Sample records for arthritis detection tool

  1. Development of a self-administered early inflammatory arthritis detection tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugwell Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barriers to care limit the potential benefits of pharmacological intervention for inflammatory arthritis. A self-administered questionnaire for early inflammatory arthritis (EIA detection may complement contemporary triage interventions to further reduce delays to rheumatologic care. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered EIA detection tool for implementation in pre-primary care settings. Methods A core set of dimensions and constructs for EIA detection were systematically derived from the literature and augmented by investigative team arbitration. Identified constructs were formulated into lay language questions suitable for self-administration. A three-round Delphi consensus panel of EIA experts and stakeholders evaluated the relevance of each question to EIA detection and suggested additional items. Questions accepted by less than 70% of respondents in rounds one or two were eliminated. In round three, questions accepted by at least 80% of the panel were selected for the tool. Results Of 584 citations identified, data were extracted from 47 eligible articles. Upon arbitration of the literature synthesis, 30 constructs encompassing 13 dimensions were formulated into lay language questions and posed to the Delphi panel. A total of 181 EIA experts and stakeholders participated on the Delphi panel: round one, 60; round two, 59; and, round three, 169; 48 participated in all three rounds. The panel evaluated the 30 questions derived from the literature synthesis, suggested five additional items, and eliminated a total of 24. The eleven-question instrument developed captured dimensions of articular pain, swelling, and stiffness, distribution of joint involvement, function, and diagnostic and family history. Conclusions An eleven-question, EIA detection tool suitable for self-administration was developed to screen subjects with six to 52 weeks of musculoskeletal complaints. Psychometric and performance

  2. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.


    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  3. Imaging tools in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, York Kiat; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G


    As modern imaging tools such as US and MRI become increasingly available, rheumatologists now have access to highly sensitive measures to assist in the evaluation of both the inflammatory and structural damage components underlying various arthritides over the disease duration. Both US and MRI ha...

  4. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging (United States)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  5. Change Detection Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.J.; Kuenzer, C.; Lehner, M.; Reinartz, P.; Niemeyer, I.; Nussbaum, S.; Lacroix, V.; Sequeira, V.; Stringa, E.; Schöpfer, E.


    In this chapter a wide range of change detection tools is addressed. They are grouped into methods suitable for optical and multispectral data, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and 3D data. Optical and multispectral methods include unsupervised approaches, supervised and knowledge-based approa

  6. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques. (United States)

    Put, Stéphanie; Westhovens, René; Lahoutte, Tony; Matthys, Patrick


    Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor κB and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, αVβ₃ integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein.

  7. Nociceptive neurons detect cytokines in arthritis


    Schaible, Hans-Georg


    Proinflammatory cytokines are major mediators in the pathogenesis of diseases of joints such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. This review emphasizes that proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 are also mediators of pain by directly acting on the nociceptive system. Proportions of nociceptive sensory neurons express receptors for these cytokines, and the application of cytokines rapidly changes the excitabil...

  8. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging (United States)

    Ebert, Bernd; Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Bauer, Daniel; Voigt, Jan; Berliner, Michael; Bahner, Malte L.; Macdonald, Rainer


    The blood pool agent indo-cyanine green (ICG) has been investigated in a prospective clinical study for detection of rheumatoid arthritis using fluorescence imaging. Temporal behavior as well as spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity are suited to differentiate healthy and inflamed finger joints after i.v. injection of an ICG bolus.

  9. Fraud detection tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hawlova


    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce to readers the topic of fraud management – detection of fraudulent behaviour. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents what is meant by fraud and fraudulent behaviour. In the second part a case study dealing with fraudulent behaviour detection in the procurement area is introduced.

  10. Photoacoustic imaging: a potential new tool for arthritis (United States)

    Wang, Xueding


    The potential application of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technology to diagnostic imaging and therapeutic monitoring of inflammatory arthritis has been explored. The feasibility of our bench-top joint imaging systems in delineating soft articular tissue structures in a noninvasive manner was validated first on rat models and then on human peripheral joints. Based on the study on commonly used arthritis rat models, the capability of PAI to differentiate arthritic joints from the normal was also examined. With sufficient imaging depth, PAI can realize tomographic imaging of a human peripheral joint or a small-animal joint as a whole organ noninvasively. By presenting additional optical contrast and tissue functional information such as blood volume and blood oxygen saturation, PAI may provide an opportunity for early diagnosis of inflammatory joint disorders, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, and for monitoring of therapeutic outcomes with improved sensitivity and accuracy.

  11. Capillaroscopy in Psoriatic and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Useful Tool for Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Graceffa


    Full Text Available Impairment of capillaries permeability and changes of microcirculation are associated with inflammatory arthritis. In order to demonstrate microvascular differences between psoriatic arthritis (PsA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA we analyzed capillaroscopic abnormalities such as megacapillaries, haemorrhages, ramifications, and avascular areas in patients affected by these two rheumatic disorders. Moreover to identify specific capillaroscopy patterns we analyzed the following parameters: venous limb diameter, arterial limb diameter, capillary loop diameter, amplitude of the capillary loop, linear density of capillaries (on 2 mm, and number of twisted capillaries (on 4 mm. Through a comparative morphometric analysis of capillaroscopy, our study demonstrated the presence of specific microvascular differences between PsA and RA providing an additional diagnostic tool for the differential diagnosis. We also suggest that capillaries structural abnormalities might reflect endothelial injury due to systemic inflammation during chronic arthritis.

  12. Arthritis (United States)

    ... injected into painful joints or given by mouth. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are used to treat autoimmune arthritis. They include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and leflunomide. ...

  13. Improving inflammatory arthritis management through tighter monitoring of patients and the use of innovative electronic tools. (United States)

    van Riel, Piet; Alten, Rieke; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo


    Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists.

  14. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruyn, G A W


    To assess the intra and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) among rheumatologists in detecting destructive and inflammatory shoulder abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the overall agreement between US and MRI.

  15. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, G. A. W.; Naredo, E.; Moeller, I.; Moragues, C.; Garrido, J.; de Bock, G. H.; d'Agostino, M-A; Filippucci, E.; Iagnocco, A.; Backhaus, M.; Swen, W. A. A.; Balint, P.; Pineda, C.; Milutinovic, S.; Kane, D.; Kaeley, G.; Narvaez, F. J.; Wakefield, R. J.; Narvaez, J. A.; de Augustin, J.; Schmidt, W. A.; Moller, I.; Swen, N.; de Agustin, J.


    Objective: To assess the intra and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography ( US) among rheumatologists in detecting destructive and inflammatory shoulder abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) and to determine the overall agreement between US and MRI. Meth

  16. Early detection of temporomandibular joint arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - the role of contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, Thekla von; Stuber, Tina; Winkler, Peter [Olgahospital Klinikum Stuttgart, Pediatric Radiology, Radiologisches Institut, Stuttgart (Germany); Maier, Jan; Hospach, Toni [Olgahospital Klinikum Stuttgart, Pediatric Rheumatology, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Early treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis is crucial in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to prevent permanent functional impairment. As involvement of TMJs is often asymptomatic, contrast-enhanced MRI is regarded as the most sensitive noninvasive diagnostic tool. To evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement in TMJs of children and adolescents with JIA in comparison to normal controls from a previous study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of 50 children and adolescents with JIA (6.3 to 18 years of age; mean: 12 years) were retrospectively analysed. We assessed morphological abnormalities and postcontrast time-intensity curves of the soft joint tissue and the mandibular condyle. Ratios were calculated to quantify postcontrast signal intensities (SI) in relation to precontrast SI at initial (1 min postcontrast) and maximum (6 min postcontrast) increase. Time-intensity curves followed similar biphasic patterns in normal and pathological joints. In joints with morphological signs of arthritis, mean SI ratios were on average higher than in normal joints of the reference group, but ranges of values widely overlapped. Arthritis: mean initial increase of SI 62% (±2 S.D. 18-105%), mean maximum SI 106% higher than precontrast (±2 S.D. 46-166%). Normal: mean initial increase of SI 49% (±2 S.D. 14- 85%), mean maximum of SI 73% (±2 S.D. 23-123%). Given this considerable overlap of results in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the degree of contrast enhancement alone did not allow differentiation between TMJs with and without signs of inflammation. Thickening of the soft joint tissue seems to remain the earliest sign to reliably indicate TMJ arthritis. (orig.)

  17. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by two different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer-Jensen, A.; Vestergaard, A.; Dohn, U.M.;


    was particularly more sensitive than CR for metacarpal heads and carpal bones. MagneVu MRI and CR detected 100% and 89%, respectively, of large erosions (Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials-Rheumatoid Arthritis MRI Scoring System (OMERACT-RAMRIS) score >1 on Artoscan) in MCP joints and 69......% and 15.8% of large erosions in wrists. Conclusions: Both E-MRI units detected more erosions than CR, in particular due to a higher sensitivity in metacarpal heads and carpal bones. The MagneVu unit detected fewer erosions than the Artoscan unit due to a lower average image quality and a smaller...

  18. Risk factors and early detection of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Lodewijk; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc


    P>Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cannot be explained alone by the increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors like smoking and hypertension. Other factors therefore seem to be

  19. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  20. Usefulness of Ultrasound Imaging in Detecting Psoriatic Arthritis of Fingers and Toes in Patients with Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara De simone


    Full Text Available Background. Given that clinical evaluation may underestimate the joint damage and that early treatment can slow down psoriatic arthritis (PsA progression, screening psoriasis patients with imaging tools that can depict early PsA changes would entail clear benefits. Objective. To compare the ability of X-ray and ultrasound (US examination in detecting morphological abnormalities consistent with early PsA in patients with psoriasis, using rheumatological evaluation as the gold standard for diagnosis. Methods. Patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and no previous PsA diagnosis attending our outpatient dermatology clinic and reporting finger/toe joint and/or tendon pain underwent X-ray and US evaluation; they were subsequently referred to a rheumatologist for clinical examination and review of imaging findings. Results. Abnormal US and/or X-ray findings involving at least one finger and/or toe (joints and/or tendons were seen in 36/52 patients: 11 had one or more X-ray abnormalities, including erosion, joint space narrowing, new bone formation, periarticular soft tissue swelling, and periarticular osteoporosis; 36 had suspicious changes on US. Conclusion. US proved valuable in detecting joint and/or tendon abnormalities in the fingers and toes of patients with suspicious changes. The dermatologist should consider US to obtain an accurate assessment of suspicious findings.

  1. The specificity of ultrasound-detected bone erosions for rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zayat, Ahmed S; Ellegaard, Karen; Conaghan, Philip G


    Bone erosion is one of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but also seen in other rheumatic diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the specificity of ultrasound (US)-detected bone erosions (including their size) in the classical 'target' joints for RA....

  2. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis by evaluation of normalized variances of fluorescence time correlation functions (United States)

    Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Voigt, Jan; Ebert, Bernd; MacDonald, Rainer; Bahner, Malte L.; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Osel, Jens; Osel, Ilka


    Fluorescence imaging using the dye indocyanine green as a contrast agent was investigated in a prospective clinical study for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis. Normalized variances of correlated time series of fluorescence intensities describing the bolus kinetics of the contrast agent in certain regions of interest were analyzed to differentiate healthy from inflamed finger joints. These values are determined using a robust, parameter-free algorithm. We found that the normalized variance of correlation functions improves the differentiation between healthy joints of volunteers and joints with rheumatoid arthritis of patients by about 10% compared to, e.g., ratios of areas under the curves of raw data.

  3. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Detection from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Blood and Synovial Fluid



    Introduction Direct detection of microbial super antigens in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be able to guide to the design of cost-effective therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess the existence of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in the synovial fluid of patients with RA by the PCR and ELISA methods. Methods This experimental study was conducted on the synovial fluid of 103 RA patients from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences’ Rheumat...

  4. Clinical significance in detection of inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Qian Wang; Yang Tang; Xiu-Yang Li; Da-Jun Liu


    Objective:To investigate the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and rheumatoid arthritis, and explore the clinical application value of cytokines in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis.Methods:A total of 136 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were regarded as the RA group. Among them, 62 patients were in remission and 74 patients were in the active phase of the disease. Besides, 53 cases of healthy volunteers were considered as the control group. The changes of the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IFN-γ of the three groups were compared and the correlation of the inflammatory cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, DSA28 score and C-reactive protein would be explored. Results:The IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in remission in the RA group showed no statistical differences as compared with those of the control group; the IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in the active phase of the disease in the RA group presented statistical differences as compared with those of patients in the control group and patients in remission in the RA group; The IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were compared in pairs and all showed statistical differences; CRP and DSA28 score and IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were positively correlated, while IL-1β, IFN-γ and CRP and DSA 28 score had no correlations.Conclusions:It is of important significance in the clinic to detect inflammatory cytokines in the early diagnosis, disease evaluation and prognostic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. Compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for cancer detection (United States)

    Nadeau, Valerie; Hamdan, Khaled; Hewett, Jacqueline; Makaryceva, Juljia; Tait, Iain; Cuschieri, Alfred; Padgett, Miles J.


    We describe a compact fluorescence spectroscopic tool for in vivo point monitoring of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and autofluorescence, as a non-invasive method of differentiating normal and cancerous tissue. This instrument incorporates a 405nm diode laser with a shutter to prevent exposure of tissue to harmful light doses and reduce photobleaching, a bifurcated optical fibre to allow illumination of tissue and collection of fluorescence with a single fibre, a compact grating spectrometer for collection of spectra and a PC for system control. We present spectra obtained using this system both during routine gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopy for cancer detection and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) for monitoring of treatment progress. These results illustrate the potential of the system to be used for fluorescence monitoring in a variety of clinical applications.

  6. Septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint: Detection with bone SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swayne, L.C.; Dorsky, S.; Caruana, V.; Kaplan, I.L. (Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (USA))


    We present a rare case of septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint with an associated epidural abscess resulting from Staphylococcus aureus. The infection was initially detected with planar bone scintigraphy and precisely localized with single photon emission computed tomography bone scintigraphy, despite an initially negative radiologic evaluation that included radiographs of the lumbar spine, lumbar myelography, and a postmyelography x-ray computed tomography scan. In the appropriate clinical setting, a bone scan demonstrating unilateral increased activity within the spine should raise the suspicion of inflammatory involvement of the posterior elements.

  7. Evaluation of selected ergonomic assessment tools for use in providing job accommodation for people with inflammatory arthritis. (United States)

    Village, Judy; Backman, Catherine L; Lacaille, Diane


    Inflammatory arthritis (IA) is a leading cause of work disability, especially for those with jobs involving repetitive, hand-intensive or manual work. Ergonomic interventions may mediate against job loss. Our objective was to identify desirable features of an ergonomic tool for use in providing job accommodation for people with IA, and to evaluate a selection of ergonomic and rehabilitation tools against these features. Eight desirable features were compared across 16 assessment tools. None of the tools met all the pre-determined features. Ergonomic assessment tools should incorporate objective assessment of risk factors together with subjective perceptions of symptom aggravation, and identify risk factors that may not currently be causing problems, but may increase risk of aggravation or injury in the future. To accommodate the needs of people with IA, the tool should allow for evaluation of risks and generation of solutions without a worksite visit in situations where the client does not want to disclose their illness. Finally, an assessment tool needs to be applicable to a wide range of worksites, easy to use, valid, and reliable. Against these criteria, it appears that there is a lack of appropriate ergonomic assessment tools for use in people with IA.

  8. The pendulum test as a tool to evaluate passive knee stiffness and viscosity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinci Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pendulum test of Wartenberg is a technique commonly used to measure passive knee motion with the aim to assess spasticity. We used this test to evaluate changes of the knee angular displacement, passive stiffness and viscosity in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Stiffness and viscosity represent passive resistances to joint motion associated with the structural properties of the joint tissue and of the muscular-tendon complex. Stiffness can be considered an intrinsic property of the tissues to resist deformation, while viscosity is related to cohesive forces between adjacent layers of tissues. Both parameters may influence the joint range of motion affecting angular displacement. Methods Nine women with rheumatoid arthritis were compared with a group of healthy women. With the subject half-lying, the relaxed knee was dropped from near-full extension and the characteristics of the ensuring damped unsustained knee oscillation evaluated. The kinematics of leg oscillations was recorded using ultrasonic markers (Zebris CMS HS 10 and the kinetic data were calculated from kinematic and anthropometric measures. Results Knee stiffness significantly increased (p 2 = 0.68 and first flexion (R2 = 0.78. Using a multivariate regression, we found that increasing stiffness was the main factor for the reduction of flexion and extension motions. Conclusion We showed that the Wartenberg test can be considered a practical tool to measure mechanical changes of knee caused by rheumatoid arthritis. This novel application of Wartenberg test could be useful to follow up the effects of pharmacological and rehabilitative interventions in this disease.

  9. Arthritis - resources (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- Arthritis Foundation -- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  10. Intrusion Detection using Open Source Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE


    Full Text Available We have witnessed in the recent years that open source tools have gained popularity among all types of users, from individuals or small businesses to large organizations and enterprises. In this paper we will present three open source IDS tools: OSSEC, Prelude and SNORT.

  11. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  12. LSDCat: Line Source Detection and Cataloguing Tool (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Wistozki, Lutz


    LSDCat is a conceptually simple but robust and efficient detection package for emission lines in wide-field integral-field spectroscopic datacubes. The detection utilizes a 3D matched-filtering approach for compact single emission line objects. Furthermore, the software measures fluxes and extents of detected lines. LSDCat is implemented in Python, with a focus on fast processing of large data-volumes.

  13. Detection of Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity by Automated Perimetry in 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With Normal Fundoscopic Findings


    Motarjemizadeh, Qader; Aidenloo, Naser Samadi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad


    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug used extensively in treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Retinal toxicity is the most important side effects of this drug. Even after the drug is discontinued, retinal degeneration from HCQ can continue to progress. Consequently, multiple ophthalmic screening tests have been developed to detect early retinopathy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of central 2-10 perimetry method in early detection ...

  14. New Multiplexing Tools for Reliable GMO Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pla, M.; Nadal, A.; Baeten, V.; Bahrdt, C.; Berben, G.; Bertheau, Y.; Coll, A.; Dijk, van J.P.; Dobnik, D.; Fernandez-Pierna, J.A.; Gruden, K.; Hamels, S.; Holck, A.; Holst-Jensen, A.; Janssen, E.; Kok, E.J.; Paz, La J.L.; Laval, V.; Leimanis, S.; Malcevschi, A.; Marmiroli, N.; Morisset, D.; Prins, T.W.; Remacle, J.; Ujhelyi, G.; Wulff, D.


    Among the available methods for GMO detection, enforcement and routine laboratories use in practice PCR, based on the detection of transgenic DNA. The cost required for GMO analysis is constantly increasing due to the progress of GMO commercialization, with inclusion of higher diversity of species,

  15. Pathogenesis and early detection of inflammatory arthritis: the role of musculoskeletal symptoms, infections and arthritis-related comorbidities in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.; Beers-Tas, M. van; Korevaar, J.; Schaardenburg, D. van


    Background & Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by clinically apparent inflammatory arthritis (IA). A preclinical phase has been recognized in which symptoms arise and ambulatory care utilization increases. However, information on location and timing of

  16. Are bone erosions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography true erosions? A comparison with computed tomography in rheumatoid arthritis metacarpophalangeal joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Døhn, Uffe; Ejbjerg, B.; Court-Payen, M.;


    The objective of the study was, with multidetector computed tomography (CT) as the reference method, to determine whether bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US), but not with radiography...

  17. The comparisons between thermography and ultrasonography with physical examination for wrist joint assessment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (United States)

    Lerkvaleekul, Butsabong; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Sungkarat, Witaya; Chitrapazt, Niyata; Fuangfa, Praman; Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat


    This study aimed to assess infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonography (US) for detecting wrist arthritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Although IRT could help us detecting joint inflammation, IRT studies in JIA patients with wrist arthritis are still limited. Currently, no validated US criteria exist for detecting arthritis, and the most useful parameters between Gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) or Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) remain unclear. Therefore, this study focused on detecting wrist arthritis in varying degrees using IRT and US compared with physical examination. Of 46 JIA patients, 16 had previous wrist arthritis but currently inactive, 30 still had wrist arthritis, and the median ages (IQR) were 7.7 (4.3) and 10.2 (4.8) years respectively. Fifteen healthy participants were included, with a median age (IQR) of 9.2 (2.0) years. Using IRT, mean temperature (Tmean) and maximum temperature (Tmax) at skin surface in the region of interest (ROI) in the arthritis group were higher than in the inactive group and the healthy controls with p examination, the moderate to severe arthritis had Tmean and Tmax higher than the mild arthritis group with statistical significance. The Heat Distribution Index (HDI), two standard deviations of all pixel temperature values in the ROI, in the moderate to severe arthritis group was higher than in the healthy controls (p = 0.027). The receiver operating characteristic analysis in arthritis detection revealed diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and 71.4% and specificity of 80.0% and 93.3% at a cut-off points of Tmean ≥ 31.0 C and Tmax ≥ 32.3 C respectively. For US, GSUS and PDUS are useful in detecting arthritis, providing high sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (81.3%). Our study demonstrated that both IRT and US were applicable tools for detecting wrist arthritis.

  18. Early detection of patients at risk for rheumatoid arthritis : A challenge for primary and secondary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Alves (Celina)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic auto-immune disease mainly characterized by articular manifestations [1]. Patients present initially with synovitis and joint damage, while extra-articular manifestations such as vasculitis, pleuritis and pericarditis are manifest

  19. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Detection from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Blood and Synovial Fluid (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Kahani, Mahboobeh Sadat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ahamadi, Zyenab


    Introduction Direct detection of microbial super antigens in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be able to guide to the design of cost-effective therapies. The purpose of this study was to assess the existence of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in the synovial fluid of patients with RA by the PCR and ELISA methods. Methods This experimental study was conducted on the synovial fluid of 103 RA patients from Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences’ Rheumatology Clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2011–2014. Bacterial cultures, polymerase chain reaction with specific primer pairs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were used. The PCR products were subjected to sequence as a confirmatory molecular method results. The data were descriptively analyzed by SPSS Version 19. Results The bacteriological study result indicated that, in four cases (3.8%) of the patients, bacterial strains were isolated. The result of PCR molecular method for staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene showed that, 42 of the patients (40.7%) tested positive for the ent A gene. The results of ELISA were positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A (superantigen A) in 51 cases (49.51%) of the patients’ synovial fluids. The results indicated that the possibility of detecting superantigen A in the SF of RA patients, but the origin of the enterotoxin A gene remained unknown. Conclusions The findings of this study may be able to alter the actual theory on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of RA patients. In addition, the results have shown the probability of an endogenous origin for the involved superantigen A in RA patients’ synovial fluids. PMID:27053990

  20. Familial Mediterranean fever mimicking septic arthritis: distinguishing with diffusion weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, Ali Yusuf; Ucar, Murat; Akpek, Sergin; Tokgoz, Nil [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)


    FMF arthritis is generally monoarticular in origin. The affected joint is hot, tender, red and mimics septic arthritis. Conventional imaging findings, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, do not help differentiate between these two entities. The final diagnosis depends on culture of the synovial fluid, and therefore initiation of proper drug therapy can be delayed. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), with its ability to detect altered water-proton mobility, might play an important role as a fast and non-invasive problem-solving tool in this setting. We here present MRI and DWI findings of a case of FMF arthritis mimicking septic arthritis. (orig.)

  1. Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome: differential diagnosis of septic arthritis by regular detection of exceedingly high synovial cell counts. (United States)

    Löffler, W; Lohse, P; Weihmayr, T; Widenmayer, W


    Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome was diagnosed in a 42-year-old patient, after an unusual persistency of high synovial cell counts had been noticed. Clinical peculiarities and problems with diagnosing septic versus non-septic arthritis are discussed.

  2. Overview of the radiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P.A.; Job-Deslandre, C.H.; Lalande, G.; Adamsbaum, C


    Plain films remain the basic tool for diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this paper, we review the new classification of JIA: systemic arthritis, oligoarthritis (persistent), oligoarthritis (extended), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor negative), polyarticular arthritis (rheumatoid factor positive), enthesitis related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and unclassified arthritis. We will also review regional abnormalities of three stages: an early stage, an intermediate stage, a late stage, as well as the differential diagnosis.

  3. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection ofclustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L.; Sabree, Fareedah; Lowe,Micheal; Brown, Kyndall; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip


    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT also demonstrated superior performance, especially for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, was shown to be a significant improvement over the current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.

  4. Infections and arthritis. (United States)

    Mathew, Ashish Jacob; Ravindran, Vinod


    Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can all cause arthritis of either acute or chronic nature, which can be divided into infective/septic, reactive, or inflammatory. Considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic techniques in the recent decades resulting in better treatment outcomes in patients with infective arthritis. Detection of emerging arthritogenic viruses has changed the epidemiology of infection-related arthritis. The role of viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis is increasingly being recognized. We discuss the various causative agents of infective arthritis and emphasize on the approach to each type of arthritis, highlighting the diagnostic tests, along with their statistical accuracy. Various investigations including newer methods such as nucleic acid amplification using polymerase chain reaction are discussed along with the pitfalls in interpreting the tests.

  5. Cytokine and chemokine profiles in fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a potentially useful tool in differential diagnosis. (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel J; Gavin, Igor M; Karpenko, Oleksly; Barkhordar, Farnaz; Gillis, Bruce S


    Making a correct diagnosis is pivotal in the practice of clinical rheumatology. Occasionally, the consultation fails to provide desired clarity in making labeling an individual as having fibromyalgia (FM), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A chemokine and cytokine multiplex assay was developed and tested with the goal of improving and achieving an accurate differential diagnosis. 160 patients with FM, 98 with RA and 100 with SLE fulfilling accepted criteria were recruited and compared to 119 controls. Supernatant cytokine concentrations for IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta were determined using the Luminex multiplex immunoassay bead array technology after mitogenic stimulation of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Each patient's profile was scored using a logistical regression model to achieve statistically determined weighting for each chemokine and cytokine. Among the 477 patients evaluated, the mean scores for FM (1.7 ± 1.2; 1.52-1.89), controls (-3.56 ± 5.7; -4.59 to -2.54), RA (-0.68 ± 2.26; -1.12 to -0.23) and SLE (-1.45 ± 3.34, -2.1 to -0.79). Ninety-three percent with FM scored positive compared to only 11% of healthy controls, 69% RA or 71% SLE patients had negative scores. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value for having FM compared to controls was 93, 89, 92 and 91%, respectively (p < 2.2 × 10(-16)). Evaluating cytokine and chemokine profiles in stimulated cells reveals patterns that are uniquely present in patients with FM. This assay can be a useful tool in assisting clinicians in differentiating systemic inflammatory autoimmune processes from FM and its related syndromes and healthy individuals.

  6. Identification of urinary peptide biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Stalmach

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are associated with improved outcomes but current diagnostic tools such as rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies have shown limited sensitivity. In this pilot study we set out to establish a panel of urinary biomarkers associated with rheumatoid arthritis using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We compared the urinary proteome of 33 participants of the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis inception cohort study with 30 healthy controls and identified 292 potential rheumatoid arthritis-specific peptides. Amongst them, 39 were used to create a classifier model using support vector machine algorithms. Specific peptidic fragments were differentially excreted between groups; fragments of protein S100-A9 and gelsolin were less abundant in rheumatoid arthritis while fragments of uromodulin, complement C3 and fibrinogen were all increasingly excreted. The model generated was subsequently tested in an independent test-set of 31 samples. The classifier demonstrated a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 93% in diagnosing the condition, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93 (p<0.0001. These preliminary results suggest that urinary biomarkers could be useful in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are currently being undertaken in larger cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other athridities to assess the potential of the urinary peptide based classifier in the early detection of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Viral arthritis (United States)

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  9. New tools. A new breed of high-tech detectives. (United States)

    Watson, A


    Forensic scientists are equipping police investigators with powerful tools for collecting and analyzing evidence. But as detection techniques become increasingly sensitive, the problem of sifting the wheat from the chaff at a crime scene mushrooms, guaranteeing a role for the human investigator despite all the gadgetry. Moreover, some developments are also raising civil liberties concerns.

  10. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis


    Hazenberg, B.; Limburg, P; Bijzet, J.; VAN RIJSWIJK, M. H


    OBJECTIVE—To describe a new, quantitative, and reproducible method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue and to compare it with smears stained with Congo red.
METHODS—After extraction of at least 30 mg of abdominal fat tissue in guanidine, the amyloid A protein concentration was measured by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.
RESULTS—The concentrations in 24 patients with arthritis and AA amyloidosis (median 236, range 1.1-8530 ng/mg tissue) were higher (...

  11. Detection of gene expression signatures related to underlying disease and treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serikawa, Kyle A; Jacobsen, Søren; Lundsgaard, Dorthe;


    OBJECTIVES: Gene expression signatures can provide an unbiased view into the molecular changes underlying biologically and medically interesting phenotypes. We therefore initiated this study to identify signatures that would be of utility in studying rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We used mi...

  12. Scintigraphic detection of tumour necrosis factor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Rico, P.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the biodistribution and specific targeting for tumour necrosis factor (TNF) of a fully human, radiolabelled anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (anti-TNF mAb) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To assess whether this agent is suitable for visualisation of synoviti

  13. Human Factors Evaluation of Conflict Detection Tool for Terminal Area (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora; Tang, Huabin; Ballinger, Deborah; Chinn, Fay Cherie; Kozon, Thomas E.


    A conflict detection and resolution tool, Terminal-area Tactical Separation-Assured Flight Environment (T-TSAFE), is being developed to improve the timeliness and accuracy of alerts and reduce the false alert rate observed with the currently deployed technology. The legacy system in use today, Conflict Alert, relies primarily on a dead reckoning algorithm, whereas T-TSAFE uses intent information to augment dead reckoning. In previous experiments, T-TSAFE was found to reduce the rate of false alerts and increase time between the alert to the controller and a loss of separation over the legacy system. In the present study, T-TSAFE was tested under two meteorological conditions, 1) all aircraft operated under instrument flight regimen, and 2) some aircraft operated under mixed operating conditions. The tool was used to visually alert controllers to predicted Losses of separation throughout the terminal airspace, and show compression errors, on final approach. The performance of T-TSAFE on final approach was compared with Automated Terminal Proximity Alert (ATPA), a tool recently deployed by the FAA. Results show that controllers did not report differences in workload or situational awareness between the T-TSAFE and ATPA cones but did prefer T-TSAFE features over ATPA functionality. T-TSAFE will provide one tool that shows alerts in the data blocks and compression errors via cones on the final approach, implementing all tactical conflict detection and alerting via one tool in TRACON airspace.

  14. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT: a tool for automatic detection of clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Kyndall


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. Results CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT proved to be a huge improvement over Patscan. Both CRT and Pilercr were comparable in speed, however CRT was faster for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. Conclusion In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, showed some important improvements over current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n in space and O(nm/l in time.

  15. Raman spectroscopy detects deterioration in biomechanical properties of bone in a glucocorticoid-treated mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.


    Although glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, extended glucocorticoid exposure is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis and leaves patients at a high risk of fracture. To study the biochemical effects of glucocorticoid exposure and how they might affect biomechanical properties of the bone, Raman spectra were acquired from ex vivo tibiae of glucocorticoid- and placebo-treated wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Statistically significant spectral differences were observed due to both treatment regimen and mouse genotype. These differences are attributed to changes in the overall bone mineral composition, as well as the degree of phosphate mineralization in tibial cortical bone. In addition, partial least squares regression was used to generate a Raman-based prediction of each tibia's biomechanical strength as quantified by a torsion test. The Raman-based predictions were as accurate as those produced by microcomputed tomography derived parameters, and more accurate than the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for monitoring bone biochemistry in studies of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, including tests of drugs being developed to combat these diseases.

  16. Introducing a new device for detecting Rheumatoid Arthritis : a near-infrared-fluorescence imaging system


    Bauer, Daniel Friedrich Wilhelm


    In dieser Studie wird mit dem 2-Hand-Fluoreszenz Imager („Rheumascanner“) ein neues Verfahren zur Diagnostik der Rheumatoiden Arthritis vorgestellt. Dieses beruht auf der Detektion von emittierter Fluoreszenz nach intravenöser Injektion eines Fluoreszenzfarbstoffs, des Indocyaningrüns, und Bestrahlung der Hände mit einer Rotlichtquelle. Die Fluoreszenz wird mittels einer Kamera detektiert, die Daten werden vom Computer in Falschfarbbilder umgerechnet und diese können dann in Echtzeit als Film...

  17. Juvenile Arthritis (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  18. Detecting dark matter waves with precision measurement tools

    CERN Document Server

    Derevianko, Andrei


    Virialized Ultra-Light Fields (VULFs) while being viable cold dark matter candidates can also solve the standard model hierarchy problem. Direct searches for VULFs due to their non-particle nature require low-energy precision measurement tools. Here we consider scalar VULF candidates. While the previous proposals have focused on detecting coherent oscillations of the measured signals at the VULF Compton frequencies at the device location, here we point out that VULFs also have a distinct spatial signature, forming dark matter waves. Thereby the discovery reach can be improved by using distributed networks of precision measurement tools. We find the expected dark-matter wave signal by deriving spatio-temporal two-point VULF correlation function. Based on the developed formalism for coherence properties of dark-matter fields, we propose several experiments for dark matter wave detection. In the most basic version, the modifications to already running experiments are minor and only require GPS-assisted time-stam...

  19. Exploring a new ultrasound score as a clinical predictive tool in patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting abatacept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Wakefield, Richard J


    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether changes in a composite (power Doppler/greyscale ultrasound (PDUS)) synovitis score, developed by the OMERACT-EULAR-Ultrasound Task Force, predict disease activity outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with RA who were methotrexate inadequate respo...

  20. Anti-type II collagen antibodies detection and avidity in patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (United States)

    Araujo, Galber R; Fonseca, João E; Fujimura, Patricia T; Cunha-Junior, Jair P; Silva, Carlos H M; Mourão, Ana F; Canhão, Helena; Goulart, Luiz R; Gonçalves, João; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refers to a heterogeneous group of illnesses that have in common the occurrence of chronic joint inflammation in children younger than 16 years of age. The diagnosis is made only on clinical assessment. The identification of antibody markers could improve the early diagnosis, optimizing the clinical management of patients. Type II collagen is one potential autoantigen that has been implicated in the process of arthritis development. The aims of our study were to investigate the occurrence of anti-type II collagen antibodies and also to determine the avidity of the antibody-antigen binding. Ninety-six patients with oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA, 13 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 61 healthy controls (HC) were tested for anti-type II collagen antibodies by ELISA and avidity ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity were determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Forty-two JIA patients (44%) were positive for antibodies against type II collagen. Its detection was significantly higher in JIA patients than in AS patients (p=0.006) and HCs (ppolyarticular JIA, being its presence more prevalent in patients with early disease. It also demonstrates that JIA patients with active disease present antibodies with high avidity against type II collagen.

  1. Anti-infliximab antibodies are already detectable in most patients with rheumatoid arthritis halfway through an infusioncycle: an open-label pharmacokinetic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, B.J.F van den; Broeder, A. den; Wolbink, G.J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Riel, P.L. van; Benraad, B.; Hoogen, F.H. Van den


    BACKGROUND: This study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with infliximab describes prospectively the course of (anti)infliximab levels within an infusioncycle to assess at what moment patients develop low/no infliximab trough levels and/or detectable anti-infliximab levels. METHODS:

  2. SNPdetector: a software tool for sensitive and accurate SNP detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Zhang


    Full Text Available Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and mutations is important for the discovery of genetic predisposition to complex diseases. PCR resequencing is the method of choice for de novo SNP discovery. However, manual curation of putative SNPs has been a major bottleneck in the application of this method to high-throughput screening. Therefore it is critical to develop a more sensitive and accurate computational method for automated SNP detection. We developed a software tool, SNPdetector, for automated identification of SNPs and mutations in fluorescence-based resequencing reads. SNPdetector was designed to model the process of human visual inspection and has a very low false positive and false negative rate. We demonstrate the superior performance of SNPdetector in SNP and mutation analysis by comparing its results with those derived by human inspection, PolyPhred (a popular SNP detection tool, and independent genotype assays in three large-scale investigations. The first study identified and validated inter- and intra-subspecies variations in 4,650 traces of 25 inbred mouse strains that belong to either the Mus musculus species or the M. spretus species. Unexpected heterozygosity in CAST/Ei strain was observed in two out of 1,167 mouse SNPs. The second study identified 11,241 candidate SNPs in five ENCODE regions of the human genome covering 2.5 Mb of genomic sequence. Approximately 50% of the candidate SNPs were selected for experimental genotyping; the validation rate exceeded 95%. The third study detected ENU-induced mutations (at 0.04% allele frequency in 64,896 traces of 1,236 zebra fish. Our analysis of three large and diverse test datasets demonstrated that SNPdetector is an effective tool for genome-scale research and for large-sample clinical studies. SNPdetector runs on Unix/Linux platform and is available publicly (

  3. SNPdetector: A Software Tool for Sensitive and Accurate SNP Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and mutations is important for the discovery of genetic predisposition to complex diseases. PCR resequencing is the method of choice for de novo SNP discovery. However, manual curation of putative SNPs has been a major bottleneck in the application of this method to high-throughput screening. Therefore it is critical to develop a more sensitive and accurate computational method for automated SNP detection. We developed a software tool, SNPdetector, for automated identification of SNPs and mutations in fluorescence-based resequencing reads. SNPdetector was designed to model the process of human visual inspection and has a very low false positive and false negative rate. We demonstrate the superior performance of SNPdetector in SNP and mutation analysis by comparing its results with those derived by human inspection, PolyPhred (a popular SNP detection tool, and independent genotype assays in three large-scale investigations. The first study identified and validated inter- and intra-subspecies variations in 4,650 traces of 25 inbred mouse strains that belong to either the Mus musculus species or the M. spretus species. Unexpected heterozgyosity in CAST/Ei strain was observed in two out of 1,167 mouse SNPs. The second study identified 11,241 candidate SNPs in five ENCODE regions of the human genome covering 2.5 Mb of genomic sequence. Approximately 50% of the candidate SNPs were selected for experimental genotyping; the validation rate exceeded 95%. The third study detected ENU-induced mutations (at 0.04% allele frequency in 64,896 traces of 1,236 zebra fish. Our analysis of three large and diverse test datasets demonstrated that SNPdetector is an effective tool for genome-scale research and for large-sample clinical studies. SNPdetector runs on Unix/Linux platform and is available publicly (

  4. Detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist joints with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døhn, Uffe Møller; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Hasselquist, Maria


    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were, with multidetector computed tomography (CT) as the reference method, to determine the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiography for the detection of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis wrist bones, and to test whether...... on the same day. CT was performed on a Philips Mx8000IDT unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 1 mm) and MRI was performed on a Philips Panorama 0.6T unit (voxel size 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm). Images were evaluated separately for erosions in all wrist bones and were scored according to the principles.......90 (both P persons' total erosion volume and total score (all P

  5. A bacteriophage detection tool for viability assessment of Salmonella cells. (United States)

    Fernandes, E; Martins, V C; Nóbrega, C; Carvalho, C M; Cardoso, F A; Cardoso, S; Dias, J; Deng, D; Kluskens, L D; Freitas, P P; Azeredo, J


    Salmonellosis, one of the most common food and water-borne diseases, has a major global health and economic impact. Salmonella cells present high infection rates, persistence over inauspicious conditions and the potential to preserve virulence in dormant states when cells are viable but non-culturable (VBNC). These facts are challenging for current detection methods. Culture methods lack the capacity to detect VBNC cells, while biomolecular methods (e.g. DNA- or protein-based) hardly distinguish between dead innocuous cells and their viable lethal counterparts. This work presents and validates a novel bacteriophage (phage)-based microbial detection tool to detect and assess Salmonella viability. Salmonella Enteritidis cells in a VBNC physiological state were evaluated by cell culture, flow-cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy, and further assayed with a biosensor platform. Free PVP-SE1 phages in solution showed the ability to recognize VBNC cells, with no lysis induction, in contrast to the minor recognition of heat-killed cells. This ability was confirmed for immobilized phages on gold surfaces, where the phage detection signal follows the same trend of the concentration of viable plus VBNC cells in the sample. The phage probe was then tested in a magnetoresistive biosensor platform allowing the quantitative detection and discrimination of viable and VBNC cells from dead cells, with high sensitivity. Signals arising from 3 to 4 cells per sensor were recorded. In comparison to a polyclonal antibody that does not distinguish viable from dead cells, the phage selectivity in cell recognition minimizes false-negative and false-positive results often associated with most detection methods.

  6. Gonococcal arthritis (United States)

    ... page: // Gonococcal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a ...

  7. Infectious Arthritis (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  8. Psoriatic Arthritis (United States)

    ... your body. Some people with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of the ... physical exam and imaging tests to diagnose psoriatic arthritis. There is no cure, but medicines can help ...

  9. Fungal arthritis (United States)

    ... this page: // Fungal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint ...

  10. Sporotrichal arthritis.



    Sporotrichal arthritis is a rare disease entity. Diagnosis is often difficult and delayed. Presentation may be either monoarticular or polyarticular. A case of polyarticular sporotrichal arthritis which exemplifies these problems is reported.

  11. Psoriatic Arthritis (United States)

    ... Call for Letters of Interest Call for Topics Axial Spondyloarthritis Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Gout Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ... be affected. Psoriatic arthritis in the spine, called spondylitis , causes stiffness in the back or neck, and ...

  12. New agents for scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, M.H.W. de [Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands); Pauwels, E.K.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands); Breedveld, F.C. [Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Radiopharmaceuticals have been used as investigative tools for the detection and treatment of arthritis activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the 1950s. Against the background of the pathophysiology of RA, the current status of joint scintigraphy and possible future developments are reviewed. Both non-specific (radiolabelled leucocytes and technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin) and specific targeting radiopharmaceuticals (including radiolabelled antibodies) are considered. The use of radiopharmaceuticals in the detection of arthritis activity has the advantages of allowing direct imaging of joints by means of whole-body scintigraphy and of joints that are difficult to assess clinically or radiographically. Promising results have been obtained with radiolabelled anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibodies and with somatostatin receptor imaging, but more data are available regarding {sup 99m}Tc-IgG scintigraphy, which differentiates between the various degrees of arthritis activity and thus facilitates the choice of antirheumatic drug. Newer promising approaches to the imaging of RA include the use of radiolabelled J001 and cytokines, though studies on these are limited at present. (orig.)

  13. CADe tools for early detection of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Lauria, A; López, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S


    A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcifications and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. Our collaboration, among italian physicists and radiologists, has built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images and has developed a Computer Aided Detection (CADe) system for the automatic analysis of mammographic images and installed it in some Italian hospitals by a GRID connection. Regarding microcalcifications, in our CADe digital mammogram is divided into wide windows which are processed by a convolution filter; after a self-organizing map analyzes each window and produces 8 principal components which are used as input of a neural network (FFNN) able to classify the windows matched to a threshold. Regarding massive lesions we select all important maximum intensity position and define the ROI radius. From each ROI found we extract the parameters which are used as input in a FFNN to distinguish betwee...

  14. Fuzzy regression modeling for tool performance prediction and degradation detection. (United States)

    Li, X; Er, M J; Lim, B S; Zhou, J H; Gan, O P; Rutkowski, L


    In this paper, the viability of using Fuzzy-Rule-Based Regression Modeling (FRM) algorithm for tool performance and degradation detection is investigated. The FRM is developed based on a multi-layered fuzzy-rule-based hybrid system with Multiple Regression Models (MRM) embedded into a fuzzy logic inference engine that employs Self Organizing Maps (SOM) for clustering. The FRM converts a complex nonlinear problem to a simplified linear format in order to further increase the accuracy in prediction and rate of convergence. The efficacy of the proposed FRM is tested through a case study - namely to predict the remaining useful life of a ball nose milling cutter during a dry machining process of hardened tool steel with a hardness of 52-54 HRc. A comparative study is further made between four predictive models using the same set of experimental data. It is shown that the FRM is superior as compared with conventional MRM, Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) and Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) in terms of prediction accuracy and learning speed.

