rats; the anti-inflammatory effects were gradually enhanced with the extension of medication time.Treatments ofGroupsC,D andE showed significant activities against tardive arthrocele; the degree of ankle arthrocele in rats of these three groups was lower than that ofGroupA rats(P<0.01).Histological observation showed that large amount of inflammatory cells and plasmocyte infiltration was found in ankle synovial tissues ofGroupA rats.Relief of hyperaemia and edema of right ankle synovial tissues as well as significant decrease in synoviocyte layer hyperplasia, intra-articular inflammatory

  18. Ultrastructural study of cutaneous lesions in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex. (United States)

    Bardagí, Mar; Fondati, Alessandra; Fondevila, Dolors; Ferrer, Lluís


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural appearance of flame figures, reported to comprise a mixture of degenerate collagen and degranulated eosinophils, in feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC). Skin specimens from eight cats with EGC and from two clinically healthy cats were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Flame figures appeared to comprise ultrastructurally normal collagen fibrils separated by oedema and surrounded by large numbers of degranulating eosinophils. Longitudinal sections of collagen fibrils displayed the characteristic cross-striation of normal dermal collagen. Feline eosinophils, analogous to human eosinophils, degranulated both by cytolysis and piecemeal degranulation. The results of this study suggest that flame figures form in feline EGC due to eosinophil recruitment and degranulation, and that collagen fibres are partially disrupted but collagen fibrils are not damaged. These findings suggest that eosinophil accumulation and the release of granule contents represent the primary events in feline EGC.

  19. Ultrastructural Study of Dermatic Tissues in Secondary Syphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 脱朝伟; 张庆瑞; 宋芳吉


    Objective: For the purpose of understanding the changing process of syphilis histomorphology and its injury mechanism,the ultrastructure of dermatic tissues of secondary syphilis was studied.Methods: Different skin injury tissues of secondary syphilis patients, whose serum RPR and TPHA tests in the lab both appeared positive reaction, were observed through transmission electron microscope (TEM).Results: Inflammations appeared on epidermides and coria,a great deal of neutrocytes, lymphocytes and a small amount of plasma infiltrated them. Karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis,epicyte lysis and mitochondrion vacular degeneration occurred. Spirocheta pallida was distributed on intercellular substances, epicytes and coilagenous fibers. The epicytes were pressed to foveation. Conclusion The pathological change of characteristic tissue ultrastructure reported here is a histomorphological foundation to study the organism injury mechanism caused by syphilis.

  20. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue. (United States)

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C


    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  1. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus. (United States)

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi


    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  2. Nanofiber of ultra-structured aluminum and zirconium oxide hybrid. (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Hyoun-Ee


    An internally ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid was developed into a nanofiber. As a precursor for the generation of nanofiber, a hybridized sol was prepared using the Pechini-type sol-gel process, whereby the Al- and Zr-metallic ions were to be efficiently distributed and stabilized within the polymeric network. The hybridized sol was subsequently electrospun and heat treated to a nanofiber with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The internal structure of the nanofiber was organized at the molecular level, with the Al- and Zr-oxide regions being interspaced at distances of less than ten nanometers. This ultrastructured Al- and Zr-oxide hybrid nanofiber is considered to be potentially applicable in numerous fields.

  3. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J


    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  4. Synovial histopathology of psoriatic arthritis, both oligo- and polyarticular, resembles spondyloarthropathy more than it does rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Kruithof, Elli; Baeten, Dominique; De Rycke, Leen; Vandooren, Bernard; Foell, Dirk; Roth, Johannes; Cañete, Juan D; Boots, Annemieke M; Veys, Eric M; De Keyser, Filip


    At present only few biological data are available to indicate whether psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is part of the spondyloarthropathy (SpA) concept, whether it is a separate disease entity or a heterogeneous disease group with oligoarticular/axial forms belonging to SpA and polyarticular forms resembling rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To address this issue with regard to peripheral synovitis, we compared the synovial characteristics of PsA with those of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)/undifferentiated SpA (USpA) and RA, and compared the synovium of oligoarticular versus polyarticular PsA. Synovial biopsies were obtained from patients with RA, nonpsoriatic SpA (AS + USpA), and oligoarticular and polyarticular PsA. The histological analysis included examination(s) of the lining layer thickness, vascularity, cellular infiltration, lymphoid aggregates, plasma cells and neutrophils. Also, we performed immunohistochemical assessments of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD38, CD138, CD68, CD163, CD83, CD1a, CD146, alphaVbeta3, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, S100A12, intracellular citrullinated proteins and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-human cartilage (HC) gp39 peptide complexes. Comparing SpA (PsA + AS + USpA) with RA, vascularity, and neutrophil and CD163+ macrophage counts were greater in SpA (P polyarticular PsA, no significant differences were noted. Moreover, intracellular citrullinated proteins and MHC-HC gp39 peptide complexes, which are specific markers for RA, were observed in neither oligoarticular nor polyarticular PsA. Taken together, these data indicate that the synovial histopathology of PsA, either oligoarticular or polyarticular, resembles that of other SpA subtypes, whereas both groups can be differentiated from RA on the basis of these same synovial features, suggesting that peripheral synovitis in PsA belongs to the SpA concept.

  5. Histological changes of kidney in diabetic nephropathy. (United States)

    Pourghasem, Mohsen; Shafi, Hamid; Babazadeh, Zahra


    Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic renal disorders and end-stage kidney disease in developed countries. It is the major cause of dialysis and transplantation. Failure in renal function causes wide disorders in the body. Diabetes results in wide range of alterations in the renal tissue. It is believed that early histological changes in diabetic nephropathy are detectable 2 years after diabetes is diagnosed. The glomerular alterations are the most important lesions in the diabetic nephropathy (DN). The Renal Pathology Society provides a new pathological classification for the detection of histopathology of DN. It divides diabetic nephropathy into four hierarchical glomerular lesions. Alloxan or streptozotocin induced diabetic rat is the one most widely used specie to study DN. Histological changes in the rat DN closely resemble the human disease and the most information of this review was obtained through the study of rat DN. All cell types of the kidney such as mesangial cells, podocytes and tubulointerstitial cells are liable to be affected in the event of DN. Severity of renal lesions is associated to the clinical aspect of renal outcome, but the aim of this article was only to review the histological changes of kidney in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease.

  7. Treatment of acute septic arthritis. (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Peltola, Heikki


    Acute septic arthritis is a rare, but potentially devastating disease. The treatment is initiated intravenously, but can be safely switched to oral after 2-4 days providing large doses of a well-absorbing antibiotic and, for time-dependent antibiotics, 4 times-a-day administration are used. Empiric treatment should always cover Staphylococcus aureus and common respiratory pathogens, whereas Kingella kingae and Salmonella are important only regionally. Studies conducted by our group have shown that a total course of 10 days may suffice for previously healthy children in a Western setting. Treatment of neonates, patients with immunodeficiency or cases caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus, may deserve a different approach.

  8. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  9. Collagen Biomarkers for Arthritis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Birmingham


    Full Text Available The most common form of chronic arthritis is osteoarthritis (OA with prevalence as high as 80% after age 75 (Arden and Nevitt, 2006. The incidence of OA is expected to increase as the population ages, increasing the socioeconomic burden of OA. Despite the signifi cant burden of this disease, no drug has been identifi ed that can effectively modify disease progression (Moskowitz and Hooper, 2005; Abadie et al. 2004. However, slowing disease progress and improvement in quality of life may be achieved by behavioral modifi cations, such as weight loss and exercise. Many patients with early OA will progress to disability and joint replacement. Physical examination and radiographic studies are relatively poor means for detecting disease early or predicting progression. Therefore, identifi cation of factors to facilitate early OA diagnosis and prognosis is a major focus of current OA research (Lohmander and Felson, 2004; Lohmander, 2004; Garnero and Delmas, 2003.

  10. Nail abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Michel, C; Cribier, B; Sibilia, J; Kuntz, J L; Grosshans, E


    Many nail abnormalities have traditionally been described in association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their specificity has never been assessed in a controlled study. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and the specificity of nail changes associated with RA in a case-controlled study including 50 patients suffering from RA and 50 controls. For each patient, a general skin examination was performed and the 20 nails were examined. The nail features were noted and classified. A chi 2 test or a Fisher test was used to compare the two groups. The only nail abnormalities significantly associated with RA were longitudinal ridging on nine or 10 finger nails (29 patients in the RA group vs. three in the controls, chi 2: P nail (24 patients vs. 10, chi 2: P nail changes were noticed but were not frequent enough to be significant. The presence of longitudinal ridging on the finger nails was significantly associated with RA.

  11. [Team management of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Vittecoq, O


    The main objectives of team management of rheumatoid arthritis are to stop structural damage of joints and to reduce functional, psychological, socioprofessional and economic consequences. Team management requires the collaboration, around the patient, of a rheumatologist, a nurse, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, an occupational therapist, an orthopaedic surgeon at the same time, in the same place. More and more patients wish to manage their disease by themselves. Team care should not be proposed to every patient; it must be reserved to patients whose condition required such an approach because of the severity of the disease, comorbidity, psychological or socioprofessionnal difficulties. Team management should be personalized. Utility of team management is now accepted; out-patient administration is as effective as in-patient one. A good educational program is very important. However, search is still needed to define optimal modalities of team management and tools to measure the efficiency of this approach.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Sodhi


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease.

  13. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis]. (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P


    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: how can the radiologist help the clinician?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, E.M. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Radiology Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    The classification of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) is based on clinical criteria and includes: 1. Systemic arthritis 2. Oligoarthritis 3. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor positive 4. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor negative 5. Enthesitis-related arthritis 6. Psoriatic arthritis 7. Undifferentiated arthritis. Systematic arthritis is different from the other arthritides. It is associated with fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. The arthritis is polyarticular and symmetrical. The enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes may be detected and followed clinically and, more accurately, with the help of cross-sectional imaging modality such as US or MRI. CT should be avoided in children because of the ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  15. Childhood Arthritis: Rate of Different Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karambin Mohammad Mehdi


    Full Text Available To determine the rate of different types of arthritis in children. We prepared a retrospective descriptive study and included the whole 100 cases of arthritis referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan during a 3 years period. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, season of admission, history of trauma, signs and symptoms, lab findings and duration of hospitalization were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. The most common age of involvement ranged 6-9 years. Septic arthritis, brucellosis, and rheumatoid fever were the most frequent causes of arthritis in our study. Fever and restricted range of motion had the highest rate among different signs and symptoms. Lab data demonstrated leukocytosis, positive CRP, and increased ESR among 74, 79.5, and 73 percent of our patients, respectively. According to the high prevalence of septic arthritis and the arthritis due to brucellosis and rheumatoid fever, it seems that mentioned diseases are still major problems in the issue of hygiene management.

  16. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L


    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  17. Considerations on the ultrastructural particularities of the dental pulp cells. (United States)

    Manolea, H; Deva, V; Bogdan, Fl; Moraru, Iren; Pancă, Oana-Adina; Caraivan, O


    We realized an ultrastructural study of the cells of the dental pulp, having in view their particularities relative to other types of conjunctive tissue. For this purpose, we selected five cases represented by teeth without subjective or objective symptomatology. Within the paper there are exposed the morphological aspects observed by means of electron microscopy. The results are then discussed in relation with a series of observations made by other researchers regarding the particularities of the pulp cells structures.

  18. Cellulose Isolation Methodology for NMR Analysis of Cellulose Ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art J. Ragauskas


    Full Text Available In order to obtain accurate information about the ultrastructure of cellulose from native biomass by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy the cellulose component must be isolated due to overlapping resonances from both lignin and hemicellulose. Typically, cellulose isolation has been achieved via holocellulose pulping to remove lignin followed by an acid hydrolysis procedure to remove the hemicellulose components. Using 13C CP/MAS NMR and non-linear line-fitting of the cellulose C4 region, it was observed that the standard acid hydrolysis procedure caused an apparent increase in crystallinity of ~10% or less on the cellulose isolated from Populus holocellulose. We have examined the effect of the cellulose isolation method, particularly the acid treatment time for hemicellulose removal, on cellulose ultrastructural characteristics by studying these effects on cotton, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and holocellulose pulped Populus. 13C CP/MAS NMR of MCC indicated that holocellulose pulping and acid hydrolysis has little effect on the crystalline ultrastructural components of cellulose. Although any chemical method to isolate cellulose from native biomass will invariably alter substrate characteristics, especially those related to regions accessible to solvents, we found those changes to be minimal and consistent in samples of typical crystallinity and lignin/hemicellulose content. Based on the rate of the hemicellulose removal, as determined by HPLC-carbohydrate analysis and magnitude of cellulose ultrastructural alteration, the most suitable cellulose isolation methodology utilizes a treatment of 2.5 M HCl at 100 °C for a standard residence time between 1.5 and 4 h. However, for the most accurate crystallinity results this residence time should be determined empirically for a particular sample.

  19. Ultrastructure of the internodal myocardium in the rat.


    Ayettey, A S; Navaratnam, V; Yates, R D


    Ultrastructural studies of the rat atrial myocardium reveal that the specialised myocardial cells can be distinguished from the usual atrial myocytes by their lack of specific atrial granules. On the basis of this distinction it has been shown that there is interposition of atrial myocardial tissue in the pathway between the two nodes and that there are no morphologically specialised internodal pathways. The atrial myocardial cells themselves exhibit variations in their content of cytoplasmic...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy Ahmed Fetouh


    Full Text Available Background: Nephrotoxicity is a relatively common problem in patients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine A (CsA with an incidence reaching up to thirty percent. The present work aimed to study the histological and ultrastructural effects of CsA on the kidney of rabbit. Materials and Methods: Two groups of Egyptian adult rabbits were used for this study (5 rabbits for each. One group was used as a control and the other group (experimental was treated with CsA in a dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight for two weeks. The animals were anaesthetized; and kidney specimens were obtained, fixed and processed for light and electron microscopic examinations. Results: CsA had adverse effects on the kidney especially renal corpuscles, proximal convoluted tubules, distal convoluted tubules and afferent glomerular arterioles. The renal corpuscles were observed with shrunken glomeruli, widening of Bowmanʼs space and thickening of the Bowmanʼs capsule. Also, there was obvious increase in mesangial cell number and overall glomerular obliteration due to large lining endothelial cells and encroachment of the mesangial cell matrix onto the capillary lumen. The renal tubules showed vacuolization and PAS positive inclusion bodies. The cells showed disordered brush border of microvilli. Many fibrocytes appeared inbetween the tubules. Peritubular capillary congestion was observed with an increase in the surrounding connective tissue. Ultrastructurally, the proximal convoluted tubules showed thick basement membrane with loss of the basal infolding. The mitochondria appeared degenerated with damaged transverse cristae. Electron dense lysosomes were seen in the cytoplasm. In distal convoluted tubules, the cells showed degenerated mitochondria and pyknotic nuclei. The afferent glomerular arterioles appeared with hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular cells that contained massive renin granules. The lining endothelial cells appeared protruding their nuclei into the lumen due to

  1. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on the Ultrastructure of Glioma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To study the change in ultrastructure of C6 glioma cells after photodynamic therapy (PDT), to compare morphological differences in necrosis and apoptosis before and after PDT treatment, and to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy on the blood brain tumor barrier (BTB) of C6 glioma. Methods The model was produced by transplanting C6 glioma cells cultured in vitro using Peterson method into the caudate nuclei of Wister rats. The experiment group received PDT for two weeks after the operation. The sub-cellular structure, blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and BTB in both groups were observed under electron microscope. Results Apoptosis in different phases and necrosis could be observed in some C6 glioma cells.Swelling occurred on the ultrastructure of cellular organs such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in most of the cells.Damage to the BTB, reduction of the number of cellular organs in endothelial cells of the capillary blood vessels, stretch of the tight junction, and enlargement of the gaps between endothelial cells were also seen in the experiment group. Meanwhile,limited impact on the normal sub-cellular structures and BBB was observed. Conclusion PDT could induce apoptosis and necrosis of C6 glioma cells due to the damage to the ultrastructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The weakened function of C6 glioma BTB initiated by PDT makes it possible to perform a combined therapy of PDT and chemotherapy for glioma.

  2. Effects of Cryopreservation on the Ultrastructure of Human Testicular Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate effects of cryopreservation on changes of the ultrastructure of human testicular sperm and evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserving testicular tissue as a source of sperm for assisted reproduction.Methods Testicular biopsy tissues were obtained from infertile patients (n=12) with obstructive azoospermia and cryopreserved. Testicular sperm motility was observed after in vitro culture procedure. The ultrastructure of testicular sperm (n=6) was examined by transmission electron microscope.Results After cryopreservation, 10 biopsy tissues frozen revealed motile sperm, and 2samples showed non-motile sperm. Some testicular sperm in frozen-thawed group had normal morphology in fine structures. Sperm head in frozen-thawed tissue showed a proportion of nuclei with more electron-dense granules of chromatin. In a few frozen-thawed sperm heads, formation of vesicles and degeneration were observed.The frozen-thawed testicular sperm frequently showed swollen or/and ruptured of the plasma membrane and acrosome membranes.Conclusion Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is simple and efficacious for testicular sperm extraction. And the freezing-thawing procedure of testicular tissue causes damage to ultrastructural morphology of human testicular sperm.

  3. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author).

  4. Seeding specificity and ultrastructural characteristics of infectious recombinant prions. (United States)

    Piro, Justin R; Wang, Fei; Walsh, Daniel J; Rees, Judy R; Ma, Jiyan; Supattapone, Surachai


    Infectious mouse prions can be produced from a mixture of bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein (recPrP), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), and RNA [Wang, F.; et al. (2010) Science 327, 1132]. In contrast, amyloid fibers produced from pure recPrP without POPG or RNA (recPrP fibers) fail to infect wild type mice [Colby, D.W.; et al. (2010) PLoS Pathog. 387, e1000736]. We compared the seeding specificity and ultrastructural features of infectious recombinant prions (recPrP(Sc)) with those of recPrP fibers. Our results indicate that PrP fibers are not able to induce the formation of PrP(Sc) molecules from wild type mouse brain homogenate substrate in serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) reactions. Conversely, recPrP(Sc) molecules did not accelerate the formation of amyloid in vitro, under conditions that produce recPrP fibers spontaneously. Ultrastructurally, recombinant prions appear to be small spherical aggregates rather than elongated fibers, as determined by atomic force and electron microscopy. Taken together, our results show that recPrP(Sc) molecules and PrP fibers have different ultrastructural features and seeding specificities, suggesting that prion infectivity may be propagated by a specific and unique assembly pathway facilitated by cofactors.