  15. Detection of Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity by Automated Perimetry in 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Normal Fundoscopic Findings. (United States)

    Motarjemizadeh, Qader; Aidenloo, Naser Samadi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad


    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug used extensively in treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Retinal toxicity is the most important side effects of this drug. Even after the drug is discontinued, retinal degeneration from HCQ can continue to progress. Consequently, multiple ophthalmic screening tests have been developed to detect early retinopathy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of central 2-10 perimetry method in early detection of retinal toxicity. This prospective cross-sectional investigation was carried out on 60 rheumatoid arthritis patients, who had been receiving HCQ for at least 6 months and still were on their medication (HCQ intake) at the time of enrollment. An ophthalmologist examined participants using direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Visual field testing with automated perimetry technique (central 2-10 perimetry with red target) was performed on all included subjects twice in 6 months interval: The first one at the time of enrollment and the second one 6 months later. Males and females did not show any significant difference in terms of age, duration of therapy, daily and cumulative HCQ dose, anterior or posterior segment abnormalities, hypertension, body mass index, and best corrected visual acuity. Anterior segment was abnormal in 9 individuals including 3 subjects with macular pigmentary changes, 4 individuals with cataract and 2 cases with dry eyes. Moreover, 12 subjects had retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) in their posterior segments. After 6 months, depressive changes appeared in 12 subjects. Additionally, HCQ therapy worsened significantly the perimetric results of 5 (55.6%) patients with abnormal anterior segment. A same trend was observed in perimetric results of 6 (50.0%) subjects with abnormal posterior segments (P=0.009). The daily dose of HCQ (P=0.035) as well as the cumulative dose of hydroxychloroquine (P=0.021) displayed statistically significant associations with

  16. Validity of Ultrasonography and Measures of Adult Shoulder Function and Reliability of Ultrasonography in Detecting Shoulder Synovitis in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, G. A. W.; Pineda, C.; Hernandez-Diaz, C.; Ventura-Rios, L.; Moya, C.; Garrido, J.; Groen, H.; Pena, A.; Espinosa, R.; Moeller, I.; Filippucci, E.; Iagnocco, A.; Balint, P. V.; Kane, D.; D'Agostino, M-A; Angulo, M.; Ponte, R.; Fernandez-Gallardo, J. M.; Naredo, E.; Moller, I.


    Objective. To assess the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) in detecting inflammatory shoulder changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to determine the agreement between US and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Disabilitie

  17. Detection and clinical significance of rheumatoid factor, anti -CCP antibody, immunoglobulin and cytokines in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ya Zhu; Qian Feng


    Objective:To detect the content of rheumatoid factor, ring citrulline peptide antibody (CCP), immunoglobulin (Ig) and cytokines in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore the clinical application value of serum indexes for RA diagnosis, treatment and prognostic.Methods: A total of 98 patients with RA were selected, of which 52 cases in the activity and 46 patients in remission, 65 healthy people as controls. Contents of serum RF and Ig (IgM, IgG, IgA) in every group were detected by methods of immune scattering turbidimetry respectively; the content of serum anti-CCP antibody and cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured by methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent respectively. Change of detection index levels between groups were compared and the correlation between cytokines and RF, anti CCP, Ig and DAS28 score in patients with RA were analyzed.Results:The contents of serum RF, CCP antibody, Ig (IgM and IgG, IgA) of RA group (activity and remission) were respectively significantly higher than that of the control group (P0.05). The levels of cytokine IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ were positively correlated with RF, CCP antibody, Ig and DAS28 scores in RA activity while which were only positively correlated with DAS28 scores of RA in remission, and the IL-4 level had no significant correlation with other indicators. Conclusions:The detection of levels of RF, CCP antibody, Ig and cytokine for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of RA has important reference value.

  18. What Is Reactive Arthritis? (United States)

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  19. Astronomers Get New Tools for Gravitational-Wave Detection (United States)


    Teamwork between gamma-ray and radio astronomers has produced a breakthrough in finding natural cosmic tools needed to make the first direct detections of the long-elusive gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein nearly a century ago. An orbiting gamma-ray telescope has pointed radio astronomers to specific locations in the sky where they can discover new millisecond pulsars. Millisecond pulsars, rapidly-spinning superdense neutron stars, can serve as extremely precise and stable natural clocks. Astronomers hope to detect gravitational waves by measuring tiny changes in the pulsars' rotation caused by the passage of the gravitational waves. To do this, they need a multitude of millisecond pulsars dispersed widely throughout the sky. However, nearly three decades after the discovery of the first millisecond pulsar, only about 150 of them had been found, some 90 of those clumped tightly in globular star clusters and thus unusable for detecting gravitational waves. The problem was that millisecond pulsars could only be discovered through arduous, computing-intensive searches of small portions of sky. "We've probably found far less than one percent of the millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way Galaxy," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The breakthrough came when an instrument aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope began surveying the sky in 2008. This instrument located hundreds of gamma-ray-emitting objects throughout our Galaxy, and astronomers suspected many of these could be millisecond pulsars. Paul Ray of the Naval Research Laboratory initiated an international collaboration to use radio telescopes to confirm the identity of these objects as millisecond pulsars. "The data from Fermi were like a buried-treasure map," Ransom said. "Using our radio telescopes to study the objects located by Fermi, we found 17 millisecond pulsars in three months. Large-scale searches had taken 10-15 years to find that many," Ransom

  20. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken


    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  1. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Seyedbonakdar, Zahra; Mousavi, Maryam; Karami, Mehdi


    Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014–2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2%) (P elbow (4 cases), tennis elbow (4 cases), trochanteric bursitis (6 cases), anserine bursitis (6 cases), prepatellar bursitis (11 cases), and ankle tendonitis (7 cases). Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography (P < 0.001) and 34% through Doppler sonography (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination. PMID:28331520

  2. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Karimzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran during 2014–2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2% (P < 0.001. In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases, wrist tendonitis (13 cases, olecranon bursitis (9 cases, golfers elbow (4 cases, tennis elbow (4 cases, trochanteric bursitis (6 cases, anserine bursitis (6 cases, prepatellar bursitis (11 cases, and ankle tendonitis (7 cases. Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography (P < 0.001 and 34% through Doppler sonography (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  3. Molecular Tools for the Detection of Nitrogen Cycling Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Rusch


    Full Text Available Archaea are widespread in extreme and temperate environments, and cultured representatives cover a broad spectrum of metabolic capacities, which sets them up for potentially major roles in the biogeochemistry of their ecosystems. The detection, characterization, and quantification of archaeal functions in mixed communities require Archaea-specific primers or probes for the corresponding metabolic genes. Five pairs of degenerate primers were designed to target archaeal genes encoding key enzymes of nitrogen cycling: nitrite reductases NirA and NirB, nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ, nitrogenase reductase (NifH, and nitrate reductases NapA/NarG. Sensitivity towards their archaeal target gene, phylogenetic specificity, and gene specificity were evaluated in silico and in vitro. Owing to their moderate sensitivity/coverage, the novel nirB-targeted primers are suitable for pure culture studies only. The nirA-targeted primers showed sufficient sensitivity and phylogenetic specificity, but poor gene specificity. The primers designed for amplification of archaeal nosZ performed well in all 3 criteria; their discrimination against bacterial homologs appears to be weakened when Archaea are strongly outnumbered by bacteria in a mixed community. The novel nifH-targeted primers showed high sensitivity and gene specificity, but failed to discriminate against bacterial homologs. Despite limitations, 4 of the new primer pairs are suitable tools in several molecular methods applied in archaeal ecology.

  4. RMOD: a tool for regulatory motif detection in signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinki Kim

    Full Text Available Regulatory motifs are patterns of activation and inhibition that appear repeatedly in various signaling networks and that show specific regulatory properties. However, the network structures of regulatory motifs are highly diverse and complex, rendering their identification difficult. Here, we present a RMOD, a web-based system for the identification of regulatory motifs and their properties in signaling networks. RMOD finds various network structures of regulatory motifs by compressing the signaling network and detecting the compressed forms of regulatory motifs. To apply it into a large-scale signaling network, it adopts a new subgraph search algorithm using a novel data structure called path-tree, which is a tree structure composed of isomorphic graphs of query regulatory motifs. This algorithm was evaluated using various sizes of signaling networks generated from the integration of various human signaling pathways and it showed that the speed and scalability of this algorithm outperforms those of other algorithms. RMOD includes interactive analysis and auxiliary tools that make it possible to manipulate the whole processes from building signaling network and query regulatory motifs to analyzing regulatory motifs with graphical illustration and summarized descriptions. As a result, RMOD provides an integrated view of the regulatory motifs and mechanism underlying their regulatory motif activities within the signaling network. RMOD is freely accessible online at the following URL:

  5. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis bone erosions by 2 different dedicated extremity MRI units and conventional radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Anne; Vestergaard, Aage; Døhn, Uffe Møller;


    and carpal bones. MagneVu and CR detected 100% and 89%, respectively, of large erosions (OMERACT-RAMRIS-score > 1 on Artoscan) in MCP-joints, and 69% and 15.8% of large erosions in wrists. CONCLUSIONS: Both E-MRI units detected more erosions than CR, particularly due to a higher sensitivity in metacarpal...... heads and carpal bones. The MagneVu detected fewer erosions than the Artoscan, due to a lower average image quality and a smaller proportion of bones being visualized....

  6. Bcheck: a wrapper tool for detecting RNase P RNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective bioinformatics solutions are needed to tackle challenges posed by industrial-scale genome annotation. We present Bcheck, a wrapper tool which predicts RNase P RNA genes by combining the speed of pattern matching and sensitivity of covariance models. The core of Bcheck is a library of subfamily specific descriptor models and covariance models. Results Scanning all microbial genomes in GenBank identifies RNase P RNA genes in 98% of 1024 microbial chromosomal sequences within just 4 hours on single CPU. Comparing to existing annotations found in 387 of the GenBank files, Bcheck predictions have more intact structure and are automatically classified by subfamily membership. For eukaryotic chromosomes Bcheck could identify the known RNase P RNA genes in 84 out of 85 metazoan genomes and 19 out of 21 fungi genomes. Bcheck predicted 37 novel eukaryotic RNase P RNA genes, 32 of which are from fungi. Gene duplication events are observed in at least 20 metazoan organisms. Scanning of meta-genomic data from the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition, comprising over 10 million sample sequences (18 Gigabases, predicted 2909 unique genes, 98% of which fall into ancestral bacteria A type of RNase P RNA and 66% of which have no close homolog to known prokaryotic RNase P RNA. Conclusions The combination of efficient filtering by means of a descriptor-based search and subsequent construction of a high-quality gene model by means of a covariance model provides an efficient method for the detection of RNase P RNA genes in large-scale sequencing data. Bcheck is implemented as webserver and can also be downloaded for local use from

  7. Detection of Legionella bozemanae, a New Cause of Septic Arthritis, by PCR Followed by Specific Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Knudsen, John Bonde; Uldum, Søren Anker


    Legionella bozemanae is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We describe a case of joint infection due to L. bozemanae in an immunocompromised patient with dermatomyositis. Without the use of PCR screening or culture on specialized medium, the organism would not have been detected.......Legionella bozemanae is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. We describe a case of joint infection due to L. bozemanae in an immunocompromised patient with dermatomyositis. Without the use of PCR screening or culture on specialized medium, the organism would not have been detected....

  8. Dermatoglyphics in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranath R


    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been referred to Division of Human Genetics for counselling. Qualitative dermatoglyphics comprising of finger print pattern, interdigital pattern, hypothenar pattern and palmar crease were studied on 26 female and 11 male rheumatoid arthritis patients. Comparison between patient male and control male; and patient female and control female has been done. ′Chi′ square test was performed. In male patients, with hands together, arches were increased, loops/ whorls were decreased. Partial Simian crease was significantly increased. In the right hand, patterns were increased in the 3rd interdigital area. On the other hand, in female patients there was a significant increase in whorls and decrease in loops on the first finger on both the hands, increase in arches on the 3rd finger; both arches and whorls on the 4th finger of left hand. Present study has emphasized that dermatoglyphics could be applied as a diagnostic tool to patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilyevna Chetina


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the changes in clinical, immunological, X-ray indicators and expression of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin genes, the key regulator of cell growth and proliferation; ULK1 (autophagy marker; р21 (cyclindependent kinase inhibitor; caspase 3 (indicator of apoptotic activity; MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cathepsin K, which participate in joint destruction, and proinflammatory cytokine TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α in blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA receiving methotrexate (MT therapy.Materials and Methods. Thirty-three RA patients (21 with positive and 12 with negative rheumatoid factor (RF, respectively; median age, 47.1 years and 28 healthy volunteers (median age, 45.1 years were examined. All patients have been receiving MT for 2 years. The clinical response was assessed according to the DAS28 score. ESR and the serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA, C-reactive protein (CRP, and RF were also determined. Degenerative changes in the joints were evaluated by X-ray examination. Gene expression was measured in peripheral blood cells using reverse transcriptase reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results. MT therapy considerably reduced the disease severity according to DAS28 score, as well as the number of swollen and painful joints both in seropositive (RF+ and seronegative (RF- RA patients. Ten patients reached remission by the end of the study. In (RF- RA patients, the absence of progression of joint destruction was accompanied by the absence of any significant changes in expression of MMP9 and cathepsin K, as well as a stronger suppression of TGFα (its expression became comparable to that in the control group. Patients who achieved remission showed a significant decrease in the expression level of the cathepsin K gene as compared to that at the start of the study. In (RF+ RA patients, MT therapy significantly reduced the clinical and

  10. Detection of the novel IL-1 family cytokines by QAH-IL1F-1 assay in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Wang, M; Wang, B; Ma, Z; Sun, X; Tang, Y; Li, X; Wu, X


    The interleukin (IL)-1 family of cytokines comprises 11 members, including 7 pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β,IL-36γ) and 4 anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-36Ra, IL-37 and IL-38), and play central roles in mediating immune responses. In this study, we detected serum levels of IL-36 subfamily cytokines (including IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ, IL-36Ra and IL-38), IL-37, IL-33 and aimed to investigate the roles of these cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) preliminarily. A total of 10 RA patients and 10 healthy controls (HCs) were involved in this study, we measured IL-36 subfamily cytokines, IL-37 and IL-33 levels in the serum of the experiment subjects by QAH-IL1F-1 assay. Clinical and laboratory data of the subjects were collected and analyzed by Spearman's rank test. Compared to that of HCs, IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36Ra, IL-38 and IL-33 levels were significantly increased in RA patients. We also found RA patients with elevated IL-36Ra had a higher ESR and RF-IgM, and there was a positive correlation between increased IL-36α and CRP. Our study suggests that parts of the novel members of IL-1 family cytokines were involved in the pathogenesis of RA, and may provide a novel target for therapies of RA.

  11. New real-time PCR-based method for Kingella kingae DNA detection: application to samples collected from 89 children with acute arthritis. (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Bidet, Philippe; Lorrot, Mathie; Even, Julien; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Liguori, Sandrine; Vitoux, Christine; Lefevre, Yann; Doit, Catherine; Fitoussi, Franck; Penneçot, Georges; Bingen, Edouard; Mazda, Keyvan; Bonacorsi, Stéphane


    Inoculation of blood culture vials with joint fluid samples has revealed the important pathogenic role of Kingella kingae in pediatric arthritis. However, recent studies based on broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and real-time PCR without a probe suggest that conventional methods remain suboptimal. We developed a new real-time PCR method with a probe that is highly specific for K. kingae and applied it to joint fluid samples collected from 89 children with suspected arthritis admitted to our institution during a 2-year period. Real-time PCR was also applied to blood samples obtained before surgery and to joint drainage fluid samples obtained during several days after surgery. Thirty-six (40%) of the 89 cases of suspected septic arthritis had positive culture. Staphylococcus aureus was the main isolate (n = 19/36, 53%), followed by K. kingae (n = 7/36, 19%). Specific real-time PCR identified K. kingae in 24 of the 53 culture-negative cases. Thus, K. kingae was present in 31 (52%) of the 60 documented cases, making it the leading pathogen. Real-time PCR on all 15 blood DNA extracts from patients with K. kingae infection was negative, demonstrating that joint fluid positivity did not result from DNA circulating in blood. Real-time PCR amplification of drainage fluid samples showed that the pathogen could be detected for up to 6 days after antibiotic initiation. K. kingae real-time PCR applied to DNA extracted from joint fluid samples, but not from blood samples, markedly improved the etiological diagnosis of septic arthritis in children. Retrospective diagnosis is feasible for up to 6 days after treatment initiation.

  12. Cure of Psoriasis and Arthritis when Addison’s Disease Was Detected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lind


    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticoid therapy is well-known to improve the symptoms of psoriasis. Addison’s disease is an autoimmune disease which leads to a loss of cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This case report describes a patient with wide-spread psoriasis for 34 years who was cured when Addison’s disease was detected and substitution to reach normal biological cortisol levels was introduced. Case Report: A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with Addison’s disease. He had been tired for several years and had had difficulties in continuing his work. His brother had Addison’s disease and recommended him to make a screen for the disease. Synacthen test diagnosed Addison’s disease with a clear deficiency of cortisol production. After substitution with hydrocortisone the patient’s constitution improved rapidly and he felt no longer tired during work. At the same time, all skin lesions of psoriasis disappeared as well as aches in several joints, both symptoms having been present for a couple of decades. Previously, salves of cortisol had been used to reduce the symptoms of psoriasis, but now, 1–2 years later, after the treatment of Addison’s disease, no symptoms in the skin or joints have reoccurred. Conclusions: This report illustrates that Addison’s disease, although a rare condition, should be kept in mind before treatment of psoriasis is started. Especially if other symptoms such as fatigue are present, a screening test of serum cortisol in the morning should be liberally made. The report also illustrates a need of examining corticoid levels in patients with psoriasis compared to the general population.

  13. Juvenile Arthritis (United States)

    ... increased risk of developing an inflammatory eye problem (iritis or uveitis). Eye inflammation may persist independently of the arthritis. Because iritis usually does not cause symptoms, regular exams by ...

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  15. Posttraumatic Arthritis


    Pickering, Robert D.


    Posttraumatic arthritis (i.e., degenerative joint disease secondary to injury) is a particular problem in young, active patients. It limits the activities of these vigorous individuals, and the compromised joint must be endured for a long time. The knee is used as an example of a joint commonly involved in this process. Conditions predisposing patients to posttraumatic arthritis are discussed, as are some treatment modalities, including rest, ice therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, physio...

  16. Application of DBM tool for detection of EUV mask defect (United States)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Byeongjun; Maruyama, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the most leading lithography technologies for high volume manufacturing. The EUVL is based on reflective optic system therefore critical patterning issues are arisen from the surface of photomask. Defects below and inside of the multilayer or absorber of EUV photomask is one of the most critical issues to implement EUV lithography in mass production. It is very important to pick out and repair printable mask defects. Unfortunately, however, infrastructure for securing the defect free photomask such as inspection tool is still under development furthermore it does not seem to be ready soon. In order to overcome the lack of infrastructures for EUV mask inspection, we will discuss an alternative methodology which is based on wafer inspection results using DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool. It is very challenging for metrology to quantify real mask defect from wafer inspection result since various sources are possible contributor. One of them is random defect comes from poor CD uniformity. It is probable that those random defects are majority of a defect list including real mask defects. It is obvious that CD uniformity should be considered to pick out only a real mask defect. In this paper, the methodology to determine real mask defect from the wafer inspection results will be discussed. Experiments are carried out on contact layer and on metal layer using mask defect inspection tool, Teron(KLA6xx) and DBM (Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170™.

  17. Innovative tools for detection of plant pathogenic viruses and bacteria. (United States)

    López, María M; Bertolini, Edson; Olmos, Antonio; Caruso, Paola; Gorris, María Teresa; Llop, Pablo; Penyalver, Ramón; Cambra, Mariano


    Detection of harmful viruses and bacteria in plant material, vectors or natural reservoirs is essential to ensure safe and sustainable agriculture. The techniques available have evolved significantly in the last few years to achieve rapid and reliable detection of pathogens, extraction of the target from the sample being important for optimising detection. For viruses, sample preparation has been simplified by imprinting or squashing plant material or insect vectors onto membranes. To improve the sensitivity of techniques for bacterial detection, a prior enrichment step in liquid or solid medium is advised. Serological and molecular techniques are currently the most appropriate when high numbers of samples need to be analysed. Specific monoclonal and/or recombinant antibodies are available for many plant pathogens and have contributed to the specificity of serological detection. Molecular detection can be optimised through the automatic purification of nucleic acids from pathogens by columns or robotics. New variants of PCR, such as simple or multiplex nested PCR in a single closed tube, co-operative-PCR and real-time monitoring of amplicons or quantitative PCR, allow high sensitivity in the detection of one or several pathogens in a single assay. The latest development in the analysis of nucleic acids is micro-array technology, but it requires generic DNA/RNA extraction and pre-amplification methods to increase detection sensitivity. The advances in research that will result from the sequencing of many plant pathogen genomes, especially now in the era of proteomics, represent a new source of information for the future development of sensitive and specific detection techniques for these microorganisms.

  18. A tool for errors detection in printed circuit boards production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Luca Pennacchia


    Full Text Available The progressive implementation of software functions in Integrated Circuits (ICs has considerably increased the number oftransistors and pin connections of ICs. For that reason, Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs are fabricated with the Surface MountTechnology (SMT nowadays and IC mounting on PCB is a crucial process that requires high precision. An Automatic MechanicalMontage (AMM system is used to mount ICs on the sockets using a couple of reference points for every IC in order to find thecorrect positions for mounting the IC. Due to some factors in the process of PCB development, there are differences betweendesigned and manufactured PCBs, which could generate delays in their production. In this work, a software tool which allows towork with digital images of PCBs is described. This tool finds the differences generated in PCB development, especially thedifferences in IC reference points using Digital Image Processing (DIP techniques.

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult ...

  20. The potential use of microcalorimetry in rapid differentiation between septic arthritis and other causes of arthritis. (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Hügle, T; Daikeler, T; Voide, C; Borens, O; Trampuz, A


    Current diagnostic methods in differentiating septic from non-septic arthritis are time-consuming (culture) or have limited sensitivity (Gram stain). Microcalorimetry is a novel method that can rapidly detect microorganisms by their heat production. We investigated the accuracy and time to detection of septic arthritis by using microcalorimetry. Patients older than 18 years of age with acute arthritis of native joints were prospectively included. Synovial fluid was aspirated and investigated by Gram stain, culture and microcalorimetry. The diagnosis of septic arthritis and non-septic arthritis were made by experienced rheumatologists or orthopaedic surgeons. Septic arthritis was diagnosed by considering the finding of acute arthritis together with findings such as positive Gram stain or positive culture of synovial fluid or positive blood culture. The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing septic arthritis and the time to positivity of microcalorimetry were determined. Of 90 patients (mean age 64 years), nine had septic arthritis, of whom four (44 %) had positive Gram stain, six (67 %) positive synovial fluid culture and four (44 %) had positive blood culture. The sensitivity of microcalorimetry was 89 %, the specificity was 99 % and the mean detection time was 5.0 h (range, 2.2-8.0 h). Microcalorimetry is an accurate and rapid method for the diagnosis of septic arthritis. It has potential to be used in clinical practice in diagnosing septic arthritis.

  1. Does the truth come out in the writing? Scan as a lie detection tool. (United States)

    Nahari, Galit; Vrij, Aldert; Fisher, Ronald P


    We tested the accuracy of Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN), a verbal lie detection tool that is used world-wide by federal law enforcement and military agencies. Sixty-one participants were requested to write down the truth, an outright lie or a concealment lie about activities they had just completed. The statements were coded with SCAN and with another verbal lie detection tool, Reality Monitoring (RM). RM discriminated significantly between truth tellers and outright liars and between truth tellers and concealment liars, whereas SCAN did not discriminate between truth tellers and either kind of liar. Implications of the findings for the suitability of SCAN as a lie detection tool are discussed.

  2. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.


    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic re

  3. Rapid Brightness Variations as a Tool to Enhance Satellite Detectability (United States)

    Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Klotz, Alain; Ducrotte, Etienne; Boer, Michel; Blanchet, Gwendoline


    To preserve the space environment for future generations and ensure the safety of space missions, we have to improve our knowledge of the debris at all altitudes. Since 2004, we have started to observe and study satellites and debris on the geostationary orbit. We use a network of robotic telescopes called TAROT (Télescopes Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires - Rapid Action Telescope for Transient Objects) which are located in France and Chile. This system processes the data in real time. Its wide field of view is useful for detection, systematic survey and to follow both catalogued and uncatalogued objects. The TAROTs are 25 cm telescopes with a wide field of view of 1.86deg x 1.86deg. It can detect objects up to 17th magnitude with an integration time of 30 seconds, corresponding to an object of 50cm in the geostationary belt with a 0.2 albedo. Tiny debris are also dangerous for space mission and satellites. To detect them, we need either to increase the TAROT sensitivity or to observe them in optimal light conditions.Last year we detected very important magnitude variations from several geostationary satellites during observations close to equinoxes. The brightness of a geostationary satellite evolves during the night and during the year, depending on the angle between the observer, the satellite and the sun. Geostationary satellites will be brighter near March 1st and of October 10th, at their exit of the shade. In this period the sun crosses the equatorial plan of the Earth, the enlightened surface will reach a maximum during a limited periods of time (about 30 minutes), provoking a short, bright flash. This phenomenon is used in two ways: first, it allows to detect smaller objects, which are usually below the detection limit, enhancing the sensitivity of the survey. Secondly, for longer objects the light curve during and outside the °ash contains information on the object intrinsic geometry and reflectivity. In this paper we discuss how the various

  4. Making the difference: integrating structural variation detection tools. (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Smit, Sandra; Bonnema, Guusje; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; de Ridder, Dick


    From prokaryotes to eukaryotes, phenotypic variation, adaptation and speciation has been associated with structural variation between genomes of individuals within the same species. Many computer algorithms detecting such variations (callers) have recently been developed, spurred by the advent of the next-generation sequencing technology. Such callers mainly exploit split-read mapping or paired-end read mapping. However, as different callers are geared towards different types of structural variation, there is still no single caller that can be considered a community standard; instead, increasingly the various callers are combined in integrated pipelines. In this article, we review a wide range of callers, discuss challenges in the integration step and present a survey of pipelines used in population genomics studies. Based on our findings, we provide general recommendations on how to set-up such pipelines. Finally, we present an outlook on future challenges in structural variation detection.

  5. Can magnetic resonance imaging differentiate undifferentiated arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Hørslev-Petersen, K


    A high sensitivity for the detection of inflammatory and destructive changes in inflammatory joint diseases makes magnetic resonance imaging potentially useful for assigning specific diagnoses, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis in arthritides, that remain undifferentiated after...... conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographic examinations. With recent data as the starting point, the present paper describes the current knowledge on magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated arthritis....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D'Angelo


    Full Text Available Imaging of psoriatic arthritis (PsA is important for two reasons: the differential diagnosis from other arthritides and the assessment of structural damage that can be inhibited by the new drugs such as the anti-TNFα agents. Plain film radiographic findings of peripheral arthritis have been important in elaborating the concept of PsA as a separate disease entity. Characteristic aspects of psoriatic peripheral arthritis help the differentiation from rheumatoid arthritis. High-resolution ultrasonography (US, US combined with power Doppler (PDUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to image joint synovitis of PsA. Radiologic features of spondylitis associated with psoriasis are similar to spondylitis associated with reactive arthritis and differ from those of primary ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the spondylitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. MRI is very sensitive for the early diagnosis of sacroiliitis. There have been no MRI studies on the spine of patients with PsA. In primary AS bone oedema in the vertebral bodies is an indicator of active disease and can ameliorate during anti-TNFα therapy. Historically, plain film radiography have played a pivotal role in defining enthesitis lesions of SpA. However, entheseal bone changes appear late. US and MRI have proved to be a highly sensitive and non invasive tools. Recent US and MRI studies on both finger and toe dactylitis have established that dactylitis is due to flexor tenosynovitis and marked adjacent soft tissue swelling with a variable degree of small joint synovitis. There is no evidence of enthesitis of the insertion of the flexor digitorum tendons and of the attachment of the caspsule of the digit joints. Key words: Enthesitis, dactylitis, spondyloarthritis, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, imaging

  7. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes. (United States)

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch


    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  8. Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (United States)


    endocrine disruptors on human health has created a need for screening systems to detect xenoestrogens, a diverse group of chemicals that mimic...Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals V. Sacks, J. Rishpon* Department of Molecular...sensitive and amenable to use on-site, providing an efficient and economic tool for measuring minuscule amounts of endocrine disrupting chemicals

  9. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm


    Kuo-Yi Huang


    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line betwee...

  10. Gouty arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, C.R.; Nakayama, D.A.; Lightfoot, R.W. Jr.; Wortmann, R.L.; Carrera, G.F.


    A prospective analysis of 60 patients with gout was undertaken to evaluate the radiographic spectrum of gouty arthritis in patients treated in the era of hypouricemic therapy. Twenty-two of these patients were clinically tophaceous; 36 were considered to have radiographic findings diagnostic of gouty arthritis by strict radiographic criteria. Up to 24% of the patients denied symptoms in joints with radiographic changes of gout; 42% with no evidence of tophi on clinical examination had radiographic changes characteristic of gout. Radiographic assessment can be extremely helpful in the management of gout by documenting the degree and extent of bony involvement, particularly in patients with limited symptoms or without clinical tophi.

  11. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: how can the radiologist help the clinician?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, E.M. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Radiology Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    The classification of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) is based on clinical criteria and includes: 1. Systemic arthritis 2. Oligoarthritis 3. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor positive 4. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor negative 5. Enthesitis-related arthritis 6. Psoriatic arthritis 7. Undifferentiated arthritis. Systematic arthritis is different from the other arthritides. It is associated with fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. The arthritis is polyarticular and symmetrical. The enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes may be detected and followed clinically and, more accurately, with the help of cross-sectional imaging modality such as US or MRI. CT should be avoided in children because of the ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. A new Screening Tool for Detecting Early Atheroslerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie W.Shaeffer; Palm Spring CA; Thach Nguyen


    @@ In a study published in the current issue of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, Ang and co-investigators used the highresolution 64-slice CT coronary angiography to detect coronary lesions in a group of patients with atypical angina.1 The clinical data of these patients were also used to calculate their risk according the Framingham and PROCAM scoring system.2,3 As the cohort is composed with a majority of low risk patients with atypical angina, only a small minority of the patients were classified as having medium and high risk. The results showed that MDCT uncovered 18% either significant lesions (>50% stenosis) or calcifications (>400Agatston units)in the low risk patients and 33% in the medium and high risk subgroups.

  13. Chaos detection tools: The LP-VIcode and its applications (United States)

    Darriba, L. A.; Maffione, N. P.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    A very important topic in galactic dynamics is the detection of instabilities of a given system and the possible appearance of chaos. Such a chaotic bahaviour can be detected and studied by means of variational chaos in- dicators (CIs). The CIs are based on the study of the evolution of initial deviation vectors, which makes these techniques specially sensitive to in- dicate the presence of chaos. Notwithstanding their special sensitiveness to identify chaos, the CIs are still good alternatives to determine also the resonance web. On the other hand, the so-called spectral analysis methods are based on the study of some quantity (e.g. the frequency) on a single orbit, which turns these techniques very efficient for the determination of the resonant struc- ture of the system. The analysis of the interaction among chaotic and regular components as well as the determination of the resonant structure of the Hamiltonian leads to a deeper understanding of the system's dynamics. Despite the advan- tages of the simultaneous application of both types of techniques, many researchers keep applying only one of them. Herein, we present an alpha version of a program coded in Fortran, the LP-VIcode. Although the code is in a developing stage, it can compute several CIs, and here we apply it together with the Frequency Modified Fourier Transform (FMFT) (Sidlichovský & Nesvorný 1996) to study the stationary space (Schwarzchild 1993) of an average realistic Hamiltonian model (Muzzio et al. 2005). Using the LP-VIcode, in Maffione et al. (2011b) and Darriba et al. (sub- mitted) the authors suggest an efficient package of CIs to study a general Hamiltonian. Here the research is extended to show that the complemen- tary use of the LP-VIcode and the spectral analysis methods is highly rec- ommended to study a realistic Hamiltonian model.

  14. Improving healthcare consumer effectiveness: An Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool (ANSWER for people with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Susan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA should use DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs within the first three months of symptoms in order to prevent irreversible joint damage. However, recent studies report the delay in DMARD use ranges from 6.5 months to 11.5 months in Canada. While most health service delivery interventions are designed to improve the family physician's ability to refer to a rheumatologist and prescribe treatments, relatively little has been done to improve the delivery of credible, relevant, and user-friendly information for individuals to make treatment decisions. To address this care gap, the Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool (ANSWER will be developed and evaluated to assist people in making decisions about the use of methotrexate, a type of DMARD. The objectives of this project are: 1 to develop ANSWER for people with early RA; and 2 to assess the extent to which ANSWER reduces people's decisional conflict about the use of methotrexate, improves their knowledge about RA, and improves their skills of being 'effective healthcare consumers'. Methods/design Consistent with the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, the development process of ANSWER will involve: 1. creating a storyline and scripts based on the best evidence on the use of methotrexate and other management options in RA, and the contextual factors that affect a patient's decision to use a treatment as found in ERAHSE; 2. using an interactive design methodology to create, test, analyze and refine the ANSWER prototype; 3. testing the content and user interface with health professionals and patients; and 4. conducting a pilot study with 51 patients, who are diagnosed with RA in the past 12 months, to assess the extent to which ANSWER improves the quality of their decisions, knowledge and skills in being effective consumers. Discussion We envision that the ANSWER will help accelerate the dissemination of knowledge and

  15. Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Kingella kingae and Staphylococcus aureus from synovial fluid in suspected septic arthritis. (United States)

    Haldar, Malay; Butler, Meghan; Quinn, Criziel D; Stratton, Charles W; Tang, Yi-Wei; Burnham, Carey-Ann D


    Direct plating of synovial fluid (SF) on agar-based media often fails to identify pathogens in septic arthritis (SA). We developed a PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Kingella kingae and Staphylococcus aureus from SF to evaluate molecular detection in SF and to estimate the incidence of K. kingae in SA in North America. The assay was based on detection of the cpn60 gene of K. kingae and the spa gene of S. aureus in multiplex real-time PCR. K. kingae was identified in 50% of patients between 0 and 5 yr of age (n=6) but not in any patients >18 yr old (n=105). Direct plating of SF on agar-based media failed to detect K. kingae in all samples. The PCR assay was inferior to the culture-based method for S. aureus, detecting only 50% of culture-positive cases. Our findings suggest that K. kingae is a common pathogen in pediatric SA in North America, in agreement with previous reports from Europe. PCR-based assays for the detection of K. kingae may be considered in children with SA, especially in those with a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  16. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yi Huang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area, and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  17. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm. (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi


    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral head to detect avascular necrosis in active rheumatoid arthritis treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugt, R.M. van; Sijbrandij, E.S.; Bijlsma, J.W.J. [Univ. Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Efficacious management of patients with avascular necrosis of bone (AVN) necessitates the identification of patients with a high risk of collapse of the femoral head. In this prospective study we imaged both hips of 10 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. MRI and conventional radiography were performed before MP-pulse therapy and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Two patients showed unilateral changes compatible with AVN. One patient became symptomatic and revealed characteristic radiographic abnormalities. The other patient remained asymptomatic and the MRI appearance returned to normal after 6 months. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A computer-aided detection system for rheumatoid arthritis MRI data interpretation and quantification of synovial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubassove, Olga; Boesen, Mikael; Cimmino, Marco A;


    RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVE: Disease assessment and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients require objective evaluation and quantification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a large potential to supplement such information for the clinician, however, time spent on data reading...... and interpretation slow down development in this area. Existing scoring systems of especially synovitis are too rigid and insensitive to measure early treatment response and quantify inflammation. This study tested a novel automated, computer system for analysis of dynamic MRI data acquired from patients with RA...

  20. Validity of ultrasonography and measures of adult shoulder function and reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using magnetic resonance imaging as a gold standard.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruyn, G A W


    To assess the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) in detecting inflammatory shoulder changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to determine the agreement between US and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a gold standard.

  1. Arthritis of the Hand (United States)

    .org Arthritis of the Hand Page ( 1 ) The hand and wrist have multiple small joints that work together to ... a shoelace. When the joints are affected by arthritis, activities of daily living can be difficult. Arthritis ...

  2. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (United States)

    ... are similar, CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gout Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. The in-vivo use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to detect inflammation elicits a cytokine response but does not aggravate experimental arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPION are used in diagnostic imaging of a variety of different diseases. For such in-vivo application, an additional coating with a polymer, for example polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, is needed to stabilize the SPION and prevent aggregation. As the particles are foreign to the body, reaction against the SPION could occur. In this study we investigated the effects that SPION may have on experimental arthritis after intra-articular (i.a. or intravenous (i.v. injection.PVA-coated SPION were injected either i.a. (6 or 24 μg iron or i.v. (100 μg or 1 mg iron into naïve Toll-like receptor-4 deficient (TLR4-/- or wild-type C57Bl/6 mice, or C57Bl/6 mice with antigen-induced arthritis. As control, some mice were injected with PVA or PBS. MR imaging was performed at 1 and 7 days after injection. Mice were sacrificed 2 hours and 1, 2, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection of the SPION, and RNA from synovium and liver was isolated for pro-inflammatory gene expression analysis. Serum cytokine measurements and whole knee joint histology were also performed.Injection of a high dose of SPION or PVA into naïve knee joints resulted in an immediate upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in the synovium. A similar gene expression profile was observed after SPION or PVA injection into knee joints of TLR4-/- mice, indicating that this effect is not due to LPS contamination. Histological analysis of the knee joints also revealed synovial inflammation after SPION injection. Two hours after i.v. injection of SPION or PVA into naïve mice, an upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression was detected in the liver. Administration of SPION or PVA into arthritic mice via i.a. injection did not result in an upregulation in gene expression and also no additional effects were observed on histology. MR imaging and histology showed long-term retention of SPION in the inflamed joint. However, 14 days after the injections no long

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; McInnes, Iain B


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, which can cause cartilage and bone damage as well as disability. Early diagnosis is key to optimal therapeutic success, particularly in patients with well-characterised risk factors for poor outcomes such as high disease activity, presence of autoantibodies, and early joint damage. Treatment algorithms involve measuring disease activity with composite indices, applying a treatment-to-target strategy, and use of conventional, biological, and newz non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. After the treatment target of stringent remission (or at least low disease activity) is maintained, dose reduction should be attempted. Although the prospects for most patients are now favourable, many still do not respond to current therapies. Accordingly, new therapies are urgently required. In this Seminar, we describe current insights into genetics and aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment, therapeutic agents, and treatment strategies together with unmet needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  5. CsSNP: A Web-Based Tool for the Detecting of Comparative Segments SNPs. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Dongjie; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Yongchao; Yang, Chao; Yang, Long


    SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) is a popular tool for the study of genetic diversity, evolution, and other areas. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a convenient, utility, robust, rapid, and open source detecting-SNP tool for all researchers. Since the detection of SNPs needs special software and series steps including alignment, detection, analysis and present, the study of SNPs is limited for nonprofessional users. CsSNP (Comparative segments SNP, ) is a freely available web tool based on the Blat, Blast, and Perl programs to detect comparative segments SNPs and to show the detail information of SNPs. The results are filtered and presented in the statistics figure and a Gbrowse map. This platform contains the reference genomic sequences and coding sequences of 60 plant species, and also provides new opportunities for the users to detect SNPs easily. CsSNP is provided a convenient tool for nonprofessional users to find comparative segments SNPs in their own sequences, and give the users the information and the analysis of SNPs, and display these data in a dynamic map. It provides a new method to detect SNPs and may accelerate related studies.

  6. Indicators for detection of septic arthritis in the acutely swollen joint cohort of those without joint prostheses. (United States)

    Roberts, John; Schaefer, Eric; Gallo, Robert A


    Differentiating septic arthritis from culture-negative, acute atraumatic joint effusion is difficult. Studies have attempted to elucidate factors that herald infection, but, due to overlap, most conclude that the diagnosis ultimately relies on clinical judgment. Furthermore, studies are limited by broad inclusion criteria. The current retrospective case study sought to examine (1) which markers differentiate a culture-positive septic joint from culture-negative effusion in patients suspicious for infection despite no growth on Gram stain and without previous surgery in the affected joint and (2) whether threshold values of these markers exist that predict septic arthritis. The study was performed by reviewing records of those who underwent operative irrigation and debridement involving the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle. Patients were included if they were older than 18 years and had an acutely swollen/painful joint and no organisms on initial Gram stain. Exclusion criteria were lack of serum markers or synovial fluid aspirate, antibiotics within 1 week, adjacent wound or skin infection, recent trauma to the joint, and previous joint infection or surgery to the joint. Several clinical, serological, and synovial parameters were collected and analyzed using paired t test with Bonferonni correction. Serum C-reactive protein was the only significantly different variable between groups. Serum C-reactive protein greater than 10.5 mg/dL was predictive of infection. In those suspicious for infection despite no growth on Gram stain and without previous surgery in the affected joint, C-reactive protein greater than 10.5 mg/dL is suspicious for joint sepsis and should warrant consideration for urgent irrigation and debridement.

  7. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy – a useful tool for screening patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis at the risk of development of premature atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Górska


    Full Text Available Inflammation of the vascular wall with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent activation of inflammatory immune response play pivotal roles in the early development of the atherosclerotic process not only in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but also in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. This hypothesis was supported by our findings from autopsy examination, revealing atherosclerosis lesions in about 30�0children with JIA. The established methods of assessing pre-clinical atherosclerosis include measurement of biochemical markers of endothelium impairment and ultrasonographic examination of vessels (FMD, IMT. The authors suggest that revealing structural and functional impairment of peripheral microvessels by means of static and dynamic videocapillaroscopy can give clinicians a chance to identify even younger patients with JIA/RA at high risk of atherosclerosis.

  8. Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis (United States)

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding


    Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

  9. Septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ahaideb Abdulaziz


    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increasing number of rheumatoid patients who get septic arthritis. Chronic use of steroids is one of the important predisposing factors. The clinical picture of septic arthritis is different in immunocompromised patients like patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis and management are discussed in this review article.

  10. Septic arthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis


    Al-Ahaideb Abdulaziz


    Abstract There is an increasing number of rheumatoid patients who get septic arthritis. Chronic use of steroids is one of the important predisposing factors. The clinical picture of septic arthritis is different in immunocompromised patients like patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis and management are discussed in this review article.

  11. Multireader assessment as an alternative to reference assessment to improve the detection of radiographic progression in a large longitudinal cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (ESPOIR) (United States)

    Gandjbakhch, Frederique; Granger, Benjamin; Freund, Romain; Foltz, Violaine; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Devauchelle, Valerie; Afshar, Mona; Albert, Jean David; Bailly, Florian; Constant, Elodie; Biale, Lisa; Milin, Morgane; Couderc, Marion; Denarie, Delphine; Fradin, Anne; Martaille, Virginie; Pierreisnard, Audrey; Poursac, Nicolas; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno


    Introduction Structural damage progression is a major outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Its evaluation and follow-up in trials should involve radiographic scoring by 1 or 2 readers (reference assessment), which is challenging in large longitudinal cohorts with multiple assessments. Objectives To compare the reproducibility of multireader and reference assessment to improve the feasibility of detecting radiographic progression in a large cohort of patients with early arthritis (ESPOIR). Methods We used 3 sessions to train 12 rheumatologists in radiographic scoring by the van der Heijde-modified Sharp score (SHS). Multireader scoring was based on 10 trained-reader assessments, each reader scoring a random sample of 1/5 of all available radiographs (for double scoring for each X-ray set) for patients included in the ESPOIR cohort with complete radiographic data at M0 and M60. Reference scoring was performed by 2 experienced readers. Scoring was performed blindly to clinical data, with radiographs in chronological order. We compared multireader and reference assessments by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for SHS and significant radiographic progression (SRP). Results The intrareader and inter-reader reproducibility for trained assessors increased during the training sessions (ICC 0.79 to 0.94 and 0.76 to 0.92), respectively. For the 524 patients included, agreement between multireader and reference assessment of SHS progression between M0 and M60 and SRP assessment were almost perfect, ICC (0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93)) and (0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99)), respectively. Conclusions Multireader assessment of radiographic structural damage progression is comparable to reference assessment and could be used to improve the feasibility of radiographic scoring in large longitudinal cohort with numerous X-ray evaluations.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of a dengue outbreak detection tool for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Zhang

    Full Text Available An outbreak detection and response system, using time series moving percentile method based on historical data, in China has been used for identifying dengue fever outbreaks since 2008. For dengue fever outbreaks reported from 2009 to 2012, this system achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 99.8% and a median time to detection of 3 days, which indicated that the system was a useful decision tool for dengue fever control and risk-management programs in China.

  13. Using an Electronic Text-Matching Tool (Turnitin) to Detect Plagiarism in a New Zealand University (United States)

    Goddard, Robert; Rudzki, Romuald


    This paper is concerned with reporting the experience and findings of staff using a commercially-available text-matching tool (Turnitin) to detect plagiarism in a university setting in New Zealand. The use of actual instances of plagiarism revealed through Turnitin in a teaching department is a departure from the more usual self-reporting…

  14. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc


    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  15. QualitySNPng: a user-friendly SNP detection and visualization tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.; Esselink, G.; Hoegen, B.; Vosman, B.


    QualitySNPng is a new software tool for the detection and interactive visualization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It uses a haplotype-based strategy to identify reliable SNPs; it is optimized for the analysis of current RNA-seq data; but it can also be used on genomic DNA sequences deri

  16. Setup Instructions for the Applied Anomaly Detection Tool (AADT) Web Server (United States)


    Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington...Microsoft Windows. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Applied Anomaly Detection Tool, AADT, Windows, server, web service , installation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Web Platform Installer at the Products page..........................................8 Fig. 8 Web Platform Installer search results for PHP

  17. Tools for Multimode Quantum Information: Modulation, Detection, and Spatial Quantum Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Janousek, Jirí


    We present here all the tools required for continuous variable parallel quantum information protocols based on spatial multi-mode quantum correlations and entanglement. We describe techniques for encoding and detecting this quantum information with high efficiency in the individual modes. We use ...

  18. Analysis Of Potentiometric Methods Used For Crack Detection In Forging Tools (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Drbúl, Mário; Stančeková, Dana; Varga, Daniel; Martinček, Juraj; Kuždák, Viktor


    Increased use of forging tools in mass production causes their increased wear and creates pressure to design more efficient renovation process. Renovation is complicated because of the identification of cracks expanding from the surface to the core material. Given that the production of forging tools is expensive, caused by the cost of tool steels and the thermo-chemical treatment, it is important to design forging tool with its easy renovation in mind. It is important to choose the right renovation technology, which will be able to restore the instrument to its original state while maintaining financial rentability. Choosing the right technology is difficult because of nitrided and heat-treated surface for high hardness and wear resistance. Article discusses the use of non-destructive method of detecting cracks taking into account the size of the cracks formed during working process.

  19. Biometric Device Assistant Tool: Intelligent Agent for Intrusion Detection at Biometric Device using JESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili Arjunwadkar


    Full Text Available While there are various advantages of biometric authentication process, it is vulnerable to attacks, which can decline its security. To enhance the security of biometric process, Intrusion detection techniques are significantly useful. In this paper, we have designed intelligent agent as knowledge based Biometric Device Intrusion Detection tool which is an innovative design. This intelligent agent can be located on the Biometric device. It performs intrusion detection using Operating Systems audit trail and device manager information. The system consists of a user interface module, an inference engine, a knowledgebase of illegal transactions and certified biometric devices. Inference engine is implemented using JESS which is a Java Expert System Shell.

  20. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt


    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...

  1. Tool breakage detection from 2D workpiece profile using vision method (United States)

    Lee, W. K.; Ratnam, M. M.; Ahmad, Z. A.


    In-process tool breakage monitoring can significantly save cost and prevent damages to machine tool. In this paper, a machine vision approach was employed to detect the tool fracture in commercial aluminium oxide ceramic cutting tool during turning of AISI 52100 hardened steel. The contour of the workpiece profile was captured with the aid of backlighting during turning using a high-resolution DSLR camera with a shutter speed of 1/4000 s. The surface profile of the workpiece was extracted to sub-pixel accuracy using the invariant moment method. The effect of fracture in ceramic cutting tools on the surface profile signature of the machined workpiece using autocorrelation was studied. Fracture in the aluminum oxide ceramic tool was found to cause the peaks of autocorrelation function of the workpiece profile to decrease rapidly as the lag distance increased. The envelope of the peaks of the autocorrelation function was observed to deviate significantly from one another at different workpiece angles when the tool has fractured due to the continuous fracture of ceramic cutting insert during machining.

  2. [Rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Strunk, J; Lange, U; Müller-Ladner, U


    The development of novel anti-rheumatic drugs revolutionizes currently therapeutic strategies and diagnostic management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, facilitating the goal of true remission instead of only symptomatic treatment as in former years. Since early treatment is known to be crucial for the longterm outcome, imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and high-frequency ultrasonography including Doppler sonography, which allow direct visualization of very early pathologic alterations of synovitis, or even initial destruction, become increasingly important. Besides the established therapy with methotrexate, new drugs such as leflunomide or the use of various combination therapies have been successfully introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium. Especially the introduction of cytokine-antagonists such as TNF-a inhibitors target the aim of remission. In addition, the upcoming therapeutic agents, which influence very effectively the inflammatory and destructive process need also to be integrated into the concert of different therapeutic strategies in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which includes the mandatory complementary factors such as physiotherapy, ergotherapy and orthopedic surgery.

  3. Molecular targets in arthritis and recent trends in nanotherapy. (United States)

    Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh


    Due to its severity and increasing epidemiology, arthritis needs no description. There are various forms of arthritis most of which are disabling, very painful, and common. In spite of breakthroughs in the field of drug discovery, there is no cure for arthritis that can eliminate the disease permanently and ease the pain. The present review focuses on some of the most successful drugs in arthritis therapy and their side effects. Potential new targets in arthritis therapy such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-17A, tumor necrosis factor alpha, osteopontin, and several others have been discussed here, which can lead to refinement of current therapeutic modalities. Mechanisms for different forms of arthritis have been discussed along with the molecules that act as potential biomarkers for arthritis. Due to the difficulty in monitoring the disease progression to detect the advanced manifestations of the diseases, drug-induced cytotoxicity, and problems with drug delivery; nanoparticle therapy has gained the attention of the researchers. The unique properties of nanoparticles make them highly attractive for the design of novel therapeutics or diagnostic agents for arthritis. The review also focuses on the recent trends in nanoformulation development used for arthritis therapy. This review is, therefore, important because it describes the relevance and need for more arthritis research, it brings forth a critical discussion of successful drugs in arthritis and analyses the key molecular targets. The review also identifies several knowledge gaps in the published research so far along with the proposal of new ideas and future directions in arthritis therapy.

  4. Clinical management of septic arthritis in cattle. (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Francoz, David


    Synovial fluid, ultrasound, and radiographic imaging are common diagnostic tools for septic arthritis. Mycoplasma septic arthritis is suspected in calves with clinical signs of otitis and pneumonia. Commonly affected joints are carpus, stifle, and tarsus. Treatment strategy must include long-term antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, and joint lavage. Knowledge of communication and boundaries for commonly affected joints is essential to perform joint lavage and arthrotomy.

  5. Biomarkers of (osteo)arthritis. (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali; Henrotin, Yves


    Arthritic diseases are a major cause of disability and morbidity, and cause an enormous burden for health and social care systems globally. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. The key risk factors for the development of OA are age, obesity, joint trauma or instability. Metabolic and endocrine diseases can also contribute to the pathogenesis of OA. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that OA is a whole-organ disease that is influenced by systemic mediators, inflammaging, innate immunity and the low-grade inflammation induced by metabolic syndrome. Although all joint tissues are implicated in disease progression in OA, articular cartilage has received the most attention in the context of aging, injury and disease. There is increasing emphasis on the early detection of OA as it has the capacity to target and treat the disease more effectively. Indeed it has been suggested that this is the era of "personalized prevention" for OA. However, the development of strategies for the prevention of OA require new and sensitive biomarker tools that can detect the disease in its molecular and pre-radiographic stage, before structural and functional alterations in cartilage integrity have occurred. There is also evidence to support a role for biomarkers in OA drug discovery, specifically the development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. This Special Issue of Biomarkers is dedicated to recent progress in the field of OA biomarkers. The papers in this Special Issue review the current state-of-the-art and discuss the utility of OA biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools.

  6. Respiratory symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to pulmonary abnormalities detected by high-resolution CT and pulmonary functional testing. (United States)

    Youssef, Amir A; Machaly, Shereen A; El-Dosoky, Mohammed E; El-Maghraby, Nermeen M


    Pulmonary disease is the most frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, this issue has not been sufficiently studied in Egyptian patients. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the prevalence and types of pulmonary involvement using high-resolution computed tomography scan (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) and evaluate the association between respiratory symptoms and RA-lung disease in a group of Egyptian RA patients. Thirty-six RA patients were recruited; 34 females (94.4%) and 2 males (5.6%) with median age of 48.5 years, and none of them was smoker. Detailed medical and drug histories were obtained. PFT, plain X-ray of the chest, and HRCT were performed to all subjects involved. Nearly 64% of RA patients demonstrated abnormalities in PFT and 47% in HRCT. Mixed restrictive and obstructive pattern was the commonest. Nearly two-thirds of our patients reported one or more pulmonary symptom whether dyspnea, cough, wheezing, or phlegm. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Respiratory symptoms were statistically more common in patients with lung disease. The advanced age, high radiological score, and severity of rheumatoid disease were found to be predictive of lung involvement. Among respiratory symptoms, dyspnea and cough were associated with any pulmonary abnormalities. When specific pulmonary abnormalities were considered, only dyspnea was identified as predictor for restriction. For obstructive abnormality, both cough and wheezing provided valid prediction. We conclude that pulmonary involvement is a common manifestation in Egyptian RA patients, and the pattern of involvement is generally consistent with other studies that were performed worldwide. Specific respiratory symptoms could be used as practical, easy, and cost-effective method, especially in older and with more severe RA patients, to discriminate patients in need of subsequent PFT and HRCT imaging.

  7. A computer-aided detection system for rheumatoid arthritis MRI data interpretation and quantification of synovial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubassova, Olga, E-mail: [Image Analysis Ltd., The Waterfront, Old Mill Lane, Saltaire BD17 7EZ (United Kingdom); Boesen, Mikael, E-mail: parker@frh.regionh.d [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cimmino, Marco A., E-mail: cimmino@unige.i [Clinica Reumatologica, DI.M.I., Universita di Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 6, 16129 Genova (Italy); Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Rational and objective: Disease assessment and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients require objective evaluation and quantification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a large potential to supplement such information for the clinician, however, time spent on data reading and interpretation slow down development in this area. Existing scoring systems of especially synovitis are too rigid and insensitive to measure early treatment response and quantify inflammation. This study tested a novel automated, computer system for analysis of dynamic MRI data acquired from patients with RA, Dynamika-RA, which incorporates efficient data processing and analysis techniques. Materials and methods: 140 MRI scans from hands and wrists of 135 active RA patients and 5 healthy controls were processed using Dynamika-RA and evaluated with RAMRIS. To reduce patient motion artefacts, MRI data were processed using Dynamika-RA, which removed motion in 2D and 3D planes. Then synovial enhancement was visualised and qualified using a novel fully automated voxel-by-voxel analysis based algorithm. This algorithm was used to replace traditional region-of-interest (ROI) and subtraction methods, yielding observer independent quantitative results. Results: Conventional scoring performed by an observer took 30-45 min per dataset. Dynamika-RA reduced motion artefacts, visualised inflammation and quantified disease activity in less than 3 min. Data processing allowed increasing signal to noise ratio by a factor 3. Due to fully automated procedure of data processing, there was no intertest variation in the results. Conclusions: Algorithms incorporated into Dynamika-RA allow for the significant enhancement of data quality through eliminating motion artefacts and reduction of time for evaluation of synovial inflammation.

  8. Diagnostic Utility of US for Detecting Rotator Cuff Tears in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Yuan Chen


    Conclusion: With a good agreement with MRI, US was shown to be a highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality in detecting full-thickness RCTs for patients with RA who have shoulder pain, but appeared to have lower sensitivity in detecting partial-thickness RCTs compared with MRI.

  9. Flipping the switch: Tools for detecting small molecule inhibitors of staphylococcal virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Quave


    Full Text Available Through the expression of the accessory gene regulator (agr quorum sensing cascade, S. aureus is able to produce an extensive array of enzymes, hemolysins and immunomodulators essential to its ability to spread through the host tissues and cause disease. Many have argued for the discovery and development of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs to augment existing antibiotics as adjuvant therapies. Here, we discuss the state-of-the-art tools that can be used to conduct screens for the identification of such QSIs. Examples include fluorescent reporters, MS-detection of autoinducing peptide (AIP production, agar plate methods for detection of hemolysins and lipase, HPLC-detection of hemolysins from supernatants, and cell-toxicity assays for detecting damage (or relief thereof against human keratinocyte (HaCat cells. In addition to providing a description of these various approaches, we also discuss their amenability to low-, medium- and high-throughput screening efforts for the identification of novel QSIs.

  10. Effect of Using Automated Auditing Tools on Detecting Compliance Failures in Unmanaged Processes (United States)

    Doganata, Yurdaer; Curbera, Francisco

    The effect of using automated auditing tools to detect compliance failures in unmanaged business processes is investigated. In the absence of a process execution engine, compliance of an unmanaged business process is tracked by using an auditing tool developed based on business provenance technology or employing auditors. Since budget constraints limit employing auditors to evaluate all process instances, a methodology is devised to use both expert opinion on a limited set of process instances and the results produced by fallible automated audit machines on all process instances. An improvement factor is defined based on the average number of non-compliant process instances detected and it is shown that the improvement depends on the prevalence of non-compliance in the process as well as the sensitivity and the specificity of the audit machine.

  11. Automatic optimisation of gamma dose rate sensor networks: The DETECT Optimisation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, K.B.; Müller, T.O.; Astrup, Poul;


    chosen using regular grids or according to administrative constraints. Nowadays, however, the choice can be based on more realistic risk assessment, as it is possible to simulate potential radioactive plumes. To support sensor planning, we developed the DETECT Optimisation Tool (DOT) within the scope...... monitoring network for early detection of radioactive plumes or for the creation of dose maps. The DOT is implemented as a stand-alone easy-to-use JAVA-based application with a graphical user interface and an R backend. Users can run evaluations and optimisations, and display, store and download the results...

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis and its association with HLA-DR antigens. II. Antibodies to native connective tissue antigens detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (United States)

    Pesoa, S A; Vullo, C M; Onetti, C M; Riera, C M


    The distribution of frequencies of HLA-DR alloantigens in HLA-DR4 negative subjects was determined in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and normal individuals. An increased incidence of HLA-DR1 alloantigen in DR4 negative RA patients (45.9%) compared with DR4 negative healthy controls (23.6%) was found. The difference became significant when the incidence of DR1 was compared between patients with severe disease stages (III-IV) (75%) in contrast to 32% of incidence in patients of the milder stages (I-II) (p less than 0.05). Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay we have determined the incidence of serum antibodies to native bovine type I and type II collagens and proteoglycans in patients with RA. Presence of serum antibodies to native type I collagen was detected in 59% of patients with RA, 60% of sera exhibited reactivity to type II collagen and 12% had antibodies to proteoglycans. There was no correlation between the presence of antibodies to type I and II collagens and disease stages, however, the incidence of serum antibodies to proteoglycans was increased in severe disease stages. On the other hand, the presence of high levels of antibodies to type I collagen was associated to HLA-DR1 antigen, (p less than 0.05).

  13. VDJSeq-Solver: in silico V(DJ recombination detection tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paciello

    Full Text Available In this paper we present VDJSeq-Solver, a methodology and tool to identify clonal lymphocyte populations from paired-end RNA Sequencing reads derived from the sequencing of mRNA neoplastic cells. The tool detects the main clone that characterises the tissue of interest by recognizing the most abundant V(DJ rearrangement among the existing ones in the sample under study. The exact sequence of the clone identified is capable of accounting for the modifications introduced by the enzymatic processes. The proposed tool overcomes limitations of currently available lymphocyte rearrangements recognition methods, working on a single sequence at a time, that are not applicable to high-throughput sequencing data. In this work, VDJSeq-Solver has been applied to correctly detect the main clone and identify its sequence on five Mantle Cell Lymphoma samples; then the tool has been tested on twelve Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma samples. In order to comply with the privacy, ethics and intellectual property policies of the University Hospital and the University of Verona, data is available upon request to after signing a mandatory Materials Transfer Agreement. VDJSeq-Solver JAVA/Perl/Bash software implementation is free and available at

  14. Modelling detection probabilities to evaluate management and control tools for an invasive species (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.; Tyrrell, C.L.


    For most ecologists, detection probability (p) is a nuisance variable that must be modelled to estimate the state variable of interest (i.e. survival, abundance, or occupancy). However, in the realm of invasive species control, the rate of detection and removal is the rate-limiting step for management of this pervasive environmental problem. For strategic planning of an eradication (removal of every individual), one must identify the least likely individual to be removed, and determine the probability of removing it. To evaluate visual searching as a control tool for populations of the invasive brown treesnake Boiga irregularis, we designed a mark-recapture study to evaluate detection probability as a function of time, gender, size, body condition, recent detection history, residency status, searcher team and environmental covariates. We evaluated these factors using 654 captures resulting from visual detections of 117 snakes residing in a 5-ha semi-forested enclosure on Guam, fenced to prevent immigration and emigration of snakes but not their prey. Visual detection probability was low overall (= 0??07 per occasion) but reached 0??18 under optimal circumstances. Our results supported sex-specific differences in detectability that were a quadratic function of size, with both small and large females having lower detection probabilities than males of those sizes. There was strong evidence for individual periodic changes in detectability of a few days duration, roughly doubling detection probability (comparing peak to non-elevated detections). Snakes in poor body condition had estimated mean detection probabilities greater than snakes with high body condition. Search teams with high average detection rates exhibited detection probabilities about twice that of search teams with low average detection rates. Surveys conducted with bright moonlight and strong wind gusts exhibited moderately decreased probabilities of detecting snakes. Synthesis and applications. By

  15. Detecção do DNA de Chlamydia trachomatis em espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navarrete Fernandez


    em atividade, a C. trachomatis não pode ser excluída como agente desencadeador.Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacteria responsible for the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Most of the infections in men and women is asymptomatic and when undiagnosed and untreated may reach the joints causing not only arthritis, but also other acknowledged complications related to the female reproductive system. OBJECTIVE: To investigate C. trachomatis DNA in the urine and synovial fluid from patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA and evaluate serum anti-C. trachomatis IgG and IgM antibodies. METHODS: The population consisted of 15 patients with spondyloarthropathies, being 9 with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (US and 6 with reactive arthritis (ReA (group I, and 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (group II. The chlamydial DNA was assessed in synovial fluid and urine samples of all patients by Amplicor (Roche, Swiss PCR. The anti-chlamydial IgG and IgM antibodies were quantified through indirect imunofluorescence (IIF, while 15 patients of group I were typed for HLA-B27 by the use of flow citometry. Sociodemographical data and all information on sexual behaviour and presence of symptoms were collected through a (questionnaire in the form of an interview. RESULTS: C. trachomatis DNA was found in only one synovial fluid sample from patient with ReA (6,7%. In two patients with RA, chlamydial DNA was identified in the urine sample (13,3%. The anti-chlamydial IgG antibodies were present in eight patients of the population studied; being three patients from group I (20%, and five from group II (33,3%. The greatest titer of this antibody 1/256 was associated with the presence of chlamydial DNA in a patient from group II. The IgM antibody was not detected in any of the samples from both groups. Four individuals from group II (26,7% were HLA-B27 positive and its presence was related to sacroiliitis. CONCLUSIONS: The results in

  16. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions (United States)

    ... of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and ankylosing spondylitis. Modifiable risk ... involve the following: Medications. Nonpharmacologic therapies. Physical or occupational therapy. Splints or joint assistive aids. Patient education and ...

  17. Forms of Arthritis (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis (image) (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...

  19. Arthritis in America (United States)

    ... part of aging. The most common types are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, and fibromyalgia. Arthritis costs ... file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: March 7, 2017 Page last updated: March 7, 2017 ...

  20. Sex and Arthritis (United States)

    ... Call for Letters of Interest Call for Topics Axial Spondyloarthritis Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Gout Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis ... fibromyalgia , scleroderma , osteoarthritis , rheumatoid ... spondylitis , Raynaud’s phenomenon and juvenile arthritis also may experience: ...

  1. Imaging in Psoriatic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Østergaard, Mikkel; Terslev, Lene


    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease characterized by arthritis and often enthesitis in patients with psoriasis, presenting a wide range of manifestations in various patterns. Imaging procedures are primarily conventional radiography, ultrasonography (US), and magnetic...

  2. Arthritis and the Feet (United States)

    ... some of the complaints—inflammation, pain, stiffness, excessive warmth, injuries. Even bunions can be manifestations of arthritis. Arthritis may be treated in many ways. Patient education is important. Physical therapy and exercise may be indicated, accompanied by ...

  3. High Concentrations of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Detected in Serum from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Be Explained by Non-Specific Antibody Reactivity (United States)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Ruge, Toralph; Nilsson, Solveig; Södergren, Anna


    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is suggested to be a master regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Our aim was to study whether the previously reported high levels of ANGPTL4 detected in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by ELISA was due to any specific molecular form of this protein (oligomers, monomers or fragments). ANGPTL4 levels were first determined in serum from 68 RA patients and 43 age and sex matched control subjects and the mean values differed by a factor of 5.0. Then, ANGPTL4 was analyzed after size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of serum samples. With serum from one of the RA patients with high levels of ANGPTL4, the dominant reactivity was found in fractions corresponding to high-molecular weight proteins. In addition, a minor peak of reactivity eluting late from the column was found both in the patient and in controls. By the use of HeteroBlock®, and by careful selection of antibodies, we documented non-specific reactions for ANGPTL4 in 39% of samples from the RA patients, most likely due to cross-reactivity of the antibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF). The corresponding figure for control subjects was 6.3%. After corrections for non-specific reactions, the mean level of ANGPTL4 in serum from RA patients was still significantly higher than in control individuals (mean levels were 101±62 and 67±39 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.02). We re-analyzed samples from our previously published studies on ANGPL4 levels in patients on hemodialysis and patients with diabetes type 2. These samples did not show false positive reactions. The levels of ANGPTL4 were comparable to those detected previously. PMID:28107351

  4. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senftleber, Ninna K.; Nielsen, Sabrina M.; Andersen, Jens Rikardt;


    Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched...... systematically (24 February 2015). We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML)-based meta...... interval, CI, -0.42 to -0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; -0.21; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.004) and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; -0.63; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.06), but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; -0.17; 95% CI, -0...

  5. Combination of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is an optimal way to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis in rats dynamically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-tao; DU Xiang-ke; HUO Tian-long; WEI Zheng-mao; HAO Chuan-xi; AN Bei


    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic,systemic autoimmune inflammatory disorder.Many methods have been used to observe the progress of RA.The purpose of this study was to observe the progress of RA in rats with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT),magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and arthritis score,and analyze the relationships among different methods in evaluation of RA.Methods Sixteen healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats about 8-week old were randomly assigned to a RA group and a control group.Bovine type Ⅱ emulsified incomplete Freud's adjuvant was used to induce arthritis in the RA group.Arthritis score of the rats in two groups were recorded,and 18F-FDG PET/CT,MR imaging were performed both on the corresponding rats every 3 days.All the rats were sacrificed at week 5,and histopathological examination was performed on rat knees stained with haematoxylin and eosin.Results The arthritis score and the standard uptake value (SUV) of knee joints in RA rats increased with the progression of arthritis gradually.Both peaks of arthritis score and SUV appeared at 21 days after the first immune injection,then the arthritis score and SUV of knee joints decreased slowly.The arthritis scores of knee joints in RA rats were positively correlated with their SUV changes.The MR images were confirmed by the histopathological studies.Conclusion PET/CT can detect the earliest molecular metabolism changes of RA,and MR imaging can follow up the dynamical anatomical changes of RA,all of which indicated that PET/CT and MR imaging may be applied as useful tools to monitor the progress of RA.

  6. Inhibition of inflammatory arthritis using fullerene nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L Dellinger

    Full Text Available Inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis; RA is a complex disease driven by the interplay of multiple cellular lineages. Fullerene derivatives have previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory capabilities mediated, in part, by their ability to prevent inflammatory mediator release by mast cells (MC. Recognizing that MC can serve as a cellular link between autoantibodies, soluble mediators, and other effector populations in inflammatory arthritis, it was hypothesized that fullerene derivatives might be used to target this inflammatory disease. A panel of fullerene derivatives was tested for their ability to affect the function of human skin-derived MC as well as other lineages implicated in arthritis, synovial fibroblasts and osteoclasts. It is shown that certain fullerene derivatives blocked FcγR- and TNF-α-induced mediator release from MC; TNF-α-induced mediator release from RA synovial fibroblasts; and maturation of human osteoclasts. MC inhibition by fullerene derivatives was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and FcγR-mediated increases in cellular reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Based on these in vitro data, two fullerene derivatives (ALM and TGA were selected for in vivo studies using K/BxN serum transfer arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in DBA/1 mice. Dye-conjugated fullerenes confirmed localization to affected joints in arthritic animals but not in healthy controls. In the K/BxN moldel, fullerenes attenuated arthritis, an effect accompanied by reduced histologic inflammation, cartilage/bone erosion, and serum levels of TNF-α. Fullerenes remained capable of attenuating K/BxN arthritis in mast cell-deficient mice Cre-Master mice, suggesting that lineages beyond the MC represent relevant targets in this system. These studies suggest that fullerene derivatives may hold promise both as an assessment tool and as anti-inflammatory therapy of arthritis.

  7. Inhibition of inflammatory arthritis using fullerene nanomaterials. (United States)

    Dellinger, Anthony L; Cunin, Pierre; Lee, David; Kung, Andrew L; Brooks, D Bradford; Zhou, Zhiguo; Nigrovic, Peter A; Kepley, Christopher L


    Inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis; RA) is a complex disease driven by the interplay of multiple cellular lineages. Fullerene derivatives have previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory capabilities mediated, in part, by their ability to prevent inflammatory mediator release by mast cells (MC). Recognizing that MC can serve as a cellular link between autoantibodies, soluble mediators, and other effector populations in inflammatory arthritis, it was hypothesized that fullerene derivatives might be used to target this inflammatory disease. A panel of fullerene derivatives was tested for their ability to affect the function of human skin-derived MC as well as other lineages implicated in arthritis, synovial fibroblasts and osteoclasts. It is shown that certain fullerene derivatives blocked FcγR- and TNF-α-induced mediator release from MC; TNF-α-induced mediator release from RA synovial fibroblasts; and maturation of human osteoclasts. MC inhibition by fullerene derivatives was mediated through the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and FcγR-mediated increases in cellular reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Based on these in vitro data, two fullerene derivatives (ALM and TGA) were selected for in vivo studies using K/BxN serum transfer arthritis in C57BL/6 mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice. Dye-conjugated fullerenes confirmed localization to affected joints in arthritic animals but not in healthy controls. In the K/BxN moldel, fullerenes attenuated arthritis, an effect accompanied by reduced histologic inflammation, cartilage/bone erosion, and serum levels of TNF-α. Fullerenes remained capable of attenuating K/BxN arthritis in mast cell-deficient mice Cre-Master mice, suggesting that lineages beyond the MC represent relevant targets in this system. These studies suggest that fullerene derivatives may hold promise both as an assessment tool and as anti-inflammatory therapy of arthritis.

  8. A Virtual Sensor for Online Fault Detection of Multitooth-Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bustillo


    Full Text Available The installation of suitable sensors close to the tool tip on milling centres is not possible in industrial environments. It is therefore necessary to design virtual sensors for these machines to perform online fault detection in many industrial tasks. This paper presents a virtual sensor for online fault detection of multitooth tools based on a Bayesian classifier. The device that performs this task applies mathematical models that function in conjunction with physical sensors. Only two experimental variables are collected from the milling centre that performs the machining operations: the electrical power consumption of the feed drive and the time required for machining each workpiece. The task of achieving reliable signals from a milling process is especially complex when multitooth tools are used, because each kind of cutting insert in the milling centre only works on each workpiece during a certain time window. Great effort has gone into designing a robust virtual sensor that can avoid re-calibration due to, e.g., maintenance operations. The virtual sensor developed as a result of this research is successfully validated under real conditions on a milling centre used for the mass production of automobile engine crankshafts. Recognition accuracy, calculated with a k-fold cross validation, had on average 0.957 of true positives and 0.986 of true negatives. Moreover, measured accuracy was 98%, which suggests that the virtual sensor correctly identifies new cases.

  9. Amazon Rainforest Deforestation Daily Detection Tool Using Artificial Neural Networks and Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Cazella


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA [1] sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides the parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to find the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrixes to determine the degree of success of the network. Part of the municipality of Porto Velho, in Rondônia state, is located inside the tile H11V09 of the MODIS/TERRA sensor, which was used as the study area. A spectrum-temporal analysis of this area was made on 57 images from 20 of May to 15 of July 2003 using the trained neural network. This analysis allowed us to verify the quality of the implemented neural network classification as well as helping our understanding of the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. The great potential of neural networks for image classification was perceived with this work. However, the generation of consistent alarms, in other words, detecting predatory actions at the beginning; instead of firing false alarms is a complex task that has not yet been solved. Therefore, the major contribution of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis and practical use of neural networks and satellite images to combat illegal deforestation.

  10. A virtual sensor for online fault detection of multitooth-tools. (United States)

    Bustillo, Andres; Correa, Maritza; Reñones, Anibal


    The installation of suitable sensors close to the tool tip on milling centres is not possible in industrial environments. It is therefore necessary to design virtual sensors for these machines to perform online fault detection in many industrial tasks. This paper presents a virtual sensor for online fault detection of multitooth tools based on a bayesian classifier. The device that performs this task applies mathematical models that function in conjunction with physical sensors. Only two experimental variables are collected from the milling centre that performs the machining operations: the electrical power consumption of the feed drive and the time required for machining each workpiece. The task of achieving reliable signals from a milling process is especially complex when multitooth tools are used, because each kind of cutting insert in the milling centre only works on each workpiece during a certain time window. Great effort has gone into designing a robust virtual sensor that can avoid re-calibration due to, e.g., maintenance operations. The virtual sensor developed as a result of this research is successfully validated under real conditions on a milling centre used for the mass production of automobile engine crankshafts. Recognition accuracy, calculated with a k-fold cross validation, had on average 0.957 of true positives and 0.986 of true negatives. Moreover, measured accuracy was 98%, which suggests that the virtual sensor correctly identifies new cases.

  11. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M


    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  12. An interactive image segmentation method for lithological boundary detection: A rapid mapping tool for geologists (United States)

    Vasuki, Yathunanthan; Holden, Eun-Jung; Kovesi, Peter; Micklethwaite, Steven


    Large volumes of images are collected by geoscientists using remote sensing platforms. Manual analysis of these images is a time consuming task and there is a need for fast and robust image interpretation tools. In particular the reliable mapping of lithological boundaries is a critical step for geological interpretation. In this contribution we developed an interactive image segmentation algorithm that harnesses the geologist's input and exploits automated image analysis to provide a practical tool for lithology boundary detection, using photographic images of rock surfaces. In the proposed method, the user is expected to draw rough markings to indicate the locations of different geological units in the image. Image segmentation is performed by segmenting regions based on their homogeneity in colour. This results in a high density of segmented regions which are then iteratively merged based on the colour of different geological units and the user input. Finally, a post-processing step allows the user to edit the boundaries. An experiment was conducted using photographic rock surface images collected by a UAV and a handheld digital camera. The proposed technique was applied to detect lithology boundaries. It was found that the proposed method reduced the interpretation time by a factor of four relative to manual segmentation, while achieving more than 96% similarity in boundary detection. As a result the proposed method has the potential to provide practical support for interpreting large volume of complex geological images.

  13. Novel serological tools for detection of Thottapalayam virus, a Soricomorpha-borne hantavirus. (United States)

    Schlegel, Mathias; Tegshduuren, Erdenesaikhan; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Petraityte, Rasa; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Hammerschmidt, Bärbel; Friedrich, Robert; Mertens, Marc; Groschup, Martin H; Arai, Satoru; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Koma, Takaaki; Yasuda, Shumpei; Ishihara, Chiaki; Ulrich, Rainer G; Arikawa, Jiro; Köllner, Bernd


    We developed serological tools for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies and hantavirus antigens in shrews. The work was focussed to generate Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and anti-shrew immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The mAbs against TPMV nucleocapsid (N) protein were produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant TPMV N proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, baculovirus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-mediated expression systems. In total, six TPMV N-protein-specific mAbs were generated that showed a characteristic fluorescent pattern in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using TPMV-infected Vero cells. Out of the six mAbs tested, five showed no cross-reaction to rodent-associated hantaviruses (Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Tula, Dobrava-Belgrade and Sin Nombre viruses) in IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although one mAb reacted to Sin Nombre virus in IFA. None of the mAbs cross-reacted with an amino-terminal segment of the shrew-borne Asama virus N protein. Anti-shrew-IgG sera were prepared after immunization of rabbits and BALB/c-mice with protein-G-purified shrew IgG. TPMV-N-protein-specific sera were raised by immunisation of Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) with purified yeast-expressed TPMV N protein. Using these tools, an indirect ELISA was developed to detect TPMV-N-protein-specific antibodies in the sera of shrews. Using an established serological assay, high TPMV N protein specific antibody titres were measured in the sera of TPMV-N-protein-immunized and experimentally TPMV-infected shrews, whereas no cross-reactivity to other hantavirus N proteins was found. Therefore, the generated mAbs and the established ELISA system represent useful serological tools to detect TPMV, TPMV-related virus antigens or hantavirus-specific antibodies in hantavirus-infected shrews.

  14. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph


    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  15. cid: a rapid and efficient bioinformatic tool for the detection of SSRs from genomic libraries. (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia D; Martins, Diogo S; Galetti, Pedro M


    cid is a computational tool developed in the Web environment to process cloned DNA fragments with the objective of masking the vector and adaptor regions, detecting the presence of microsatellites and designing the most appropriate primer pairs for the amplification of the identified repetitive sequences. This entire process is executed by the user in a simple and automated manner with the data input as a Zip file of chromatograms or a multiFASTA file. Thus, it is possible to analyse dozens of sequences at the same time, optimizing data processing and the search for the information of interest. cid is freely available on

  16. Application of next generation sequencing to human gene fusion detection: computational tools, features and perspectives. (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Xia, Junfeng; Jia, Peilin; Pao, William; Zhao, Zhongming


    Gene fusions are important genomic events in human cancer because their fusion gene products can drive the development of cancer and thus are potential prognostic tools or therapeutic targets in anti-cancer treatment. Major advancements have been made in computational approaches for fusion gene discovery over the past 3 years due to improvements and widespread applications of high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. To identify fusions from NGS data, existing methods typically leverage the strengths of both sequencing technologies and computational strategies. In this article, we review the NGS and computational features of existing methods for fusion gene detection and suggest directions for future development.

  17. Chelonian perivitelline membrane-bound sperm detection: A new breeding management tool. (United States)

    Croyle, Kaitlin; Gibbons, Paul; Light, Christine; Goode, Eric; Durrant, Barbara; Jensen, Thomas


    Perivitelline membrane (PVM)-bound sperm detection has recently been incorporated into avian breeding programs to assess egg fertility, confirm successful copulation, and to evaluate male reproductive status and pair compatibility. Due to the similarities between avian and chelonian egg structure and development, and because fertility determination in chelonian eggs lacking embryonic growth is equally challenging, PVM-bound sperm detection may also be a promising tool for the reproductive management of turtles and tortoises. This study is the first to successfully demonstrate the use of PVM-bound sperm detection in chelonian eggs. Recovered membranes were stained with Hoechst 33342 and examined for sperm presence using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm were positively identified for up to 206 days post-oviposition, following storage, diapause, and/or incubation, in 52 opportunistically collected eggs representing 12 species. However, advanced microbial infection frequently hindered the ability to detect membrane-bound sperm. Fertile Centrochelys sulcata, Manouria emys, and Stigmochelys pardalis eggs were used to evaluate the impact of incubation and storage on the ability to detect sperm. Storage at -20°C or in formalin were found to be the best methods for egg preservation prior to sperm detection. Additionally, sperm-derived mtDNA was isolated and PCR amplified from Astrochelys radiata, C. sulcata, and S. pardalis eggs. PVM-bound sperm detection has the potential to substantially improve studies of artificial incubation and sperm storage, and could be used to evaluate the success of artificial insemination in chelonian species. Mitochondrial DNA from PVM-bound sperm has applications for parentage analysis, the study of sperm competition, and potentially species identification.

  18. Detection of collagen by second harmonic microscopy as a diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis (United States)

    Banavar, Maruth; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Wang, X. M.; Gorrell, M. D.; Cox, Guy


    Liver fibrosis has many causes, including hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The deposition of these proteins results in impaired liver function caused by distortion of the hepatic architecture by fibrous scar tissue. The unique triple helix structure of collagen and high level of crystallinity make it very efficient for generating second harmonic signals. In this study we have set out to see if second harmonic imaging of collagen can be used as a non-biased quantitative tool for classification of fibrosis levels in liver biopsies and if it can detect early fibrosis formation not detected by current methods.

  19. Microradiography as a tool to detect heavy metal uptake in plants for phytoremediation applications. (United States)

    Reale, Lucia; Lai, Antonia; Bellucci, Ida; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Flora, Francesco; Spanò, Laura; Poma, Anna; Limongi, Tania; Palladino, Libero; Ritucci, Antonio; Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Petrocelli, Giovanni; Martellucci, Sergio


    In this paper, an application of contact microradiography with soft X-rays for detecting the uptake site of heavy metal in the whole plant leaves is investigated. The X-ray source is a laser-plasma one based on an Nd:glass laser. The soft X-ray radiation emitted from the plasma laser targets of magnesium, iron, and copper can be strongly absorbed in the leaves' regions rich in iron, magnesium, and copper. This absorbance could point to structures in the leaves where these heavy elements are found. In this work, leaves treated with copper sulfate diluted in water at 1, 2, and 5% were imaged by using a copper target, in order to evaluate differences with untreated control leaves. Our results showed that this methodology highlighted the presence of copper in the treated leaves. This new methodology should detect heavy element pollutants inside plants and it should also be a useful analytic tool in phytoremediation studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes


    Full Text Available Objective: to elucidate the role of peripheral arthritis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS and its impact on therapy choice in daily practice of rheumatologists. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 330 consecutive patients with AS referred to rheumatologists during 4 months in 24 cities and towns of the Russian Federation. A specially designed clinical schedule was filled out for all the patients. Results. Peripheral arthritis was present in 47% of patients, including in 17 and 46% who had upper and lower limb joint involvement, respectively. Patients with peripheral arthritis had higher ESR, BASDAI and ASDAS-ESR levels. They were also found to have more marked functional disorders than the patients with its isolated axial variant. The clinical signs of hip joint involvement were detected in 56% of the patients and they were bilateral in 43%. In the rheumatologists' opinion, 24 (8% needed total hip joint replacement. Conclusion. Peripheral arthritis aggravates AS.