  5. Ultrastructural Alterations in the Epidermis of Patients with Tinea Pedis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdagül Canberk


    Full Text Available Objective: Tinea pedis is the most common superficial fungal infection of the foot. Although light microscopic characteristics of tinea pedis have already been described and are well known, electron microscopic data is still lacking. In this study, we aimed to examine the ultrastructural changes in the epidermis of patients diagnosed with tinea pedis.Material and Methods: Biopsies were taken from the lesions between the toes of patients with untreated tinea pedis and from healthy volunteers with no fungal infections. The materials obtained were prepared for electron microscopy and examined by transmission electron microscope.Results: The ultrastructural examination revealed the following changes: (1 Disturbances in the form and organization of keratinocytes; (2 Irregular distribution and interlacing of tonofilament bundles in keratinocytes; (3 Disruption of desmosomes and detachment of adjoining keratinocytes; (4 Excessive widening of intercellular spaces between keratinocytes; (5 Dilatation of intercellular spaces between basal cells; (6 Degranulation of melanocytes in the stratum basale; (7 Migration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes between keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum; (8 Degradation of basal lamina; (9 Pericapillary edema in the apillary dermis. Conclusion: The ultrastructural findings in tinea pedis are described and related to the clinical symptoms and histopathologic features of the disease.

  6. New research progress on the ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen Ju; Xiaoshi Li


    The structure of tectonically deformed coals shows some characteristics and regulations on the ultra-scale when influenced by different factors such as temperature, pressure and directional stress. Deformations of the macromolecular structure may induce changes in the nano-scale pore structure, which are very important for gas adsorption and pervasion. The geological impact of different mechanisms of deformation on different types of ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals is not only of significance as a topic for scientific research, but also in studying environments of metamorphism-deformation at differing metamorphic stages. This research is also very important in studying the accumulation and occurrence conditions of coalbed methane gas, mechanisms of coal and gas outbursts, predictions of coalbed methane resources and dangers of coal and gas outbursts. This paper analyzes current research, within China and other coun-tries, in the ultrastructure of tectonically deformed coals. The research includes (1) structural models of tectonically deformed coals; (2) the relationship between ultrastructure and stress; (3) the structure of tectonically deformed coals and its strain environment. These results are also based on our own experiments including vitirnite reflectance (R_(o,max)), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nuclear magnetic res-onance (NMR (CP/MAS+TOSS)). We discuss the important effects of the structure of tectonically deformed coals and their physical properties, and then point out some problems concerning the research progress of tectonically deformed coals.

  7. Effects of ouabain on ultrastructure and function in rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xing; GUO Ning; REN Yan-ping; Lü Zhuo-ren


    Objective:To investigate the ouabain's effects on the ultrastructure and function of the rat heart. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with ouabain and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded weekly. After 4 weeks, echocardiography was performed, hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization and hanges in heart ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Results :After treated by ouabain for 4 weeks, there were no significant differences in the mean SBP of the two groups. However, cardiac systolic and diastolic performances were both worsened with ouabain treatment by echocardiography, left ventricular chamber diameters and wall thickness were significantly increased in the rats of ouabain group. Invasive monitoring indicated that left ventricular systolic pressures (LVSP), rate of pressure development (+dp/dt) and rate of pressure decay (-dp/dt) were significantly attenuated and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures (LVEDP) were increased in ouabain group (P<0. 05). Disorganization of myofilaments, mitochondrial swelling, disruption and vacuolation, hyperplastic collagen fibers were found in ouabain group by transmission electron microscopy. Conclusion:It is suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac ultrastructure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure, which indicates that ouabain might damage rat heart independent of blood pressure.

  8. Bilateral Cricoarytenoid Arthritis: A Cause of Recurrent Upper Airway Obstruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis


    Pradhan, Pradeep; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Venkatachalam, VP


    We report a case of bilateral cricoarytenoid joint arthritis with history of rheumatoid arthritis, presented with stridor to the outpatient department. Endolaryngoscopy revealed adducted vocal cords and a nodule over left arytenoid which later confirmed to be rheumatoid nodule on histopathologic examination. Initially, although patient responded well to medical treatment, recurrence was noticed after 6 months follow-up.

  9. Why golimumab in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rossini


    Full Text Available Golimumab is an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody administred subcutaneously once a month and produced with an innovative technology that minimizes immunogenicity. This paper reviews and updates the main studies on the efficacy, safety and pharmacoeconomic aspects of treatment with golimumab of psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Comprehensive assessment of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in a large psoriatic arthritis cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bowes, John


    A number of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility genes have been identified in recent years. Given the overlap in phenotypic expression of synovial joint inflammation between RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the authors explored whether RA susceptibility genes are also associated with PsA.

  11. Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus. (United States)

    Sever, David M; Freeborn, Layla R


    The anterior testicular ducts of squamates transport sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens. These ducts consist of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. Many histological and a few ultrastructural studies of the squamate reproductive tract exist, but none concern the Hydrophiidae, the sea snakes and sea kraits. In this study, we describe the anterior testicular ducts of six species of hydrophiid snakes as well as representatives from the Elapidae, Homolapsidae, Leptotyphlopidae, and Uropeltidae. In addition, we examine the ultrastructure of these ducts in the yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in histology in all species examined. The rete testis is simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium and transports sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductuli efferentes in the extratesticular epididymal sheath. The ductuli efferentes are branched, convoluted tubules composed of simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and many species possess periodic acid-Schiff+ granules in the cytoplasm. The ductus epididymis at the light microscopy level appears composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. At the ultrastructural level, the rete testis and ductuli efferentes of P. platurus possess numerous small coated vesicles and lack secretory vacuoles. Apocrine blebs in the ductuli efferentes, however, indicate secretory activity, possibly by a constitutive pathway. Ultrastructure reveals three types of cells in the ductus epididymis of P. platurus: columnar principal cells, squamous basal cells, and mitochondria-rich apical cells. This is the first report of apical cells in a snake. In addition, occasional principal cells possess a single cilium, which has not been reported in reptiles previously but is known in some birds. Finally, the ductus epididymis of P. platurus differs from other snakes that have been studied in possession of apical, biphasic

  12. Imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclastogenesis and joint destruction in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (United States)

    Ando, Wataru; Hashimoto, Jun; Nampei, Akihide; Tsuboi, Hideki; Tateishi, Kosuke; Ono, Takeshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Ochi, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Hideki


    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a key factor for osteoclastogenesis at the bone-pannus interface in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as a receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Imatinib mesylate inhibits the phosphorylation of c-fms, a receptor for M-CSF. The present study investigates the effect of imatinib mesylate on joint destruction in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Imatinib mesylate (50 or 150 mg/kg), dexamethasone, or vehicle was administered daily to CIA rats for 4 weeks from the onset of arthritis. Hind-paw swelling and body weight were measured weekly. At weeks 2 and 4, the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints and the ankle and subtalar joints were radiographically and histologically assessed. The effect of imatinib mesylate on osteoclast formation from rat bone marrow cells with M-CSF and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in vitro was also examined. Radiographic assessment showed that 150 mg/kg imatinib mesylate suppressed the destruction of the MTP and the ankle and subtalar joints at week 2, and MTP joint destruction at week 4 in CIA rats, although hind-paw swelling was not suppressed. The number of TRAP-positive cells at the bone-pannus interface was significantly reduced in the group administered with 150 mg/kg imatinib mesylate compared with that given vehicle at week 4. Imatinib mesylate dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cells in vitro as well as osteoclast formation induced by M-CSF and sRANKL. These findings suggest that imatinib mesylate could prevent joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Coenzyme Q10 suppresses Th17 cells and osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates experimental autoimmune arthritis mice. (United States)

    Jhun, JooYeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Byun, Jae-Kyeong; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jennifer; Jung, Young-Ok; Shin, Dongyun; Park, Sung Hwan; Cho, Mi-La


    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant synthesized in human body. This enzyme promotes immune system function and can be used as a dietary supplement. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease leading to chronic joint inflammation. RA results in severe destruction of cartilage and disability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CoQ10 on inflammation and Th17 cell proliferation on an experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) mice model. CoQ10 or cotton seed oil as control was orally administrated once a day for seven weeks to mice with zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA). Histological analysis of the joints was conducted using immunohistochemistry. Germinal center (GC) B cells, Th17 cells and Treg cells of the spleen tissue were examined by confocal microscopy staining. mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR and protein levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometric analysis (FACS) was used to evaluate Th17 cells and Treg cells. CoQ10 mitigated the severity of ZIA and decreased serum immunoglobulin concentrations. CoQ10 also reduced RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, inflammatory mediators and oxidant factors. Th17/Treg axis was reciprocally controlled by CoQ10 treatment. Moreover, CoQ10 treatment on normal mouse and human cells cultured in Th17 conditions decreased the number of Th17 cells and enhanced the number of Treg cells. CoQ10 alleviates arthritis in mice with ZIA declining inflammation, Th17 cells and osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that CoQ10 can be a potential therapeutic substance for RA.