  1. Nutritional considerations in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Touger-Decker, R


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. The severity of the disease process adversely affects nutritional status. Articular changes, such as small joint deformities and temporomandibular joint syndrome, alter the ability to self-feed. The inflammatory process may increase metabolic rate. Ingestion, digestion, absorption, and excretion may be compromised by secondary manifestations of the disease. Comprehensive nutrition assessment incorporates evaluation of disease and treatment-specific factors, along with the usual assessment parameters. Abnormal values for certain assessment parameters do not necessarily reflect nutritional status. Treatment methods, including medications, may have an impact on nutritional status, assessment tools, and self-feeding. Nutrition management goals focus on identification and implementation of feeding strategies. Evaluation of the ability to feed oneself includes consideration of functional status, secondary manifestations, and medical treatment. Multiple feeding modalities may be required. Oral supplements, tube feedings, and parenteral nutrition may be employed to meet the nutrition needs of the individual with rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Exploring a new ultrasound score as a clinical predictive tool in patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting abatacept: results from the APPRAISE study (United States)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Wakefield, Richard J; Berner Hammer, Hilde; Vittecoq, Olivier; Filippou, Georgios; Balint, Peter; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Østergaard, Mikkel; Gaillez, Corine; Le Bars, Manuela


    Objectives To explore whether changes in a composite (power Doppler/greyscale ultrasound (PDUS)) synovitis score, developed by the OMERACT-EULAR-Ultrasound Task Force, predict disease activity outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA who were methotrexate inadequate responders starting abatacept were evaluated. Individual joint PDUS scores were combined in the Global OMERACT-EULAR Synovitis Score (GLOESS) for metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) 2–5, all joints (22 paired) and a reduced (9 paired) joint set. The predictive value of changes in GLOESS at week 1–16 evaluations for clinical status and response (Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (C reactive protein, CRP) <2.6; DAS28(CRP) ≤3.2; DAS28(CRP) ≥1.2 improvement) up to week 24, and correlations between DAS28 and GLOESS were assessed. Results Eighty-nine patients completed the 24-week treatment period. Changes in GLOESS (MCPs 2–5) from weeks 1 to 16 were unable to predict DAS28 outcomes up to week 24. However, significant improvements in GLOESS (MCPs 2–5) were observed at week 12 in patients with DAS28 ≥1.2 improvement at week 24 versus those who did not achieve that clinical response. In patients achieving DAS28 ≥1.2 improvement or DAS28 ≤3.2 at week 24, changes in GLOESS (22 and 9 paired joint sets) were greater in patients who already achieved DAS28 ≥1.2 at week 12 than in those who did not. No significant correlations were found between changes in DAS28 and GLOESS definitions at any time point. Conclusions PDUS was not correlated with clinical status or response as measured by DAS28-derived criteria, and PDUS changes were not predictive of clinical outcome. The discrepancies require further exploration. Trial registration number NCT00767325; Results. PMID:27175297

  3. Syndromic Surveillance Based on Emergency Visits: A Reactive Tool for Unusual Events Detection (United States)

    Vilain, Pascal; Bourdé, Arnaud; Cassou, Pierre-Jean Marianne dit; Jacques-Antoine, Yves; Morbidelli, Philippe; Filleul, Laurent


    Objective To show with examples that syndromic surveillance system can be a reactive tool for public health surveillance. Introduction The late health events such as the heat wave of 2003 showed the need to make public health surveillance evolve in France. Thus, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance has developed syndromic surveillance systems based on several information sources such as emergency departments (1). In Reunion Island, the chikungunya outbreak of 2005–2006, then the influenza pandemic of 2009 contributed to the implementation and the development of this surveillance system (2–3). In the past years, this tool allowed to follow and measure the impact of seasonal epidemics. Nevertheless, its usefulness for the detection of minor unusual events had yet to be demonstrated. Methods In Reunion Island, the syndromic surveillance system is based on the activity of six emergency departments. Two types of indicators are constructed from collected data: - Qualitative indicators for the alert (every visit whose diagnostic relates to a notifiable disease or potential epidemic disease);- Quantitative indicators for the epidemic/cluster detection (number of visits based on syndromic grouping). Daily and weekly analyses are carried out. A decision algorithm allows to validate the signal and to organize an epidemiological investigation if necessary. Results Each year, about 150 000 visits are registered in the six emergency departments that is 415 consultations per day on average. Several unusual health events on small-scale were detected early. In August 2011, the surveillance system allowed to detect the first autochthonous cases of measles, a few days before this notifiable disease was reported to health authorities (Figure 1). In January 2012, the data of emergency departments allowed to validate the signal of viral meningitis as well as to detect a cluster in the West of the island and to follow its trend. In June 2012, a family foodborne illness

  4. Diagnostic value of RF, CRP and anti-CCP antibody for combined detection of rheumatoid arthritis%RF、CRP和抗CCP抗体联合检测对类风湿关节炎的诊断意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the clinical data of rheumatoid arthritis and conduct RF, CPR and anti-CCP antibodies checks, and explore the clinical value of RF, CPR and anti-CCP antibodies in the diagnosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 115 cases of our hospital patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 131 cases of non-rheumatoid patient's serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of anti-CCP antibodies , immune turbidimetric method for RF, CPR for quantitative detection , and then RF, CPR and anti-CCP antibody test results were analyzed . Results Rheumatoid arthritis group RF, CPR and anti-CCP antibody positive rate was significantly higher than non-rheumatoid arthritis group , anti-CCP antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis with a sensitivity of 64.5%, CRP rheumatoid arthritis sensitivity was 69.9%, RF sensitivity of rheumatoid arthritis was 60.5%, slightly lower anti-CCP antibodies and CRP;RF rheumatoid arthritis specificity of 79.3%, specificity of anti-CCP antibodies highest 94.0%, CRP was 55%lower;anti-CCP and RF, CRP combined detection sensitivity for the diagnosis of RA was 73.5%, specificity of 98.9%. Comparing RF, CPR and anti-CCP antibody combined with RF, CPR and anti-CCP lone, there was no significant difference in the detection sensitivity .But the specificity is higher, and there are significant difference. Conclusion If we separated the clinical of RF, CRP or anti-CCP antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis check the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity is general.To improve the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, sensitivity and specificity, we should conduct the combine of RF, CRP and anti-CCP antibody detection into applications.%目的:通过分析类风湿关节炎的临床资料及进行类风湿因子(RF)、C反应蛋白(CRF)及抗环瓜氨酸肽抗体(抗CCP抗体)的检查,探讨RF、CRP及抗CCP抗体联合检测在诊断类风湿关节炎患者的临床应用价值。方法对本院的115例

  5. CHILD: a new tool for detecting low-abundance insertions and deletions in standard sequence traces. (United States)

    Zhidkov, Ilia; Cohen, Raphael; Geifman, Nophar; Mishmar, Dan; Rubin, Eitan


    Several methods have been proposed for detecting insertion/deletions (indels) from chromatograms generated by Sanger sequencing. However, most such methods are unsuitable when the mutated and normal variants occur at unequal ratios, such as is expected to be the case in cancer, with organellar DNA or with alternatively spliced RNAs. In addition, the current methods do not provide robust estimates of the statistical confidence of their results, and the sensitivity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we present CHILD, a tool specifically designed for indel detection in mixtures where one variant is rare. CHILD makes use of standard sequence alignment statistics to evaluate the significance of the results. The sensitivity of CHILD was tested by sequencing controlled mixtures of deleted and undeleted plasmids at various ratios. Our results indicate that CHILD can identify deleted molecules present as just 5% of the mixture. Notably, the results were plasmid/primer-specific; for some primers and/or plasmids, the deleted molecule was only detected when it comprised 10% or more of the mixture. The false positive rate was estimated to be lower than 0.4%. CHILD was implemented as a user-oriented web site, providing a sensitive and experimentally validated method for the detection of rare indel-carrying molecules in common Sanger sequence reads.

  6. Sperm morphometry: a tool for detecting biophysical changes associated with viability in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. (United States)

    García-Herreros, M; Leal, C L V


    The aim of this study was to determine whether computerised sperm head morphometric analysis can be used as a diagnostic tool for detecting biophysical changes associated with sperm viability in frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa. Ejaculates from five bulls (4 ejaculates/bull) were pooled and processed for computerised morphometric analysis, and SYBR-14 green/ethidium homodimer-1 fluorescence-based live/dead viability assay was used simultaneously to confirm the viability index of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Sperm samples were assigned to three experimental groups. The first group was enriched in live spermatozoa (after a double Percoll selection), the second group was enriched in dead spermatozoa (after a refreeze-thaw procedure), and the last group was a 50 : 50 pool of live/dead spermatozoa (from first and second group samples). There were significant differences (P sperm morphometric dimensional parameters among the three groups analysed, being the lowest overall sperm head dimension found in the second (dead spermatozoa) group. In conclusion, sperm head morphometry can be used as a potential diagnostic tool for detecting biophysical changes associated with sperm viability in frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa.

  7. New trends in bioanalytical tools for the detection of genetically modified organisms: an update. (United States)

    Michelini, Elisa; Simoni, Patrizia; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Roda, Aldo


    Despite the controversies surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the production of GM crops is increasing, especially in developing countries. Thanks to new technologies involving genetic engineering and unprecedented access to genomic resources, the next decade will certainly see exponential growth in GMO production. Indeed, EU regulations based on the precautionary principle require any food containing more than 0.9% GM content to be labeled as such. The implementation of these regulations necessitates sampling protocols, the availability of certified reference materials and analytical methodologies that allow the accurate determination of the content of GMOs. In order to qualify for the validation process, a method should fulfil some criteria, defined as "acceptance criteria" by the European Network of GMO Laboratories (ENGL). Several methods have recently been developed for GMO detection and quantitation, mostly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. PCR (including its different formats, e.g., double competitive PCR and real-time PCR) remains the technique of choice, thanks to its ability to detect even small amounts of transgenes in raw materials and processed foods. Other approaches relying on DNA detection are based on quartz crystal microbalance piezoelectric biosensors, dry reagent dipstick-type sensors and surface plasmon resonance sensors. The application of visible/near-infrared (vis/NIR) spectroscopy or mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics techniques has also been envisaged as a powerful GMO detection tool. Furthermore, in order to cope with the multiplicity of GMOs released onto the market, the new challenge is the development of routine detection systems for the simultaneous detection of numerous GMOs, including unknown GMOs.

  8. PathogenMIPer: a tool for the design of molecular inversion probes to detect multiple pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhras Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we describe PathogenMIPer, a software program for designing molecular inversion probe (MIP oligonucleotides for use in pathogen identification and detection. The software designs unique and specific oligonucleotide probes targeting microbial or other genomes. The tool tailors all probe sequence components (including target-specific sequences, barcode sequences, universal primers and restriction sites and combines these components into ready-to-order probes for use in a MIP assay. The system can harness the genetic variability available in an entire genome in designing specific probes for the detection of multiple co-infections in a single tube using a MIP assay. Results PathogenMIPer can accept sequence data in FASTA file format, and other parameter inputs from the user through a graphical user interface. It can design MIPs not only for pathogens, but for any genome for use in parallel genomic analyses. The software was validated experimentally by applying it to the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV as a model system, which is associated with various human malignancies including cervical and skin cancers. Initial tests of laboratory samples using the MIPs developed by the PathogenMIPer to recognize 24 different types of HPVs gave very promising results, detecting even a small viral load of single as well as multiple infections (Akhras et al, personal communication. Conclusion PathogenMIPer is a software for designing molecular inversion probes for detection of multiple target DNAs in a sample using MIP assays. It enables broader use of MIP technology in the detection through genotyping of pathogens that are complex, difficult-to-amplify, or present in multiple subtypes in a sample.

  9. A comparison of region-based and pixel-based CEUS kinetics parameters in the assessment of arthritis (United States)

    Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.


    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semi-quantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. Quantitative assessment is mostly performed by means of the Qontrast software package, that requires the user to define a region of interest, whose mean intensity curve is fitted with an exponential function. We show that using a more physiologically motivated perfusion curve, and by estimating the kinetics parameters separately pixel per pixel, the quantitative information gathered is able to differentiate more effectively different perfusion patterns. In particular, we will show that a pixel-based analysis is able to provide significant markers differentiating rheumatoid arthritis from simil-rheumatoid psoriatic arthritis, that have non-significant differences in clinical evaluation (DAS28), serological markers, or region-based parameters.

  10. Quantification of joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy and tracer kinetic modeling (United States)

    Ioussoufovitch, Seva; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, which can cause progressive joint damage and disability. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging have the potential to become potent monitoring tools for RA. We devised a method that combined time-resolved DOS and tracer kinetics modeling to rapidly and reliably quantify blood flow in the joint. Preliminary results obtained from two animals show that the technique can detect joint inflammation as early as 5 days after onset.

  11. X-linked agammaglobulinemia combined with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic arthritis. (United States)

    Zhu, Zaihua; Kang, Yuli; Lin, Zhenlang; Huang, Yanjing; Lv, Huoyang; Li, Yasong


    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene. XLA can also present in combination with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the major chronic rheumatologic disease in children. We report herein the first known case of a juvenile patient diagnosed with XLA combined with JIA that later developed into invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae polyarticular septic polyarthritis. An additional comprehensive review of XLA combined with JIA and invasive K. pneumoniae septic arthritis is also presented. XLA was identified by the detection of BTK mutations while the diagnosis of JIA was established by clinical and laboratory assessments. Septic arthritis caused by invasive K. pneumoniae was confirmed by culturing of the synovia and gene detection of the isolates. Invasive K. pneumoniae infections can not only result in liver abscesses but also septic arthritis, although this is rare. XLA combined with JIA may contribute to invasive K. pneumoniae infection.

  12. New radiographic bone erosions in the wrists of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging a median of two years earlier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Hansen, Michael; Stoltenberg, Michael;


    progression on CR associated with the presence of MRI erosions. METHODS: In 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, MRI and CR of the dominant wrist were performed annually for 5 years. In each image set, each wrist bone (metacarpal bases, carpal bones, radius, and ulna) was assessed for the absence...

  13. How undifferentiated arthritis evolves into chronic arthritis. (United States)

    van der Woude, D; Toes, R E M; Scherer, H U


    Undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is a frequently occurring clinical presentation with a variable outcome. While some forms of UA will spontaneously remit, other forms will progress to chronic arthritis; an outcome that would preferably be prevented. Which immunological factors are normally at the basis of resolution of inflammation, and what, on the other hand, causes inflammation to persist? This review provides an overview of the immunological mechanisms involved in these two scenarios, including specific examples of how these mechanisms apply, or can be influenced in rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, what do we know about risk factors for chronic arthritis, such as the development of autoantibodies? The recent years have provided many insights concerning risk factors for autoantibody-positive versus autoantibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis, which are discussed along with a possible pathophysiological model incorporating autoantibodies into the larger process of disease development. Finally, the evolution of the autoantibody response over time is described.

  14. Fungal arthritis simulating juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.


    Haapasaari, J; Essen, R V; Kahanpää, A; Kostiala, A A; Holmberg, K; Ahlqvist, J


    Petriellidium boydii is often isolated from maduromycosis but has recently been associated with arthritis. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy developed chronic purulent arthritis of the knee after a bicycle accident. Culture of aspirate grew no pathogens and antibiotic treatment had no effect. Culture of synovial fluid grew P boydii, which responded initially to amphotericin but reappeared after six months. Subsequent treatment with miconazole was stopped after development of haematuria. The...

  15. NGS-eval: NGS Error analysis and novel sequence VAriant detection tooL. (United States)

    May, Ali; Abeln, Sanne; Buijs, Mark J; Heringa, Jaap; Crielaard, Wim; Brandt, Bernd W


    Massively parallel sequencing of microbial genetic markers (MGMs) is used to uncover the species composition in a multitude of ecological niches. These sequencing runs often contain a sample with known composition that can be used to evaluate the sequencing quality or to detect novel sequence variants. With NGS-eval, the reads from such (mock) samples can be used to (i) explore the differences between the reads and their references and to (ii) estimate the sequencing error rate. This tool maps these reads to references and calculates as well as visualizes the different types of sequencing errors. Clearly, sequencing errors can only be accurately calculated if the reference sequences are correct. However, even with known strains, it is not straightforward to select the correct references from databases. We previously analysed a pyrosequencing dataset from a mock sample to estimate sequencing error rates and detected sequence variants in our mock community, allowing us to obtain an accurate error estimation. Here, we demonstrate the variant detection and error analysis capability of NGS-eval with Illumina MiSeq reads from the same mock community. While tailored towards the field of metagenomics, this server can be used for any type of MGM-based reads. NGS-eval is available at

  16. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool. (United States)

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  17. Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides predict progression to rheumatoid arthritis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis - A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, F.A. van; Linn-Rasker, S.P.; Venrooij, W.J.W. van; Jong, B.A. de; Breedveld, F.C.; Verweij, C.L.; Toes, R.E.M.; Huizinga, T.W.J.


    Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, severe, chronic inflammatory joint disease. Since the disease may initially be indistinguishable from other forms of arthritis, early diagnosis can be difficult. Autoantibodies seen in RA can be detected years before clinical symptoms develop. In an

  18. Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides predict progression to rheumatoid arthritis in patients with undifferentiated arthritis: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, van FA; Linn-Rasker, SP; Venrooij, W.J.; Jong, B.A.; Breedveld, F.C.; Verweij, C.L.; Toes, RE; Huizinga, T.W.


    OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, severe, chronic inflammatory joint disease. Since the disease may initially be indistinguishable from other forms of arthritis, early diagnosis can be difficult. Autoantibodies seen in RA can be detected years before clinical symptoms develop. In an

  19. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (United States)

    ... arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... wrists, or knees. It also affects the eyes. Spondyloarthritis of children resembles the disorder in adults and ...

  20. Differing self-similarity in light scattering spectra: A potential tool for pre-cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Purwar, Harsh; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K


    The fluctuations in the elastic light scattering spectra of normal and dysplastic human cervical tissues analyzed through wavelet transform based techniques reveal clear signatures of self-similar behavior in the spectral fluctuations. Significant differences in the power law behavior ascertained through the scaling exponent was observed in these tissues. The strong dependence of the elastic light scattering on the size distribution of the scatterers manifests in the angular variation of the scaling exponent. Interestingly, the spectral fluctuations in both these tissues showed multi-fractality (non-stationarity in fluctuations), the degree of multi-fractality being marginally higher in the case of dysplastic tissues. These findings using the multi-resolution analysis capability of the discrete wavelet transform can contribute to the recent surge in the exploration for non-invasive optical tools for pre-cancer detection.

  1. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  2. [Plasma cholesterol determination in birds--a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication]. (United States)

    Kiesau, B; Kummerfeld, N


    An investigation was done on the clinical usefulness of the dry chemistry analyzer Vitros DT 60 II for determination of avian plasma cholinesterase. The analytical reliability of the method, evaluated by precision and accuracy, proved to be high for plasma of numerous pet and wild birds. Values of normal plasma-cholinesterase activity were established for different psittacine and European wild birds. Significant differences in physiologic plasma-cholinesterase activity were noted between closely related species as well as between juvenile and adult birds. These findings emphasize the necessity to use control values of the same species and age group for comparison. Dry chemistry plasma-cholinesterase determination can be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the majority of investigated birds.

  3. Web Vulnerability Scanner (WVS: A Tool for detecting Web Application Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Swarup


    Full Text Available Abstract: In recent years, internet applications have became enormously well-liked, and today they're habitually employed in security-critical environments, like medical, financial, and military systems. Because the use of internet applications has increased, the amount and class of attacks against these applications have also matured. Moreover, the research community primarily targeted on detecting vulnerabilities, which results from insecure information flow in internet applications like cross-site scripting and SQL injection have also increased. Injection Attacks exploit vulnerabilities of websites by inserting and executing malicious code (e.g., information query, JavaScript functions in unsuspecting users, computing surroundings or on a web server. Such attacks compromise user’s information, system resources and cause a significant threat to private and business assets. We tend to investigate and develop a tool Web Vulnerability Scanner (WVS which queries the vulnerable fragments of applications (written in query and application languages and are then identified and analyzed offline (statically. Results show the effectiveness of our Tool, compared to the present ones in dimensions alike, it has been observed that vulnerabilities go undetected once the existing ways of area unit used; it makes offline analysis of applications time efficient; and finally, it reduces the runtime observation overhead.

  4. Clinical value on combination detection of anti-CCP,RF and CRP in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%抗CCP、RF和CRP联合检测诊断类风湿性关节炎的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍尚剑; 雷国大; 谭宗宪; 陈聚兴; 陈绍轩


    Objective To discuss clinical value on combination detection of anti-CCP,RF and CRP in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 82 patients with rheumatoid arthritis admitted in our hospital from April 2012 to July 2014 were selected as experimental group,and 79 patients with autoimmune diseases over the same period were select-ed as control group.The level of RF,anti-CCP and CRP were tested through extractting the morning venous blood,its clinical value was analyzed. Results The positive rate of the anti-CCP,CRP,RF and combination detection in experi-mental group was higher than that in control group respectively,with statistical difference(P<0.05).The sensitivity on the combination detection of serum anti-CCP,RF,CRP was the lowest (53.67%),but the specificity was highest (97.32%), compared with anti-CCP,RF and CRP detection,with statistical difference(P<0.05). Conclusion The expression positive rate of serum anti-CCP,RF,CRP in rheumatoid arthritis are higher,the combination detection of serum anti-CCP,RF, CRP can significantly improve the detection specificity.%目的:探讨抗CCP、RF和CRP联合检测诊断类风湿关节炎的临床价值。方法选取本院2012年4月~2014年7月收治的82例类风湿性关节炎患者作为实验组,选择同期收治的79例自身免疫性疾病患者作为对照组。抽取静脉晨血检测RF、抗CCP和CRP,分析其临床价值。结果实验组抗CCP、CRP、RF及联合检测阳性率均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。联合检测抗CCP、CRP、RF的灵敏度(53.67%)最低,特异度(97.32%)最高,与抗CCP、RF和CRP检测比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论抗CCP、CRP及RF在类风湿关节炎中表达阳性率较高,联合检测抗CCP、CRP、RF可显著提高检测特异度。

  5. Acoustic solitons: A robust tool to investigate the generation and detection of ultrafast acoustic waves (United States)

    Péronne, Emmanuel; Chuecos, Nicolas; Thevenard, Laura; Perrin, Bernard


    Solitons are self-preserving traveling waves of great interest in nonlinear physics but hard to observe experimentally. In this report an experimental setup is designed to observe and characterize acoustic solitons in a GaAs(001) substrate. It is based on careful temperature control of the sample and an interferometric detection scheme. Ultrashort acoustic solitons, such as the one predicted by the Korteweg-de Vries equation, are observed and fully characterized. Their particlelike nature is clearly evidenced and their unique properties are thoroughly checked. The spatial averaging of the soliton wave front is shown to account for the differences between the theoretical and experimental soliton profile. It appears that ultrafast acoustic experiments provide a precise measurement of the soliton velocity. It allows for absolute calibration of the setup as well as the response function analysis of the detection layer. Moreover, the temporal distribution of the solitons is also analyzed with the help of the inverse scattering method. It shows how the initial acoustic pulse profile which gives birth to solitons after nonlinear propagation can be retrieved. Such investigations provide a new tool to probe transient properties of highly excited matter through the study of the emitted acoustic pulse after laser excitation.

  6. Detection of Illegal Race Walking: A Tool to Assist Coaching and Judging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Lee


    Full Text Available Current judging of race walking in international competitions relies on subjective human observation to detect illegal gait, which naturally has inherent problems. Incorrect judging decisions may devastate an athlete and possibly discredit the international governing body. The aim of this study was to determine whether an inertial sensor could improve accuracy, monitor every step the athlete makes in training and/or competition. Seven nationally competitive race walkers performed a series of legal, illegal and self-selected pace races. During testing, athletes wore a single inertial sensor (100 Hz placed at S1 of the vertebra and were simultaneously filmed using a high-speed camera (125 Hz. Of the 80 steps analyzed the high-speed camera identified 57 as illegal, the inertial sensor misidentified four of these measures (all four missed illegal steps had 0.008 s of loss of ground contact which is considerably less than the best possible human observation of 0.06 s. Inertial sensor comparison to the camera found the typical error of estimate was 0.02 s (95% confidence limits 0.01–0.02, with a bias of 0.02 (±0.01. An inertial sensor can thus objectively improve the accuracy in detecting illegal steps (loss of ground contact and, along with the ability to monitor every step of the athlete, could be a valuable tool to assist judges during race walk events.

  7. rpiCOOL: A tool for In Silico RNA-protein interaction detection using random forest. (United States)

    Akbaripour-Elahabad, Mohammad; Zahiri, Javad; Rafeh, Reza; Eslami, Morteza; Azari, Mahboobeh


    Understanding the principle of RNA-protein interactions (RPIs) is of critical importance to provide insights into post-transcriptional gene regulation and is useful to guide studies about many complex diseases. The limitations and difficulties associated with experimental determination of RPIs, call an urgent need to computational methods for RPI prediction. In this paper, we proposed a machine learning method to detect RNA-protein interactions based on sequence information. We used motif information and repetitive patterns, which have been extracted from experimentally validated RNA-protein interactions, in combination with sequence composition as descriptors to build a model to RPI prediction via a random forest classifier. About 20% of the "sequence motifs" and "nucleotide composition" features have been selected as the informative features with the feature selection methods. These results suggest that these two feature types contribute effectively in RPI detection. Results of 10-fold cross-validation experiments on three non-redundant benchmark datasets show a better performance of the proposed method in comparison with the current state-of-the-art methods in terms of various performance measures. In addition, the results revealed that the accuracy of the RPI prediction methods could vary considerably across different organisms. We have implemented the proposed method, namely rpiCOOL, as a stand-alone tool with a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the researchers to predict RNA-protein interaction. The rpiCOOL is freely available at for non-commercial uses.

  8. Array processing——a new method to detect and correct errors on array resistivity logging tool measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip D.RABINOWITZ; Zhiqiang ZHOU


    In recent years more and more multi-array logging tools, such as the array induction and the array lateralog, are applied in place of conventional logging tools resulting in increased resolution, better radial and vertical sounding capability and other features. Multi-array logging tools acquire several times more individual measurements than conventional logging tools. In addition to new information contained in these data, there is a certain redundancy among the measurements. The sum of the measurements actually composes a large matrix. Providing the measurements are error-free, the elements of this matrix show certain consistencies. Taking advantage of these consistencies, an innovative method is developed to detect and correct errors in the array resistivity logging tool raw measurements, and evaluate the quality of the data. The method can be described in several steps. First, data consistency patterns are identified based onthe physics of the measurements. Second, the measurements are compared against the consistency patterns for error and bad data detection. Third, the erroneous data are eliminated and the measurements are re-constructed according to the consistency patterns. Finally, the data quality is evaluated by comparing the raw measurements with the re-constructed measurements. The method can be applied to all array type logging tools, such as array induction tool and array resistivity tool. This paper describes the method and illustrates its application with the High Definition Lateral Log (HDLL, Baker Atlas) instrument. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, several field examples are shown and discussed.

  9. What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (United States)

    ... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? (in Vietnamese bằng ... his or her own body tissues. Researchers are learning many things about why and how this happens. ...

  10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  11. Arthritis and Veterans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    One in three veterans has arthritis. This podcast provides information on how veterans can improve their quality of life with physical activity and other arthritis management strategies.  Created: 11/9/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/9/2015.

  12. Application of DETECTER, an evolutionary genomic tool to analyze genetic variation, to the cystic fibrosis gene family



    Abstract Background The medical community requires computational tools that distinguish missense genetic differences having phenotypic impact within the vast number of sense mutations that do not. Tools that do this will become increasingly important for those seeking to use human genome sequence data to predict disease, make prognoses, and customize therapy to individual patients. Results An approach, termed DETECTER, is proposed to identify sites in a protein sequence where amino acid repla...

  13. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure. (United States)

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B


    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  14. Revisiting Information Technology tools serving authorship and editorship: a case-guided tutorial to statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. (United States)

    Bamidis, P D; Lithari, C; Konstantinidis, S T


    With the number of scientific papers published in journals, conference proceedings, and international literature ever increasing, authors and reviewers are not only facilitated with an abundance of information, but unfortunately continuously confronted with risks associated with the erroneous copy of another's material. In parallel, Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools provide to researchers novel and continuously more effective ways to analyze and present their work. Software tools regarding statistical analysis offer scientists the chance to validate their work and enhance the quality of published papers. Moreover, from the reviewers and the editor's perspective, it is now possible to ensure the (text-content) originality of a scientific article with automated software tools for plagiarism detection. In this paper, we provide a step-bystep demonstration of two categories of tools, namely, statistical analysis and plagiarism detection. The aim is not to come up with a specific tool recommendation, but rather to provide useful guidelines on the proper use and efficiency of either category of tools. In the context of this special issue, this paper offers a useful tutorial to specific problems concerned with scientific writing and review discourse. A specific neuroscience experimental case example is utilized to illustrate the young researcher's statistical analysis burden, while a test scenario is purpose-built using open access journal articles to exemplify the use and comparative outputs of seven plagiarism detection software pieces.

  15. Experimental application of simulation tools for evaluating UAV video change detection (United States)

    Saur, Günter; Bartelsen, Jan


    Change detection is one of the most important tasks when unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are used for video reconnaissance and surveillance. In this paper, we address changes on short time scale, i.e. the observations are taken within time distances of a few hours. Each observation is a short video sequence corresponding to the near-nadir overflight of the UAV above the interesting area and the relevant changes are e.g. recently added or removed objects. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are versatile objects like trees and compression or transmission artifacts. To enable the usage of an automatic change detection within an interactive workflow of an UAV video exploitation system, an evaluation and assessment procedure has to be performed. Large video data sets which contain many relevant objects with varying scene background and altering influence parameters (e.g. image quality, sensor and flight parameters) including image metadata and ground truth data are necessary for a comprehensive evaluation. Since the acquisition of real video data is limited by cost and time constraints, from our point of view, the generation of synthetic data by simulation tools has to be considered. In this paper the processing chain of Saur et al. (2014) [1] and the interactive workflow for video change detection is described. We have selected the commercial simulation environment Virtual Battle Space 3 (VBS3) to generate synthetic data. For an experimental setup, an example scenario "road monitoring" has been defined and several video clips have been produced with varying flight and sensor parameters and varying objects in the scene. Image registration and change mask extraction, both components of the processing chain, are applied to corresponding frames of different video clips. For the selected examples, the images could be registered, the modelled changes could be extracted and the

  16. Recommendations for the use of ultrasound in rheumatoid arthritis: literature review and SONAR score experience. (United States)

    Zufferey, Pascal; Tamborrini, Giorgio; Gabay, Cem; Krebs, Andreas; Kyburz, Diego; Michel, Beat; Moser, Urs; Villiger, Peter M; So, Alexander; Ziswiler, Hans Rudolf


    Ultrasound (US) has become a useful tool in the detection of early disease, differential diagnosis, guidance of treatment decisions and treatment monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2008, the Swiss Sonography in Arthritis and Rheumatism (SONAR) group was established to promote the use of US in inflammatory arthritis in clinical practice. A scoring system was developed and taught to a large number of Swiss rheumatologists who already contributed to the Swiss Clinical Quality Management (SCQM) database, a national patient register. This paper intends to give a Swiss consensus about best clinical practice recommendations for the use of US in RA on the basis of the current literature knowledge and experience with the Swiss SONAR score. Literature research was performed to collect data on current evidence. The results were discussed among specialists of the Swiss university centres and private practice, following a structured procedure. Musculoskelatal US was found to be very helpful in establishing the diagnosis and monitoring the evolution of RA, and to be a reliable tool if used by experienced examiners. It influences treatment decisions such as continuing, intensifying or stepping down therapy. The definite modalities of integrating US into the diagnosis and monitoring of RA treatments will be defined within a few years. There are, however, strong arguments to use US findings as of today in daily clinical care. Some practical recommendations about the use of US in RA, focusing on the diagnosis and the use of the SONAR score, are proposed.

  17. "PowerUp"!: A Tool for Calculating Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes and Minimum Required Sample Sizes for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design Studies (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca


    This paper and the accompanying tool are intended to complement existing supports for conducting power analysis tools by offering a tool based on the framework of Minimum Detectable Effect Sizes (MDES) formulae that can be used in determining sample size requirements and in estimating minimum detectable effect sizes for a range of individual- and…

  18. The application of dual-energy computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Wu, Huaxiang; Xue, Jing; Ye, Lu; Zhou, Qijing; Shi, Dan; Xu, Rongzhen


    The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis, and the related risk factors for urate crystal deposition. One hundred ninety-one patients (143 with acute gouty arthritis and 48 with other arthritic conditions) were studied. All patients had acute arthritic attack in the recent 15 days and underwent dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scan with the affected joints. The urate volume was calculated by DECT and the basic information of these patients was recorded at the same time. Uric acid crystals were identified with DECT in 140 of 143 (97.9 %) gout patients and 6 of 48 (12.5 %) of nongout patients, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of DECT in the diagnosis of acute gouty arthritis were 97.9, 87.5, 95.9, and 93.3 %, respectively. The urate volumes were ranged from 0.57 to 54,543.27 mm(3) with a mean volume of 1,787.81 ± 7,181.54 mm(3). Interestingly, urate volume was correlated with the disease duration, serum uric acid levels, the presence of tophi, and bone erosion. Two-year follow-up data was available in one patient with recurrent gouty arthritis, whose urate volume was gradually reduced in size by DECT detection after urate-lowering therapies. DECT showed high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of urate crystals and diagnosis of acute gout. The risk factors for uric acid deposition include the disease duration, serum uric acid levels, the presence of tophi, and bone erosion. DECT has an important role in the differential diagnosis of arthritis, and also could be served as a follow-up tool.

  19. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis


    Holmqvist, Marie E


    This thesis is based on four different studies, all focusing on co-morbidities in rheumatoid arthritis. Diabetes mellitus is assessed as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis, the temporal relationship between ischemic heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis, and the extent of coronary stenosis in rheumatoid arthritis, is studied. The rationale for this is that patients with rheumatoid arthritis suffer an increased risk of ischemic heart disease that cannot be explained by traditional risk fa...

  20. Molecular Tools for the Selective Detection of Nine Diatom Species Biomarkers of Various Water Quality Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Cimarelli


    Full Text Available Our understanding of the composition of diatom communities and their response to environmental changes is currently limited by laborious taxonomic identification procedures. Advances in molecular technologies are expected to contribute more efficient, robust and sensitive tools for the detection of these ecologically relevant microorganisms. There is a need to explore and test phylogenetic markers as an alternative to the use of rRNA genes, whose limited sequence divergence does not allow the accurate discrimination of diatoms at the species level. In this work, nine diatom species belonging to eight genera, isolated from epylithic environmental samples collected in central Italy, were chosen to implement a panel of diatoms covering the full range of ecological status of freshwaters. The procedure described in this work relies on the PCR amplification of specific regions in two conserved diatom genes, elongation factor 1-a (eEF1-a and silicic acid transporter (SIT, as a first step to narrow down the complexity of the targets, followed by microarray hybridization experiments. Oligonucleotide probes with the potential to discriminate closely related species were designed taking into account the genetic polymorphisms found in target genes. These probes were tested, refined and validated on a small-scale prototype DNA chip. Overall, we obtained 17 highly specific probes targeting eEF1-a and SIT, along with 19 probes having lower discriminatory power recognizing at the same time two or three species. This basic array was validated in a laboratory setting and is ready for tests with crude environmental samples eventually to be scaled-up to include a larger panel of diatoms. Its possible use for the simultaneous detection of diatoms selected from the classes of water quality identified by the European Water Framework Directive is discussed.

  1. DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Detection Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Park


    Full Text Available Recent advances in label free DNA hybridization sensors employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as a detection tool are reviewed. These sensors are based on the modulation of the blocking ability of an electrode modified with a probe DNA by an analyte, i.e., target DNA. The probe DNA is immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer, a conducting polymer film, or a layer of nanostructures on the electrode such that desired probe DNA would selectively hybridize with target DNA. The rate of charge transfer from the electrode thus modified to a redox indicator, e.g., [Fe(CN6]3–/4–, which is measured by EIS in the form of charge transfer resistance (Rct, is modulated by whether or not, as well as how much, the intended target DNA is selectively hybridized. Efforts made to enhance the selectivity as well as the sensitivity of DNA sensors and to reduce the EIS measurement time are briefly described along with brief future perspectives in developing DNA sensors.

  2. DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Detection Tool (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Park, Su-Moon


    Recent advances in label free DNA hybridization sensors employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a detection tool are reviewed. These sensors are based on the modulation of the blocking ability of an electrode modified with a probe DNA by an analyte, i.e., target DNA. The probe DNA is immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer, a conducting polymer film, or a layer of nanostructures on the electrode such that desired probe DNA would selectively hybridize with target DNA. The rate of charge transfer from the electrode thus modified to a redox indicator, e.g., [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−, which is measured by EIS in the form of charge transfer resistance (Rct), is modulated by whether or not, as well as how much, the intended target DNA is selectively hybridized. Efforts made to enhance the selectivity as well as the sensitivity of DNA sensors and to reduce the EIS measurement time are briefly described along with brief future perspectives in developing DNA sensors. PMID:22303136

  3. New tools for detecting latent tuberculosis infection: evaluation of RD1-specific long-term response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenti Patrizia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs were designed to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI. However, discrepancies were found between the tuberculin skin test (TST and IGRAs results that cannot be attributed to prior Bacille Calmètte Guerin vaccinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate tools for improving LTBI diagnosis by analyzing the IFN-γ response to RD1 proteins in prolonged (long-term response whole blood tests in those subjects resulting negative to assays such as QuantiFERON-TB Gold In tube (QFT-IT. Methods The study population included 106 healthy TST+ individuals with suspected LTBI (recent contact of smear-positive TB and homeless consecutively enrolled. As controls, 13 healthy subjects unexposed to M. tuberculosis (TST-, QFT-IT- and 29 subjects with cured pulmonary TB were enrolled. IFN-γ whole blood response to RD1 proteins and QFT-IT were evaluated at day 1 post-culture. A prolonged test evaluating long-term IFN-γ response (7-day to RD1 proteins in diluted whole blood was performed. Results Among the enrolled TST+ subjects with suspected LTBI, 70/106 (66.0% responded to QFT-IT and 64/106 (60.3% to RD1 proteins at day 1. To evaluate whether a prolonged test could improve the detection of LTBI, we set up the test using cured TB patients (with a microbiologically diagnosed past pulmonary disease who resulted QFT-IT-negative and healthy controls as comparator groups. Using this assay, a statistically significant difference was found between IFN-γ levels in cured TB patients compared to healthy controls (p Conclusion These results indicate that IFN-γ long-term response to M. tuberculosis RD1 antigens may be used to detect past infection with M. tuberculosis and may help to identify additional individuals with LTBI who resulted negative in the short-term tests. These data may provide useful information for improving immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection, especially in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castillo-Castañeda


    Full Text Available A cost-effective technique for on-line wear monitoring of a milling tool is presented. The tool wear is estimateddirectly from a fiber optic sensor with high resolution and high bandwidth characteristics. This sensor providesa distance measurement between its probe and the tool profile. The contribution of this work is the applicationof this sensor to sense on-line wear of a milling tool. Since the light emitted by this sensor comes from aphotodiode, it does not produce eye damage, this is safer than laser displacement sensors. This techniquesenses the tool wear in real time, while the tool is rotating, with an accuracy less than 1 micron. Experimentalresults are also presented for a four-flank cutting tool rotating at 300 rpm.

  5. [Septic arthritis and spondylitis]. (United States)

    Fujikawa, Yosuke


    Septic arthritis and spondylitis in elderly adult are uncommon disease. But symptoms and signs of septic arthritis and spondylitis are an important medical emergency, with high mortality and morbidity. Delayed or inadequate treatment can result in irreversible joint destruction and neurological condition. Early diagnoses as well as prompt and effective treatment are essential for avoiding severe outcomes. In spite of advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, the incidence of septic arthritis and spondylitis appears to have been increased. The aging of the population, the widespread use of immunosuppressant therapies, including systemic corticosteroids, cytokines and anticytokines, and growing resistance to conventional antibiotics seem to be the major cause.

  6. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Imaging Reactive Oxygen Species in Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tsung Chen


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritides. Luminol was used as the primary reporter of ROS and photons resulting from the chemiluminescence reaction were detected using a super-cooled CCD photon counting system. Luminol was injected intravenously into groups of animals with different models of arthritis. Imaging signal correlated well with the severity of arthritis in focal and pan-arthritis as determined by histological measurement of ROS by formazan. Measurements were highly reproducible, sensitive, and repeatable. In vivo chemiluminescence imaging is expected to become a useful modality to elucidate the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of arthritides and in determining therapeutic efficacy of protective therapies.

  8. Imaging reactive oxygen species in arthritis. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tsung; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Weissleder, Ralph


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritides. Luminol was used as the primary reporter of ROS and photons resulting from the chemiluminescence reaction were detected using a super-cooled CCD photon counting system. Luminol was injected intravenously into groups of animals with different models of arthritis. Imaging signal correlated well with the severity of arthritis in focal and pan-arthritis as determined by histological measurement of ROS by formazan. Measurements were highly reproducible, sensitive, and repeatable. In vivo chemiluminescence imaging is expected to become a useful modality to elucidate the role of ROS in the pathogenesis of arthritides and in determining therapeutic efficacy of protective therapies.

  9. APASVO: A free software tool for automatic P-phase picking and event detection in seismic traces (United States)

    Romero, José Emilio; Titos, Manuel; Bueno, Ángel; Álvarez, Isaac; García, Luz; Torre, Ángel de la; Benítez, M.a. Carmen


    The accurate estimation of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is a problem of major interest in seismic research given its relevance in many seismological applications, such as earthquake source location and active seismic tomography. In the last decades, several automatic picking methods have been proposed with the ultimate goal of implementing picking algorithms whose results are comparable to those obtained by manual picking. In order to facilitate the use of these automated methods in the analysis of seismic traces, this paper presents a new free, open source, software graphical tool, named APASVO, which allows picking tasks in an easy and user-friendly way. The tool also provides event detection functionality, where a relatively imprecise estimation of the onset time is sufficient. The application implements the STA-LTA detection algorithm and the AMPA picking algorithm. An autoregressive AIC-based picking method can also be applied. Besides, this graphical tool is complemented with two additional command line tools, an event picking tool and a synthetic earthquake generator. APASVO is a multiplatform tool that works on Windows, Linux and OS X. The application can process data in a large variety of file formats. It is implemented in Python and relies on well-known scientific computing packages such as ObsPy, NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib.

  10. Plagiarism Detection: A Comparison of Teaching Assistants and a Software Tool in Identifying Cheating in a Psychology Course (United States)

    Seifried, Eva; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Spinath, Birgit


    Essays that are assigned as homework in large classes are prone to cheating via unauthorized collaboration. In this study, we compared the ability of a software tool based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and student teaching assistants to detect plagiarism in a large group of students. To do so, we took two approaches: the first approach was…

  11. Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Hančič


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

  12. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano


    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  13. Thermal infrared as a tool to detect tree water stress in a coniferous forest (United States)

    Nourtier, M.; Chanzy, A.; Bes, B.; Davi, H.; Hanocq, J. F.; Mariotte, N.; Sappe, G.


    In the context of climatic change, species area may move and so, a study of forest species vulnerability is on interest. In Mediterranean regions, trees can suffer of water stress due to drought during summer. Responses to environmental constraints are delayed in forest so it is necessary to anticipate risks in order to adapt management. It would be therefore interesting to localize areas where trees might be vulnerable to water stress. To detect such areas, the idea developed in this study is to map the severity of water stress, which may be linked to soil. Because vegetation surface temperature is linked to transpiration and so to water stress, the relevance of thermal infrared as a tool to detect water stress was explored. Past studies about surface temperature of forests at the planting scale did not lead to conclusive results. At this scale, important spatial and temporal variations of surface temperature, with a magnitude of about 10°C, can be registered but there is possibly a sizeable contribution of the undergrowth (Duchemin, 1998a, 1998b). In the other hand, important stress are not detectable, probably due to meteorological conditions (Pierce et al., 1990). During spring and summer 2008, an experimentation was carried out on the silver fir (Abies alba) forest of Mont Ventoux (south of France) to evaluate temporal variations at tree scale of the surface temperature in relation to water stress and climatic conditions. Two sites and three trees were chosen for measurements of surface temperature with a view to have different levels of water stress. Transpiration deficit is characterised by the ratio of actual transpiration to potential transpiration which is computed by the ISBA model (Noilhan et al., 1989) implemented by climatic observations made at the top of tree canopy. Sap flow measurements needed to calculate this ratio were completed on different trees of the sites. Climatic datas also allows building reference temperature and then surface

  14. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia


    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  15. Aiming for a shorter rheumatoid arthritis MRI protocol: can contrast-enhanced MRI replace T2 for the detection of bone marrow oedema?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomp, Wouter; Bloem, Johan L.; Reijnierse, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Krabben, Annemarie; Heijde, Desiree van der; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Helm-van Mil, Annette H.M. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands)


    To determine whether T1 post-gadolinium chelate images (T1Gd) can replace T2-weighted images (T2) for evaluating bone marrow oedema (BME), thereby allowing a shorter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 179 early arthritis patients and 43 advanced RA patients, wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints were examined on a 1.5-T extremity MRI system with a standard protocol (coronal T1, T2 fat-saturated and coronal and axial T1 fat-saturated after Gd). BME was scored according to OMERACT RAMRIS by two observers with and without T2 images available. Agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for semi-quantitative scores and test characteristics with T2 images as reference. Agreement between scores based on T2 and T1Gd images was excellent ICC (0.80-0.99). At bone level, sensitivity and specificity of BME on T1Gd compared to T2 were high for both patient groups and both readers (all ≥80 %). T1Gd and T2 images are equally suitable for evaluating BME. Because contrast is usually administered to assess (teno)synovitis, a short MRI protocol of T1 and T1Gd is sufficient in RA. (orig.)

  16. High prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in patients with severe psoriasis with suboptimal performance of screening questionnaires.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad


    The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among Psoriasis (Ps) patients attending dermatology clinics; (2) identify clinical predictors of the development of PsA; and (3) compare the performance of three PsA screening questionnaires: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE), Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening (ToPAS).

  17. Sonographic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Screening Tool for Detection of Elevated Intracranial Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Amini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Timely diagnosis and treatment of post traumatic, elevated intracranial pressure (EICP, could reduce morbidity and mortality, as well as improve patients’ outcome. This study is trying to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD in detection of EICP. Methods: Sonographic ONSD of patients with head trauma or cerebrovascular accident suspicious for EICP were evaluated by a trained chief resident of emergency medicine, who was blind to the clinical and brain computed tomography scan (BCT findings of patients. Immediately after ultrasonography, BCT was performed and reported by an expert radiologist without awareness from other results of the patients. Finally, ultrasonographic and BCT findings regarding EICP were compared. To evaluate the ability of sonographic ONSD in predicting the BCT findings and obtain best cut-off level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR of sonographic ONSD in determining of EICP was calculated. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There were 222 patients (65.3% male, with mean age of 42.2±19.5 years (range: 16-90 years. BCT showed signs of EICP, in 28 cases (12.6%. The means of the ONSD in the patients with EICP and normal ICP were 5.5 ± 0.56 and 3.93 ± 0.53 mm, respectively (P<0.0001. ROC curve demonstrated that the best cut off was 4.85 mm. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, PLR, and NLR of ONSD for prediction of EICP were 96.4%, 95.3%, 72.2%, 98.9%, 20.6, and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Sonographic diameter of optic nerve sheath could be considered as an available, accurate, and noninvasive screening tool in determining the elevated intracranial pressure in cases with head trauma or cerebrovascular accident. 