  14. Moraxella infectious arthritis: first report in an adult.


    Rosenbaum, J; Lieberman, D. H.; Katz, W A


    The first occurrence of septic arthritis due to moraxella in an adult is reported. The clinical presentation mimicked disseminated gonococcaemia with associated gonococcal arthritis except for an atypical rash. Diagnosis was made by culture.

  15. Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis? (United States)

    ... 162571.html Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis? Study may offer new insight into the cause ... the long-noticed connection between gum disease and rheumatoid arthritis, a new study suggests. The discovery might also ...

  16. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T;


    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  17. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;


    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  18. Risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar;


    To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke.......To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis have increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke....

  19. Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Just, Søren Andreas;

    Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287......Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287...

  20. What Are Osteoporosis and Arthritis and How Are They Different? (United States)

    ... Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Are Osteoporosis and Arthritis and How Are They Different? Fast ... and Arthritis Cope? What About Pain? What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that makes bones weak ...

  1. Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions (United States)

    ... your browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions Publication ... between these conditions. Osteoporosis Arthritis For Your Information Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Salugina


    Full Text Available A bstract. Objective, to describe a series of pts with JRA/JCA and uveitis. Material and methods. The study included 81 pts with JRA and uveitis. There were 68 girls-84%, 13 boys-16%. We studied the clinical manifestations, the antinuclear antibodies (ANA using HEP-2 cells for the 33 pts with uveitis and 46 pts without uveitis, HLA status was determined for 36 pts. Results. 85,2% of the children had arthritis before uveitis. The mean age at onset of arthritis was 3,5 year (range: 1-10 yrs, the mean age at onset of uveitis was 6 year (range: 2-15 yrs. The mean interval between the onset of arthritis and uveitis was 3,02 years (range: 3,5 yrs before arthritis onset to 12,5 yrs after. In 68,1% pts the diagnosis of uveitis was made within 5 yrs after onset of arthritis. 93% of pts had mono-oligoarticular onset, but 50% had poliarticular course. 23,5% of pts had functional disability 3-4 classes. Ocular complications were developed in 53.1%: cataracts-38,3%, band keratopathy-11,1%, glaucoma-2,5%. 93,9% of 33 studied children with arthritis and uveitis were ANA positive, 9,1% were RF positive. 18,1 % had HLA-DR8 (p<0,001, 83,3% - HLA-A2 (p<0,00l, HLA-B27 - 30,6 % (p<0,00l. Conclusion. Clinical and laboratory data of our pts suggest that: lthe combination of arthritis and uveitis would be named JCA with uveitis; 2 according our opinion JCA with uveitis is separate nosological form among the juvenile arthritides.

  3. Dynamic enhanced MRI of the subacromial bursa: correlation with arthroscopic and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital (Japan); Yoneda, M. [Shoulder and Sports Medicine Service, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital, Osaka City, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Dept. of Pathology, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital (Japan); Fukushima, S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sapporo Tokeidai Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Wakitani, S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinsyu Univ., Matsumato (Japan)


    Objective: To assess dynamic MRI with Gd-DTPA enhancement for evaluating inflammatory changes in the subacromial bursa. Design and patients: We detected the signal intensity changes in dynamic MRI of the subacromial bursa, and confirmed these macroscopically by arthroscopy and histologically. The signal intensity was measured using built-in software, and the enhancement ratio (E ratio) was calculated from dynamic MR images. In addition, as a parameter of the rate of the increase in the signal intensity from 0 to 80 s, the mean increase per second in the E ratio was obtained as the coefficient of enhancement (CE). The correlation was studied of the E ratio and CE with the arthroscopic findings (redness, villous formation, thickening and adhesion), and of the E ratio and CE with the histological findings (capillary proliferation, papillary hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration) of the subacromial bursa. Of patients with shoulder pain, this study included those with rotator cuff injury; patients with rheumatoid arthritis or pitching shoulder disorders were excluded. There were 27 patients (15 men, 12 women) ranging in age from 25 to 73 years (mean 49.1 years). Dynamic MRI of the shoulder was also performed on the healthy side of 10 patients and in five normal young volunteers. Results and conclusions: Changes in signal intensity on dynamic MRI were measured in the subacromial bursa. The E ratio (80 s) and CE (0-80 s) were significantly correlated with redness and villous formation as arthroscopic findings, positively correlated with capillary proliferation and papillary hyperplasia as histological findings (p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with fibrosis as a histological finding (p < 0.05) in the subacromial bursa. The patterns of dynamic curves were well correlated with the bursoscopic and histological findings of the synovium of the subacromial bursa. Dynamic MRI appears to correlate with inflammatory activity of synovium of the subacromial

  4. Integration of Histology Lectures and Practical Teaching in China (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoye; Cheng, Xin; Li, Ke; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong


    Objectives: Human histology is a discipline concerning the study of microscopic structures of human tissues and organs--with the aid of light or electron microscopes. Traditional teaching of histology is composed of two separated components, theory and practice. The main disadvantage with traditional histology teaching is the detachment of theory…

  5. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist intervenes in signaling between different types of synoviocytes in rats with adjuvant arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-qiu ZHENG; Wei WEI; Min DAI; Lei ZHU; Xiao-yi JIA; Yuan WANG


    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)in the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Methods: AA was induced in rats by treatment with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). Rats were given an intracutaneous injection of IL-1ra (2.5, 10, 40 mg/kg, 3 times per day) from d 14 to d 21 after immunization. Synoviocyte proliferation and the activity of IL-1 were determined by using MTT assay. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The ultrastructure of synoviocytes was observed by using a transmission electron microscope.Phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular regulating kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase were detected by Western blot analysis. Results: IL-1ra (10and 40 mg/kg, ic, d 14-21) modulated the secondary inflammatory reaction (P<0.01), ultrastructure of synoviocytes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in AA rats. The administration of IL-1ra (10 and 40mg/kg, ic, d 14-21) in AA rats significantly decreased the production of IL-1, PGE2and TNF-α by macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLS) (P<0.01). IL-1 ra (2.5 mg/kg)also decreased the production of PGE2 (P<0.01) and TNF-α(P<0.05) by MLS in AA rats. The increased phosphorylation of MAPK and cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) stimulated by supernatants of MLS in AA rats was also inhibited by IL-1ra (10 and 40 mg/kg, ic, d 14-21). Conclusion: IL-1ra has anti-inflammatory effects because it modulates the ultrastructure of synoviocytes,decreases the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by MLS, and inhibits the phosphorylation of MAPK in FLS.

  6. Bovine dental fluorosis: histologic and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.


    Incisor teeth from 5- to 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cattle maintained on a ration averaging 40 ppm F annually from 4 months of age were analyzed by a variety of histologic techniques. These techniques included photomicroscopy, microradiography, protein staining, and microhardness testing. The features of fluorotic enamel that were noted were: hypomineralized outer enamel, coronal cementum hyperplasia, disrupted subsurface pigment band, hypoplastic pits, puckered incremental lines, periodic radiolucent regions, positive protein staining, and decreased microhardness of the outer enamel. These results were similar to the lesions of dental fluorosis observed in other species, and explain the external appearance of fluorotic bovine teeth observed under field conditions.

  7. The histological slides and drawings of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Garcia-Lopez


    Full Text Available Ramon y Cajal´s studies in the world of neuroscience provoked a radical change in the course of its history. For this reason he is considered as the father of modern neuroscience. Some of his items are housed at the Cajal Museum (Cajal Institute, CSIC, Madrid, Spain. In this article, we will present an analysis of Cajal’s effects used in his research that could help to understand his enormous scientific production, and that offers some curious insights into his work and his legacy. Furthermore, we present some images relating Cajal’s scientific drawings with his histological slides.

  8. Mouse redox histology using genetically encoded probes. (United States)

    Fujikawa, Yuuta; Roma, Leticia P; Sobotta, Mirko C; Rose, Adam J; Diaz, Mauricio Berriel; Locatelli, Giuseppe; Breckwoldt, Michael O; Misgeld, Thomas; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Herzig, Stephan; Müller-Decker, Karin; Dick, Tobias P


    Mapping the in vivo distribution of endogenous oxidants in animal tissues is of substantial biomedical interest. Numerous health-related factors, including diet, physical activity, infection, aging, toxins, or pharmacological intervention, may cause redox changes. Tools are needed to pinpoint redox state changes to particular organs, tissues, cell types, and subcellular organelles. We describe a procedure that preserves the in vivo redox state of genetically encoded redox biosensors within histological tissue sections, thus providing "redox maps" for any tissue and comparison of interest. We demonstrate the utility of the technique by visualizing endogenous redox differences and changes in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, embryonic development, and nutrient starvation.

  9. Oral fibrolipoma: A rare histological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira


    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasms. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mostly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. The diagnosis and differentiation of fibrolipoma with clinically similar lesions such as fibroma and pleomorphic adenoma is very essential for a correct treatment plan and complete follow-up. This article presents a case of a 35-year-old female with a fibrolipoma on the lingual marginal gingiva of the mandibular left third molar.

  10. The histology and immunopathology of dermographism. (United States)

    Winkelmann, R K


    Twelve patients with dermographism were studied by histological examination. Six spontaneous lesion showed perivascular lymphocytosis. Biopsy of 6 induced lesions showed neutrophiles at 15-30 min and lymphocytes at 1 h or more. One patient biopsied both at 15 min and 2 h showed both microscopic pictures successively. Immunofluorescence of spontaneous or induced lesions in 5 patients was not significant. Studies of T cell subsets of an induced lesion at 30 min showed a moderate number of T helper cells. Mast cell and eosinophile changes were not important. These studies of dermographism imply successive changes with time in perivascular cellular pathology.