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin L. Gildea; Stephen P. Farrington, P.E.; Wesley L. Bratton, Ph.D., PE


    Conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between sampling devices and containers, ultimately affecting the quality of the analytical results. Inaccurate characterization data often leads to improperly designed remedial systems that slow the clean-up process and increase the cost. For these reasons, in situ methods for sample extraction and real time analysis provide attractive alternatives to conventional sampling and analysis. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the investigators continued development of a system that combines High Speed Gas Chromatography techniques with Cone Penetration Testing to achieve near-real time analysis of soils and groundwater for chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbon contamination (PCE, TCE, BTEX) during site characterization. The system combines three new CPT tools with an up-hole analyzer. The Dynamic Thermal Desorption (DTD) probe provides the up-hole analyzer with continuously sampled soil gas, enhancing detection limits by heating the soil matrix during penetration to thermally desorb volatile organic contaminants. The CPT In Situ Purge Probe (CISP) purges a water sample in situ, transferring the purge gas up-hole for analysis. Alternatively, soil gas or purge gas from the DTD probe or the CISP can be diverted to a Downhole Trap Module (DTM), which traps contaminants on conventional trap media for later analysis in a fixed laboratory. While the effectiveness of the CISP was hampered by the tendency of fine grained materials to clog its sample inlet filter, the DTD probe and the DTM were demonstrated to perform their intended functions well.

  19. Juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Southwood, T R; Woo, P


    The nomenclature and classification criteria for arthritis in children should be dealt with initially as separate issues, although they are undoubtedly intertwined. The classification criteria should aim to delineate homogeneous patient populations, yet should be flexible enough to incorporate advances in disease knowledge. It should be recognized that arriving at an international consensus for classification criteria will merely provide a set of operational definitions to facilitate research, and not a set of diagnostic criteria. Indeed the only point to obtaining consensus is to begin a process of systematic ongoing review of the criteria. The labels attached to any of these diseases should facilitate accurate communication. In view of the heterogeneous nature of childhood arthritis, consideration should be given to using a broad umbrella term such as juvenile or childhood arthritis only for communicating with the lay public. Medical nomenclature should be formulated to reflect accurately homogeneous subgroups of arthritis, and should not artificially proscribe a relationship between paediatric and adult disease.

  20. Arthritis in Children (United States)

    ... Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial ... Content Article Body Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that produces swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Although it is typically thought of as a ...

  1. Arthritis and IBD (United States)

    ... pain and stiffness in the lower spine and sacroiliac joints (at the bottom of the back). Interestingly, and ... addition to causing arthritis of the spine and sacroiliac joints, ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation of the eyes, ...

  2. Implementation and testing of a fault detection software tool for improving control system performance in a large commercial building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsbury, T.I.; Diamond, R.C.


    This paper describes a model-based, feedforward control scheme that can detect faults in the controlled process and improve control performance over traditional PID control. The tool uses static simulation models of the system under control to generate feed-forward control action, which acts as a reference of correct operation. Faults that occur in the system cause discrepancies between the feedforward models and the controlled process. The scheme facilitates detection of faults by monitoring the level of these discrepancies. We present results from the first phase of tests on a dual-duct air-handling unit installed in a large office building in San Francisco. We demonstrate the ability of the tool to detect a number of preexisting faults in the system and discuss practical issues related to implementation.

  3. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio


    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  4. NIR & MIR spectroscopy as an effective tool for detecting urban influences on soils (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea


    Soil supports ecosystem functions and services, sustains ecosystems and biodiversity, yet in the urban spreading world of today, soil as a resource is in constant danger. Human society takes for granted the services provided by open green patches allocated within and nearby cities, with no consideration of ramifications of urban development on those areas. The urban ecology science recognizes the need to learn, identify and monitor the soils of cities - urban soils. The definitions of those soils are mainly descriptive, since urban soils do not submitted to the pedological process as natural soils. The main objective of this paper is to characterize urban soils in open green undisturbed patches by mineralogical composition. This goal was achieved using field and laboratory spectroscopy across visible near, short wave infrared regions and laboratory thermal mid infrared region. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of pollution mostly heavy metals. In this study a top-down analysis (a simple and intuitive spectral feature for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples) is applied. This method uses spectral activity (SA) detection in a structured hierarchical approach to quickly and, more importantly, correctly identify dominant spectral features. The applied method is adopted by multiple in-production tools including continuum removal normalization, guided by polynomial generalization, and spectral-likelihood algorithms: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and iterative spectral mixture analysis (ISMA) were compared to feature likelihood methods. A total of 70 soil samples were collected at different locations: in remnant area within the city (edge and core), on the borders of the neighborhoods (edge) and in the fringe zone and in 2 locations in the protected park. The park samples were taken in locations found more than 100m from roads or direct anthropogenic disturbances. The

  5. The Electrical and Mechanical Alignment and Accuracy Detection of Numerial Control Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-xiong; ZHOU Xiang


    In the work of numerical control reformation of general machine tool, the installation and debugging of machine tool is a crucial part. For the C6132 machine tool, and make the use of electrical and mechanical alignment, parameter adjusting, numerical control lathe accuracy debugging and performance examination has been used to finish a series of tailing in the work of numerical control reformation of general machine tool. In this paper, the detailed process of electrical and mechanical alignment, parameter adjusting, numerical control lathe accuracy debugging and performance examination has been demonstrated, meanwhile, the specific operational approach of these work programs has been discussed. Therefore, the present results provides essential reference and approach for the numerical control reformation of general machine tool.

  6. G-CNV: A GPU-based Tool for Preparing Data to Detect CNVs with Read Depth Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eManconi


    Full Text Available Copy Number Variations (CNVs are the most prevalent types of structural variations (SVs in the human genome and are involved in a wide range of common human diseases. Different computational methods have been devised to detect this type of SVs and to study how they are implicated in human diseases. Recently, computational methods based on high throughputsequencing (HTS are increasingly used. The majority of these methods focus on mapping short-read sequences generated from a donor against a reference genome to detect signatures distinctive of CNVs. In particular, read-depth based methods detect CNVs by analyzing genomic regions with significantly different read-depth from the other ones. The pipeline analysis of these methods consists of four main stages: i data preparation, ii data normalization, iii CNV regions identification, and iv copy number estimation. However, available tools do not support most of the operations required at the first two stages of this pipeline. Typically, they start the analysis by building the read-depth signal from pre-processed alignments. Therefore, third-party tools must be used to perform most of the preliminary operations required to build the read-depth signal.These data-intensive operations can be efficiently parallelized on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. In this article we present G-CNV, a GPU-based tool devised to perform the common operations required at the first two stages of the analysis pipeline. G-CNV is able to filter low quality read sequences, to mask low quality nucleotides, to remove adapter sequences,to remove duplicated read sequences, to map the short-reads, to resolve multiple mapping ambiguities, to build the read-depth signal, and to normalize it. G-CNV can be efficiently used as a third-party tool able to prepare data for the subsequent read-depth signal generation and analysis. Moreover, it can also be integrated in CNV detection tools to generate read-depth signals.

  7. MitoBamAnnotator: A web-based tool for detecting and annotating heteroplasmy in human mitochondrial DNA sequences. (United States)

    Zhidkov, Ilia; Nagar, Tal; Mishmar, Dan; Rubin, Eitan


    The use of Next-Generation Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA is becoming widespread in biological and clinical research. This, in turn, creates a need for a convenient tool that detects and analyzes heteroplasmy. Here we present MitoBamAnnotator, a user friendly web-based tool that allows maximum flexibility and control in heteroplasmy research. MitoBamAnnotator provides the user with a comprehensively annotated overview of mitochondrial genetic variation, allowing for an in-depth analysis with no prior knowledge in programming.

  8. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems (United States)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  9. New host range for Hematodinium in southern Australia and novel tools for sensitive detection of parasitic dinoflagellates. (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Cranenburgh, Andrea; Waller, Ross F


    Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate and emerging pathogen of crustaceans. It preferably manifests in haemolymph of marine decapod crustaceans, killing a large variety of genera with significant impacts on fisheries worldwide. There is, however, evidence that some crustacean stocks harbor high prevalence, low intensity infections that may not result in widespread host mortality and are therefore hard to detect. The most widely used methods for detection of Hematodinium are conventional blood smears and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against ribosomal RNAs. Blood smears demand a trained investigator, are labor intensive and not readily scalable for high-throughput sampling. PCRs only detect parasite DNA and can also suffer from false negatives and positives. In order to develop alternative detection tools for Hematodinium cells in decapod crustaceans we employed an immunological approach against a newly identified, abundant dinoflagellate-specific nuclear protein--Dinoflagellate/Viral NucleoProtein (DVNP). Both immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot methods against DVNP showed high sensitivity of detection. The Western blot detects Hematodinium parasites to levels of 25 parasites per milliliter of crustacean haemolymph, with the potential for sample pooling and screening of large samples. Using both PCR and these new tools, we have identified Hematodinium cells present in three new host crab taxa, at high prevalence but with no sign of pathogenesis. This extends the known range of Hematodinium to southern Australia.

  10. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis Management How to Give a Subcutaneous Injection Connect With ...

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spondylitis News Osteoarthritis News Gout News Osteoporosis News Lupus News Fibromyalgia News Patient Corner Arthritis Drug Information ... Connect With Us Johns Hopkins Rheumatology Arthritis Center Lupus Center Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center Myositis Center ...

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any advice you receive from your rheumatologist. Click A Link Below To Play Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms and ... About Victoria Ruffing, RN Ms. Ruffing has been a member of the Arthritis Center since 2000, currently ...

  13. Automated real time peg and tool detection for the FLS trainer box. (United States)

    Nemani, Arun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh


    This study proposes a method that effectively tracks trocar tool and peg positions in real time to allow real time assessment of the peg transfer task of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS). By utilizing custom code along with OpenCV libraries, tool and peg positions can be accurately tracked without altering the original setup conditions of the FLS trainer box. This is achieved via a series of image filtration sequences, thresholding functions, and Haar training methods.

  14. Study of geometric errors detection method for NC machine tools based on non-contact circular track (United States)

    Yan, Kejun; Liu, Jun; Gao, Feng; Wang, Huan


    This paper presents a non-contact measuring method of geometric errors for NC machine tools based on circular track testing method. Let the machine spindle move along a circular path, the position error of every tested position in the circle can be obtained using two laser interferometers. With a volumetric error model, the 12 components of geometric error apart from angular error components can be derived. It has characteristics of wide detection range and high precision. Being obtained geometric errors respectively, it is of great significance for the error compensation of NC machine tools. This method has been tested on a MCV-510 NC machine tool. The experiment result has been proved to be feasible for this method.

  15. [Detection of TBEV RNA in ticks as a tool for valuation of endemic area wide and sensitivity of TBE surveillance]. (United States)

    Makówka, Agata; Gut, Włodzimierz; Rogalska, Justyna; Michalik, Jerzy; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Stefanoff, Paweł


    In this study we present the nested RT-PCR strategy designed for detection of TBEV RNA in ticks Ixodes ricinus. The presented nested RT-PCR method using 2 different primer pairs specific primers for NS5 gene provides specific TBEV cDNA detectable by electroforesis in agarose gel. Of the 177 polls of ticks investigated, TBEV RNA was detected in 14, which accounts for 7.9% of all pools. We confront the PCR results of tested ticks to routine surveillance data. The obtained results showed that the TBEV RNA is detectable in ticks collected in areas in Poland, which are defined as an non-endemic. The nested RT-PCR method can be used as a tool of epidemiological surveillance as well as for screening of occurrence of circulating TBEV.

  16. Dynamic automated synovial imaging (DASI) for differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.


    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semiquantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. We show that after a kinetic analysis of contrast agent appearance, providing the quantitative features characterizing the perfusion pattern of the joint, it is possible to accurately discriminate RA from PSA by building a random forest classifier on the computed features. We compare its accuracy with the assessment performed by expert radiologist blinded of the diagnosis.

  17. Application of DETECTER, an evolutionary genomic tool to analyze genetic variation, to the cystic fibrosis gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Kee Danny W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical community requires computational tools that distinguish missense genetic differences having phenotypic impact within the vast number of sense mutations that do not. Tools that do this will become increasingly important for those seeking to use human genome sequence data to predict disease, make prognoses, and customize therapy to individual patients. Results An approach, termed DETECTER, is proposed to identify sites in a protein sequence where amino acid replacements are likely to have a significant effect on phenotype, including causing genetic disease. This approach uses a model-dependent tool to estimate the normalized replacement rate at individual sites in a protein sequence, based on a history of those sites extracted from an evolutionary analysis of the corresponding protein family. This tool identifies sites that have higher-than-average, average, or lower-than-average rates of change in the lineage leading to the sequence in the population of interest. The rates are then combined with sequence data to determine the likelihoods that particular amino acids were present at individual sites in the evolutionary history of the gene family. These likelihoods are used to predict whether any specific amino acid replacements, if introduced at the site in a modern human population, would have a significant impact on fitness. The DETECTER tool is used to analyze the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene family. Conclusion In this system, DETECTER retrodicts amino acid replacements associated with the cystic fibrosis disease with greater accuracy than alternative approaches. While this result validates this approach for this particular family of proteins only, the approach may be applicable to the analysis of polymorphisms generally, including SNPs in a human population.

  18. MRI quantification of rheumatoid arthritis: current knowledge and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Mikael; Østergaard, Mikkel; Cimmino, Marco A


    The international consensus on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which a reliable identification of early disease is mandatory. Conventional radiography of the joints is considered the standard method for detect......The international consensus on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which a reliable identification of early disease is mandatory. Conventional radiography of the joints is considered the standard method...

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis 101 2010 E.S.C.A.P.E. Study Patient Update Transitioning the JRA Patient to an Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis Management How ...

  20. Th17 cytokines and arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lubberts (Erik)


    textabstractTh17 cells are implicated in human autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although it has not been established whether this persistent destructive arthritis is driven by Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) contributes to the pathogenesis of arthritis as has b

  1. Detection of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the clinical significance%抗环瓜氨酸抗体检测在类风湿关节炎中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷健; 李婷; 包军; 徐沪济


    类风湿关节炎( rheumatoid arthritis,RA)是一种主要累及全身多关节的自身免疫性疾病.目前RA仍具有很高的关节致残率和病死率.早期诊断并进行积极治疗可有效减少关节畸形的可能.近年发现的抗瓜氨酸抗体( anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies,ACPA)可在关节破坏发生前即表现出阳性,该抗体与经典的类风湿因子(rheumatoid factor,RF)相比,在RA的诊断中具有相似的敏感性,但具有更高的特异性.研究发现抗环瓜氨酸抗体(anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies)在RA的早期诊断、预后判断等方面都有重要意义,并有流行病学证据显示其可能在RA的发病中扮演重要角色.%Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease involving multiple joints, and currently it still leads to high disability rate of the joints and high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively reduce joint deformities. The recently discovered anti-citrullinated peptide antibodiesC ACPA) can be detected before damage to the joints occurs. Compared with classical rheumatoid factor (RF) ACPA has higher specificity and similar sensitivity in diagnosing RA. Some studies have showned that anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies play an important role in the early diagnosis of RA and prediction of prognosis; epidemiological evidences also show that ACPA plays an important role on the pathogenesis of RA.

  2. SeqX: a tool to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fördös Gergely


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interacting residues of protein and nucleic acid sequences are close to each other – they are co-located. Structure databases (like Protein Data Bank, PDB and Nucleic Acid Data Bank, NDB contain all information about these co-locations; however it is not an easy task to penetrate this complex information. We developed a JAVA tool, called SeqX for this purpose. Results SeqX tool is useful to detect, analyze and visualize residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. The user a. selects a structure from PDB; b. chooses an atom that is commonly present in every residues of the nucleic acid and/or protein structure(s c. defines a distance from these atoms (3–15 Å. The SeqX tool detects every residue that is located within the defined distances from the defined "backbone" atom(s; provides a DotPlot-like visualization (Residues Contact Map, and calculates the frequency of every possible residue pairs (Residue Contact Table in the observed structure. It is possible to exclude +/- 1 to 10 neighbor residues in the same polymeric chain from detection, which greatly improves the specificity of detections (up to 60% when tested on dsDNA. Results obtained on protein structures showed highly significant correlations with results obtained from literature (p Conclusion The tool is simple and easy to use and provides a quick and reliable visualization and analyses of residue co-locations in protein and nucleic acid structures. Availability and requirements SeqX, Java J2SE Runtime Environment 5.0 (available from [see Additional file 1] and at least a 1 GHz processor and with a minimum 256 Mb RAM. Source codes are available from the authors. Additional File 1 SeqX_1.041_05601.jar. see this article Click here for file

  3. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsan NM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modelling and analysis is now accepted in the engineering design on par with experimental approaches. Computer simulations enable one to perform several 'what-if' analyses cost effectively. High speed computers and low cost of memory has helped in simulating large-scale models in a relatively shorter time frame. The possibility of extending numerical modelling in the area of breast cancer detection in conjunction with medical thermography is considered in this work. Methods Thermography enables one to see the temperature pattern and look for abnormality. In a thermogram there is no radiation risk as it only captures the infrared radiation from the skin and is totally painless. But, a thermogram is only a test of physiology, whereas a mammogram is a test of anatomy. It is hoped that a thermogram along with numerical modelling will serve as an adjunct tool. Presently mammogram is the 'gold-standard' in breast cancer detection. But the interpretation of a mammogram is largely dependent on the radiologist. Therefore, a thermogram that looks into the physiological changes in combination with numerical simulation performing 'what-if' analysis could act as an adjunct tool to mammography. Results The proposed framework suggested that it could reduce the occurrence of false-negative/positive cases. Conclusion A numerical bioheat model of a female breast is developed and simulated. The results are compared with experimental results. The possibility of this method as an early detection tool is discussed.

  4. [Team management of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Vittecoq, O


    The main objectives of team management of rheumatoid arthritis are to stop structural damage of joints and to reduce functional, psychological, socioprofessional and economic consequences. Team management requires the collaboration, around the patient, of a rheumatologist, a nurse, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, an occupational therapist, an orthopaedic surgeon at the same time, in the same place. More and more patients wish to manage their disease by themselves. Team care should not be proposed to every patient; it must be reserved to patients whose condition required such an approach because of the severity of the disease, comorbidity, psychological or socioprofessionnal difficulties. Team management should be personalized. Utility of team management is now accepted; out-patient administration is as effective as in-patient one. A good educational program is very important. However, search is still needed to define optimal modalities of team management and tools to measure the efficiency of this approach.

  5. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens. (United States)

    Schofield, David; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J


    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv alisalensis, the causal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detects and identifies P. cannabina pv alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant specimens. A recombinant "light-tagged" reporter phage was generated by integrating the luxAB genes into the P. cannabina pv alisalensis phage PBSPCA1 genome. PBSPCA1::luxAB is viable, stable and detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis within minutes and with high sensitivity by conferring a bioluminescent signal. Detection is dependent on cell viability since cells treated with a bactericidal disinfectant are unable to elicit a signal. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis from diseased plant specimens indicating the potential of the diagnostic for disease identification. The reporter phage displays promise for the rapid and specific diagnostic detection of cultivated isolates, and infected plant specimens.

  6. K/BxN serum transfer arthritis as a model for human inflammatory arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Deen Christensen


    Full Text Available The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis (STA model is a murine model in which the immunological mechanisms occurring in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and other arthritides can be studied. To induce K/BxN STA, serum from arthritic transgenic K/BxN mice is transferred to naive mice and manifestations of arthritis occur a few days later. The inflammatory response in the model is driven by autoantibodies against the ubiquitously expressed self-antigen, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI, leading to the formation of immune complexes that drive the activation of different innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages and possibly mast cells. The pathogenesis further involves a range of immune mediators including cytokines, chemokines, complement factors, Toll-like receptors, Fc receptors, and integrins, as well as factors involved in pain and bone erosion. Hence, even though the K/BxN STA model mimics only the effector phase of RA, it still involves a wide range of relevant disease mediators. Additionally, as a murine model for arthritis, the K/BxN STA model has some obvious advantages. Firstly, it has a rapid and robust onset of arthritis with 100% incidence in genetically identical animals. Secondly, it can be induced in a wide range of strain backgrounds and can therefore also be induced in gene-deficient strains to study the specific importance of disease mediators. Even though G6PI might not be an essential autoantigen, for example, in RA, the K/BxN STA model is a useful tool to understand how autoantibodies in general drive the progression of arthritis by interacting with downstream components of the innate immune system. Finally, the model has also proven useful as a model wherein arthritic pain can be studied. Taken together, these features make the K/BxN STA model a relevant one for RA and it is a potentially valuable tool especially for the pre-clinical screening of new therapeutic targets for RA and perhaps other forms of inflammatory

  7. JSClassFinder: A Tool to Detect Class-like Structures in JavaScript


    Humberto Silva, Leonardo; Hovadick, Daniel; Tulio Valente, Marco; Bergel, Alexandre; Anquetil, Nicolas; Etien, Anne


    International audience; With the increasing usage of JavaScript in web applications, there is a great demand to write JavaScript code that is reliable and maintainable. To achieve these goals, classes can be emulated in the current JavaScript standard version. In this paper, we propose a reengineering tool to identify such class-like structures and to create an object-oriented model based on JavaScript source code. The tool has a parser that loads the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) of a JavaScrip...

  8. [Arthritis and clinical history]. (United States)

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S


    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  9. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis]. (United States)

    Herlin, Troels


    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  10. The rehabilitative approach in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pappone


    Full Text Available The rehabilitative approach for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis should be early, global and complementary to an early pharmacological therapy, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, that should include physicians with different specialties and other health professionals. Evaluation scales assessing disability and quality of life are necessary for the rehabilitative approach. These can be classified in 2 groups: specific tools and generic tools, each evaluating different components of the health status. After the evaluation and the definition of the aims of the rehabilitation, a rehabilitative project, potentially including physical therapies, therapeutic exercises, occupational therapy and orthosis should be defined.

  11. A Survey of Visualization Tools Assessed for Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Analysis (United States)


    Intrusion Detection Systems: A Taxonomy and Survey; Technical Report No 99- 15, Department of Computer Engineering: Chalmers University of Technology...Göteborg, Sweden, 1999 11. Axelsson, S. Research in Intrusion-Detection Systems: A Survey and Taxonomy, Department of Computer Engineering: Chalmers ...51. 14. Department of Computer Science and Engineering; Chalmers -University of Gothenburg, SE- 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden, December 1998. http

  12. General and advanced diagnostic tools to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their drug susceptibility: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazi, M.A.; Islam, M.R.; Kibria, M.; Mahmud, Z.


    The global control of tuberculosis remains a great challenge from the standpoint of diagnosis, detection of drug resistance, and treatment, because treatment can only be initiated when infection is detected, and is guided by the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. To a large extent, non

  13. Twin Probes as a Novel Tool for the Detection of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergen, Erhan; Weber, Markus; Jacob, Josemon; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus


    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of DNA sequence variation. There is a strong interest from both academy and industry to develop rapid, sensitive and cost effective methods for SNP detection. Here we report a novel structural concept for DNA detection based on fluoresc

  14. Neonatal Candida arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sharma


    Full Text Available Fungal arthritis is an uncommon yet serious disorder in the newborn. Delay in diagnosis and management can lead to significant morbidity. We report our experience with management of two such cases. Two preterm neonates with multifocal arthritis caused by Candida were studied. Diagnosis was made by clinical examination, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations and culture. Both were treated by aspiration, arthrotomy and antifungal therapy. One patient recovered fully from the infection while the other had growth disturbances resulting in limb length inequality at recent followup. Prompt and expeditious evacuation of pus from joints and antifungal therapy is imperative for treatment. Associated osteomyelitis leads to further difficulty in treatment.

  15. Psoriatic Arthritis Registries. (United States)

    Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Varisco, Valentina; Ditto, Maria Chiara; Benucci, Maurizio; Atzeni, Fabiola


    The introduction of new biological drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis has led to the creation of a number of registries in Europe and the United States. Most of them are sponsored by national rheumatology societies, and provide information that is useful in clinical practice concerning the clinical characteristics, efficacy, and safety of all licensed biological drugs. Their findings also help to improve our understanding of the quality of life and working ability of patients receiving biological drugs, and suggest methods for allocating resources. However, there are only a few registries for psoriatic arthritis, and efforts should be made to increase their number to obtain further reliable and useful data.

  16. Precise automatic image coregistration tools to enable pixel-level change detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most research in this area has focused...

  17. Precise Automatic Image Coregistration Tools to Enable Pixel-Level Change Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing...

  18. A non-invasive tool for detecting cervical cancer odor by trained scent dogs


    Guerrero-Flores, Héctor; Apresa-García, Teresa; Garay-Villar, Ónix; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Flores-Villegas, David; Bandera-Calderón, Artfy; García-Palacios, Raúl; Rojas-Sánchez, Teresita; Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Sánchez-Albor, Verónica; Mata, Osvaldo; Arana-Conejo, Víctor; Badillo-Romero, Jesús; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel


    Background Cervical Cancer (CC) has become a public health concern of alarming proportions in many developing countries such as Mexico, particularly in low income sectors and marginalized regions. As such, an early detection is a key medical factor in improving not only their population’s quality of life but also its life expectancy. Interestingly, there has been an increase in the number of reports describing successful attempts at detecting cancer cells in human tissues or fluids using trai...

  19. Neonatal septic arthritis. (United States)

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E


    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  20. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    The association between juvenile arthritis and uveitis is reviewed. Some children with the HLA-B27 related spondyloarthropathies develop anterior uveitis. About 20% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) who are negative for IgM rheumatoid factor develop a frequently bilateral, nongranulomatous chronic anterior uveitis. Risk factors for uveitis in JRA patients are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. Uveitis is rare after seven years or more have elapsed from the onset of arthritis. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop visual impairment from complicated cataract and/or secondary inflammatory glaucoma. The potential benefit of cytotoxic agents in the treatment of intractable uveitis is outweighed by the risk of serious side effects. The management of secondary inflammatory glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of treatment of complicated cataracts by lensectomy-vitrectomy are good.

  1. Arthritis Pain Reliever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Learn more about the benefits of physical activity and the types and amounts of exercise helpful for people with arthritis.  Created: 12/27/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/27/2011.

  2. Interferon-Gamma Release Assay: An Effective Tool to Detect Early Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yin

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, measuring the IFN-γ released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock.

  3. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  4. Using dynamic pupillometry as a simple screening tool to detect autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Fábio K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomic neuropathy is a common and serious complication of diabetes. Early detection is essential to enable appropriate interventional therapy and management. Dynamic pupillometry has been proposed as a simpler and more sensitive tool to detect subclinical autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate pupil responsiveness in diabetic subjects with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN using dynamic pupillometry in two sets of experiments. Methods During the first experiment, one flash was administered and the pupil response was recorded for 3 s. In the second experiment, 25 flashes at 1-s interval were administered and the pupil response was recorded for 30 s. Several time and pupil-iris radius-related parameters were computed from the acquired data. A total of 24 diabetic subjects (16 without and 8 with CAN and 16 healthy volunteers took part in the study. Results Our results show that diabetic subjects with and without CAN have sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, evidenced by diminished amplitude reflexes and significant smaller pupil radius. It suggests that pupillary autonomic dysfunction occurs before a more generalized involvement of the autonomic nervous system, and this could be used to detect early autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions Dynamic pupillometry provides a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive tool to screen high-risk diabetic patients for diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  5. Ultrasound-detected activity in rheumatoid arthritis on methotrexate therapy: Which joints and tendons should be assessed to predict unstable remission? (United States)

    Janta, Iustina; Valor, Lara; De la Torre, Inmaculada; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Bello, Natalia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Montoro, María; González, Carlos Manuel; López-Longo, Javier; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Carreño, Luis; Naredo, Esperanza


    The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of different reduced joint ultrasound (US) assessments of synovitis and tenosynovitis in relation to unstable remission in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on methotrexate therapy. Forty-seven RA patients (38 women, 9 men), being treated with methotrexate (MTX), in clinical remission as judged by their consultant rheumatologist were evaluated for disease activity according to the Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 at baseline and 6 months. Sustained remission and unstable remission were defined according to the baseline and 6-month DAS28 and changes in RA therapy during the follow-up. Each patient underwent at baseline a B-mode and power Doppler (PD) assessment of 44 joints and 20 tendons/tendon compartments by a rheumatologist blinded to the clinical and laboratory data. B-mode synovial hypertrophy (SH), synovial PD signal, B-mode tenosynovitis, and Doppler tenosynovitis were scored 0-3. The presence and index of synovial PD signal in 44 joints [odds ratio (OR) 8.21 (p = 0.016) and OR 2.20 (p = 0.049), respectively] and in 12 joints [OR 5.82 (p = 0.041) and OR 4.19 (p = 0.020), respectively], the presence of SH in wrist and MCP joints [OR 4.79 (p = 0.045)], and the presence of synovial PD signal in wrist-MCP-ankle-MTP joints [OR 4.62 (p = 0.046)] were predictors of unstable remission. The 12-joint or wrist-hand-ankle-MTP US assessments can predict unstable remission in RA patients in apparent clinical remission being treated with MTX.

  6. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities. (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C


    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  7. Collagen Biomarkers for Arthritis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Birmingham


    Full Text Available The most common form of chronic arthritis is osteoarthritis (OA with prevalence as high as 80% after age 75 (Arden and Nevitt, 2006. The incidence of OA is expected to increase as the population ages, increasing the socioeconomic burden of OA. Despite the signifi cant burden of this disease, no drug has been identifi ed that can effectively modify disease progression (Moskowitz and Hooper, 2005; Abadie et al. 2004. However, slowing disease progress and improvement in quality of life may be achieved by behavioral modifi cations, such as weight loss and exercise. Many patients with early OA will progress to disability and joint replacement. Physical examination and radiographic studies are relatively poor means for detecting disease early or predicting progression. Therefore, identifi cation of factors to facilitate early OA diagnosis and prognosis is a major focus of current OA research (Lohmander and Felson, 2004; Lohmander, 2004; Garnero and Delmas, 2003.

  8. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: Section 2. Psoriatic arthritis: overview and guidelines of care for treatment with an emphasis on the biologics. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice; Korman, Neil J; Gordon, Kenneth B; Feldman, Steven R; Lebwohl, Mark; Koo, John Y M; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Elmets, Craig A; Leonardi, Craig L; Beutner, Karl R; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan


    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory, multisystem disease with predominantly skin and joint manifestations affecting approximately 2% of the population. In this second of 5 sections of the guidelines of care for psoriasis, we give an overview of psoriatic arthritis including its cardinal clinical features, pathogenesis, prognosis, classification, assessment tools used to evaluate psoriatic arthritis, and the approach to treatment. Although patients with mild to moderate psoriatic arthritis may be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or intra-articular steroid injections, the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, particularly methotrexate, along with the biologic agents, are considered the standard of care in patients with more significant psoriatic arthritis. We will discuss the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and the biologic therapies in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriatic arthritis.

  9. Detection of ESAT-6 by a label free miniature immuno-electrochemical biosensor as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis. (United States)

    Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ouerghi, Oussama; Refai, Amira; Belgacem, Kamel; Tlili, Chaker; Laouini, Dhafer; Essafi, Makram


    Tuberculosis is a worldwide disease considered as a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. Poor detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis remains a major obstacle to the global control of this disease. Here we report the development of a new test based on the detection of the major virulent factor of Mtb, namely the early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein or ESAT-6. A label free electrochemical immunosensor using an anti-ESAT-6 monoclonal antibody as a bio-receptor is described herein. Anti-ESAT-6 antibodies were first covalently immobilized on the surface of a gold screen-printed electrode functionalized via a self-assembled thiol monolayer. Interaction between the bio-receptor and ESAT-6 antigen was evaluated by square wave voltammetry method using [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) as redox probe. The detection limit of ESAT-6 antigen was 7ng/ml. The immunosensor has also been able to detect native ESAT-6 antigen secreted in cell culture filtrates of three pathogenic strains of Mtb (CDC1551, H37RV and H8N8). Overall, this work describes an immune-electrochemical biosensor, based on ESAT-6 antigen detection, as a useful diagnostic tool for tuberculosis.

  10. Neural network based pattern matching and spike detection tools and services--in the CARMEN neuroinformatics project. (United States)

    Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim


    In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets.

  11. gcodeml: A Grid-enabled Tool for Detecting Positive Selection in Biological Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, Sébastien; Maffioletti, Sergio; Kuzniar, Arnold; Castella, Briséïs; Salamin, Nicolas; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Stockinger, Heinz


    One of the important questions in biological evolution is to know if certain changes along protein coding genes have contributed to the adaptation of species. This problem is known to be biologically complex and computationally very expensive. It, therefore, requires efficient Grid or cluster solutions to overcome the computational challenge. We have developed a Grid-enabled tool (gcodeml) that relies on the PAML (codeml) package to help analyse large phylogenetic datasets on both Grids and computational clusters. Although we report on results for gcodeml, our approach is applicable and customisable to related problems in biology or other scientific domains.

  12. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions. (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K


    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases.

  13. NGS-eval: NGS Error analysis and novel sequence VAriant detection tooL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. May; S. Abeln; M.J. Buijs; J. Heringa; W. Crielaard; B.W. Brandt


    Massively parallel sequencing of microbial genetic markers (MGMs) is used to uncover the species composition in a multitude of ecological niches. These sequencing runs often contain a sample with known composition that can be used to evaluate the sequencing quality or to detect novel sequence varian

  14. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)


    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  15. Nanobiosensors Based on Chemically Modified AFM Probes: A Useful Tool for Metsulfuron-Methyl Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio L. Leite


    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals has increased considerably in recent years, and consequently, there has been increased exposure of ecosystems and human populations to these highly toxic compounds. The study and development of methodologies to detect these substances with greater sensitivity has become extremely relevant. This article describes, for the first time, the use of atomic force spectroscopy (AFS in the detection of enzyme-inhibiting herbicides. A nanobiosensor based on an atomic force microscopy (AFM tip functionalised with the acetolactate synthase (ALS enzyme was developed and characterised. The herbicide metsulfuron-methyl, an ALS inhibitor, was successfully detected through the acquisition of force curves using this biosensor. The adhesion force values were considerably higher when the biosensor was used. An increase of ~250% was achieved relative to the adhesion force using an unfunctionalised AFM tip. This considerable increase was the result of a specific interaction between the enzyme and the herbicide, which was primarily responsible for the efficiency of the nanobiosensor. These results indicate that this methodology is promising for the detection of herbicides, pesticides, and other environmental contaminants.

  16. Anti-cysticercus antibody detection in saliva as a potential diagnostic tool for neurocysticercosis (United States)

    Saha, Rumpa; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Shah, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Sunil; Kaur, Iqbal Rajinder


    Objectives: This study was planned to determine the usefulness of anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection in saliva for neurocysticercosis (NCC) diagnosis, along with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level to serve as a surrogate marker. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study of 14 months duration, blood and saliva samples were collected from 40 patients suspected to be suffering from NCC and were subjected to anti-cysticercus IgG antibody detection by ELISA. Serum CRP levels were estimated as acute-phase reactant by high sensitivity CRP ELISA. Results: Anti-cysticercus IgG was detected in serum and saliva of 34 and 30 patients, respectively. Cases positive for salivary antibody were positive for serum antibody and their serum CRP level was higher than normal. Cases negative for salivary antibody had low serum CRP levels. Anti-cysticercus IgG detection in saliva was 88.24% sensitive, 100% specific, and had a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 60%. Positive salivary anti-cysticercus IgG and high serum CRP level showed a significant association. Difference between CRP levels of patients positive for anti-cysticercus antibody in both serum and saliva, and patients positive for antibody in serum but not saliva was highly significant. Conclusions: Saliva, being painless and noninvasive, can be used as alternative to serum for NCC diagnosis. PMID:27570404

  17. Molecular inversion probe: a new tool for highly specific detection of plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    Full Text Available Highly specific detection methods, capable of reliably identifying plant pathogens are crucial in plant disease management strategies to reduce losses in agriculture by preventing the spread of diseases. We describe a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP assay that can be potentially developed into a robust multiplex platform to detect and identify plant pathogens. A MIP has been designed for the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and the proof of concept for the efficiency of this technology is provided. We demonstrate that this methodology can detect as little as 2.5 ng of pathogen DNA and is highly specific, being able to accurately differentiate Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans from other fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and even pathogens of the same species such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The MIP assay was able to detect the presence of the pathogen in infected Arabidopsis thaliana plants as soon as the tissues contained minimal amounts of pathogen. MIP methods are intrinsically highly multiplexable and future development of specific MIPs could lead to the establishment of a diagnostic method that could potentially screen infected plants for hundreds of pathogens in a single assay.

  18. Raman spectroscopy as a potential tool for detection of Brucella spp. in milk. (United States)

    Meisel, Susann; Stöckel, Stephan; Elschner, Mandy; Melzer, Falk; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen


    Detection of Brucella, causing brucellosis, is very challenging, since the applied techniques are mostly time-demanding and not standardized. While the common detection system relies on the cultivation of the bacteria, further classical typing up to the biotype level is mostly based on phenotypic or genotypic characteristics. The results of genotyping do not always fit the existing taxonomy, and misidentifications between genetically closely related genera cannot be avoided. This situation gets even worse, when detection from complex matrices, such as milk, is necessary. For these reasons, the availability of a method that allows early and reliable identification of possible Brucella isolates for both clinical and epidemiological reasons would be extremely useful. We evaluated micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis to identify Brucella from agar plates and directly from milk: prior to these studies, the samples were inactivated via formaldehyde treatment to ensure a higher working safety. The single-cell Raman spectra of different Brucella, Escherichia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, and Yersinia spp. were measured to create two independent databases for detection in media and milk. Identification accuracies of 92% for Brucella from medium and 94% for Brucella from milk were obtained while analyzing the single-cell Raman spectra via support vector machine. Even the identification of the other genera yielded sufficient results, with accuracies of >90%. In summary, micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising alternative for detecting Brucella. The measurements we performed at the single-cell level thus allow fast identification within a few hours without a demanding process for sample preparation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Panafidina


    Full Text Available The peak onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA is at 30-55 years of age. At this age, the patients have also other concomi- tant diseases (comorbidities that affect the course and prognosis of RA, the choice of its treatment policy, quality of life of the patients. Objective: to identify the most important and common comorbidities in patients with RA. Subjects and methods. Two hundred patients (median age 55 [46; 61] years were enrolled; there was a preponderance of women (82.5% with median disease duration 5 [1; 10] years, seropositive for IgM rheumatoid factor (83.0% and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (81.6% with moderate and high disease activity (median DAS28 value 3.9 [3.1; 4.9]. Varying degrees of destructive changes in hand and foot joints were radiologically detected in 71.2% of the patients; 64.5% of the patients had Functional Class II. Methotrexate was given to 69.5% of the patients; therapy with biological agents was used in 21.0% of the cases. 15.5% of the patients did not receive DMARD or biologics. 43.0% of the patients with RA received glucocorticoids. Results. Comorbidities were present in 72.0% of the patients with RA. The most common diseases were hypertension (60.0%, dyslipidemia (45.0%, fractures at various sites (29.5%, and coronary heart disease (21.0%. Myocardial infarction and stroke were observed in 1.5 and 1.0% of cases, respectively. There was diabetes mellitus (DM in 7.5% of the cases and osteoporosis in 15.5% of the patients. 81.7% of the patients with RA and hypertension and 80.0% of those with RA and DM received antihypertensive and sugar-lowering therapy, respectively. At the same time the RA patients with dyslipidemia and osteoporosis received specific drugs far less frequently (30.0 and 29.0%, respectively. Conclusion. Comorbidities are frequently encountered in RA. By taking into account the fact that cardiovascular dis- eases are a main cause of death in RA; it is necessary to adequately and timely

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis: "You Are Not Alone." (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid Arthritis: "You Are Not Alone." Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... Alternative Medicine—Rheumatoid Arthritis ... ...

  2. Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis : A search for causality and role of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smit, Menke


    There is currently much attention for early detection of rheumatoid arthritis, as early recognition enables timely treatment with a chance of remission of the disease before irreversible damage has occurred. In this respect, important questions are: who will develop rheumatoid arthritis, when and wh

  3. Co-morbidity index in rheumatoid arthritis: time to think. (United States)

    El Miedany, Yasser


    Rheumatoid arthritis patients are clinically complex, and the interplay of their disease activity together with the other associated conditions may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The recent advances in the disease management attracted the attention to its associated co-morbidities and highlighted the need for a tool to provide clinicians and potential payers with a clinically powerful measure of the disease burden and prognosis. Predicting outcome or co-morbidity probability has been previously implemented successfully for calculating 10-year fracture probability (FRAX) as well as for predicting 1-year patient mortality using co-morbidity data obtained (Charlson index). Developing a specific rheumatoid arthritis-independent tool able to predict morbidity, mortality, cost and hospitalization would be a step forward on the way to achieve full disease remission. The co-morbidity index should be used both at baseline as well as a continuous variable in analyses. It should be implemented regularly in the clinical assessment as a confounder of outcomes. This article will review the redefined health outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis and the concept of co-morbidity index for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It will also present a proposed co-morbidity index for rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  4. Ultrasonography as a non-invasive tool for detection of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese Egyptian children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Koofy, Nehal [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Karaksy, Hanaa, E-mail: [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Akel, Wafaa [Tropical Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Hennawy, Ahmad [Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)


    Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.

  5. Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in oral wash from immunosuppressed patients as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Cecilie Juul; Lund, Marianne; Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard


    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) pneumonia ordinarily requires invasive procedures that could be avoided by PCR methodologies, if these could be designed with adequate cut-off values for confounding background carriage. METHODS: We designed a novel quantitative real-time PCR......), rheumatologic patients (n = 102), patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 98), and healthy blood donors (controls, n = 50). The fungal burden in patients with PJ pneumonia (PCP, n = 7) was also investigated. RESULTS: Danish HIV-infected patients (with viremia/low CD4) and recent transplant recipients...... were at most risk of being carriers (prevalence of 23% and 16.7% respectively), whereas PJ was rarely detected among rheumatologic patients, patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and untreated West African HIV patients. PJ was not detected among healthy controls. The fungal burden in patients...

  6. Synthetic Lectins: New Tools for Detection and Management of Prostate Cancer (United States)


    death , over 30,000 per year. Thus, our long term goal is to develop synthetic lectin (SL) arrays for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer...structural motifs (i.e., diols) present on all Cancer Associated Glycans/Glycoproteins. The covalent interaction increases the affinity of the SL for...Associated Glycans/Glycoproteins; (2) probe the biochemical and biophysical basis for the glycan-SL interactions to enhance binding affinities and

  7. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.


    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  8. Trimodal spectroscopy as a tool for detecting cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in vivo (United States)

    Georgakoudi, Irene; Sheets, Ellen E.; Crum, Christopher P.; Mueller, Markus G.; Backman, Vadim; Feld, Michael S.


    Using intrinsic fluorescence, diffuse reflectance and light scattering spectroscopy we extracted quantitative biochemical and morphological information in vivo about the bulk tissue and the epithelial cell nuclei of ectocervical sites from 44 patients. Significant changes were observed in tissue morphology and biochemistry between normal, squamous metaplastic and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) sites. The combined use of all three spectroscopic techniques (tri-modal spectroscopy) yielded superior results for detecting SILs than any one of the techniques alone.

  9. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it. (United States)

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W


    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action.

  10. Detection of cardiovascular calcifications: Is it a useful tool for nephrologists? (United States)

    Bover, Jordi; Górriz, José Luis; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Lloret, María Jesús; Ruiz-García, César; daSilva, Iara; Chang, Pamela; Rodríguez, Mariano; Ballarín, José

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been used as a model and source of knowledge concerning the mechanisms, clinical relevance and accelerated progression of cardiovascular (CV) calcification, as well as its consequences in clinical practice, despite we know that it is a late secondary ossification phenomenon and only circumstantial evidence is available. In this comprehensive review, we firstly describe the types of CV calcification which affect CKD patients, and we analyse how its presence is directly associated with CV events and increased mortality in these patients. We also justify the use of CV calcification assessment in regular nephrology clinical practice, because CV calcification is an important predictor of clinical outcome in these patients. Consequently, we believe that CV calcification assessment is a tool that could and should be used by nephrologists when making a decision concerning individual patients, consistent with the current trend of an ever-more-personalised therapeutic approach.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy as a rapid tool to detect methylglyoxal and antibacterial activity in Australian honeys. (United States)

    Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Cozzolino, Daniel; Fuller, Steve; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Smyth, Heather


    Methylglyoxal (2-oxopropanal) is a compound known to contribute to the non-peroxide antimicrobial activity of honeys. The feasibility of using infrared spectroscopy as a predictive tool for honey antibacterial activity and methylglyoxal content was assessed. A linear relationship was found between methylglyoxal content (279-1755 mg/kg) in Leptospermum polygalifolium honeys and bacterial inhibition for Escherichiacoli (R(2) = 0.80) and Staphylococcusaureus (R(2) = 0.64). A good prediction of methylglyoxal (R(2) 0.75) content in honey was achieved using spectroscopic data from the mid infrared (MIR) range in combination with partial least squares regression. These results indicate that robust predictive equations could be developed using MIR for commercial application where the prediction of bacterial inhibition is needed to 'value' honeys with methylglyoxal contents in excess of 200mg/kg.

  12. Tools and methods for detecting and characterizing giardia, cryptosporidium, and toxoplasma parasites in marine mollusks. (United States)

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle


    Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species.

  13. The Bipolar II Depression Questionnaire: A Self-Report Tool for Detecting Bipolar II Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ming Leung

    Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.

  14. Clinical value of combined detection of RF and anti-CCP antibody in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%联合检测抗CCP抗体和RF在类风湿关节炎中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其爱; 马小燕; 张弘


    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide(CCP) antibody in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis( RA).Methods 87 cases of patients with RA and 69 cases of patients with other autoimmune diseases (control group) were detected for serum anti-CCP antibody by KLISA and for RF by turbidimetry method.36 healthy subjects were enrolled as healthy control group.Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of anti - CCP antibodies and RF in RA were compared.Results The sensitivity of anti - CCP antibody was 60.9% ,of RF was 67.2% and there was no significant difference between them(P> 0.05).The specificity of anti -CCP antibody was 94.2% ,of RF was 72.5% ,and the difference was significant(P0.05).抗 CCP 抗体的特异度为94.2%,RF 为72.5 %,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两者联合检测特异性为97.1 %.结论 抗CCP 抗体在RA诊断中具有较高的特异性,可作为诊断RA的理想血清学指标.两者联合检测可提高检测的特异度.

  15. The value of combined detection of four markers in rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis%联合检测四项指标对类风湿性关节炎早期诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆银玉; 吴巧萍


    Objective:To study the clinical value of detecting serum anti - CCP, hs - CRP, RF and ESR in rheumatoid arthritis early diagnosis. Methods:The levels of serum anti - CCP in 50 cases of RA patients, 20 cases of SLE, 20 cases of OS, 2Q cases of SS, 20 cases of CTD and 40 cases of healthy controls were detected by ELISA. The levels of serum hs - CRP and RF in the same individuals were detected by immune nephelometry and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured by full - automatic dynamic erythrocyte sedimentation analyzer. The differences in anti - CCP, hs - CRP, RF and ESR among patients with RA, SLE, AS, SS, CTD and healthy controls were compared. Results;The levels of anti - CCP, hs - CRP, RF and ESR in RA patients were significantly higher than those of other patients and healthy controls (P < 0. 01). Furthermore, the sensitivity of combined detection of anti - CCP, hs - CRP, RF and ESR in RA diagnosis was 70% , and the specificity was 98%. Conclusion:Combined detection of anti - CCP, hs - CRP, RF and ESR in serum is helpful for increasing the accuracy of rheumatoid arthritis early diagnosis.%目的:探讨联合检测血清抗环瓜氨酸肽(CCP)抗体、超敏CRP( hs - CRP)、类风湿因子(RF)和全血红细胞沉降率(ESR)在类风湿性关节炎(RA)早期诊断的临床价值.方法:对50例RA患者、20例系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)、20例骨关节炎(OS)、20例干燥综合征(SS)、20例结缔组织病(CTD)与40例健康对照组分别采用ELISA法检测血清抗- CCP浓度;免疫散射比浊法测定血清hs - CRP、RF的浓度;用全自动动态血沉仪LG - E&H - 20检测ESR,并进行比较.结果:RA患者抗- CCP、hs - CRP、RF和ESR明显高于各疾病组和健康对照组(P<0.01).四项指标联合检测对RA的敏感性达到70%,特异性98%.结论:联合检测血液中抗- CCP、、hs - CRP、RF和ESR,可提高对RA的早期诊断的准确件.

  16. Clinical management of septic arthritis. (United States)

    Sharff, Katie A; Richards, Eric P; Townes, John M


    Septic arthritis is a rheumatologic emergency as joint destruction occurs rapidly and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate diagnosis can be particularly challenging in patients with underlying inflammatory joint disease. This review outlines the risk factors for septic arthritis and summarizes the causative bacterial organisms. We highlight advances in antibiotic management with a focus on new drugs for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and discuss the use of adjunctive therapies for treatment of septic arthritis in adults.

  17. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics (United States)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro


    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  18. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry for Bacterial Protein Toxins — A Sensitive, Specific, High-Throughput Tool for Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kalb


    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a valuable high-throughput tool for peptide analysis. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (LC-ESI tandem-MS provides sensitive and specific quantification of small molecules and peptides. The high analytic power of MS coupled with high-specificity substrates is ideally suited for detection and quantification of bacterial enzymatic activities. As specific examples of the MS applications in disease diagnosis and select agent detection, we describe recent advances in the analyses of two high profile protein toxin groups, the Bacillus anthracis toxins and the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. The two binary toxins produced by B. anthracis consist of protective antigen (PA which combines with lethal factor (LF and edema factor (EF, forming lethal toxin and edema toxin respectively. LF is a zinc-dependent endoprotease which hydrolyzes specific proteins involved in inflammation and immunity. EF is an adenylyl cyclase which converts ATP to cyclic-AMP. Toxin-specific enzyme activity for a strategically designed substrate, amplifies reaction products which are detected by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Pre-concentration/purification with toxin specific monoclonal antibodies provides additional specificity. These combined technologies have achieved high specificity, ultrasensitive detection and quantification of the anthrax toxins. We also describe potential applications to diseases of high public health impact, including Clostridium difficile glucosylating toxins and the Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase.

  19. Protein-Modified-Paramagnetic-Particles as a Tool for Detection of Silver(I) Ions (United States)

    Kizek, R.; Krizkova, S.; Adam, V.; Huska, D.; Hubalek, J.; Trnkova, L.


    In a number of published articles the toxic effect of silver(I) ions on aquatic organisms is described. Silver(I) ions in aquatic environment are stable in a wide range of pH. Under alkali pH AgOH and Ag(OH)2- can be formed. However, in water environment there are many compounds to interact with silver(I) ions. The most important ones are chloride anions, which forms insoluble precipitate with silver(I) ions (AgCl). The insoluble silver containing compounds do not pose any threat to aquatic organisms. Toxicity of silver ions is probably caused by their very good affinity to nucleic acids and also proteins. The binding into active enzyme site leads to the expressive enzyme reaction inhibition. Silver(I) ions are into living environment introduced thanks to anthropogenic activities. They easily contaminate atmosphere as well as aquatic environment or soils. Several authors described using of carbon electrode as working electrode for determination of silver. Recently, we have suggested heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of metal ions with low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT), which was adsorbed on the surface of hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The biosensor was successfully used for detection of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions, cisplatin, cisplatin-DNA adducts and palladium(II) ions. Due to the convincing results with MT as biological component we report on suggesting of heavy metal biosensor based on immobilization of metallothionein (MT) on the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE) via MT-antibodies. Primarily we studied of basic electrochemical behaviour of MT at surface of carbon paste electrode by using of square wave voltammetry (SWV). Detection limit (3 S/N) for MT was evaluated as 0.1 μg/ml. After that we have evaluated the electroactivity of MT at surface of SWV, we aimed our attention on the way of capturing of MT on the surface of CPE. We choose antibody against MT obtained from chicken eggs for these purposes. Antibodies

  20. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.


    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  1. [Neuroimaging technique: a diagnostic tool to detect altered states of consciousness]. (United States)

    Thonnard, Marie; Boly, Mélanie; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Gosseries, Olivia; Laureys, Steven; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey


    Vegetative and minimally conscious states diagnosis remained a major clinical challenge. New paradigms such as measurement of the global cerebral metabolism, the structural and functional integrity of fronto-parietal network, or the spontaneous activity in resting state have been shown to be helpful to disentangle vegetative from minimally conscious patients. Active neuroimagery paradigms also allow detecting voluntary and conscious activity in non-communicative patients. The implementation of these methods in clinical routine could permit to reduce the current high rate of misdiagnosis (40%).

  2. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto


    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  3. A novel yeast-based tool to detect mutagenic and recombinogenic effects simultaneously. (United States)

    Schafer, B; Neffgen, A; Klinner, U


    In this work, we describe a new yeast-based assay to allow efficient detection of a comprehensive spectrum of genotoxicity events. The constructed diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain allows the simultaneous monitoring of forward mutations, mitotic recombination events and chromosome loss or non-disjunction by direct selection in an easy and highly reproducible approach. The strain contains a DNA module consisting of a single functional copy of the URA3 gene and the kanMX4 gene inserted at the ADE2 locus on the right arm of chromosome XV. The changes of the genotype within the marker region were primarily selected on 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) agar plates. Further simple phenotypic tests of the 5-FOA-resistant ura3 clones make it possible to analyze the genetic configuration in detail (e.g. point mutations in URA3, gene conversion, crossing-over and chromosome loss). We demonstrate the successful application of our test system by studying the effects of well-known genotoxic agents (UV radiation, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, aniline and benomyl). We found that the various agents induced mutations and recombination events with different relative frequencies. The integration of the module has generated a hot spot region of mutation and recombination at the borders of the artificially integrated URA3 kanMX4 cassette, which makes the system more sensitive towards DNA-damaging agents. Unlike other test systems, our S. cerevisiae strain is capable to detect a mutagenic effect caused by aniline.

  4. Partial unmixing as a tool for single surface class detection and time series analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzer, C.; Bachmann, M.; Mueller, A.; Lieckfeld, L.; Wagner, W. [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria). Inst. for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing


    In this paper we present the results of time series analysis for a coal mining region based on partial unmixing. We test the method also known as mixture tuned matched filtering on an eight image Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM + time series covering the period from 1987 to 2003. Our goal was to test an unbiased quantitative way to assess the development of coal surfaces, such as outcropping coal seams, coal storage piles, coal waste piles, and coal washery discard, within multiple date satellite imagery. Partial unmixing approaches were developed to detect one or few target materials surrounded by or mixed withan unknown background material. The main advantage is that only the spectral characteristics of the material of interest must be known, and the desired material can furthermore occur with subpixel coverage. In this paper we demonstrate that partial unmixing is a powerful method to detect and extract single landcover classes of interest relatively fast and unbiased. The subpixel fraction percentages should be interpreted in a relative way only. We furthermore show that partial unmixing represents a standardized method for time series analyses and allows for a quantitative assessment of the temporal development of an area. Challenges lie in the validation of partial unmixing results, which we realized through thresholding of unmixing results and accuracy assessment with ground truth polygons mapped in situ. Furthermore, we performed an indirect comparison with results of a multi-endmember unmixing.

  5. Gravitational Microlensing: A Tool for Detecting and Characterizing Free-Floating Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Kim, D; Park, B G; Ryu, Y H; Kang, S; Lee, D W; Han, Cheongho; Chung, Sun-Ju; Kim, Doeon; Park, Byeong-Gon; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Kang, Sangjun; Lee, Dong Wook


    Various methods have been proposed to search for extrasolar planets. Compared to the other methods, microlensing has unique applicabilities to the detections of Earth-mass and free-floating planets. However, the microlensing method is seriously flawed by the fact that the masses of the detected planets cannot be uniquely determined. Recently, Gould, Gaudi, & Han introduced an observational setup that enables one to resolve the mass degeneracy of the Earth-mass planets. The setup requires a modest adjustment to the orbit of an already proposed Microlensing planet-finder satellite combined with ground-based observations. In this paper, we show that a similar observational setup can also be used for the mass determinations of free-floating planets with masses ranging from ~0.1 M_J to several Jupiter masses. If the proposed observational setup is realized, the future lensing surveys will play important roles in the studies of Earth-mass and free-floating planets, which are the populations of planets that have...

  6. Detecting Diseases in Medical Prescriptions Using Data Mining Tools and Combining Techniques. (United States)

    Teimouri, Mehdi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Soudi Alamdari, Mahsa; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Adibi Alamdari, Parisa; Rezaei-Darzi, Ehsan; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Zeynalabedini, Aysan


    Data about the prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, as one of the most important categories of epidemiological data, is used for interpreting health status of communities. This study aims to calculate the prevalence of outpatient diseases through the characterization of outpatient prescriptions. The data used in this study is collected from 1412 prescriptions for various types of diseases from which we have focused on the identification of ten diseases. In this study, data mining tools are used to identify diseases for which prescriptions are written. In order to evaluate the performances of these methods, we compare the results with Naïve method. Then, combining methods are used to improve the results. Results showed that Support Vector Machine, with an accuracy of 95.32%, shows better performance than the other methods. The result of Naive method, with an accuracy of 67.71%, is 20% worse than Nearest Neighbor method which has the lowest level of accuracy among the other classification algorithms. The results indicate that the implementation of data mining algorithms resulted in a good performance in characterization of outpatient diseases. These results can help to choose appropriate methods for the classification of prescriptions in larger scales.

  7. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica


    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) encompasses 1,308 km2 on Hawai‘i Island. The park harbors endemic plants and animals which are threatened by a variety of invasive species. Introduced ungulates have caused sharp declines of numerous endemic species and have converted ecosystems to novel grazing systems in many cases. Local ranchers and the Territorial Government of Hawai‘i had long conducted regional ungulate control even prior to the establishment of HAVO in 1916. In 1995 the park’s hunting team began a new hunt database that allowed managers to review hunt effort and effectiveness in each management unit. Target species included feral pigs (Sus scrofa), European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), feral goats (Capra hircus) and wild cattle (Bos taurus). Hunters removed 1,204 feral pigs from HAVO over a 19-year period (1996‒2014). A variety of methods were employed, but trapping, snaring and ground hunts with dogs accounted for the most kills. Trapping yielded the most animals per unit effort. Hunters and volunteers removed 6,657 mouflon from HAVO; 6,601 of those were from the 468 km2 Kahuku Unit. Aerial hunts yielded the most animals followed by ground hunt methods. Hunters completed eradications of goats in several management units over an 18- year period (1997‒2014) when they removed the last 239 known individuals in HAVO primarily with aerial hunts. There have also been seven cattle and five feral dogs (Canis familiaris) removed from HAVO. Establishing benchmarks and monitoring the success of on-the-ground ungulate removal efforts can improve the efficiency of protecting and restoring native forest for high-priority watersheds and native wildlife. We tested a variety of methods to detect small populations of ungulates within HAVO and the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the high-priority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve on Hawai‘i Island. We conducted ground surveys, aerial surveys and continuous camera trap monitoring in both fence

  8. Gold nephropathy in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Shuler, S E


    A 2-year-old girl was treated with gold salts for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment had to be discontinued when persistent proteinuria was detected. As this case report indicates, close monitoring of the urine is mandatory during treatment with gold salts to detect early signs of toxicity: hematuria followed by casts and then proteinuria as therapy is continued. Histologic examination with electron microscopy will help to differentiate the different forms of gold toxicity. When the findings are consistent with gold-induced renal involvement, therapy should be discontinued. The gold nephropathy usually resolves in time, with no permanent renal damage.

  9. 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI as a tool to improve detection of focal cortical dysplasia. (United States)

    Veersema, Tim J; van Eijsden, Pieter; Gosselaar, Peter H; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Spliet, Wim G M; Aronica, Eleonora; Braun, Kees P J; Ferrier, Cyrille H


    Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common underlying pathologies in patients who undergo surgery for refractory epilepsy. Absence of a MRI-visible lesion necessitates additional diagnostic tests and is a predictor of poor surgical outcome. We describe a series of six patients with refractory epilepsy due to histopathologically-confirmed focal cortical dysplasia, for whom pre-surgical 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI was acquired. In four of six patients, T2* sequences showed areas of marked superficial hypointensity, co-localizing with the epileptogenic lesion. 7 tesla T2* hypointensities overlying focal cortical dysplasia may represent leptomeningeal venous vascular abnormalities associated with the underlying dysplastic cortex. Adding T2* sequences to the MRI protocol may aid in the detection of focal cortical dysplasias.

  10. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks (United States)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.


    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  11. Detection of a target in a rock formation using the radar fracture mapping tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, L.E.; Uhl, J.E.; Gabaldon, J.; Chang, Hsi-Tien


    A method to locate fractures adjacent to, but not intersecting, an uncased wellbore would be a great aid to the geothermal industry. A prototype downhole radar probe was recently completed with the aim of locating fractures near a single wellbore. This probe, operating in the pulse mode with a bandwidth of 30 to 300 MHz, contains two identical directional antennas. As with any prototype instrumentation, extensive field work is required to completely understand the characteristics of the system. A first step in that understanding is to operate the instrument under known or controlled conditions. In this paper, some tests of the radar probe in a travertine quarry using a known target are reported. In the tests, the target is clearly detected from a borehole located 14 ft away. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Knee effusion: ultrasound as a useful tool for the detection of calcium pyrophosphate crystals. (United States)

    Ruta, Santiago; Catay, Erika; Marin, Josefina; Rosa, Javier; García-Monaco, Ricardo; Soriano, Enrique R


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound (US) and conventional radiography (CR) for the detection of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in patients with knee effusion. Consecutive patients ≥50 years old with knee effusion were included. All patients underwent arthrocentesis with aspiration of synovial fluid (SF) and subsequent analysis of CPP crystals using plain light and polarizing light microscopy. US and CR of the involved knee were performed immediately after arthrocentesis. CR results were read by an experienced rheumatologist, searching for chondrocalcinosis. US examinations were carried out by an experienced rheumatologist blinded to all clinical and imaging data. The following US abnormal findings were considered indicative of CPP crystals deposition (CPPD): (1) hyperechoic bands within the femoral hyaline cartilage layer, and (2) hyperechoic sparkling spots in meniscal fibrocartilage. A total of 75 knees were evaluated in the same number of patients. Analysis of SF revealed CPP crystals in 15 out of 75 (20 %) knees: all (10) patients with previous diagnosis of CPPD, 3 patients with previous diagnosis of primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and 2 patients without previous definitive diagnosis of a rheumatic condition. Using SF analysis as reference method, sensitivity and specificity for US findings was 60 and 96.7 %, respectively, while CR showed a sensitivity of 40 % and a specificity of 83.3 %. US results showed high specificity with acceptable sensitivity to detect CPP crystals in patients with knee effusion. Compared with CR, US results had better specificity and sensitivity. US may be used in daily rheumatologic practice when CPPD is suspected.

  13. Aptamers as a sensitive tool to detect subtle modifications in therapeutic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zichel

    Full Text Available Therapeutic proteins are derived from complex expression/production systems, which can result in minor conformational changes due to preferential codon usage in different organisms, post-translational modifications, etc. Subtle conformational differences are often undetectable by bioanalytical methods but can sometimes profoundly impact the safety, efficacy and stability of products. Numerous bioanalytical methods exist to characterize the primary structure of proteins, post translational modifications; protein-substrate/protein/protein interactions and functional bioassays are available for most proteins that are developed as products. There are however few analytical techniques to detect changes in the tertiary structure of proteins suitable for use during drug development and quality control. For example, x-ray crystallography and NMR are impractical for routine use and do not capture the heterogeneity of the product. Conformation-sensitive antibodies can be used to map proteins. However the development of antibodies to represent sufficient epitopes can be challenging. Other limitations of antibodies include limited supply, high costs, heterogeneity and batch to batch variations in titer. Here we provide proof-of-principle that DNA aptamers to thrombin can be used as surrogate antibodies to characterize conformational changes. We show that aptamers can be used in assays using either an ELISA or a label-free platform to characterize different thrombin products. In addition we replicated a heat-treatment procedure that has previously been shown to not affect protein activity but can result in conformational changes that have serious adverse consequences. We demonstrate that a panel of aptamers (but not an antibody can detect changes in the proteins even when specific activity is unaffected. Our results indicate a novel approach to monitor even small changes in the conformation of proteins which can be used in a routine drug-development and

  14. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study (United States)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.


    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Orlovskaya


    Full Text Available The  establishment and  application of animal  models  represent effective  tools  for  research  in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. Animal models that replicate various mechanisms reflecting all aspects of RA, including early RA pathology, have provided important insights into studying etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms of RA in humans. This review article was compiled in order to give an introduction to the current state of RA models.  Application of these  experimental disorders  for testing  potential therapeutic approaches will help to make better predictions for drug efficiency in human RA

  16. Role of ultrasound in managing rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Hilde Berner; Terslev, Lene


    Ultrasound (US) is a valid and reliable imaging tool for evaluation of joint and tendon inflammation as well as cartilage and erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovitis is usually scored semiquantitatively for both gray scale synovitis and power Doppler activity, and use...... are better tolerated and have increased efficacy, as compared with palpation guidance, and should thus be included in rheumatologic practice. Different methods such as three-dimensional US, contrast-enhanced US and fusion imaging methods are all possible US approaches that may be used in treatment of RA...

  17. Distribution of ultrasound-detected knee joint effusion in arthritis patients%超声下关节炎患者膝关节积液分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      目的通过超声检查了解关节炎患者膝关节积液分布情况。方法收取2012年7-12月于本院风湿科就诊的膝关节疼痛患者,应用高频超声探查患者髌上囊外侧区、中区及内侧区的积液情况,评估不同区域积液深度、长度及横截面积的差异。结果共纳入38例68个膝关节,膝关节外侧区及中区的积液深度分别为(4.8±4.5) mm及(4.5±4.3) mm,显著高于膝关节内侧区域的(3.1±4.3) mm(P<0.001);膝关节外侧区及正中区积液长度分别为(26.5±18.1) mm及(28.5±19.7) mm,显著高于膝关节内侧区的(18.7±20.5) mm(P<0.001),而外侧区及中区积液深度、长度间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。根据积液量分组后,少量积液组髌上囊外侧区及中区积液显著高于内侧区(P<0.001),大量积液组中区与内侧区的差异无统计学意义(P=0.133)。类风湿关节炎(rheumatoid arthritis,RA)积液量(405.6±325.4) mm2显著高于脊柱关节炎(spondyloarthritis, SpA)(213.5±241.6) mm2(P=0.004)及骨关节炎(osteoarthritis,OA)(74.6±72.3) mm2(P=0.005)。结论膝关节少量积液主要分布于外侧区及正中区,行膝关节穿刺等操作优先选择外侧区及正中区,有助于提高操作的成功率。%Objective To investigate the distribution of ultrasound (US)-detected knee joint effusion in arthritis patients. Methods Lateral, midline and medial regions of suprapatellar pouch effusion and its depth, length, cross section area in arthritis patients admitted to our department from July 2012 to December 2012 were detected by high resolution ultrasound examination. Results Thirty-eight arthritis patients with 68 knee joints involved were enrolled in this study. The maximal effusion depth and length were significantly higher in lateral and midline regions of knee joint than in medial region of knee joint (4.8±4.5) mm and (4.5±4.3)mm vs (3.1±4.3) mm, (P 0.05). The amount of effusion was significantly

  18. Recovery methods for detection and quantification of Campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or PCR tools. (United States)

    Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Rossero, A; Fédérighi, M; Seegers, H; Magras, C


    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. Therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of Campylobacter from meat should be determined. Two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 and two strains of Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. Campylobacter recovery was evaluated by comparing results for two methods of sample collection (swabbing and mechanical pummeling) and three recovery fluids (peptone water, 5% glucose serum, and demineralized water). End-point multiplex PCR was performed to evaluate the compatibility of the recovery fluids with direct PCR detection techniques. Mean recovery ratios differed significantly between pork skin and chine samples. Ratios were higher for mechanical pummeling (0.53 for pork skin and 0.49 for chine) than for swabbing (0.31 and 0.13, respectively). For pork skin, ratios obtained with peptone water (0.50) and with glucose serum (0.55) were higher than those obtained with demineralized water (0.16). Significant differences were not observed for chine samples. Direct multiplex PCR detection of Campylobacter was possible with pork skin samples. The tools for Campylobacter recovery must be appropriate for the meat matrix to be evaluated. In this study, less than 66% of inoculated Campylobacter was recovered from meat. This underestimation must be taken into account for quantitative risk analysis of Campylobacter infection.

  19. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh


    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  20. Sperm Hy-Liter™: an effective tool for the detection of spermatozoa in sexual assault exhibits. (United States)

    De Moors, Anick; Georgalis, Tina; Armstrong, Gail; Modler, Jeff; Frégeau, Chantal J


    A fluorescence-based assay specifically targeting human spermatozoa was tested and optimized for best staining results using a variety of mock sexual assault samples. Swab clippings versus whole swabs were evaluated for best sample preparation and to simplify workflow (direct application versus swab extraction). The practicality and sensitivity of Sperm Hy-Liter™ was compared to our current phase contrast microscopy protocol for searching for the presence of spermatozoa. Sperm Hy-Liter™ was more sensitive than phase contrast microscopy and was able to detect spermatozoa more effectively in actual sexual assault samples (recent [N=240] or 24 years old [N=4]) containing few spermatozoa. Correlations were drawn between the Sperm Hy-Liter™ spermatozoa counts and the AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler(®) Plus male profiles generated from the sperm cell DNA fractions of semen containing swabs and swab clippings. In addition, recovered spermatozoa from Sperm Hy-Liter™-stained slides with greater than 40 spermatozoa produced full STR male profiles in 20.3% of slides tested and partial STR male profiles in 52.8% of slides tested. The adoption of Sperm Hy-Liter™ offers a means to standardize and improve the efficiency of the microscopic screening of sexual assault evidence.

  1. Multivariate calibration in Fourier transform infrared spectrometry as a tool to detect adulterations in Brazilian gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo S.G. Teixeira; Fabio S. Oliveira; Hilda C. dos Santos; Paulo W.L. Cordeiro; Selmo Q. Almeida [Universidade Salvador, Salvador (Brazil)


    In the present work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in association with multivariate chemometrics classification techniques was employed to identify gasoline samples adulterated with diesel oil, kerosene, turpentine spirit or thinner. Results indicated that partial least squares (PLS) models based on infrared spectra were proven suitable as practical analytical methods for predicting adulterant content in gasoline in the volume fraction range from 0% to 50%. The results obtained by PLS provided prediction errors lower than 2% (v/v) for all adulterant determined. Additionally, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was performed using all spectral data (650-3700 cm{sup -1}) for sample classification into adulterant classes defined by training set and the results indicated that undoubted adulteration detection was possible but identification of the adulterant was subject to misclassification errors, specially for kerosene and turpentine adulterated samples, and must be carefully examined. Quality control and police laboratories for gasoline analysis should employ the proposed methods for rapid screening analysis for qualitative monitoring purposes. 22 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Assessment of molecular methods as a tool for detecting pathogenic protozoa isolated from water bodies. (United States)

    Adamska, M; Sawczuk, M; Kolodziejczyk, L; Skotarczak, B


    Several species belong to the Cryptosporidium and Giardia genus, the main parasitic protozoa occurring in water, but only some of them are infectious to humans. We investigated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and identified their species in the water samples collected from natural water bodies in north-western Poland. A total of 600 samples from water bodies used for bathing, sewage discharge, as drinking water sources and watering places for animals were screened. The samples were collected during a 3-year period in each of the four seasons and filtered using Filta-Max (IDEXX Laboratories, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and used as a target sequence for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR, as well as for reverse line blotting (RLB) methods. PCR methods seem to be more sensitive to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium DNA in water samples than RLB methods. All PCR products were sequenced and three were identified as C. parvum and four as G. intestinalis. The overall prevalence of C. parvum (0.5%) and G. intestinalis (0.6%) in the samples suggests that the risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in north-western Poland is minimal.

  3. Aptamers: A Promising Tool for Ochratoxin A Detection in Food Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat


    Full Text Available The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins has become an increasingly serious problem. Mycotoxins represent a major risk to human and animal health, as well as economics. Herein, we focus on Ochratoxin A (OTA, which is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. OTA is a secondary metabolite produced by various Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. Upon ingestion, OTA has a number of acute and chronic toxic effects. It is nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic (group 2B. As a consequence, some regulatory limits have been introduced on the levels of OTA in several commodities. The toxic nature of OTA demands highly sensitive and selective monitoring techniques to protect human and animal health. As alternative to traditional analytical techniques, biochemical methods for OTA analysis have attained great interest in the last few decades. They are mainly based on the integration of antibodies or aptamers as biorecognition elements in sensing platforms. However, aptamers have gained more attention in affinity-based assays because of their high affinity, specificity, stability, and their easy chemical synthesis. In this brief review, we present an overview of aptamer-based assays and their applications in OTA purification and detection, appeared in the literature in the last five years.

  4. Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon. (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira


    Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon.

  5. Clinical features of psoriatic arthritis in Korean patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional observational study of 196 patients with psoriasis using psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires. (United States)

    Shin, Dongyun; Kim, Hee Joo; Kim, Dae Suk; Kim, Soo Min; Park, Jin Su; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Min-Geol


    The prevalence and clinical features of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in psoriasis patients vary widely in different countries, and studies on Korean population are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of PsA in a Korean population of patients with psoriasis by using psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, and consecutive psoriatic patients were evaluated for PsA by using two kinds of psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation tool (PASE) and Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST). Psoriatic patients with higher score in screening questionnaires were referred to rheumatologist for confirmative diagnosis of PsA. Among 196 psoriasis patients screened by PASE and PEST, total prevalence of PsA was 11.2 % (n = 22/196) with 59.1 % of the cases being newly diagnosed. Compared with patients without PsA, patients with PsA had more extensive psoriasis, higher frequency of pustular and inverse type of psoriasis, and lower frequency of plaque type of psoriasis. Spondylitis was the most common manifestation pattern, followed by polyarthritis, oligoarthritis, predominant distal interphalangeal arthritis, and arthritis mutilans. Our findings are consistent with a low prevalence of PsA among patients with psoriasis in Asia. We also confirm a spondylitis as the most common pattern of PsA in Korea. PsA screening questionnaires can be a simple and useful tool to screen PsA in patients with psoriasis.

  6. Clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zheng, Xing-Ju; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the lung. This study aimed to identify clinical features of RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD). Patients with RA were retrospectively enrolled and sub-classified as RA-ILD or RA without ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography imaging. Pulmonary function testing parameters and levels of RA-related biomarkers, tumour markers, and acute-phase proteins were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression model was used to assess the strength of association between RA-ILD and clinical features of interest. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess potential predictive value of clinical features for detecting RA-ILD. Comparison analysis indicated that the percentage of predicted value of total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were reduced in patients with RA-ILD. Tumour markers CA15-3 and CA125 were increased in patients with RA-ILD. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased DLCO was related to the increased likelihood of RA-ILD (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = [0.91, 0.98]). The cut-off point at 52.95 percent of predicted value could sensitively discriminate RA patients with or without ILD. Our study suggested that DLCO value could be a useful tool for detecting ILD in patients with RA.

  7. [Association between insomnia and rheumatoid arthritis in elderly]. (United States)

    Freitas, Denise Cuoghi de Carvalho Veríssimo; Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina Mansano; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ceolim, Maria Filomena


    This study aimed to assess symptoms of insomnia in elderly residents in the community and its association with rheumatoid arthritis. Descriptive and cross-sectional study, part of a multicentre research project entitled Fragility in Brazilian elderly . A total number of 689 elderly (68.9% female, average age of 72.2 years) were interviewed using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and clinical conditions. Two tools to identify symptoms of insomnia (the Nottingham Health profile) and to screen cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination) were also applied. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistical techniques and multiple logistic regression, considering a 5% significance level. The association between insomnia symptoms and rheumatoid arthritis was found to be significant in the multivariate analysis; other associated factors were a very poor subjective evaluation of health, being retired, and the presence of depression. Health professionals should investigate carefully the sleep quality in elderly with rheumatoid arthritis, considering its high prevalence in this population.

  8. Genetic variation and RNA binding proteins: tools and techniques to detect functional polymorphisms. (United States)

    Soemedi, Rachel; Vega, Hugo; Belmont, Judson M; Ramachandran, Sohini; Fairbrother, William G


    At its most fundamental level the goal of genetics is to connect genotype to phenotype. This question is asked at a basic level evaluating the role of genes and pathways in genetic model organism. Increasingly, this question is being asked in the clinic. Genomes of individuals and populations are being sequenced and compared. The challenge often comes at the stage of analysis. The variant positions are analyzed with the hope of understanding human disease. However after a genome or exome has been sequenced, the researcher is often deluged with hundreds of potentially relevant variations. Traditionally, amino-acid changing mutations were considered the tractable class of disease-causing mutations; however, mutations that disrupt noncoding elements are the subject of growing interest. These noncoding changes are a major avenue of disease (e.g., one in three hereditary disease alleles are predicted to affect splicing). Here, we review some current practices of medical genetics, the basic theory behind biochemical binding and functional assays, and then explore technical advances in how variations that alter RNA protein recognition events are detected and studied. These advances are advances in scale-high-throughput implementations of traditional biochemical assays that are feasible to perform in any molecular biology laboratory. This chapter utilizes a case study approach to illustrate some methods for analyzing polymorphisms. The first characterizes a functional intronic SNP that deletes a high affinity PTB site using traditional low-throughput biochemical and functional assays. From here we demonstrate the utility of high-throughput splicing and spliceosome assembly assays for screening large sets of SNPs and disease alleles for allelic differences in gene expression. Finally we perform three pilot drug screens with small molecules (G418, tetracycline, and valproic acid) that illustrate how compounds that rescue specific instances of differential pre-mRNA processing

  9. Proteomic analysis of synovial fluid as an analytical tool to detect candidate biomarkers for knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Liao, Weixiong; Li, Zhongli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Ji; Wang, Ketao; Yang, Yimeng


    We conducted research to detect the proteomic profiles in synovial fluid (SF) from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients to better understand the pathogenesis and aetiology of OA. Our long-term goal is to identify reliable candidate biomarkers for OA in SF. The SF proteins obtained from 10 knee OA patients and 10 non-OA patients (9 of whom were patients with a meniscus injury in the knee; 1 had a discoid meniscus in the knee, and all exhibited intact articular cartilage) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The repeatability of the obtained protein spots regarding their intensity was tested via triplicate 2-DE of selected samples. The observed protein expression patterns were subjected to statistical analysis, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Our analyses showed low intrasample variability and clear intersample variation. Among the protein spots observed on the gels, there were 29 significant differences, of which 22 corresponded to upregulation and 7 to downregulation in the OA group. One of the upregulated protein spots was confirmed to be haptoglobin by mass spectrometry, and the levels of haptoglobin in SF are positively correlated with the severity of OA (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). This study showed that 2-DE could be used under standard conditions to screen SF samples and identify a small subset of proteins in SF that are potential markers associated with OA. Spots of interest identified by mass spectrometry, such as haptoglobin, may be associated with OA severity.

  10. No-reference multiscale blur detection tool for content based image retrieval (United States)

    Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Stocker, Russell; Harrity, Kyle; Alford, Mark; Ferris, David; Blasch, Erik; Gorniak, Mark


    In recent years, digital cameras have been widely used for image capturing. These devices are equipped in cell phones, laptops, tablets, webcams, etc. Image quality is an important component of digital image analysis. To assess image quality for these mobile products, a standard image is required as a reference image. In this case, Root Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio can be used to measure the quality of the images. However, these methods are not possible if there is no reference image. In our approach, a discrete-wavelet transformation is applied to the blurred image, which decomposes into the approximate image and three detail sub-images, namely horizontal, vertical, and diagonal images. We then focus on noise-measuring the detail images and blur-measuring the approximate image to assess the image quality. We then compute noise mean and noise ratio from the detail images, and blur mean and blur ratio from the approximate image. The Multi-scale Blur Detection (MBD) metric provides both an assessment of the noise and blur content. These values are weighted based on a linear regression against full-reference y values. From these statistics, we can compare to normal useful image statistics for image quality without needing a reference image. We then test the validity of our obtained weights by R2 analysis as well as using them to estimate image quality of an image with a known quality measure. The result shows that our method provides acceptable results for images containing low to mid noise levels and blur content.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a potential tool to detect lithium-induced nephropathy: Preliminary results. (United States)

    Raedler, Thomas J; Wittke, Stefan; Jahn, Holger; Koessler, Andreas; Mischak, Harald; Wiedemann, Klaus


    Lithium remains the treatment of choice for many patients suffering from bipolar disorder. However, long-term treatment with lithium carries the potential to cause renal and thyroid dysfunction. Lithium-induced nephropathies are characterised by deterioration of urinary concentrating ability as well as, less frequently, a progressive and potentially irreversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Pathological changes after treatment with lithium include both tubulointerstitial and glomerular changes. Besides monitoring of the kidney-function, no screening-instruments exist for early identification of patients at risk of lithium-induced nephropathy. CE-MS (capillary electrophoresis coupled to a mass spectrometer) is a new technique that has been applied to the differential diagnosis of nephropathies. We sought to determine if CE-MS can be used to identify lithium-induced renal changes. A urine-sample was obtained from 14 subjects (7 males, 7 females, mean age 51.1 years) under long-term treatment with lithium (mean duration 17.4 years, range 8-35 years) without known nephropathy (mean creatinine 0.96 mg/dl; range 0.7-1.6). Urine samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. CE-MS was performed according to standard procedures and a screen for nephropathies was used. Among the 14 urine samples, two subjects tested positive for a nephropathy. One further subject had a borderline result. Since 3/14 subjects with no known nephropathy showed some degree of pathological findings, CE-MS from a urine-sample may be helpful for the early detection of renal damage under treatment with lithium. However, a specific screen for lithium-induced nephropathies still needs to be developed.

  12. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis. (United States)

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  13. Septic arthritis in adult horses. (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M


    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  14. Kartagener syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Rébora, Martin Esteban; Cuneo, Julia Ana; Marcos, Josefina; Marcos, Juan Carlos


    We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient, affected with Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia), who developed seropositive and erosive rheumatoid arthritis. According to our review, there are only 6 cases reported so far with this association without a definite etiopathogenic linkage recognized in common. Chronic infections resulting from the ciliary dysfunction might be a trigger for rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. New ELISA Kits using C3 Binding Glycoprotein from Cuscuta europea Detect Mainly IgM CIC in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, but not in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaska Angelova Stanilova


    Full Text Available Elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC, containing IgG, IgM or IgA antibodies were detected in the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. This might indicate a different biological meaning of the three isotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig in the CIC. Each CIC assay detected only certain classes and subclasses of Ig in CIC material or fixed complement protein. In this study, a new method based on C3binding glycoprotein named CIF-ELISA and a well-known method ANTI-C3 ELISA, were used for quantitative assessment of IgM-CIC, IgG-CIC and IgA-CIC levels in human sera. A modified CIF-ELISA and ANTI-C3 ELISA for simultaneous detection of CIC, containing IgG, IgM and IgA, (stCIC, were also performed. The assays were evaluated on the same specially prepared samples: 55 normal sera, 99 sera from rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 88 sera from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and 27 sera from progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS. We found that the sensitivity of the tests used varied depending on the diseases studied. CIF-ELISA displayed higher sensitivity of IgM-CIC when compared to ANTI-C3 ELISA in RA patients (40.0 and 20.95%, respectively and PSS (44.43 and 37.04%, respectively. Results for the sensitivity of IgA-CIC were in adverse direction in the RA group (14.28 and 19.05% and PSS (14.81 and 25.93% by both methods. It was also established that the concordance of IgM-CIC positives by both methods was 48.84% in RA and 46.67% in PSS, while in SLE it was 18.78%. These results are most probably due to the different assay abilities to detect antibody isotype of the CIC material and help to explain what specific role each Ig isotype in CIC has in the course of the disease.

  16. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Measles Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenig, Kristi


    Full Text Available Measles (rubeola is a highly contagious airborne disease that was declared eliminated in the U.S. in the year 2000. Only sporadic U.S. cases and minor outbreaks occurred until the larger outbreak beginning in 2014 that has become a public health emergency. The “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool will assist emergency physicians to be better prepared to detect and manage measles patients presenting to the emergency department. Measles typically presents with a prodrome of high fever, and cough/coryza/conjunctivitis, sometimes accompanied by the pathognomonic Koplik spots. Two to four days later, an erythematous maculopapular rash begins on the face and spreads down the body. Suspect patients must be immediately isolated with airborne precautions while awaiting laboratory confirmation of disease. Emergency physicians must rapidly inform the local public health department and hospital infection control personnel of suspected measles cases. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:212–219.

  17. Elastography as a new diagnostic tool to detect breast cancer – evaluation of research and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rzymski


    Full Text Available Mammography and ultrasonography are currently the most sensitive methods for detecting breast cancer,but elastography is a new diagnostic tool. Stiffness of invasive carcinomas were found to be 5-25 times largerthan that of normal adipose tissue. There are basically two types of elastography examination used in initialclinical research: conventional elastography with compression and shear wave elastography. Analysis of 20 studiesin the years 1997-2010 with 1484 malignant and 2822 benign breast lesions is presented in this paper. Theoverall sensitivity was 67-100% with specificity of 62-99% for elastography. This raises the hope of introducingthis method in the BI-RADS classification and modifying diagnostics in category 3-4.

  18. Metavisitor, a Suite of Galaxy Tools for Simple and Rapid Detection and Discovery of Viruses in Deep Sequence Data (United States)

    Vernick, Kenneth D.


    Metavisitor is a software package that allows biologists and clinicians without specialized bioinformatics expertise to detect and assemble viral genomes from deep sequence datasets. The package is composed of a set of modular bioinformatic tools and workflows that are implemented in the Galaxy framework. Using the graphical Galaxy workflow editor, users with minimal computational skills can use existing Metavisitor workflows or adapt them to suit specific needs by adding or modifying analysis modules. Metavisitor works with DNA, RNA or small RNA sequencing data over a range of read lengths and can use a combination of de novo and guided approaches to assemble genomes from sequencing reads. We show that the software has the potential for quick diagnosis as well as discovery of viruses from a vast array of organisms. Importantly, we provide here executable Metavisitor use cases, which increase the accessibility and transparency of the software, ultimately enabling biologists or clinicians to focus on biological or medical questions. PMID:28045932

  19. Psoriatic arthritis as a mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berthelot


    Full Text Available There is no doubt that inflammatory arthritis/enthesitis and psoriasis coexist more frequently than would be expected by chance: for instance, in a study of 1285 patients with psoriasis seen in an hospital, 483 (38% were suffering from arthritis/ enthesitis, including 40 patients classified as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA (3%, 177 (14% as undifferentiated arthritis (UA, and 266 (21% as Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA (1. Although lower percentages have been noticed in the general population with psoriasis (6% of PsA in an extensive study of 1844 patients with psoriasis (2, they were superior to 5% (i.e. at least 5 times greater than the figures found for patients without psoriasis (3-7.