  11. Pseudoseptic pseudogout in progressive pseudorheumatoid arthritis of childhood.


    Bradley, J D


    Progressive pseudorheumatoid arthritis of childhood is an uncommon arthropathy of unknown aetiology, which is related to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. Previous reports have noted the absence of joint inflammation in this disease. An adult is described here with this arthropathy, who developed episodic acute inflammatory arthritis that mimicked septic arthritis, but proved to be pseudogout. The relation between pseudogout and progressive pseudorheumatoid arthritis of childhood is discussed.

  12. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic perspectives. (United States)

    Chikanza, Ian C


    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common childhood chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The therapeutic approach to JRA has, to date, been casual and based on extensions of clinical experiences gained in the management of adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The physiology of inflammation has been systemically studied and this has led to the identification of specific therapeutic targets and the development of novel approaches to the management of JRA. The classical treatments of the disease such as methotrexate, sodium aurothiomalate and sulfasalazine, are not always effective in controlling RA and JRA. This has necessitated the development of novel agents for treating RA, most of which are biological in nature and are targeted at specific sites of the inflammatory cascades. These biological therapeutic strategies in RA have proved successful and are being applied in the management of JRA. These developments have been facilitated by the advances in molecular biology which have heralded the advent of biodrugs (recombinant proteins) and gene therapy, in which specific genes can be introduced locally to enhance in vivo gene expression or suppress gene(s) of interest with a view to down-regulating inflammation. Some of these biodrugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha), monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab), TNF soluble receptor constructs (etanercept) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been tested and shown to be effective in RA. Etanercept has now been licensed for JRA. Clinical trials of infliximab in JRA are planned. Studies show that the clinical effects are transient, necessitating repeated treatments and the risk of vaccination effects. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-beta (IFN-beta) are undergoing clinical trials. Many of these agents have to be administered parenterally and production costs are very high; thus, there is a need

  13. Ultrastructural study shows morphologic features of apoptosis and para-apoptosis in megakaryocytes from patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, EJ; Blom, NR; van der Want, JJL; Esselink, MT; Koornstra, JJ; Smit, JW; Louwes, H; Vellenga, E; de Wolf, JTM


    To investigate whether altered megakaryocyte morphology contributes to reduced platelet production in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), ultrastructural analysis of megakaryocytes was performed in 11 ITP patients. Ultrastructural abnormalities compatible with (para-)apoptosis were present in

  14. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood and whole blood cell cultures associated with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sørensen, Lars Korsbaek; Stoltze, Kaj


    Cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. An obvious question is whether patients with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis share blood cytokine profiles distinguishing them from individuals free of disease....

  15. Correlative BOLD MR imaging of stages of synovitis in a rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Gahunia, Harpal; Rayner, Tammy; Tassos, Vivian; Zhong, Anguo [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto (Canada); Pritzker, Kenneth; Mendes, Maria; Jong, Roland [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Salter, Robert B. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada)


    Because of the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI to assess blood oxygenation changes within the microvasculature, this technique holds potential for evaluating early perisynovial changes in inflammatory arthritis. To evaluate the feasibility of BOLD MRI to detect interval perisynovial changes in knees of rabbits with inflammatory arthritis. Rabbit knees were injected with albumin (n=9) or saline (n=6) intra-articularly, or were not injected (control knees, n=9). Except for two rabbits (albumin-injected, n=2 knees; saline-injected, n=2 knees) that unexpectedly died on days 7 and 21 of the experiment, respectively, all other animals were scanned with BOLD MRI on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after induction of arthritis. T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI was performed during alternate 30 s of normoxia/hyperoxia. BOLD MRI measurements were compared with clinical, laboratory and histological markers. Percentage of activated voxels was significantly greater in albumin-injected knees than in contralateral saline-injected knees (P=0.04). For albumin-injected knees (P < 0.05) and among different categories of knees (P=0.009), the percentage of activated BOLD voxels varied over time. A quadratic curve for on-and-off BOLD difference was delineated for albumin- and saline-injected knees over time (albumin-injected, P=0.047; saline-injected, P=0.009). A trend toward a significant difference in synovial histological scores between albumin-injected and saline-injected knees was noted only for acute scores (P=0.07). As a proof of concept, BOLD MRI can depict perisynovial changes during progression of experimental arthritis. (orig.)

  16. Physiologic characterization of inflammatory arthritis in a rabbit model with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasui, Otilia C.; Chan, Michael W.; Nathanael, George; Rayner, Tammy; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry; Zhong, Anguo [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crawley, Adrian [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belik, Jaques [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cheng, Hai-Ling; Kassner, Andrea; Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Department of Public Health, Family and Community Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jong, Roland; Rogers, Marianne [Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Pathology, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Our aim was to test the feasibility of blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to monitor periarticular hypoxic/inflammatory changes over time in a juvenile rabbit model of arthritis. We examined arthritic and contralateral nonarthritic knees of 21 juvenile rabbits at baseline and days 1,14, and 28 after induction of arthritis by unilateral intra-articular injection of carrageenin with BOLD and DCE MRI at 1.5 Tesla (T). Nine noninjected rabbits served as controls. Associations between BOLD and DCE-MRI and corresponding intra-articular oxygen pressure (PO{sub 2}) and blood flow [blood perfusion units (BPU)] (polarographic probes, reference standards) or clinical-histological data were measured by correlation coefficients. Percentage BOLD MRI change obtained in contralateral knees correlated moderately with BPU on day 0 (r = -0.51, p = 0.02) and excellently on day 28 (r = -0.84, p = 0.03). A moderate correlation was observed between peak enhancement DCE MRI (day 1) and BPU measurements in arthritic knees (r = 0.49, p = 0.04). In acute arthritis, BOLD and DCE MRI highly correlated (r = 0.89, p = 0.04; r = 1.0, p < 0.0001) with histological scores in arthritic knees. The proposed techniques are feasible to perform at 1.5 T, and they hold potential as surrogate measures to monitor hypoxic and inflammatory changes over time in arthritis at higher-strength MRI fields. (orig.)

  17. Kingella kingae causing septic arthritis in Felty's syndrome. (United States)

    Lewis, D A; Settas, L


    A case of septic arthritis of the elbow caused by Kingella kingae, a Gram-negative bacillus, is described. The patient had long-standing, severe rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome. This appears to be the first report from the United Kingdom of Kingella kingae as the aetiological agent of septic arthritis.

  18. Kingella kingae causing septic arthritis in Felty's syndrome.


    Lewis, D A; Settas, L


    A case of septic arthritis of the elbow caused by Kingella kingae, a Gram-negative bacillus, is described. The patient had long-standing, severe rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome. This appears to be the first report from the United Kingdom of Kingella kingae as the aetiological agent of septic arthritis.

  19. 76 FR 29767 - Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Arthritis Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... arthritis attacks. ILARIS has also been shown to extend the time to the next attack and reduce the...

  20. Molecular targets in arthritis and recent trends in nanotherapy. (United States)

    Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh


    Due to its severity and increasing epidemiology, arthritis needs no description. There are various forms of arthritis most of which are disabling, very painful, and common. In spite of breakthroughs in the field of drug discovery, there is no cure for arthritis that can eliminate the disease permanently and ease the pain. The present review focuses on some of the most successful drugs in arthritis therapy and their side effects. Potential new targets in arthritis therapy such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-17A, tumor necrosis factor alpha, osteopontin, and several others have been discussed here, which can lead to refinement of current therapeutic modalities. Mechanisms for different forms of arthritis have been discussed along with the molecules that act as potential biomarkers for arthritis. Due to the difficulty in monitoring the disease progression to detect the advanced manifestations of the diseases, drug-induced cytotoxicity, and problems with drug delivery; nanoparticle therapy has gained the attention of the researchers. The unique properties of nanoparticles make them highly attractive for the design of novel therapeutics or diagnostic agents for arthritis. The review also focuses on the recent trends in nanoformulation development used for arthritis therapy. This review is, therefore, important because it describes the relevance and need for more arthritis research, it brings forth a critical discussion of successful drugs in arthritis and analyses the key molecular targets. The review also identifies several knowledge gaps in the published research so far along with the proposal of new ideas and future directions in arthritis therapy.

  1. 38 CFR 4.58 - Arthritis due to strain. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthritis due to strain... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.58 Arthritis due to strain. With service incurred lower extremity amputation or shortening, a disabling arthritis, developing...

  2. 77 FR 14529 - Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Arthritis Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to one or more...

  3. Cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Rackov Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the clinical significance of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18 in evaluation of the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine concentrations in serum samples and synovial fluid were measured by immnnoenzymatic methods using kits for human interleukins and the Disease Activity Score 28 in 64 patients with active disease. The control group consisted of 25 subjects with arthritis of the knee and osteoarthrosis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have significantly high (p<0.01 concentrations of examined cytokines in relation to patients with osteoarthritis. By comparing concentrations in 30 patients with high, 14 patients with moderate and 20 patients with mild activity of rheumatoid arthritis, it was established that patients with high degree of disease activity have significantly high (p<0.01; p<0.05 concentrations of examined cytokines in the blood and synovial fluid in relation to patients with moderate and mild disease. We have concluded that cytokine concentrations are good indicators of the degree of rheumatoid arthritis activity. This research is a contribution to understanding the insufficiently known pathogenetic mechanisms of cytokines, especially IL-18, in active disease. .