  20. Detection of feline coronavirus spike gene mutations as a tool to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis. (United States)

    Felten, Sandra; Weider, Karola; Doenges, Stephanie; Gruendl, Stefanie; Matiasek, Kaspar; Hermanns, Walter; Mueller, Elisabeth; Matiasek, Lara; Fischer, Andrea; Weber, Karin; Hirschberger, Johannes; Wess, Gerhard; Hartmann, Katrin


    Objectives Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an important cause of death in the cat population worldwide. The ante-mortem diagnosis of FIP in clinical cases is still challenging. In cats without effusion, a definitive diagnosis can only be achieved post mortem or with invasive methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a combined reverse transcriptase nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) and sequencing approach in the diagnosis of FIP, detecting mutations at two different nucleotide positions within the spike (S) gene. Methods The study population consisted of 64 cats with confirmed FIP and 63 cats in which FIP was initially suspected due to similar clinical or laboratory signs, but that were definitively diagnosed with another disease. Serum/plasma and/or effusion samples of these cats were examined for feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA by RT-nPCR and, if positive, PCR products were sequenced for nucleotide transitions within the S gene. Results Specificity of RT-nPCR was 100% in all materials (95% confidence interval [CI] in serum/plasma 83.9-100.0; 95% CI in effusion 93.0-100.0). The specificity of the sequencing step could not be determined as none of the cats of the control group tested positive for FCoV RNA. Sensitivity of the 'combined RT-nPCR and sequencing approach' was 6.5% (95% CI 0.8-21.4) in serum/plasma and 65.3% (95% CI 50.4-78.3) in effusion. Conclusions and relevance A positive result is highly indicative of the presence of FIP, but as none of the control cats tested positive by RT-nPCR, it was not possible to confirm that the FCoV mutant described can only be found in cats with FIP. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of the sequencing step including FCoV-RNA-positive cats with and without FIP. A negative result cannot be used to exclude the disease, especially when only serum/plasma samples are available.

  1. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder. (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna


    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  2. Detecting variants with Metabolic Design, a new software tool to design probes for explorative functional DNA microarray development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravelat Fabrice


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms display vast diversity, and each one has its own set of genes, cell components and metabolic reactions. To assess their huge unexploited metabolic potential in different ecosystems, we need high throughput tools, such as functional microarrays, that allow the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes. However, most classical functional microarrays use specific probes that monitor only known sequences, and so fail to cover the full microbial gene diversity present in complex environments. We have thus developed an algorithm, implemented in the user-friendly program Metabolic Design, to design efficient explorative probes. Results First we have validated our approach by studying eight enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the model strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis sp. EPA505 using a designed microarray of 8,048 probes. As expected, microarray assays identified the targeted set of genes induced during biodegradation kinetics experiments with various pollutants. We have then confirmed the identity of these new genes by sequencing, and corroborated the quantitative discrimination of our microarray by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we have assessed metabolic capacities of microbial communities in soil contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. Results show that our probe design (sensitivity and explorative quality can be used to study a complex environment efficiently. Conclusions We successfully use our microarray to detect gene expression encoding enzymes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation for the model strain. In addition, DNA microarray experiments performed on soil polluted by organic pollutants without prior sequence assumptions demonstrate high specificity and sensitivity for gene detection. Metabolic Design is thus a powerful, efficient tool that can be used to design explorative probes and monitor metabolic pathways in complex environments

  3. Asymptomatic atlantoaxial subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Nazarinia


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation in rheumatoid arthritis patients by plain radiographs and its relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity measures and medications. 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients (18 male and 82 female were selected randomly, according to the American college of Rheumatology Criteria, who were under follow up in the rheumatology clinic. A complete history was taken, and physical examination has been done with focus on the cervical spine to determine their demographic data, disease duration, age of disease onset, drug history, swollen and tender joint counts, and ESR, Hb, CRP, RF levels. The disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was measured using the disease activity score 28. Radiographs of the cervical spine included lateral views taken in flexion, extension, neutral position of the neck and anterioposterior and odontoid projection view. Asymptomatic cervical spine subluxation was found in 17 of the 100 patients (17%. The prevalence of, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, atlantoaxial impaction and subaxial subluxation was 10(10%, 5(5% and 6(6%, respectively. Posterior subluxation was not detected. The only characteristic that showed meaningful relationship with cervical spine subluxation was CRP (P=0.036. Our results showed that patients with RA, who have cervical spine subluxation cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms. Cervical spine involvement is common and may be asymptomatic, indicating routine cervical spine imaging is needed in patients with RA.

  4. Alternative for anti-TNF antibodies for arthritis treatment. (United States)

    Paquet, Joseph; Henrionnet, Christel; Pinzano, Astrid; Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gillet, Pierre; Netter, Patrick; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Pourel, Jacques; Grossin, Laurent


    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Neutralization of this cytokine by anti-TNF-α antibodies has shown its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is now widely used. Nevertheless, some patients currently treated with anti-TNF-α remain refractory or become nonresponder to these treatments. In this context, there is a need for new or complementary therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potentialities of an anti-TNF-α triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO), as judged from effects on two rat arthritis models. The inhibitory activity of this TFO on articular cells (synoviocytes and chondrocytes) was verified and compared to that of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro. The use of the anti-TNF-α TFO as a preventive and local treatment in both acute and chronic arthritis models significantly reduced disease development. Furthermore, the TFO efficiently blocked synovitis and cartilage and bone destruction in the joints. The results presented here provide the first evidence that gene targeting by anti-TNF-α TFO modulates arthritis in vivo, thus providing proof-of-concept that it could be used as therapeutic tool for TNF-α-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  5. Characterization and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis by photoacoustic imaging: a study on adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin; Shao, Xia; Chamberland, David L.; Girish, Gandikota


    Neovascularity also known as angiogenesis is an early feature of inflammatory arthritis disease. Therefore, identifying the development of neovascularity is one way to potentially detect and characterize arthritis. Laser-based photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality which may aid in detection of both early and continued development of neovascularity. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of PAI to measure angiogenesis, for the purpose of evaluating and monitoring inflammatory arthritis after treatment. The imaging results on an arthritis rat model demonstrate that 1) there is noticeable enhancement in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints when compared to the normal joints, and 2) there is noticeable decrease in image intensity in the arthritic ankle joints after treatment when compared to the untreated arthritic joints. In order to validate the findings from PAI, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) and histology on the same joints. The diameters of the ankle joints, as a clinical score of the arthritis, were also measured at each time point.

  6. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig


    Full Text Available First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other

  7. DeepSNVMiner: a sequence analysis tool to detect emergent, rare mutations in subsets of cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Daniel Andrews


    Full Text Available Background. Massively parallel sequencing technology is being used to sequence highly diverse populations of DNA such as that derived from heterogeneous cell mixtures containing both wild-type and disease-related states. At the core of such molecule tagging techniques is the tagging and identification of sequence reads derived from individual input DNA molecules, which must be first computationally disambiguated to generate read groups sharing common sequence tags, with each read group representing a single input DNA molecule. This disambiguation typically generates huge numbers of reads groups, each of which requires additional variant detection analysis steps to be run specific to each read group, thus representing a significant computational challenge. While sequencing technologies for producing these data are approaching maturity, the lack of available computational tools for analysing such heterogeneous sequence data represents an obstacle to the widespread adoption of this technology. Results. Using synthetic data we successfully detect unique variants at dilution levels of 1 in a 1,000,000 molecules, and find DeeepSNVMiner obtains significantly lower false positive and false negative rates compared to popular variant callers GATK, SAMTools, FreeBayes and LoFreq, particularly as the variant concentration levels decrease. In a dilution series with genomic DNA from two cells lines, we find DeepSNVMiner identifies a known somatic variant when present at concentrations of only 1 in 1,000 molecules in the input material, the lowest concentration amongst all variant callers tested. Conclusions. Here we present DeepSNVMiner; a tool to disambiguate tagged sequence groups and robustly identify sequence variants specific to subsets of starting DNA molecules that may indicate the presence of a disease. DeepSNVMiner is an automated workflow of custom sequence analysis utilities and open source tools able to differentiate somatic DNA variants from

  8. Identify-Isolate-Inform: A Tool for Initial Detection and Management of Zika Virus Patients in the Emergency Department. (United States)

    Koenig, Kristi L; Almadhyan, Abdulmajeed; Burns, Michael J


    First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016. Zika virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Male to female sexual transmission has been reported and there is potential for transmission via blood transfusions. After an incubation period of 2-7 days, symptomatic patients develop rapid onset fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, often associated with headache and myalgias. Emergency department (ED) personnel must be prepared to address concerns from patients presenting with symptoms consistent with acute Zika virus infection, especially those who are pregnant or planning travel to Zika-endemic regions, as well as those women planning to become pregnant and their partners. The identify-isolate-inform (3I) tool, originally conceived for initial detection and management of Ebola virus disease patients in the ED, and later adjusted for measles and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, can be adapted for real-time use for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I tool for initial detection and management of patients under investigation for Zika virus. Following an assessment of epidemiologic risk, including travel to countries with mosquitoes that transmit Zika virus, patients are further investigated if clinically indicated. If after a rapid evaluation, Zika or other arthropod

  9. Combination therapy for pain management in inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthritis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramiro; H. Radner; D. van der Heijde; A. van Tubergen; R. Buchbinder; D. Aletaha; R.B.M. Landewé


    Despite optimal therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, many people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) continue to have persistent pain that may require additional therapy. To assess the benefits and safety of combination pain therapy for people with IA (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosi

  10. 关节炎大鼠模型血清中IL-4、IL-10表达的检测%Detection on Expression of IL-4 and IL-10 in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雪亮; 肖金鱼


    Objeetive:To detect the expressions including IL-4 and IL-10 in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats models. Methods:After the AA rats models were established,the IL-4 and the IL-10 were determined by ELJSA method. Results:Compared with the control group,the IL -A and the IL-10 were decreased obviously. Conclusion;That there are small amounts of IL-4 and IL-10 is indicating that IL-4 and IL-10 are inhibit in the RA onset period.%目的 检测白细胞介素-4(IL-4)、白细胞介素-10(IL-10)在佐剂性关节炎(AA)大鼠模型血清中的水平。方法建立AA大鼠模型,根据X线片及组织病理学的特点证实造模成功。用ELISA法检测AA大鼠模型血清中炎性细胞因子IL-4、IL-10的水平。结果与对照组大鼠比较,模型组大鼠血清中IL-4、IL-10水平明显降低。结论模型组大鼠血清中含有少量的lL-1、L-10,提示在类风湿关节炎的发病过程中IL-1、IL-10的分泌受到了抑制。

  11. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis. (United States)

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides.

  12. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin


    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  13. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis. (United States)

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan


    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  14. The Role of Infrared Thermography as a Non-Invasive Tool for the Detection of Lameness in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Alsaaod


    Full Text Available The use of infrared thermography for the identification of lameness in cattle has increased in recent years largely because of its non-invasive properties, ease of automation and continued cost reductions. Thermography can be used to identify and determine thermal abnormalities in animals by characterizing an increase or decrease in the surface temperature of their skin. The variation in superficial thermal patterns resulting from changes in blood flow in particular can be used to detect inflammation or injury associated with conditions such as foot lesions. Thermography has been used not only as a diagnostic tool, but also to evaluate routine farm management. Since 2000, 14 peer reviewed papers which discuss the assessment of thermography to identify and manage lameness in cattle have been published. There was a large difference in thermography performance in these reported studies. However, thermography was demonstrated to have utility for the detection of contralateral temperature difference and maximum foot temperature on areas of interest. Also apparent in these publications was that a controlled environment is an important issue that should be considered before image scanning.

  15. The Tradescantia micronucleus assay is a highly sensitive tool for the detection of low levels of radioactivity in environmental samples. (United States)

    Mišík, Miroslav; Krupitza, Georg; Mišíková, Katarina; Mičieta, Karol; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Knasmueller, Siegfried


    Environmental contamination with radioactive materials of geogenic and anthropogenic origin is a global problem. A variety of mutagenicity test procedures has been developed which enable the detection of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation which plays a key role in the adverse effects caused by radioisotopes. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of the Tradescantia micronucleus test (the most widely used plant based genotoxicity bioassay) for the detection of genetic damage caused by environmental samples and a human artifact (ceramic plate) which contained radioactive elements. We compared the results obtained with different exposure protocols and found that direct exposure of the inflorescences is more sensitive and that the number of micronuclei can be further increased under "wet" conditions. The lowest dose rate which caused a significant effect was 1.2 μGy/h (10 h). Comparisons with the results obtained with other systems (i.e. with mitotic cells of higher plants, molluscs, insects, fish and human lymphocytes) show that the Tradescantia MN assay is one to three orders of magnitude more sensitive as other models, which are currently available. Taken together, our findings indicate that this method is due to its high sensitivity a unique tool, which can be used for environmental biomonitoring in radiation polluted areas.

  16. Summit-to-sea mapping and change detection using satellite imagery: tools for conservation and management of coral reefs. (United States)

    Shapiro, A C; Rohmann, S O


    Continuous summit-to-sea maps showing both land features and shallow-water coral reefs have been completed in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, using circa 2000 Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery. Continuous land/sea terrain was mapped by merging Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with satellite-derived bathymetry. Benthic habitat characterizations were created by unsupervised classifications of Landsat imagery clustered using field data, and produced maps with an estimated overall accuracy of>75% (Tau coefficient >0.65). These were merged with Geocover-LC (land use/land cover) data to create continuous land/ sea cover maps. Image pairs from different dates were analyzed using Principle Components Analysis (PCA) in order to detect areas of change in the marine environment over two different time intervals: 2000 to 2001, and 1991 to 2003. This activity demonstrates the capabilities of Landsat imagery to produce continuous summit-to-sea maps, as well as detect certain changes in the shallow-water marine environment, providing a valuable tool for efficient coastal zone monitoring and effective management and conservation.

  17. Application of Rheumatoid Factor and Anti Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Combined Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis%类风湿因子及抗环瓜氨酸肽联合检测在类风湿关节炎早期诊断中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨类风湿关节炎早期诊断。方法采用整群抽样的方法,选取2013年1月~2015年1月到医院就诊的46例类风湿性关节炎疑似患者和52例确诊类风湿性关节炎1年以上, ELISA法检测血清类风湿因子(RF)、抗环瓜氨酸肽(CCP)水平。结果 RF联和抗CCP抗体诊断疑似类风湿性关节炎,1年以上的类风湿性关节炎的诊断阳性率分别为71.15%和82.61%,明显高于RF和抗CCP抗体单独测试(<0.05)。结论 RF联和抗CCP抗体对早期诊断类风湿性关节炎,效果优于RA和CCP的两中检测单用。%Objective To investigate the ef ect of RF and CCP in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Using cluster sampling, selected in April 2009 to 2012 April to the hospital for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis suspected patients and 46 cases of diagnosed 1 year more than 52 cases that were, by ELISA detection of serum rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti cyclic citrul inated peptide (CCP) levels. Results RF and anti CCP for suspected rheumatoid arthritis and diagnosed for more than 1 year rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis positive rate was 71.15% and 82.61%, was significantly higher than that of RF and anti CCP testing alone ( <0.05). Conclusion In the early diagnosis of RF, the ef ect of RA and CCP was bet er than that of the two.

  18. Modeling bacteriophage amplification as a predictive tool for optimized MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial detection. (United States)

    Cox, Christopher R; Rees, Jon C; Voorhees, Kent J


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a valuable tool for rapid bacterial detection and identification but is limited by the need for relatively high cell count samples, which have been grown under strictly controlled conditions. These requirements can be eliminated by the natural infection of a viable bacterial species of interest with a host-specific phage. This produces a rapid increase in phage protein concentrations in comparison to bacterial concentrations, which can in turn be exploited as a method for signal amplification during MALDI-TOF MS. One drawback to this approach is the requirement for repetitive, time-consuming sample preparation and analysis applied over the course of a phage infection to monitor phage concentrations as a function of time to determine the MALDI-TOF MS detection limit. To reduce the requirement for repeated preparation and analysis, a modified phage therapy model was investigated as a means for predicting the time during a given phage infection when a detectable signal would occur. The modified model used a series of three differential equations composed of predetermined experimental parameters including phage burst size and burst time to predict progeny phage concentrations as a function of time. Using Yersinia pestis with plague diagnostic phage φA1122 and Escherichia coli with phage MS2 as two separate, well-characterized model phage-host pairs, we conducted in silico modeling of the infection process and compared it with experimental infections monitored in real time by MALDI-TOF MS. Significant agreement between mathematically calculated phage growth curves and those experimentally obtained by MALDI-TOF MS was observed, thus verifying this method's utility for significant time and labor reduction.

  19. SeaMon-HC Buoy. A specific real-time-lightweight-moored platform as a tool for fast hydrocarbon detection (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Llinas, O.


    The present paper-work describes the design, last development stages and the derived results from a specific buoy platform for fast hydrocarbon detection in seawater. Under the name of SeaMon-HC, (Patent No. P200302219/8) the buoy represents a very chief tool for coastal monitoring, mainly surrounding areas with a high oil-spill risk level, like harbours, off-shore fish farming, beaches and so on. Nowadays, the Macaronesian area has nine units working in real-time, under the frame of the Red ACOMAR Network. The main innovative aspect from this buoy is the detection system. It's based in polymer technology, working as a resistance, who increase its value when the pollutant on water surface is detected. The response time from the sensor is a direct function of the hydrocarbon volatility level. For hydrocarbons with high volatility levels (like petrol), the sensor needs less time (around 3 minutes) than others with less volatility such as oils. SeaMon-HC is an autonomous, modular, reusable and a very low-cost development integrated by four subsystems (SS): SS-Flotation (different materials and shapes available); SS-Sensors (hydrocarbon detector and additional sensors -up to 15-, to solve specific sensor configuration requirements); SS-Power Supply (equipped in its basic configuration with a couple of solar modules and two 12V batteries) and the SS-Communication (based on a RF or GSM/GPRS modem technology, with a selectable communication frequency). All SeaMon-HC units, as well the rest of the ODAS buoys who joint together the Red ACOMAR Network, works in real-time, sending the collected information to the control centre that manages the communications, providing data, in a useful form (as a web site), to diverse socio-economic important sectors which make an exhaustive use of the littoral in the Macaronesian region. The access to the information by the users is done through a specific GIS software application.

  20. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)


    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  1. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers. (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Angerer, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Hahn, Jens Uwe; Spickenheuer, Anne; Preuss, Ralf; Rühl, Reinhold; Rode, Peter; Brüning, Thomas


    In our research project entitled "Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways," 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1- hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  2. Real-time PCR as a surveillance tool for the detection of Trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife. (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Corley, Sean W; Gray, Christian P; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Traub, Rebecca J


    Trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. Although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of Trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. Surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect Trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission from wildlife to humans. Real-time PCR assays have previously been developed for the detection of European Trichinella species in commercial pork and wild fox muscle samples. We have expanded on the use of real-time PCR in Trichinella detection by developing an improved extraction method and SYBR green assay that detects all known Trichinella species in muscle samples from a greater variety of wildlife. We simulated low-level Trichinella infections in wild pig, fox, saltwater crocodile, wild cat and a native Australian marsupial using Trichinella pseudospiralis or Trichinella papuae ethanol-fixed larvae. Trichinella-specific primers targeted a conserved region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA and were tested for specificity against host and other parasite genomic DNAs. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was at least 100 fg using pure genomic T. pseudospiralis DNA serially diluted in water. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking 10 g of each host muscle with T. pseudospiralis or T. papuae larvae at representative infections of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 larvae per gram, and shown to detect larvae at the lowest infection rate. A field sample evaluation on naturally infected muscle samples of wild pigs and Tasmanian devils showed complete agreement with the EU reference artificial digestion method (k-value=1.00). Positive amplification of mouse tissue experimentally infected with T. spiralis indicated the assay could also be used on encapsulated

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis specific anti-Sa antibodies target citrullinated vimentin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossenaar, E.R.; Despres, N.; Lapointe, E.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Lora, M.; Senshu, T.; Venrooij, W.J.W. van; Menard, H.A.


    Antibodies directed to the Sa antigen are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) and can be detected in approximately 40% of RA sera. The antigen, a doublet of protein bands of about 50 kDa, is present in placenta and in RA synovial tissue. Although it has been stated that the Sa antigen is

  4. Wrist and finger joint MR imaging in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Mette; Østergaard, Mikkel; Gideon, P;


    PURPOSE: To elaborate the best MR imaging protocol for studies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the sensitivity and interobserver agreement with respect to detection of bone erosions (MR and radiography) and grading of synovial membrane hypertrophy (MR imaging only). MATERIAL...

  5. Kingella kingae septic arthritis with endocarditis in an adult. (United States)

    Elyès, Bouajina; Mehdi, Ghannouchi; Kamel, Ben Haj Slama; Hela, Zeglaoui; Imen, Ben Smida


    Kingella kingae is part of the nonpathogenic flora normally found in the oral cavity and pharynx. Recent reports have established that K. kingae can cause invasive infections in pediatric patients. Few cases have been described in adults, however. We report a case of K. kingae arthritis of the knee followed by endocarditis in a 59-year-old woman. Physicians and microbiologists should be alert to the possibility of K. kingae infection. K. kingae is easy to detect provided its specific culture requirements are taken into account. Synovial fluid inoculation into blood culture vials considerably increases the likelihood of K. kingae recovery in patients with septic arthritis.

  6. Polyarticular septic arthritis in an 11-year-old child. (United States)

    Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Novelli, Vas; Brogan, Paul A; Eleftheriou, Despina


    A child with polyarthritis is always a diagnostic challenge for the treating physician. Polyarthritis can be a clinical manifestation of diverse disease processes, and the differential diagnosis is understandably very broad. We present a case of polyarticular septic arthritis, which is osteomyelitis complicated, caused by Streptococcus pyogenes identified by 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a healthy child, with previous synovial fluid cultures negative. This case underlines the importance of early aggressive therapy and the role of PCR/16S ribosomal bacterial DNA amplification to detect the causative microorganisms in septic arthritis when cultures remain negative.

  7. Pain and microcrystalline arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramonda


    Full Text Available Microcrystals are responsible for some of the most common and complex arthropathies which are often accompanied by intense, severe pain and inflammatory reactions. The main pathogens are crystals of monosodium urate (MSU, responsible for the gout, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, which deposits also in various clinical forms of arthopathies, and basic calcium phosphate associated with osteoarthritis. In this context, the microcrystal arthritis is characterized by multiple, acute attacks followed by chronic pain, disability, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Given their chronic nature, they represent an ever more urgent public health problem. MSU and CPP crystals are also able to activate nociceptors. The pain in mycrocrystalline arthritis (MCA is an expression of the inflammatory process. In the course of these diseases there is an abundant release of inflammatory molecules, including prostaglandins 2 and kinins. Interleukin-1 represents the most important cytokine released during the crystal-induced inflammatory process. Therefore, clinically, pain is the most important component of MCA, which lead to functional impairment and disability in a large proportion of the population. It is fundamental to diagnose these diseases as early as possible, and to this aim, to identify appropriate and specific targets for a timely therapeutic intervention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika


    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  9. Significance of detection of RF and anti-ccp in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%抗CCP抗体和类风湿因子对类风湿关节炎诊断意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常会忠; 张加玲


    Aim To analyze serological anti-CCP antibody and RF in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Methods All cases were divided into treatment group and control groups according to inclusion criteria. Anti-CCP antibody and RF in cases of both groups were determined and compared. Results The positive detection rates of RF and anti-CCP antibody in the treatment group were significantly different (x2=16.678,P<0.05 and x2=112.145,P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of determination of anti-CCP antibody was 70.25 % and 91.5 % ,while that of RF were 76.86 % and 47.06 %;The sensitivity and specificity of tandem determination of anti-CCP antibody and RF were 61.16% and 91.50%,while that of parallel determination were 85.95% and 47.06% respectively. Conclusion The determination of concentrations of RF and anti-CCP antibodies is useful for differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis patients and non rheumatoid patients. In addition combined determination of RF and anti-CCP antibodies can improve the positive diagnostic rate and prevent from missing patients.%目的 研究探讨类风湿关节炎病例(以美国风湿病协会标准入选)组和对照组血清中抗CCP抗体和RF的检测,寻找合理的诊断实验方法.方法 将入选病例组和对照组进行血清抗CCP抗体和RF检测.分别比较两组阳性率、两者联合检测阳性率.结果病例组与对照组RF及抗CCP抗体阳性检出率比较,具有统计学意义(x2=16.678、x2=112.145,P<0.05、P<0.05).抗CCP抗体:灵敏度为70.25%.特异度为91.5%;RF:灵敏度为76.86%,特异度为47.06%.抗CCP抗体与RF进行联合检测时串联实验:灵敏度为61.16%,特异度为91.50%;并联实验:灵敏度为、85.95%,特异度为47.06%.结论 RF和抗CCP抗体在类风湿关节炎病例组和对照组阳性率有显著差异,有利于疾病的检测诊断.两者结合起来为临床提供丰富的诊断信息,避免类风湿因子低特异性而导致误漏诊,

  10. Radiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacherl, M.


    An introductory summary of the imaging-diagnosis will be given. The necessity of acquiring a catalogue of application to particular imaging methods is emphasized. Discussion of step by step diagnosis regarding rheumatologic questions is given on example of the hand. Technically insufficient radiographs and bad habits during diagnostic analysis are pointed out. Radiologic problems in differentiating arthritis/osteoarthrosis will be mentioned. The discussion of these points is followed by outlining the radiology of rheumatoid arthritis and the complexity of this disease. Introduction of a new stage classification. Finally twelve basic radiologic types of rheumatoid arthritis will be presented.

  11. Identification of novel autoantigen in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients using an immunoproteomics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Biswas

    pathogenesis providing new diagnostic tool with better specificity and accurate detection of the disease.

  12. 6种抗体联合检测类风湿性关节炎的临床意义%Clinical significance of combined detection of six kinds of antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩叶光; 许聪敏; 符生苗; 符克英; 蔡俊宏; 王茹


    Objective To investigate the value detection of rheumatoid factors (RF-IgM,IgA,IgG),anti-keratin antibody (AKA),anti-perinuclear factor (APF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP) in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of rheumatoid factor(RF-IgM,IgA, IgG),cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP);indirect immunofluorescence (IIF)was used for detection of anti-keratin antibody (AKA)and anti-perinuclear factor (APF)in 76 patients with RA.98 cases of non-RA patients and 30 healthy controls. Results The sensitivities in detection of RF (IgM,IgA,IgG)AKA, APF,and anti-CCP were 71.1 %,44.7% , 28.9%,42.1%,48.7%and 68.4%, respectively and the specificities were 78.9% ,85.9% ,89.1% ,89.8% ,914% and 93.8% respectively. The sensitivity and specificitiy of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA and IgG were 27.6 % and 92.2%,that of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA,IgG and AKA were 19.7% and 94.5%%,that combined detection of RF- IgM,IgA,IgG and APF were 23.7% and 96.1%%,that of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA,IgG and anti-CCP were 26.3% and 96.1% , that of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA,IgG ,AKA and APF were 18.4% and 97.7% ,that of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA,IgG,AKA and anti-CCP were 15.8% and 99.2%,that of combined detection of RF-IgM,IgA,IgG,APF and anti-CCP were 15.8% and 99.2% ,and that of combined detection of RF-IgM ,IgA,IgG,AKA,APF and anti-CCP were 13.2% and 100%. Conclusion In comaprison of detection of six antibodies,the sensitivity is the highest in detection of RF-IgM,with the lowest specificity; The specificity in detection of CCP is the highest,possessing diagnostic value and the most valuable. Combined detection of the six auto-antibodies will improve the specificity in early daignosis of RA.%目的 比较类风湿因子(RF-IgM,IgA,IgG)、抗角蛋白抗体(AKA)、抗核周因子(APF)、抗环胍氨酸肽抗体(anti-CCP)诊断类风湿性关节炎(RA)的敏感性及特异性,并探讨6种

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis: identifying and characterising polymorphisms using rat models (United States)


    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder characterised by erosive inflammation of the articular cartilage and by destruction of the synovial joints. It is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, and, currently, there is no preventative treatment or cure for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified ∼100 new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to the already known locus within the major histocompatibility complex II region. However, together, these loci account for only a modest fraction of the genetic variance associated with this disease and very little is known about the pathogenic roles of most of the risk loci identified. Here, we discuss how rat models of rheumatoid arthritis are being used to detect quantitative trait loci that regulate different arthritic traits by genetic linkage analysis and to positionally clone the underlying causative genes using congenic strains. By isolating specific loci on a fixed genetic background, congenic strains overcome the challenges of genetic heterogeneity and environmental interactions associated with human studies. Most importantly, congenic strains allow functional experimental studies be performed to investigate the pathological consequences of natural genetic polymorphisms, as illustrated by the discovery of several major disease genes that contribute to arthritis in rats. We discuss how these advances have provided new biological insights into arthritis in humans. PMID:27736747

  14. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony. (United States)

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S


    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bestaev


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease with erosive and destructive polyarthritis and systemic manifestations. Pulmonary involvement (PI is common in RA. With high-resolution computed tomography, the detection rate of PI in RA is as high as 50%. PI is a direct cause of death in 10–20% of patients with RA. Autoimmune mechanisms play a leading part in the development of PI in RA. Under the hypothesis advanced by M. Selman et al., that impaired alveolocyte regeneration processes after injury rather inflammation underlie the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. The pathological process is triggered by damaged alveolocytes and characterized by the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, the suppressed apoptosis of the latter, and the enhanced activity of pneumofibrosis-stimulating cytokines. This gives rise to remodeling of the extracellular matrix, including destruction of the basement membrane, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. The paper considers the types of lung injury in RA and main methods for diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Cardiac involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Gennaro Colonna


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by a chronic inflammatory process mainly leading to destruction of synovial membrane of small and major diarthrodial joints. The prevalence of RA within the general adult population is about 1% and female subjects in fertile age result mostly involved. It’s an invalidating disease, associated with changes in life quality and a reduced life expectancy. Moreover, we can observe an increased mortality rate in this population early after the onset of the disease. The mortality excess can be partially due to infective, gastrointestinal, renal or pulmonary complications and malignancy (mainly lung cancer and non- Hodgkin lymphoma. Among extra-articular complications, cardiovascular (CV involvement represents one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Every cardiac structure can be affected by different pathogenic pathways: heart valves, conduction system, myocardium, endocardium, pericardium and coronary arteries. Consequently, different clinical manifestations can be detected, including: pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial fibrosis, arrhythmias, alterations of conduction system, coronaropathies and ischemic cardiopathy, valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Considering that early cardiac involvement negatively affects the prognosis, it is mandatory to identify high CV risk RA patients to better define long-term management of this population.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkstra, J.; Dijkstra, P.F.; Klundert, W. v. d.


    The course of rheumatoid arthritis in the shoulder is evaluated in 143 patients. In a period of 29 years, 630 X-rays were taken of 286 shoulders. In this series 2 or more X-rays per shoulder were taken of 89 patients (29 male, 60 female). The various changes in the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints were described. Gross destruction appears to be rare, compared to the more frequently seen minor cystic changes. The progress of the disease is often slow or halting. One or both of the shoulders in some of the patients (15 male and 29 female) did not have any detectable X-rays changes, although some of them were followed up for more than 20 years. During our follow-up it became apparent that the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints do not follow the same course neither in time nor in severity of joint destruction. Therefore, we divided the shoulder joint into the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint. One normal stage and 5 stages of pathology are recognised to fit into previously published schemes of the other joints. Stage 5 appears to be a new phenomenon of neojoint formation, under the previous humeral head with the inferior glenoid rim. Joint disease in the acromioclavicular joint could be divided only into 3 stages.

  18. Significance of combined detection of serum anti CCP, RF and CRP in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%联合检测血清抗CCP、RF 和CRP对类风湿性关节炎早期诊断的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨血清抗CCP、RF 和CRP 的联合检测对类风湿性关节炎的诊断价值。方法:检测抗CCP采用ELISA法,检测RF、CRP采用免疫比浊法,共检测52例类风湿关节炎患者和55例健康体检者,并进行比较分析。结果:类风湿关节炎患者组血清抗CCP、RF 和CRP结果显著高于对照组,P<0.01,差异有统计学意义。联合检测的敏感性、特异性、准确度分别为82.7%(43/52)、94.5%(52/55)、93.1(95/102),均高于单项检测结果。结论:血清抗CCP、RF 和CRP的联合检测有助于提高类风湿性关节炎的诊断率。%Objective To explore the serum anti CCP, the combination of RF and CRP detection value to the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Detecting anti CCP using ELISA method, RF, CRP by immune turbidimetry, a total of 52 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and 55 cases of healthy check-up, and comparative analysis. Results A group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra) serum anti CCP, RF, and the result of the CRP is significantly higher than the control group, P<0.01, the difference was statistically significant. Joint detection sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 82.7%(43/52), 94.5%(52/55) and 93.1 (95/102), are higher than individual test results. Conclusions Serum anti CCP, RF and joint detection of CRP is helpful to improve the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. The clinical predictive value analysis of multi-autoantibodies detection in the transformation from undifferentiated arthritis to rheumatoid arthritis%自身抗体阳性的未分化关节炎向类风湿关节炎转化的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈竹; 杨宇峰; 王彩虹; 贾捷婷; 张琳; 张震; 靳志勇; 安广文; 李小峰


    Objective To investigate the clinical predictive value of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-keratin antibodies (AKA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody and anti-perinuclear factor (APF) in the transition from undifferentiated arthritis (UA) to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to analyze the clinical relevant factors. Methods 271 patients with UA who were followed up for a year were enrolled into the investigation. RF was measured by the rate scatting immunity method. APF and AKA were detected by immuniofluorescence method(IFA). Anti-CCP was measured by ELISA. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was analyzed by Wilcoxon method. The duration of morning stiffness, the numbers of swelling and tender joints, tender joints involved and DAS28 score were recorded and analyzed. Results 99% patients who had four-antibody-positive finally convetted from UA to RA. The conversation rate for those who had two or more than two antibody-positive was 83.0% and 65.9% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RF and anti-CCP antibody-positive in those who converted from UA to RA was 77.8% and 80.5% respectively. The percentage of polyarticular swelling in antibody-negative, one-antibody-positive, two-antibody-positive, three-antibody- positive and four-antibody-positive was 48%, 57%, 59%, 70% and 70% respectively. Meanwhile, the percentage of multi-small-joint involvement was 71%, 71%, 72%, 76% and 83% respectively. The proportion of elbow involvement in antibody-negative patients was 72%, which was the highest among all joint area involvement. The conversion differences of the group with more than 3 swelling joints or more than 3 small joints involvement ranked the first and second in frequency. Conclusion The combined detection of these autoantibodies could increase the specificity of early diagnosis of RA. The more positive antibodies present, the more likely the concersion form UA to RA. The sensitivity and specificity of RF and anti-CCP-positive is high, so

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner RAVE: The Rheumatoid Arthritis Vital Education Initiative Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the Rheumatic Diseases Our Research Patient-Centered ...

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series (United States)

    ... Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner RAVE: The Rheumatoid Arthritis Vital Education Initiative Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the Rheumatic Diseases Our Research Patient-Centered ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: psoriatic arthritis (United States)

    ... PubMed Nograles KE, Brasington RD, Bowcock AM. New insights into the pathogenesis and genetics of psoriatic arthritis. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links Copyright ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    ... D; Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Concannon P, Onengut-Gumuscu S, Rich SS, Deloukas P, Gonzalez-Gay MA, Rodriguez-Rodriguez L, Ärlsetig L, Martin J, ...

  4. Therapy strategies in psoriatic arthritis. (United States)

    Coates, Laura C


    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous condition with a myriad of different clinical presentations. It commonly affects the skin and musculoskeletal system causing psoriasis, peripheral arthritis, axial arthritis, enthesitis and dactylitis. Many patients also have related conditions, such as those within the metabolic syndrome and associated spondyloarthritis (SpA) conditions including inflammatory bowel disease and uveitis. Any therapeutic strategy must be tailored to the individual patient, taking into account her/his complete clinical presentation and comorbidities. New treatment recommendations from the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) provide evidence based recommendations on effective therapies for the management of each different manifestation of PsA, and how treatment may be affected by comorbidities (1). However, the limited evidence comparing different treatment strategies in PsA is recognised as a limitation in these recommendations and further information is detailed below.

  5. Dermatitis herpetiformis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal Archana


    Full Text Available A 35- year-old deaf and dumb woman with clinical and histopothological diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiforrnis (DH is reported for its rare association with rheumatoid arthritis (PA.

  6. The Definition and Measurement of Axial Psoriatic Arthritis. (United States)

    Lubrano, Ennio; Parsons, Wendy Joanne; Marchesoni, Antonio; Olivieri, Ignazio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Cauli, Alberto; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Scarpa, Raffaele; Brunese, Luca


    This review seeks to update the state of the art of axial psoriatic arthritis (axPsA). The definition and assessment of axPsA can be problematic because no agreement and no definitive data on this topic have been published, resulting in uncertainty as to the best approach to deal with these patients. A few recent scientific reports show new data on the possible coincidence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and axPsA, as well as on the radiological assessment as measured with the validated instruments for axPsA. Moreover, the role of magnetic resonance imaging has also been evaluated for this intriguing subset. All data confirmed that radiological assessment is a useful tool to detect typical findings of axPsA, while other imaging techniques remain to be validated. Finally, there is no evidence to support treatment of axPsA with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, while a "leap" to biologic agents is the only treatment after failure with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

  7. Oximetry: a reflective tool for the detection of physiological expression of emotions in a science education classroom (United States)

    Calderón, Olga


    The pulse oximeter is a device that measures the oxygen concentration (or oxygen saturation—SpO2); heart rate, and heartbeat of a person at any given time. This instrument is commonly used in medical and aerospace fields to monitor physiological outputs of a patient according to health conditions or physiological yields of a flying pilot according to changes in altitude and oxygen availability in the atmosphere. Nonetheless, the uses for pulse oximetry may expand to other fields where there is human interaction and where physiological outputs reflect fluctuations mediated by arising emotions. A classroom, for instance is filled with a plethora of emotions, but very often participants in this space are unaware of others' or their own sentiments as these arise as a result of interactions and responses to class discussions. In this paper I describe part of a larger study-taking place at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. The focus is on the exploration of emotions and mindfulness in the science classroom. The oximeter is used in this study as a reflexive tool to detect emotions emerging among participants of a graduate History and Philosophy of Science Education course offered in the spring of 2012. Important physiological information of class participants provided by the oximeter is used to analyze the role of emotions in the classroom as sensitive and controversial topics in science education are discussed every week.

  8. PlanetPack: a radial-velocity time-series analysis tool facilitating exoplanets detection, characterization, and dynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Baluev, Roman V


    We present PlanetPack, a new software tool that we developed to facilitate and standardize the advanced analysis of radial velocity (RV) data for the goal of exoplanets detection, characterization, and basic dynamical $N$-body simulations. PlanetPack is a command-line interpreter, that can run either in an interactive mode or in a batch mode of automatic script interpretation. Its major abilities include: (i) Advanced RV curve fitting with the proper maximum-likelihood treatment of unknown RV jitter; (ii) User-friendly multi-Keplerian as well as Newtonian $N$-body RV fits; (iii) Use of more efficient maximum-likelihood periodograms that involve the full multi-planet fitting (sometimes called as ``residual'' or ``recursive'' periodograms); (iv) Easily calculatable parametric 2D likelihood function level contours, reflecting the asymptotic confidence regions; (v) Fitting under some useful functional constraints is user-friendly; (vi) Basic tasks of short- and long-term planetary dynamical simulation using a fas...

  9. FY05 LDRD Final Report A Computational Design Tool for Microdevices and Components in Pathogen Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebotich, D


    We have developed new algorithms to model complex biological flows in integrated biodetection microdevice components. The proposed work is important because the design strategy for the next-generation Autonomous Pathogen Detection System at LLNL is the microfluidic-based Biobriefcase, being developed under the Chemical and Biological Countermeasures Program in the Homeland Security Organization. This miniaturization strategy introduces a new flow regime to systems where biological flow is already complex and not well understood. Also, design and fabrication of MEMS devices is time-consuming and costly due to the current trial-and-error approach. Furthermore, existing devices, in general, are not optimized. There are several MEMS CAD capabilities currently available, but their computational fluid dynamics modeling capabilities are rudimentary at best. Therefore, we proposed a collaboration to develop computational tools at LLNL which will (1) provide critical understanding of the fundamental flow physics involved in bioMEMS devices, (2) shorten the design and fabrication process, and thus reduce costs, (3) optimize current prototypes and (4) provide a prediction capability for the design of new, more advanced microfluidic systems. Computational expertise was provided by Comp-CASC and UC Davis-DAS. The simulation work was supported by key experiments for guidance and validation at UC Berkeley-BioE.

  10. Uveitis in juvenile chronic arthritis. (United States)

    Kanski, J J


    About 20% of patients with juvenile chronic arthritis develop uveitis which is frequently bilateral. Risk factors for uveitis are: female gender, pauciarticular onset of arthritis, presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies, and the antigens HLA-DW5 and HLA-DPw2. The visual prognosis in patients with uveitis is good in 25% and fair in 50%. The remaining 25% develop cataract and/or glaucoma. The management of glaucoma is unsatisfactory, but the results of cataract surgery by lensectomy are good.

  11. Arthritis in America PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the March 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Many adults in the United States have arthritis. Learn how to reduce the pain of arthritis, as well as manage the condition.  Created: 3/7/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/7/2017.

  12. Artritis Temprana Early Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hasta la década de los años ochenta se consideraba a la artritis reumatoide (AR como una enfermedad poco frecuente, de gravedad leve a moderada, que tenía una evolución lentamente, progresiva hacia el daño articular y la incapacidad. El aborde terapéutico convencional hasta ese momento, era el tratamiento clásico de la pirámide.Until the early the eighties was considered rheumatoid arthritis to (RA as a rare disease of mild to moderate severity, which had a slowly evolution towards joint damage and disability. The conventional therapeutic option until then, was the classic treatment of the pyramid.

  13. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  14. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt


    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  15. Physiotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Kavuncu, Vural; Evcik, Deniz


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and painful clinical condition that leads to progressive joint damage, disability, deterioration in quality of life, and shortened life expectancy. Even mild inflammation may result in irreversible damage and permanent disability. The clinical course according to symptoms may be either intermittent or progressive in patients with RA. In most patients, the clinical course is progressive, and structural damage develops in the first 2 years. The aim of RA management is to achieve pain relief and prevent joint damage and functional loss. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation applications significantly augment medical therapy by improving the management of RA and reducing handicaps in daily living for patients with RA. In this review, the application of physiotherapy modalities is examined, including the use of cold/heat applications, electrical stimulation, and hydrotherapy. Rehabilitation treatment techniques for patients with RA such as joint protection strategies, massage, exercise, and patient education are also presented.

  16. Biologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanov Nemanja


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis (JIA are chronic, inflammatory, systemic, auto-immune diseases characterized by chronic arthritis leading to progressive joint erosions. The individual functional and social impact of rheumatoid arthritis is of great importance. Disability and joint damage occur rapidly and early in the course of the disease. The remarkably improved outcomes have been achieved initiating biologic therapy with close monitoring of disease progression. Biologic agents are drugs, usually proteins, which can influence chronic immune dysregulation resulting in chronic arthritis. According to the mechanism of action these drugs include: 1 anti-TNF drugs (etanercept, infiximab, adalimumab; 2 IL-1 blocking drugs (anakinra; 3 IL-6 blocking drugs (tocilizumab; 4 agents blocking selective co-stimulation modulation (abatacept; 5 CD 20 blocking drugs (rituximab. Biologics targeting TNF-alpha with methotrexate have revolutionized the treatment of RA, producing significant improvement in clinical, radiographic, and functional outcomes not seen previously. The new concept of rheumatoid arthritis treatment defines early diagnosis, early aggressive therapy with optimal doses of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs and, if no improvement has been achieved during six months, early introduction of biologic drugs. The three-year experience of biologic therapy in Serbia has shown a positive effect on disease outcome.