  4. Update on Therapeutic Approaches for Rheumatoid Arthritis. (United States)

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Gomes, Andreia; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common chronic inflammatory and destructive arthropathy that consumes considerable personal, social and economic costs. It consists of a syndrome of pain, stiffness and symmetrical inflammation of the synovial membrane (synovitis) of freely moveable joints such as the knee (diarthrodial joints). Although the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis is unclear, the disease is characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining of diarthrodial joints, high synovial proliferation and an influx of inflammatory cells, macrophages and lymphocytes through angiogenic blood vessels. Diseasemodifying antirheumatic drugs slow disease progression and can induce disease remission in some patients. Methotrexate is the first line therapy, but if patients become intolerant to this drug, biologic agents should be used. The development of biological substances for the treatment of rheumatic conditions has been accompanied by ongoing health economic discussions regarding the implementation of these highly effective, but accordingly, highly priced drugs are the standard treatment guidelines of rheumatic diseases. In this way, more efficient strategies have to be identified. Despite numerous reviews in rheumatoid arthritis in the last years, this area is in constant development and updates are an urgent need to incorporate new advances in rheumatoid arthritis research. This review highlights the immunopathogenesis rationale for the current therapeutic strategies in rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Tocilizumab - Alendronate Conjugate for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. (United States)

    Lee, Hwiwon; Bhang, Suk Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyemin; Hahn, Sei Kwang


    An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) - Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) - poly(ethylene glycol) - N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS). The successful synthesis of TCZ-ALD conjugate is corroborated by 1H NMR, the purpald assay, mass spectrometry (MS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro binding affinity and cell viability tests confirmed the biological activity of TCZ-ALD conjugate. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy of TCZ-ALD conjugate is confirmed by micro computed tomography (CT), histological, and western blot analyses for the treatment of RA.

  6. Application of hyperspectral fluorescence lifetime imaging to tissue autofluorescence: arthritis (United States)

    Talbot, C. B.; Benninger, R. K. P.; de Beule, P.; Requejo-Isidro, J.; Elson, D. S.; Dunsby, C.; Munro, I.; Neil, M. A.; Sandison, A.; Sofat, N.; Nagase, H.; French, P. M. W.; Lever, M. J.


    Tissue contains many natural fluorophores and therefore by exploiting autofluorescence, we can obtain information from tissue with less interference than conventional histological techniques. However, conventional intensity imaging is prone to artifacts since it is an absolute measurement. Fluorescence lifetime and spectral measurements are relative measurements and therefore allow for better measurements. We have applied FLIM and hyperspectral FLIM to the study of articular cartilage and its disease arthritis. We have analyzed normal human articular cartilage and cartilage which was in the early stages of disease. In this case, it was found that FLIM was able to detect changes in the diseased tissue that were not detectable with the conventional diagnosis. Specifically, the fluorescence lifetimes (FL) of the cells were different between the two samples. We have also applied hyperspectral FLIM to degraded cartilage through treatment with interleukin-1. In this case, it was found that there was a shift in the emission spectrum with treatment and that the lifetime had also increased. We also showed that there was greater contrast between the cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) at longer wavelengths.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bestaev


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease with erosive and destructive polyarthritis and systemic manifestations. Pulmonary involvement (PI is common in RA. With high-resolution computed tomography, the detection rate of PI in RA is as high as 50%. PI is a direct cause of death in 10–20% of patients with RA. Autoimmune mechanisms play a leading part in the development of PI in RA. Under the hypothesis advanced by M. Selman et al., that impaired alveolocyte regeneration processes after injury rather inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. The pathological process is triggered by damaged alveolocytes and characterized by the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, the suppressed apoptosis of the latter, and the enhanced activity of pneumofibrosis-stimulating cytokines. This gives rise to remodeling of the extracellular matrix, including destruction of the basement membrane, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. The paper considers the types of lung injury in RA and main methods for diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Cardiac involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Gennaro Colonna


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by a chronic inflammatory process mainly leading to destruction of synovial membrane of small and major diarthrodial joints. The prevalence of RA within the general adult population is about 1% and female subjects in fertile age result mostly involved. It’s an invalidating disease, associated with changes in life quality and a reduced life expectancy. Moreover, we can observe an increased mortality rate in this population early after the onset of the disease. The mortality excess can be partially due to infective, gastrointestinal, renal or pulmonary complications and malignancy (mainly lung cancer and non- Hodgkin lymphoma. Among extra-articular complications, cardiovascular (CV involvement represents one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Every cardiac structure can be affected by different pathogenic pathways: heart valves, conduction system, myocardium, endocardium, pericardium and coronary arteries. Consequently, different clinical manifestations can be detected, including: pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial fibrosis, arrhythmias, alterations of conduction system, coronaropathies and ischemic cardiopathy, valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Considering that early cardiac involvement negatively affects the prognosis, it is mandatory to identify high CV risk RA patients to better define long-term management of this population.

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkstra, J.; Dijkstra, P.F.; Klundert, W. v. d.


    The course of rheumatoid arthritis in the shoulder is evaluated in 143 patients. In a period of 29 years, 630 X-rays were taken of 286 shoulders. In this series 2 or more X-rays per shoulder were taken of 89 patients (29 male, 60 female). The various changes in the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints were described. Gross destruction appears to be rare, compared to the more frequently seen minor cystic changes. The progress of the disease is often slow or halting. One or both of the shoulders in some of the patients (15 male and 29 female) did not have any detectable X-rays changes, although some of them were followed up for more than 20 years. During our follow-up it became apparent that the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints do not follow the same course neither in time nor in severity of joint destruction. Therefore, we divided the shoulder joint into the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint. One normal stage and 5 stages of pathology are recognised to fit into previously published schemes of the other joints. Stage 5 appears to be a new phenomenon of neojoint formation, under the previous humeral head with the inferior glenoid rim. Joint disease in the acromioclavicular joint could be divided only into 3 stages.

  10. [Personalized Medicine in Rheumatoid Arthritis]. (United States)

    Kumagai, Shunichi


    Medical strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has markedly advanced in recent years. The introductions of biologics and methotrexate as an anchor drug have made it possible to not only suppress pain and inflammation (clinical remission), but also to inhibit joint destruction (structural remission), leading to cure of the disease. In order to achieve this target, it is the most important to diagnose RA early and promote disease remission. However, since the condition and pathology are diverse among patients, optimal treatment for each patient is desired (personalized medicine). Treatment should be performed under consideration of the disease state such as activity, prognosis regarding joint destruction, and complications. It is also important to clarify the patient characteristics, such as responsiveness to the drugs and risk of adverse effects. Biomarkers, such as proteomics and pharmacogenomics (genetic polymorphism, etc.), are indispensable for personalized medicine. We have established a predictive model for methotrexate hepatotoxicity, consisting of 13 SNPs with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 89%, although the model should be validated with a larger-scale prospective study. RA is a multifactorial disorder with clinically heterogeneous features. Gene-environment interaction is closely involved in the production of anti-CCP antibodies (ACPA); thereafter, secondary stimuli of joints may lead to symptoms of RA. Joint injury, emotional stress, and infections often trigger the onset of RA. Cure can be achieved through complete remission by early aggressive treatment and returning to the pre-clinical state of RA with environmental improvement.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis: Disease or syndrome? (United States)

    Stanich, Jessica A; Carter, John D; Whittum-Hudson, Judith; Hudson, Alan P


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been described in the medical literature for over two hundred years, but its etiology remains unknown. RA displays phenotypic heterogeneity, and it is a relatively prevalent clinical entity: it affects approximately 1% of the population, resulting in enormous pathologic sequelae. Earlier studies targeting the cause(s) of RA suggested potential infectious involvement, whereas more recent reports have focused on a genetic origin of the disease. However, neither infection nor genetics, nor any other single factor is currently accepted as causative of RA. In this article we review studies relating to the etiology of RA, and those of several related matters, and we conclude that the literature indeed does provide insight into the causes underlying the initiation of RA pathogenesis. Briefly, given the remarkable phenotypic variation of RA, especially in its early stages, as well as a number of other characteristics of the condition, we contend that RA is not a discrete clinical entity with a single etiological source. Rather, we argue that it represents a common clinical endpoint for various starting points, each of which is largely guided by as yet poorly understood aspects of the genetic background of the affected individual. Adoption of this alternative view of the origin of RA will have significant consequences for future research and for development of new therapeutic interventions for this burdensome condition.

  12. Pain syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Sergeyevna Filatova


    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. One hundred and eighty-three patients with valid rheumatoid arthritis (RA were examined to study the specific fea tures of chronic pain syndrome. The DN4 neuropathic pain diagnostic questionnaire was used to divide all the patients into 2 groups: 1 78 patients with the neuropathic component of pain (NCP and 2 105 patients without the latter. Results. A clinical neurological examination could reveal peripheral nervous system lesion in 96% of Group 1 patients and in 4% of Group 2 ones. The patients with NCP were ascertained to be older, they were longer ill with RA, had higher clinical, X-ray stages and functional class, as well as higher pain intensity. However, no differences were found between the two groups in the values of disease activity (DAS 28 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. There was a high rate (71% of depressive disorders, the prevalence and degree of which in RA patients were determined by the characteristics of disease severity and did not depend on the presence of NCP. Discussion. The performed study demonstrated that, along with an obligate nociceptive mechanism, the patients with RA had neurogenic and psychogenic components of pain in 43 and 71% of cases, respectively. Consequently, chronic pain syndrome in RA is commonly mixed and both the activity of the inflammatory process and the magnitude of neurogenic and psychogenic components should be borne in mind for optimal pain control.

  13. Histologic and Genetic Advances in Refining the Diagnosis of “Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Viterbo


    Full Text Available Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS is an inclusive term used for sarcomas that defy formal sub-classification. The frequency with which this diagnosis is assigned has decreased in the last twenty years. This is because when implemented, careful histologic assessment, immunohistochemistry, and ultra-structural evaluation can often determine lineage of differentiation. Further attrition in the diagnostic frequency of UPS may arise by using array-comparative genomic hybridization. Gene expression arrays are also of potential use as they permit hierarchical gene clustering. Appraisal of the literature is difficult due to a historical perspective in which specific molecular diagnostic methods were previously unavailable. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC classification has changed with different inclusion criteria. Taxonomy challenges also exist with the older term “malignant fibrous histiocytoma” being replaced by “UPS”. In 2010 an analysis of multiple sarcoma expression databases using a 170-gene predictor, re-classified most MFH and “not-otherwise-specified” (NOS tumors as liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas or fibrosarcomas. Interestingly, some of the classifier genes are potential molecular therapeutic targets including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, Nerve growth factor β (NGF β and Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR.

  14. Histologic and Genetic Advances in Refining the Diagnosis of “Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, Fergal C., E-mail: [Sarcoma Service, Department of Medical Oncology, Peter Mac Callum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, VIC8006 (Australia); Department of Medical Oncology, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Viterbo, Antonella [Department of Medical Oncology, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin 4 (Ireland); St. Andrea University Hospital, Rome 000189 (Italy)


    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is an inclusive term used for sarcomas that defy formal sub-classification. The frequency with which this diagnosis is assigned has decreased in the last twenty years. This is because when implemented, careful histologic assessment, immunohistochemistry, and ultra-structural evaluation can often determine lineage of differentiation. Further attrition in the diagnostic frequency of UPS may arise by using array-comparative genomic hybridization. Gene expression arrays are also of potential use as they permit hierarchical gene clustering. Appraisal of the literature is difficult due to a historical perspective in which specific molecular diagnostic methods were previously unavailable. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification has changed with different inclusion criteria. Taxonomy challenges also exist with the older term “malignant fibrous histiocytoma” being replaced by “UPS”. In 2010 an analysis of multiple sarcoma expression databases using a 170-gene predictor, re-classified most MFH and “not-otherwise-specified” (NOS) tumors as liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas or fibrosarcomas. Interestingly, some of the classifier genes are potential molecular therapeutic targets including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), Nerve growth factor β (NGF β) and Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)

  15. Cyto-histological and morpho-physiological responses of common duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to chromium. (United States)

    Reale, L; Ferranti, F; Mantilacci, S; Corboli, M; Aversa, S; Landucci, F; Baldisserotto, C; Ferroni, L; Pancaldi, S; Venanzoni, R


    Along with cadmium, lead, mercury and other heavy metals, chromium is an important environmental pollutant, mainly concentrated in areas of intense anthropogenic pressure. The effect of potassium dichromate on Lemna minor populations was tested using the growth inhibition test. Cyto-histological and physiological analyses were also conducted to aid in understanding the strategies used by plants during exposure to chromium. Treatment with potassium dichromate caused a reduction in growth rate and frond size in all treated plants and especially at the highest concentrations. At these concentrations the photosynthetic pathway was also altered as shown by the decrease of maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and the chlorophyll b content and by the chloroplast ultrastructural modifications. Starch storage was also investigated by microscopic observations. It was the highest at the high concentrations of the pollutant. The data suggested a correlation between starch storage and reduced growth; there was greater inhibition of plant growth than inhibition of photosynthesis, resulting in a surplus of carbohydrates that may be stored as starch. The investigation helps to understand the mechanism related to heavy metal tolerance of Lemna minor and supplies information about the behavior of this species widely used as a biomarker.

  16. Ultrastructure of sheep primordial follicles cultured in the presence of indol acetic acid, EGF, and FSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Evelyn Rabelo; Hyttel, Poul; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural characteristics of primordial follicles after culturing of sheep ovarian cortical slices in the presence of indol acetic acid (IAA), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), and FSH. To evaluate ultrastructure of primordial follicles cultured...

  17. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) (United States)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.


    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  18. Carcinosarcoma of the colon: report of a case with morphological, ultrastructural and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrero Stefano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinosarcoma of the colon is a rare histopathological entity with uncertain histogenesis, that shows both epithelial and mesenchymal malignant differentiation. Carcinosarcoma rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract and only few cases are reported in the colon. Herein we describe a carcinosarcoma of the ascending colon, with morphological, ultrastructural and molecular analysis. Case presentation An 81-year-old man was hospitalised for asthenia, weight loss and iron-deficiency anaemia. The patient underwent colonoscopy and adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. A right hemicolectomy was performed and, during surgical operation, liver metastases were detected. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed areas of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous differentiation, completely separated by fibrous septae. The sarcomatous component exhibited areas of smooth muscle and osteoblastic differentiation, with focal osteoid material deposition. Molecular analysis conducted separately on the epithelial and mesenchymal components revealed the same p53 gene mutation (R282W in exon 8 and identical polymorphisms in p53 exon 4, in EGFR exons 20 and 21, and in c-kit exon 17. Microsatellite markers analysis revealed a common loss of heterozygosis on 18q. Overall, the data are consistent with a common origin of the two tumor components. The patient was treated with 8 cycles of oral capecitabine (1250 mg/m2 twice a day for 14 days repeated every 28 days and two years after surgery is alive with liver metastases. Conclusion Carcinosarcoma of the colon is a rare tumour with both epithelial and sarcomatous components. Molecular analysis of the current case suggests the histogenesis from a common cell progenitor.

  19. Are We Throwing Histology out with the Microscope? A Look at Histology from the Physician's Perspective (United States)

    Pratt, Rebecca L.


    A trend in medical schools across the United States is the refurbishing of histology laboratories with digital microscopy systems. Although such systems may reduce curricular time, they do not teach basic microscope skills, and students who learn solely with these systems may be less prepared for their practices or specialties, particularly in…

  20. Ultrastructure of human neural stem/progenitor cells and neurospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaodong Zhao; Tianyi Zhang; Qiang Huang; Aidong Wang; Jun Dong; Qing Lan; Zhenghong Qin


    BACKGROUND: Biological and morphological characteristics of neural stern/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have been widely investigated.OBJECTIVE: To explore the ultrastructure of human embryo-derived NSPCs and neurospheres cultivated in vitro using electron microscopy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cell biology experiment was performed at the Brain Tumor Laboratory of Soochow University, and Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University between August 2007 and April 2008.MATERIALS: Human fetal brain tissue was obtained from an 8-week-old aborted fetus; serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 culture medium was provided by Gibco, USA; scanning electron microscope was provided by Hitachi instruments, Japan; transmission electron microscope was provided by JEOL, Japan.METHODS: NSPCs were isolated from human fetal brain tissue and cultivated in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 culture medium. Cells were passaged every 5-7 days. After three passages, NSPCs were harvested and used for ultrastructural examination.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrastructural examination of human NSPCs and adjacent cells in neurospheres.RESULTS: Individual NSPCs were visible as spherical morphologies with rough surfaces under scanning electron microscope. Generally, they had large nuclei and little cytoplasm. Nuclei were frequently globular with large amounts of euchromatin and a small quantity of heterochromatin, and most NSPCs had only one nucleolus. The Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum were underdeveloped; however, autophagosomes were clearly visible. The neurospheres were made up of NSPCs and non-fixiform material inside. Between adjacent cells and at the cytoplasmic surface of apposed plasma membranes, there were vesicle-like structures. Some membrane boundaries with high permeabilities were observed between some contiguous NSPCs in neurospheres, possibly attributable to plasmalemmal fusion between adjacent cells.CONCLUSION: A large number

  1. Gouty arthritis in the human aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Secchi Batista


    Full Text Available The aging process has gained universal recognition and is occurring at an accelerated pace. Gout is a metabolic disorder in which an overproduction and / or decreased excretion of uric acid, leading to the deposition of crystals of sodium monourato joints and soft tissue. The present study was based on a literature review that aimed to analyze the incidence of gouty arthritis in the human aging process. To this end, we searched for articles indexed journals, books, among others, published in English and Portuguese, using the keywords "Human Aging", "Rheumatic Diseases", "Drop" and "Gouty Arthritis". The data obtained suggest that the prevalence of gout is higher in men, affecting oligo / polyarticular inflammatory symptoms with smaller and often with involvement of small joints of the hands also may be the coexistence of gout with other autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis, should be performed nutritional treatment and medication.

  2. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  3. Screening for uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    Three hundred and fifteen patients with anterior uveitis associated with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) were studied in order to identify the various risk factors for uveitis. Girls were more susceptible to uveitis than boys by a ratio of 3:1. In 94% of cases the uveitis was diagnosed after the development of arthritis. The risk of uveitis was small after seven or more years had elapsed from the onset of arthritis. Patients with pauciarticular onset JCA had the highest risk of uveitis and systemic onset patients the least risk. The presence of circulating antinuclear antibody was also an important marker for an increased risk of uveitis. A regimen for routine screening of patients is suggested.

  4. The association between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. (United States)

    Leech, Michelle T; Bartold, P M


    The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and poor oral health has been recognised for many decades. The association between periodontal infection and the risk of developing RA has been the subject of epidemiological, clinical and basic science research in recent times. Converging and reproducible evidence now makes a clear case for the role of specific periodontal infective pathogens in initiating, amplifying and perpetuating rheumatoid arthritis. The unique enzymatic properties of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its contribution to the burden of citrullinated peptides is now well established. The impact of localized infection such as periodontitis in shaping specific anti-citrullinated peptide immune responses highlights a key area for treatment, prevention and risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease. (United States)

    Suda, Takafumi


    Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  6. Crohn's disease: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in colonic myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas


    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), remains unclear. Ultrastructural alterations in ICC in the colonic myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) have been reported previously in UC, but descriptions of ICC...... were dilated and appeared to be empty. Lipid droplets and lipofuscin-bodies were prominent in glial cells and neurons. ICC-MP were scanty but, as in controls, had caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and membrane-associated dense bands with a patchy basal lamina. ICC...

  7. Characters of Fractal Ultrastructure in Wood Cell Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Beimei; ZHAO Guangjie


    Fractal theory was introduced in order to describe the ultrastructure of wood cell wall in this paper.The cellulose chain clusters around nano-scale were viewed as a fractal object that consists of many fibrillar structural units with different scales including microfibrils.On the basis of the morphological data of wood cell wall.fractal dimensions of multi-level fibrillar structural units were calculated by fractal-geometry approach,and then the morphological and structural characteristics of fibers as well as the influences on wood properties were investigated according to the dimensions.Besides,the fractal self-nesting character of the ultrastruture was also analyzed.

  8. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography (United States)

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva


    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  9. Ultrastructural study of the epithelial mucous cells in lizards (Lacertilia). (United States)

    Martín-Lacave, I; Montero, C; López-Muñoz, J M; López-Campos, J L; Galera, H


    An ultrastructural study of the mucous cells of the intestinal epithelium of four lacertilian species (Lacerta lepida, Lacerta hispanica, Psammodromus algirus and Acanthodactylus erythrurus) is here reported. Two types of mucous cells have been found in these species: common mucous cells and granular mucous cells. Immature and mature forms of both types have been observed. The common mucous cells or typical goblet cells have the same characteristics in all four species. The granules of the granular mucous cells of the two species of lacerta are similar but differ from those of the other two species.

  10. Ultrastructure of the excretory system of Brachylaimus aequans (Trematoda: Brachylaimoidea). (United States)

    Soboleva, T N; Zdárská, Z; Stĕrba, J; Valkounová, J


    The ultrastructure of the flame cell, excretory capillaries, ducts, collecting ducts, excretory bladder, and excretory pore of Brachylaimus aequans was studied 6-8 days p.i. The excretory ducts, collecting ducts and excretory bladder are provided with numerous lamellae on the luminal side. The cilia of lateral flames in the excretory ducts have a triated rootlet. The excretory pore is covered by a tegument identical with the body tegument. The syncytium of the excretory bladder is connected with the tegument of the excretory pore by means of a septate desmosome. No lipid or excretory corpuscles have been demonstrated in the excretory system.

  11. [Ketamine-induced ultrastructural changes in the retina]. (United States)

    Magdolina, A


    Alterations of the retina caused by ketamin were studied in experiment. After a 60-minutes monoanaesthesia with ketamin ultrastructural changes were observed on the inner members of receptor cells, in the three nuclear layers and in the layer of nerve fibres. Severe damage to the structure of the Müller's glial cells providing nutrition to neural-elements was also revealed. Three days after the anaesthesia beside the regression of these alterations, glycogen deposits could be seen in the Müller's cells. This phenomenon and some side effects caused by ketamin can be explained by increased utilization of oxygen and relative hypoxia.

  12. Ultrastructure of the internodal myocardium in the rat. (United States)

    Ayettey, A S; Navaratnam, V; Yates, R D


    Ultrastructural studies of the rat atrial myocardium reveal that the specialised myocardial cells can be distinguished from the usual atrial myocytes by their lack of specific atrial granules. On the basis of this distinction it has been shown that there is interposition of atrial myocardial tissue in the pathway between the two nodes and that there are no morphologically specialised internodal pathways. The atrial myocardial cells themselves exhibit variations in their content of cytoplasmic organelles such as myofibrils, T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum but they all contain membrane-bound specific atrial granules.

  13. Anatomy and ultrastructure of root nodules of Lupinus luteus

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    A. Woźny


    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomic structure of root nodules of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Express and ultrastructure of cells infected by Rhizobium, The inside of cells from the infected nodule region was filled with numerous bacteria; only centrally located cell nucleus was free of bacteria. Rhizobium was present mostly in the form of "transforming bacteria" (according to the terminology by Ching et al. 1977, characterized by visible nucleoid areas, numerous ribosomes, and polyphosphate granules, although typical bacterioids with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate were also found.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Soriano


    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous condition, the pattern of which is determined by any combination of pathology affecting peripheral joints, the enthesis and the spine. There is a paucity of evidence for most of the conventional agents used to treat psoriatic arthritis, with many of them being used on the basis of experience in rheumatoid arthritis. Herein, we summarise the evidence compiled relating to effectiveness of treatment for various manifestation of PsA. For those patients with progressive forms of arthritis who may benefit from intervention of newer biological therapies, the continued use of conventional therapy needs ever increasing scrutiny. Key words: Psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, therapy

  15. Colchicine-responsive protracted gouty arthritis with systemic inflammatory reactions. (United States)

    Nonaka, Fumiaki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Haramura, Tomoko; Sumiyoshi, Remi; Kawakami, Atsushi; Eguchi, Katsumi


    Acute gouty arthritis is a severe but self-limiting arthritis caused by inflammatory responses to urate crystals. Oral colchicines are effective for initial stages or prophylaxis, but generally, colchicines are ineffective for established gouty arthritis. We describe an unusual case of gouty arthritis with systemic inflammatory reactions, including high fever and polymyalgia. Refractory polyarthritis and high fever were eradicated by colchicine treatment. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation in exon 2 of the MEFV gene (E148Q). This case underscores the possibility that MEFV gene mutations may modify the phenotype of gouty arthritis.

  16. Facial growth and oral function in a case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis during an 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, S; Bakke, M; Kirkeby, S;


    The present report is a detailed analysis of facial growth and oral function in a girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joints. She was followed from 9 to 17 years of age prior to and after orthognathic surgery. Facial growth was assessed by facial photographs, dental...... casts, and roentgencephalometry, and oral function was assessed clinically by electromyography, kinesiography, and bite force. In addition, histological and histochemical analysis was performed on biopsy material from her masseter muscle obtained at the time of surgery. The study showed a clear...

  17. Septic arthritis caused by Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Costa


    Full Text Available Peptostreptococcus spp are commensal organisms, usually involved in periodontal disease. Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus is an anaerobic gram-negative cocci, difficult to isolate due to its slow growth. Septic arthritis by this microorganism is a rare entity, but it can occur by hematogenous dissemination from a distant focus. Colonization and growth are more likely to occur in an already damaged articulation. We report the case of a 57 year-old woman with peripheral spondyloarthritis who developed knee septic arthritis by Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus.

  18. Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: differential diagnosis. (United States)

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Caso, Francesco; Scarpa, Raffaele; Megna, Matteo; Patrì, Angela; Balato, Nicola; Costa, Luisa


    Psoriasis frequency ranges from 1 to 3 % in white population, and arthritis occurs in 10-40 % of psoriasis patients, representing a relevant health issue. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthropathy, associated with psoriasis, in which ocular-, intestinal-, metabolic-, and cardiovascular-related manifestations can variably coexist. In order to favor early PsA and psoriasis diagnosis, it is crucial to rule out other conditions that can resemble the disease and delay appropriate therapeutic approach. Therefore, the aim of this review is to focus on PsA and psoriasis differential diagnosis.

  19. Adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Eriksen, Stine A; Christensen, Robin;


    Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis/contact, with ......Objectives. To study adherence to methotrexate (MTX) and factors of importance thereof in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of RA (ICD10 codes M05.X or M06.X) after January 1, 1997, and aged ≥18 years at the date of first diagnosis...

  20. [HLA antigens in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Rumba, I V; Sochnev, A M; Kukaĭne, E M; Burshteĭn, A M; Benevolenskaia, L I


    Antigens of I class HLA system (locus A and B) were investigated in 67 patients of Latvian nationality suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Associations of HLA antigens with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis partially coincided with the ones revealed earlier. Typing established an increased incidence of antigen B27 (p less than 0.01) and gaplotype A2, B40 (p less than 0.01). Antigen B15 possessed a protective action with respect to JRA. Interlocus combinations demonstrated a closer association with the disease than a single antigen. The authors also revealed markers of various clinico-anatomical variants of JRA.