  17. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations. (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher


    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 - 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 - 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Starodubtseva


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problems of comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Two or more RA-related conditions were diagnosed according to the results of the QUEST-RA program implemented in 34 countries. Osteoarthritis along with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis was detected among the most commonly diseases. Owing to expanded diagnostic capabilities, the recognition and treatment of the comorbidities have recently received much attention, as embodied in the draft Association of Rheumatologists of Russia Guidelines for RA management (2014; Part 1. The concept and major characteristics of secondary osteoarthritis in RA are analyzed. It is precisely the inflammatory process and underlying disease-related risk factors, including treatment, that have impact on the development of secondary osteoarthritis and patients’ quality of life as a whole. All this allows an inference about the mechanisms closely intertwined with the underlying disease for the development of secondary osteoarthritis, which initiates cartilage damage and further remodeling. Primary and secondary osteoarthritis was comparatively analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on current cartilage biomarkers, their diagnostic value and role in monitoring the efficiency of treatment in clinical trials. The paper provides a comparative analysis of detectable serum and urine biomarkers according to the results of the complex analysis made by the National Institutes of Health. Particular attention is given to cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP. Foreign authors’ investigations suggest that there is a relationship between serum COMP levels and disease severity and joint X-ray changes. There is evidence for the efficacy of hyaluronic acid used in the treatment of secondary osteoarthritis in patients with RA. 

  19. 类风湿性关节炎患者抗核抗体及其多肽谱的检测%Detection and analysis of ANA and ANA profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石青峰; 马韵; 杨峻; 何永玲


    目的 分析类风湿性关节炎(RA)患者抗核抗体(ANA)和ANA谱检测结果,探讨其在RA诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 ANA检测采用间接免疫荧光法,抗核抗体谱检测采用免疫印迹法.结果 128例RA患者中,ANA阳性率达79.7%,ANA谱阳性率达47.7%.ANA与ANA谱检测结果呈正相关.RA患者中ANA≥1∶320阳性时的荧光模式主要是核均质型,ANA谱阳性抗体出现较多的是抗SS-A、抗Ro-52、抗nRNP/Sm、抗SS-B等.结论 联合检测RA患者ANA及ANA谱,能明确患者血清中的自身抗体种类,为RA的诊断和疗效观察提供重要的参考指标.%Objective To explore the clinical significance of ANA and ANA profile in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Methods ANA was measured by indirect immunofluorescence, ANA profile was measured by immunoblot assay. Results In the 128 samples,positive detection rate ANA and ANA profile were 79. 7% and 47. 7%. ANA showed a significantly positive correlation with ANA profile. In the samples for positive ANA with high titer(≥1: 320) , ANA pattern were mainly Homogeneous-Nu-cleolar. ANA profile results indicated that the antinuclear antibodies were mainly anti-SSA,anti-Ro-52, anti-RNP/Sm and anti-SS-B. Conclusion Existence of multiple antibodies in RA patients may hint that the patients might have other autoimmune diseases or the risks for other autoimmune diseases. Combined with determination of ANA and ANA profile could explicit the kinds of multiple antibodies. It could provide more helps to diagnosis and treatment of RA.

  20. The abridged patient-generated subjective global assessment is a useful tool for early detection and characterization of cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Vigano, Antonio L; di Tomasso, Jonathan; Kilgour, Robert D; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Lucar, Enriqueta; Morais, José A; Borod, Manuel


    PG-SGA appears to be a useful tool for detecting and predicting outcomes of cancer cachexia. Additional research is required to determine what impact the aPG-SGA has on quality of care when used in the clinical setting.

  1. [association Between Insomnia And Rheumatoid Arthritis In Elderly].


    Freitas, Denise Cuoghi de Carvalho Verissimo; Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina Mansano; Santos,Ariene Angelini dos; Neri,Anita Liberalesso; Ceolim, Maria Filomena


    This study aimed to assess symptoms of insomnia in elderly residents in the community and its association with rheumatoid arthritis. Descriptive and cross-sectional study, part of a multicentre research project entitled Fragility in Brazilian elderly . A total number of 689 elderly (68.9% female, average age of 72.2 years) were interviewed using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and clinical conditions. Two tools to identify symptoms of insomnia (the Nottingham Health profile) and to s...

  2. Ultrasound versus high field magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, York Kiat; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul;


    Over the past decade there have been significant advances in the field of musculoskeletal imaging, especially in the application of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both modalities offer significant advantages over the previous...... standards of clinical examination and radiography, and allow direct visualisation of both joint inflammation and structural damage. Although measuring similar pathology, each of these imaging tools has its own benefits and limitations; understanding these will help researchers and clinicians to determine...

  3. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J


    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Sai Mrudula,


    Full Text Available The immune system is a complex organization of cells and antibodies designed normally to seek and destroy invaders of the body particularly infections. Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disease that mistakenly attacks our own immune system and damage tissues around joints, tendons, ligaments and muscles by means of T-cell differentiation. Dendritic cells are main important APC’s .These cells on maturation combines with MHC molecules and co-receptors like CD-80, CD-40 activates T-cells and B-cells. This main action is regulated by IL-12gene in dendritic cells. Tolerogenic vaccination signifies exotic tool that is launched in to humans or domestic animals with an intention to enroot immunity and to generate immunological tolerance that is condition marked by stolidity to a specific antigen. Here in this critique we have cited applicability of RNA modified DC in treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. By using the method of RNA interference using siRNAIL12 treated DC we can treat RA by decreasing T-cell responses towards our own cells.

  5. Procalcitonin levels in fresh serum and fresh synovial fluid for the differential diagnosis of knee septic arthritis from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Wang, Chenggong; Zhong, DA; Liao, Qiande; Kong, Lingyu; Liu, Ansong; Xiao, Han


    Whether the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) in the serum and synovial fluid are effective indicators for distinguishing septic arthritis (SA) from non-infectious arthritis remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate whether PCT levels in fresh serum or fresh joint fluid may be used in the differential diagnosis of SA from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis (GA). From January 2012 to June 2013, 23 patients with knee SA, 21 patients with RA, 40 patients with OA and 11 patients with GA were enrolled in the current study. The levels of PCT were measured within 24 h after specimen collection at room temperature. An enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) was used to detect the levels of PCT in the serum and synovial fluid. The correlations between the levels of PCT in the serum and synovial fluid and the arthritic patient groups were determined by the Nemenyi test. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the correlations. The levels of PCT in the serum and joint fluid of the patients in the SA group were higher compared with those of the other groups (Parthritis; however, the PCT levels in fresh synovial fluid are more sensitive and accurate indicators than PCT levels in fresh serum.

  6. AlignMiner: a Web-based tool for detection of divergent regions in multiple sequence alignments of conserved sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are used to study gene or protein function, phylogenetic relations, genome evolution hypotheses and even gene polymorphisms. Virtually without exception, all available tools focus on conserved segments or residues. Small divergent regions, however, are biologically important for specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genotyping, molecular markers and preparation of specific antibodies, and yet have received little attention. As a consequence, they must be selected empirically by the researcher. AlignMiner has been developed to fill this gap in bioinformatic analyses. Results AlignMiner is a Web-based application for detection of conserved and divergent regions in alignments of conserved sequences, focusing particularly on divergence. It accepts alignments (protein or nucleic acid obtained using any of a variety of algorithms, which does not appear to have a significant impact on the final results. AlignMiner uses different scoring methods for assessing conserved/divergent regions, Entropy being the method that provides the highest number of regions with the greatest length, and Weighted being the most restrictive. Conserved/divergent regions can be generated either with respect to the consensus sequence or to one master sequence. The resulting data are presented in a graphical interface developed in AJAX, which provides remarkable user interaction capabilities. Users do not need to wait until execution is complete and can.even inspect their results on a different computer. Data can be downloaded onto a user disk, in standard formats. In silico and experimental proof-of-concept cases have shown that AlignMiner can be successfully used to designing specific polymerase chain reaction primers as well as potential epitopes for antibodies. Primer design is assisted by a module that deploys several oligonucleotide parameters for designing primers "on the fly". Conclusions AlignMiner can be used

  7. Assessment by MRI of inflammation and damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients with methotrexate inadequate response receiving golimumab: results of the GO-FORWARD trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul; Østergaard, Mikkel;


    To evaluate golimumab's effect on MRI-detected inflammation and structural damage in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX).......To evaluate golimumab's effect on MRI-detected inflammation and structural damage in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX)....

  8. Molecular diagnostic tools for detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas based on chaperonin-60 reveal differences in host plant infection patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Dumonceaux

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas ('Candidatus Phytoplasma' spp. are insect-vectored bacteria that infect a wide variety of plants, including many agriculturally important species. The infections can cause devastating yield losses by inducing morphological changes that dramatically alter inflorescence development. Detection of phytoplasma infection typically utilizes sequences located within the 16S-23S rRNA-encoding locus, and these sequences are necessary for strain identification by currently accepted standards for phytoplasma classification. However, these methods can generate PCR products >1400 bp that are less divergent in sequence than protein-encoding genes, limiting strain resolution in certain cases. We describe a method for accessing the chaperonin-60 (cpn60 gene sequence from a diverse array of 'Ca.Phytoplasma' spp. Two degenerate primer sets were designed based on the known sequence diversity of cpn60 from 'Ca.Phytoplasma' spp. and used to amplify cpn60 gene fragments from various reference samples and infected plant tissues. Forty three cpn60 sequences were thereby determined. The cpn60 PCR-gel electrophoresis method was highly sensitive compared to 16S-23S-targeted PCR-gel electrophoresis. The topology of a phylogenetic tree generated using cpn60 sequences was congruent with that reported for 16S rRNA-encoding genes. The cpn60 sequences were used to design a hybridization array using oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent microspheres, providing rapid diagnosis and typing of phytoplasma infections. The oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent microsphere assay revealed samples that were infected simultaneously with two subtypes of phytoplasma. These tools were applied to show that two host plants, Brassica napus and Camelina sativa, displayed different phytoplasma infection patterns.

  9. Validity of a screening tool for detecting subtle cognitive impairment in the middle-aged and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce KM


    Full Text Available Kathryn M Bruce,1 Stephen R Robinson,2 Julian A Smith,1 Gregory W Yelland2,3 1Department of Surgery (MMC, Monash University, Clayton, 2School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, 3Central Clinical School, Monash University, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: The present study tested 121 middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling individuals on the computer-based Subtle Cognitive Impairment Test (SCIT and compared their performance with that on several neuropsychological tests. The SCIT had excellent internal consistency, as demonstrated by a high split-half reliability measure (0.88–0.93. Performance on the SCIT was unaffected by the confounding factors of sex, education level, and mood state. Many participants demonstrated impaired performance on one or more of the neuropsychological tests (Controlled Oral Word Association Task, Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Task, Grooved Pegboard [GP], Complex Figures. Performance on SCIT subtests correlated significantly with performance on many of the neuropsychological subtests, and the best and worst performing quartiles on the SCIT subtest discriminated between good and poor performers on other subtests, collectively indicating concurrent validity of the SCIT. Principal components analysis indicated that SCIT performance does not cluster with performance on most of the other cognitive tests, and instead is associated with decision-making efficacy, and processing speed and efficiency. Thus, the SCIT is responsive to the processes that underpin multiple cognitive domains, rather than being specific for a single domain. Since the SCIT is quick and easy to administer, and is well tolerated by the elderly, it may have utility as a screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly populations. Keywords: aging, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychological test, Subtle Cognitive Impairment Test, validation, reliability

  10. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  11. Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk (United States)

    ... Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk Treating inflammation linked to ... TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with rheumatoid arthritis may have an increased risk for a heart ...

  12. 4项血清学指标联合检测在类风湿关节炎中的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of combined detection of four serum indicators in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 苏建蓉


    Objective To investigate the clinical value of combined detection of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody(anti-CCP antibody),rheumatoid factor(RF),C-reactive protein(CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR)in the diagnosis of rheu-matoid arthritis(RA).Methods The detection results of the four serum indicators of 290 cases of patients with RA(RA group), 286 cases of patients with non-RA autoimmune diseases(non-RA group)and 1 50 cases of healthy individuals(control group),from March 2013 to August 2014 in this hospital,were retrospectively analysed.Results The serum levels of the four indicators have significant differences among the three groups,between the RA group and non-RA group,and between the RA group and control group(P =0.000).Between non-RA group and control group,there was significant difference of serum levels of anti-CCP antibodies (P =0.013),while the other three serum indicators had no significant differences (P >0.05).The sensitivity of combined detection of anti-CCP antibody and RF,combined detection of anti-CCP antibody,RF and CRP,combined detection of anti-CCP antibody,RF and ESR,and combined detection of anti-CCP antibody,RF,CRP and ESR for RA diagnosis have statistically significant differences (P 0.05 ).The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of anti-CCP antibody,RF,CRP and ESR were 0.873,0.893,0.678 and 0.747,respectively. Conclusion Combined detection of anti-CCP antibody and RF has good specificity and sensitivity,which could improve the clinical diagnosis of RA.Combined detection of CRP and ESR could improve the detection rate of RA.%目的:探讨抗环瓜氨酸肽抗体(抗-CCP 抗体)、类风湿因子(RF)、C 反应蛋白(CRP)及红细胞沉降率(ESR)联合检测在诊断类风湿关节炎(RA)的临床价值。方法回顾性分析2013年3月至2014年8月该院290例 RA 患者(RA 组)、286例非RA 的自身免疫疾病患者(非 RA 组)及150例体检健康者(对照组)的4项血清

  13. Is yoga a suitable treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles S


    Full Text Available Shirley Telles, Nilkamal SinghPatanjali Research Foundation, Haridwar, IndiaAbstract: We reviewed published literature regarding the use of yoga for managing rheumatoid arthritis to determine whether adequate evidence exists to suggest its usefulness as a therapy. A search for previous studies involving yoga and rheumatoid arthritis in PubMed yielded eight reports. These studies reported the benefits of yoga in the physical and mental health of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, suggesting that yoga is a useful add-on therapy for RA patients. However, all studies showed limitations with respect to sample size, study design, description and duration of yoga intervention, and assessment tools and statistical methods used. Additionally, the studies did not attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying observed benefits. Hence, evidence suggests a definite role of yoga in RA improvement, reducing pain, improving function, and creating a positive mental state. However, detailed analysis and additional studies are necessary to verify these observations.Keywords: bibliographic database search, PubMed, rheumatoid arthritis, yoga

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms. (United States)

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O


    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  15. Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: A search for causality and role of Porphyromonas gingivalis


    de Smit, Menke


    There is currently much attention for early detection of rheumatoid arthritis, as early recognition enables timely treatment with a chance of remission of the disease before irreversible damage has occurred. In this respect, important questions are: who will develop rheumatoid arthritis, when and why? The main research question of this thesis was if chronic bacterial infection of oral soft- and hard tissues (periodontitis), in particular with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis,...

  16. 9 CFR 311.7 - Arthritis. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for...

  17. Preclinical lung disease in early rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Robles-Perez, Alejandro; Luburich, Patricio; Rodriguez-Sanchon, Benigno; Dorca, Jordi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Molina-Molina, Maria; Narvaez-Garcia, Javier


    Early detection and treatment of lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may ameliorate disease progression. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic lung abnormalities in early RA patients and the potential association of positive RA blood reactive biomolecules with lung involvement. A prospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with early RA (joint symptoms disease with a baseline chest radiograph (CR) and complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs). In those patients with lung abnormalities on the CR or PFTs, a high-resolution chest computed tomography scan (HRCT) was performed. We included 40 patients (30 women). Altered PFTs were detected in 18 (45%) of these patients. These cases had a diffusion lung transfer capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) of disease is present in up to 45% of early RA patients and can be determined by PFTs and ACPA levels.

  18. Therapeutical approach to rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Gourni


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial joints, and loss of the function leading to disability. The ultimate goal in managing RA is to prevent joint damage and to maintain functional ability. Although, οver the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the factors that are crucial in regulating this disease, still the managment of the disease remains difficult.Aim : Τhe aim of the present study was the evaluation of the therapeutical approch on rheumatoid arthritis. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the relation between therapy and rheumatoid arthritis.Results : The majority of research studies showed thatthe main therapy on rheumatoid arthritis included medication therapy, modification of everyday living ensuring rest, physical exercise and finally surgical procedure. Individuals suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, apart from physical problems usually cope with mental disorders, that exert a negative indluence on their quality of life.Conclusively :Information and early screening of high risk may decrease the long-term consequnences on health. Monitoring from a group of specialists should serve as a cornerstone when planning a program of intervention.

  19. Differential Diagnosis of Polyarticular Arthritis. (United States)

    Pujalte, George G A; Albano-Aluquin, Sheila A


    Polyarticular arthritis is commonly encountered in clinical settings and has multiple etiologies. The first step is to distinguish between true articular pain and nonarticular or periarticular conditions by recognizing clinical patterns through the history and physical examination. Once pain within a joint or joints is confirmed, the next step is to classify the pain as noninflammatory or inflammatory in origin. Noninflammatory arthritis, which is mostly related to osteoarthritis, has a variable onset and severity and does not have inflammatory features, such as warm or swollen joints. Osteoarthritis usually presents with less than one hour of morning stiffness and pain that is aggravated by activity and improves with rest. A review of systems is usually negative for rashes, oral ulcers, or other internal organ involvement. In contrast, inflammatory arthritis generally causes warm, swollen joints; prolonged morning stiffness; and positive findings on a review of systems. Once inflammatory arthritis is suspected, possible diagnoses are sorted by the pattern of joint involvement, which includes number and type of joints involved, symmetry, and onset. The suspicion for inflammatory arthritis should be confirmed by the appropriate serologic/tissue and/or imaging studies in the clinical setting or in consultation with a subspecialist.

  20. [Pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Lequerré, Thierry; Richez, Christophe


    These last years were especially marked by the best understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms at the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in the processes of joint inflammation and joint destruction. RA is more and more considered as a syndrome with at least two clinical entities with different phenotype and profiles: seronegative RA and seropositive RA. In RA with ACPA, it is the process of immunization, that is the immunological reaction against citrullinated peptides, that leads to the disease. The peptide citrullination is directly favored by environmental factors such as tobacco, infection to Porphyromonas gingivalis and alcohol. The immunization supposes a genetic predisposition including approximately 22 genetic factors including the molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and PTPN22. Finally, joint damage result at the same time from an excess of destruction (RANK/RANKL, TNFalpha) and from a defect of bone reparation by the way Wnt/Frizzled. It is thanks to the best understanding of RA physiopathology that leads to development of targeted treatments and specially processing for this disease.

  1. Prostaglandins and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fattahi


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, autoimmune, and complex inflammatory disease leading to bone and cartilage destruction, whose cause remains obscure. Accumulation of genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and dysregulated immune responses are necessary for mounting this self-reacting disease. Inflamed joints are infiltrated by a heterogeneous population of cellular and soluble mediators of the immune system, such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, cytokines, and prostaglandins (PGs. Prostaglandins are lipid inflammatory mediators derived from the arachidonic acid by multienzymatic reactions. They both sustain homeostatic mechanisms and mediate pathogenic processes, including the inflammatory reaction. They play both beneficial and harmful roles during inflammation, according to their site of action and the etiology of the inflammatory response. With respect to the role of PGs in inflammation, they can be effective mediators in the pathophysiology of RA. Thus the use of agonists or antagonists of PG receptors may be considered as a new therapeutic protocol in RA. In this paper, we try to elucidate the role of PGs in the immunopathology of RA.

  2. Rare coexistence of gouty and septic arthritis after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report. (United States)

    Ichiseki, Toru; Ueda, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Tadami


    Coexistence of septic arthritis and gouty arthritis is rare. In particular, no reports have described the development of both gouty and septic arthritis after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. The patient was an 83-year-old man who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. He had a history of diabetes mellitus (HbA1c: 7.4%), but not of gout, and the GFR was decreased (GFR=46). During the postoperative course fever suddenly developed and joint fluid retention was found. Uric acid crystals were detected when the joint fluid was aspirated, after which when the culture results became available sepsis due to methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was diagnosed. On the 2(nd) day after fever onset, lavage and debridement were performed under arthroscopy, with the subsequent course uneventful with no recurrence of the infection or gouty arthritis and no joint destruction. When uric acid crystals are found in aspirated joint fluid, gouty arthritis tends to be diagnosed, but like in the present case if infection also supervenes, joint destruction and a poor general state may result if appropriate intervention is not initiated swiftly. Accordingly, even if uric acid crystals are found, the possibility of coexistence of septic arthritis and gouty arthritis should be kept in mind.

  3. The effect of resveratrol on the recurrent attacks of gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zheng, Shucong; Wang, Yuankai; Zhu, Huiqing; Liu, Qiong; Xue, Yu; Qiu, Jianhua; Zou, Hejian; Zhu, Xiaoxia


    Gouty arthritis is characterized by inflammation induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition, which is resulted by an increase of serum urate concentration. The management of gout, especially the recurrent acute attacks of chronic gouty arthritis, is still a problem to be resolved. In this study, we aimed to develop the preventive and therapeutic effect of resveratrol on gouty arthritis. MSU was used to induce gouty arthritis in the foot pad of C57BL/6 mice. Yeast polysaccharide and potassium oxonate were used to induce hyperuricemia in Kunming mice. Resveratrol was intraperitoneal injected to the mice in the treatment group. The pad inflammation and the level of serum uric acid were investigated to estimate the effect of resveratrol in gouty arthritis. Hyperuricemia was significantly detected in the mice treated with yeast polysaccharide and potassium oxonate, and gouty arthritis was successfully induced with MSU in mice. We further identified that resveratrol inhibited pad swelling and pad 99mTc uptake in gouty mice. Moreover, serum uric acid level was also decreased by resveratrol in hyperuricemia mice. This study highlighted that resveratrol might be applied to prevent the recurrent acute attack of gouty arthritis because of its inhibition of articular inflammation and down-regulation of serum uric acid.

  4. Radiological features of experimental staphylococcal septic arthritis by micro computed tomography scan (United States)

    Fatima, Farah; Fei, Ying; Ali, Abukar; Mohammad, Majd; Erlandsson, Malin C.; Bokarewa, Maria I.; Nawaz, Muhammad; Valadi, Hadi; Na, Manli


    Background Permanent joint dysfunction due to bone destruction occurs in up to 50% of patients with septic arthritis. Recently, imaging technologies such as micro computed tomography (μCT) scan have been widely used for preclinical models of autoimmune joint disorders. However, the radiological features of septic arthritis in mice are still largely unknown. Methods NMRI mice were intravenously or intra-articularly inoculated with S. aureus Newman or LS-1 strain. The radiological and clinical signs of septic arthritis were followed for 10 days using μCT. We assessed the correlations between joint radiological changes and clinical signs, histological changes, and serum levels of cytokines. Results On days 5–7 after intravenous infection, bone destruction verified by μCT became evident in most of the infected joints. Radiological signs of bone destruction were dependent on the bacterial dose. The site most commonly affected by septic arthritis was the distal femur in knees. The bone destruction detected by μCT was positively correlated with histological changes in both local and hematogenous septic arthritis. The serum levels of IL-6 were significantly correlated with the severity of joint destruction. Conclusion μCT is a sensitive method for monitoring disease progression and determining the severity of bone destruction in a mouse model of septic arthritis. IL-6 may be used as a biomarker for bone destruction in septic arthritis. PMID:28152087


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shabanova


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is connected with need to expand the arsenal of treatment methods patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study examined the efficacy of biobehavioral therapy in a comprehensive program of treatment patients with rheumatoid arthritis (medical therapy in combination with biobehavioral therapy. It has been shown when compared with the control group (isolated drug therapy maintaining  clinical  response  in  short-term  follow-up  study  in  the  intervention  group.  Statistically    significant relationship the volitional control of the alpha rhythm of EEG (increased power of the alpha rhythm with a reduction in pain intensity in the in neurofeedback program and positive dynamics of the main characteristics of the alpha rhythm have been drmonstrated. Inclusion in the treatment program of arthritis biobehavioral approach has reduced the dose of pain medication, so reducing aggression of pharmacotherapy.

  6. [Optic neuritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient]. (United States)

    Lourenço, Daniela M R; Buscatti, Izabel M; Lourenço, Benito; Monti, Fernanda C; Paz, José Albino; Silva, Clovis A


    Optic neuritis (ON) was rarely reported in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, particularly in those under anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockage. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of ON in JIA population has not been studied. Therefore, 5,793 patients were followed up at our University Hospital and 630 (11%) had JIA. One patient (0.15%) had ON and was reported herein. A 6-year-old male was diagnosed with extended oligoarticular JIA, and received naproxen and methotrexate subsequently replaced by leflunomide. At 11 years old, he was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, followed by a partial motor seizure with secondary generalization. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram showed diffuse disorganization of the brain electric activity and leflunomide was suspended. Seven days later, the patient presented acute ocular pain, loss of acuity for color, blurred vision, photophobia, redness and short progressive visual loss in the right eye. A fundoscopic exam detected unilateral papilledema without retinal exudates. Orbital MRI suggested right ON. The anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody was negative. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone was administered for five days, and subsequently with prednisone, he had clinical and laboratory improvement. In conclusion, a low prevalence of ON was observed in our JIA population. The absence of anti-AQP4 antibody and the normal brain MRI do not exclude the possibility of demyelinating disease associated with chronic arthritis. Therefore, rigorous follow up is required.

  7. IKRAI: Intelligent Knee Rheumatoid Arthritis Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader Helwan


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid joint inflammation is characterized as a perpetual incendiary issue which influences the joints by hurting body tissues Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective intelligent identification system of knee Rheumatoid arthritis especially in its early stages. This paper is to develop a new intelligent system for the identification of Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee utilizing image processing techniques and neural classifier. The system involves two principle stages. The first one is the image processing stage in which the images are processed using some techniques such as RGB to grayscale conversion, rescaling, median filtering, background extracting, images subtracting, segmentation using canny edge detection, and features extraction using pattern averaging. The extracted features are used then as inputs for the neural network which classifies the X-ray knee images as normal or abnormal (arthritic based on a backpropagation learning algorithm which involves training of the network on 400 X-ray normal and abnormal knee images. The system was tested on 400 x-ray images and the network shows good performance during that phase, resulting in a good identification rate 95.5 %.

  8. Portable hyperspectral device as a valuable tool for the detection of protective agents applied on hystorical buildings (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Camaiti, M.; Garfagnoli, F.; Benvenuti, M.; Costagliola, P.; Moretti, S.


    In the recent past, a wide range of protective products (in most cases, synthetic polymers) have been applied to the surfaces of ancient buildings/artefacts to preserve them from alteration [1]. The lack of a detailed mapping of the permanence and efficacy of these treatments, in particular when applied on large surfaces such as building facades, may be particularly noxious when new restoration treatments are needed and the best choice of restoration protocols has to be taken. The presence of protective compounds on stone surfaces may be detected in laboratory by relatively simple diagnostic tests, which, however, normally require invasive (or micro-invasive) sampling methodologies and are time-consuming, thus limiting their use only to a restricted number of samples and sampling sites. On the contrary, hyperspectral sensors are rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive tools capable of analyzing different materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, and so particularly suitable for the field of cultural heritage [2,3]. In addition, they can be successfully used to discriminate between inorganic (i.e. rocks and minerals) and organic compounds, as well as to acquire, in short times, many spectra and compositional maps at relatively low costs. In this study we analyzed a number of stone samples (Carrara Marble and biogenic calcarenites - "Lecce Stone" and "Maastricht Stone"-) after treatment of their surfaces with synthetic polymers (synthetic wax, acrylic, perfluorinated and silicon based polymers) of common use in conservation-restoration practice. The hyperspectral device used for this purpose was ASD FieldSpec FR Pro spectroradiometer, a portable, high-resolution instrument designed to acquire Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR: 350-1000 nm) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR: 1000-2500 nm) punctual reflectance spectra with a rapid data collection time (about 0.1 s for each spectrum). The reflectance spectra so far obtained in

  9. Methotrexate in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: towards tailor-made treatment. (United States)

    Ćalasan, Maja Bulatović; Wulffraat, Nico M


    Methotrexate (MTX) is the key treatment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Nevertheless, MTX is not always sufficiently efficacious and can lead to adverse effects, which compromises complete disease control. In such cases, combination therapies with biologicals are given, even at MTX start, before knowing the patients' MTX response. Ideally, clinicians should be able to practice precision medicine by knowing before or early after MTX start, which patients will benefit from MTX only and which patients will not, thus requiring addition of biologicals. To make such tailor-made treatment decisions, clinicians require tools to optimize MTX treatment. In this review, we focus on tools for tailor-made MTX treatment in JIA.

  10. Dietetic recommendations in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Alhambra-Expósito


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease that has a significant effect on patients’ physical, emotional, and social functioning. For decades, patients have used different diets to try to improve the symptoms of RA. The possible benefits of dietary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed in this article. Nutritional objectives for RA, are to halt the loss of bone mass, promote healing of bone fractures and improving bone-associated inflammatory disorders and joints. In general, diets low in saturated fat, rich in polyunsaturated fats: omega 3 and omega 6, rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber are recommended.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a multisystem autoimmune disease, affecting the joints predominantly, and extra-articular sites like skin, lungs, heart etc. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR in collaboration with the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR in 2010, revised the 1987 ACR classification criteria for RA. The criteria covered four areas (joint involvement, serodiagnosis, acute phase reactants, duration of arthritis and established a point value on a scale of 0 to 10. Patients with a value of 6 or higher are classified as having RA.

  12. Early detection of subclinical right ventricle impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿性关节炎患者右心室功能损害的早期检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁茜; 刘栩; 朱天刚


    目的:探讨心肌做功指数(MPI)评价类风湿性关节炎(RA)患者亚临床右心室功能损害的应用价值.方法:选取常规超声心动图正常的RA患者(RA组)25例及正常志愿者(对照组)25例,常规超声测定右心室舒张末内径、右心房内径、肺动脉内径、E峰、A峰及E峰减速时间,计算MPI,有三尖瓣反流者评估肺动脉收缩压;组织多普勒成像测定三尖瓣环S’、E’、A’,计算E’/A’、E/E'与MPI’.结果:两组常规超声与组织多普勒参数均差异无统计学意义;RA组MPI明显增大(P<0.01),MPI’差异与对照组无统计学意义;MPI与病程呈正相关(r=0.319,P=0.033),与年龄无关.结论:常规超声正常的RA患者可出现亚临床右心室功能损伤,表现为MPI明显增大;MPI是评价RA患者右心室功能的有效手段.%Objective-To investigate the application value of myocardial performance index (MPI) on subclini-cal right ventricle impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: MPI of right ventricule were calculated in 25 patients with RA (RA group) and 25 healthy controls (control group). MPI' was calculated by tissue doppler image of tricuspid annulus. Right ventricle-right atrium-and pulmonary artery diameter, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), early (E) and late (A) diastolic velocities of tricuspid valves, deceleration time of E (DT), peak systolic (S') , early and late diastolic tricuspid annulus velocities (E'and A') were measured, E/ E' ratio of tricuspid valves, E'/A' ratio of tricuspid annulus were calculated. Result:Compared with control group, MPI was significantly increased in RA group (P<0. 01), while right ventricle-right atrium-and pulmonary arteries diameter, PASP, E, A, DT, S', E', A', E/E' ratio, E'/A' ratio and MPI' did not differ between the two groups. MPI had a positive correlation with disease duration (r=0. 319, P = 0. 033) but had no correlation with age. Conclusion: Right ventricular function in RA

  13. Clinicial study of combined detection of anti-CCP, AKA and RF in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%联合检测抗CCP、AKA及RF诊断类风湿关节炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the diagnostic values of anti-CCP,AKA and RF on rheumatoid arthritis(RA).Methods Anti-CCP,AKA and RF levels were measured by different means,such as ECLIA,the rate scatting immunity method,and immunity fluorescence technique.Results The sensitivity of RF was the best,and the specificity of anti-CCP was the best.Indicator of combined dection of anti-CCP + AKA,CCP + RF,AKA + RF,when they were positive,specificity was increased to 99.2%,96.9%,94.7%,positive predicitive value was 98.3%,94.6%,92.3%.Three indicator of anti-CCP +AKA + RF,specificity,negative and positive predictive value were 100%.Conclusions Combined detection of anti-CCP,AKA and RF has a higher specificity and predictive value of yin and yang nature than the single index and can further improve the incidence of early diagnosis of RA,especially in patients with atypical clinical symptoms.%目的 探讨抗环瓜氨酸肽抗体(抗CCP)、抗角蛋白抗体(AKA)及类风湿因子(RF)三个指标单项及联合检测对类风湿关节炎(RA)的诊断价值.方法 抗CCP采用电化学发光法定量检测,RF采用速率散射免疫比浊法检测法,AKA采用免疫荧光法.结果 RA组单项指标中敏感性为RF>抗CCP> AKA,特异性为抗CCP>AKA> RF,联合检测指标抗CCP+ AKA、抗CCP+ RF、AKA+ RF阳性时特异性分别提高到99.2%、96.9%、94.7%,阳性预测值为98.3%、94.6%、92.3%,抗CCP+ AKA+ RF三项指标均阳性时,特异性、阴性和阳性预测值均为100%.结论 抗CCP、AKA和RF联合检测比单项指标具有更高的特异性和阴阳性预测值,可进一步提高对RA的早期诊断率,尤其是对临床症状不典型的早期RA患者意义更大.

  14. [Pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Branimir Anić; Miroslav Mayer


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease that primarily affects joints. Etiology and the pathogenesis of RA are complex, involving many types of cells, among others macrophages, T and B cells, fibro- blasts, chondrocytes and dendritic cells. Despite well documented role of many genes and epigenetic modifications in the development and evolution of the disease, in most RA patients there is no clear predisposing factor present. Environmental factors involved in RA pathogenesis are cigarette smoke, industrial pollutants like silica crystals, disturbances of intestinal, lung, and oral microbiota and some specific bacterial and viral infectious agents and their components. In the initial disease stage there are qualitative and quantitative disturbances ofpeptide citrulination as well as other protein modifications, followed by antigen presenting cell (APC) (macrophages and dendritic cells) and fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) activation. Some microbes foster this processes by APC and FLS direct and indirect activation. In the second stage APC's elicit specific humoral B cell re- sponse resulting in specific antibodies production and T cell autoreactivity. Inherited and acquired defects in T and B cell responses caused by repeated activation of innate immunity as well as loss of tolerance, elicit chronic autoimmune inflammation, primarily of synovial membranes, and development of cellular panus. Pathologic activation of the osteoclasts and release of the immune system effector molecules and the proteolytic enzymes damage the cartilage, bone and tendons composition and structure. Persistent inflammation through its complex mechanisms results in many systemic and extraarticular RA manifestations of almost all organ systems, resulting in severe complications and comorbidities such as rheumatoid lung, carditis, vasculitis, cahexia, anemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebrovascular vascular disease, lymphoma, osteoporosis, depression etc

  15. "Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Lynn Moore


    Full Text Available Abstract for invited review in Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Complex Pathophysiology thematic issue to be published in Frontiers in Immunology. Immune Complexes(ICin Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA Terry L. Moore, MD, FAAP, FACR, MACR Professor of Internal Medicine,Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Immunology Director of Adult and Pediatric Rheumatology Saint Louis University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri 631`04,USA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. ICs have been detected in patients’ sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column,C1q solid phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these IC s have shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF, isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated (CCP peptide antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We

  16. Enrichment followed by quantitative PCR both for rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Jacobsen, N. R.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey


    naturally contaminated chicken samples, which indicates PCR's additional potential as a tool for quantitative risk assessment. Signal from the internal amplification control was detected in all culture-negative samples (VIC Ct: 23.1 to 28.1). The method will be taken further and validated......As part of a large international project for standardization of PCR (Food-PCR;, a multiplex, multiplatform, ready-to-go enrichment followed by a real-time PCR method, including an internal amplification control, was developed for detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters...

  17. John cunningham (JC) virus genotypes in kidney transplant recipients, rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy individuals in Isfahan, Iran. (United States)

    Atyabi, Sayyedeh Rahmaneh; Bouzari, Majid; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi


    In healthy individuals John Cunningham virus is latent without any clinical signs, but in the cases of the use of immunosuppressive drugs in graft recipients, autoimmune diseases and also increasing of age, that the immune system is suppressed it may cause disease in reactivation. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the well-known disease caused by the virus. It has also been associated with nephropathy and tumorogensis. At present, based on vp1 capsid gene 7 genotypes have been detected. Genetic variations of JC virus in different geographical areas and the presence of different subtypes is a useful tool for reconstructing of the genetic information of JC virus and understanding of its evolution. The aim of this study was to investigate different genotypes of the JC virus in the urine of 100 kidney transplant recipients, 43 rheumatoid arthritis patients, and 100 healthy individuals as control group in Isfahan. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and subjected to a nested PCR using specific primer for vp1 capsid gene designed by Oligo 7 software. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analyses. Using MEGA 6 software the sequences were aligned using Clustal W tool and phylogenetic trees were constructed by neighbor joining method. Thirty-one positive samples were sequenced. Genotypes 1, 3, and 4 of the virus were detected for the first time in Iran. For the first time genotype 3 was reported as the dominant genotype in Iran. For the first time in the world, genotype 4 was detected in rheumatoid arthritis patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:337-344, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



    Kuppa; Yerukala; Dema; Sujith; Venkateswar Reddy


    Septic Arthritis also known as infectious arthritis, can be bacterial or fungal arthritis. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that is caused by an infection. Typically, Septic Arthritis affects one large joint in the body such as knee or hip. Generally, Septic Arthritis is present with complete absorption of the head of the ...

  19. MR imaging assessment of clinical problems in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Jose A.; Roca, Yolanda; Aguilera, Carlos [Department of CT and MR Imaging, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Narvaez, Javier [Department of Medicine, Delfos Medical Center, Barcelona (Spain)


    Although MR imaging has been increasingly recognized as a useful tool in the diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in the assessment of disease activity, these applications have not yet been usually included in the routine management of this condition. Our goal is to review the current role of MRI in the everyday clinical management of patients with RA. The usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of articular and para-articular changes in specific locations, mainly the craniocervical region and the temporomandibular joint, are reviewed. Clinical problems derived from local extra-articular involvement, such as tenosynovitis, ''rice-bodies'' bursitis, and Baker's cyst rupture, are also described. Finally, we also review the value of MRI in evaluation of some complications of RA such as tendinous rupture, osteonecrosis, stress fracture, and septic arthritis/osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  20. Tool support for detection and analysis of following and leadership behavior of pedestrians from mobile sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, M.B.; Blunck, H.


    similarity analysis on time-lagged sequences of WiFi measurements containing either raw signal strength values or derived locations. To detect leadership we combine the individual following relations into directed graphs and detect leadership within groups by graph link analysis. Methods for detecting...... patterns and up to twenty percentage points for leadership patterns. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of the computational efficiency of the proposed methods and present visualizations for the analysis of detected patterns. Our methods are, contrary to state of the art, also applicable in challenging...

  1. Marine Oil Supplements for Arthritis Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninna K. Senftleber


    Full Text Available Arthritis patients often take fish oil supplements to alleviate symptoms, but limited evidence exists regarding their efficacy. The objective was to evaluate whether marine oil supplements reduce pain and/or improve other clinical outcomes in patients with arthritis. Six databases were searched systematically (24 February 2015. We included randomized trials of oral supplements of all marine oils compared with a control in arthritis patients. The internal validity was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and heterogeneity was explored using restricted maximum of likelihood (REML-based meta-regression analysis. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE was used to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Forty-two trials were included; 30 trials reported complete data on pain. The standardized mean difference (SMD suggested a favorable effect (−0.24; 95% confidence interval, CI, −0.42 to −0.07; heterogeneity, I2 = 63%. A significant effect was found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (22 trials; −0.21; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.004 and other or mixed diagnoses (3 trials; −0.63; 95% CI, −1.20 to −0.06, but not in osteoarthritis patients (5 trials; −0.17; 95% CI, −0.57–0.24. The evidence for using marine oil to alleviate pain in arthritis patients was overall of low quality, but of moderate quality in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  2. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion


    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  3. Handout on Health: Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)

    ... immunodeficiency. This discovery led to the idea that drugs blocking Janus kinases would suppress the immune system and might be protective against the damaging inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and certain other autoimmune diseases. NIH AMP Program: The NIH awarded grants to ...

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Burmester, Gerd R


    BACKGROUND: Reaching the therapeutic target of remission or low-disease activity has improved outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) significantly. The treat-to-target recommendations, formulated in 2010, have provided a basis for implementation of a strategic approach towards...

  5. Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen, Amalia A. van


    For 50 years, glucocorticoids (GC) are used for symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the last decade, results from clinical studies of treatment with GC as additional therapy to long-acting antirheumatic drugs in patients with early RA suggested also disease-modifying properties of

  6. Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis (United States)


    Clavel C, Arnaud J, Nogueira L, et al. Epitopes of human fibrin recognized by the rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies to citrullinated... Clavel C, Chapuy-Regaud S, Al Badine R, Mechin MC, et al. Peptidyl arginine deiminase type 2 (PAD-2) and PAD-4 but not PAD-1, PAD-3, and PAD-6 are

  7. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;


    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  8. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H;


    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...

  9. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette


    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  10. [Treatment Strategies for Septic Arthritis of the Sternoclavicular Joint]. (United States)

    Kuhtin, O; Schmidt-Rohlfing, B; Dittrich, M; Lampl, L; Hohls, M; Haas, V


    Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) is a relatively rare disease. Due to serious complications including mediastinitis and generalised sepsis early diagnosis and rapid onset of treatment are mandatory. The disease often affects immunocompromised patients, diabetics, or patients with other infectious diseases. The therapeutic options range from administration of antibiotics to extended surgery including reconstructive procedures. Apart from rare situations where conservative treatment with antibiotics is sufficient, joint resection followed by plastic surgical procedures are required. We present a retrospective analysis with data from two hospitals. From January 2008 to December 2012 23 patients with radiographically confirmed septic arthritis of various aetiology were included. Fourteen (60.8 %) male, nine (39.2 %) female patients with an average age of 60.3 ± 14.2 years (range: 23-88 years) with septic arthritis of the SCJ were treated. Seven (30.4 %) patients suffered from Diabetes mellitus, nine (39.1 %) had underlying diseases with a compromised immune system. In 14 (60.8 %) out of 23 patients a bacterial focus was detected. Only six (26 %) patients suffered from confined septic arthritis of the SCG, in 17 (73,9 %) patients osteomyelitis of the adjacent sternum, and the clavicle was present. In addition, 15 (65.2 %) patients already suffered from mediastinitis at the time of diagnosis, eight (35 %) patients even from septicaemia. In conclusion, septic arthritis requires an active surgical treatment. Limited incision of the joint and debridement alone is only successful at early stages of the disease. The treatment concept has to include the local joint and bone resection as well as complications like mediastinitis. After successful treatment of the infection, the defect of the chest wall requires secondary reconstructive surgery using a pedicled pectoralis muscle flap.

  11. Effect of Education on Perceived Self-Efficacy for Individuals with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magfiret Kara Kasikci


    Full Text Available Background: Arthritis self-efficacy characterizes individuals’ confidence in managing their arthritis. Patienteducation in arthritis aims to improve health outcomes by prompting people to adopt self-managementbehaviours. Therefore, perceived self-efficacy and patient education in arthritis is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of education on self-efficacy perception in arthritisindividuals.Methodology: This study was a semi-experimental of pre-test and post test design in an equivalent controlgroup. The research was conducted in a physiotherapy and immunology clinics in Erzurum, Turkey. The datawere obtained from 80 individuals with arthritis. These eighty arthritis individuals were composed 40 of whomwere in the experimental and 40 of whom were in control group. As the data gathering tools, a questionnaireform and arthritis self-efficacy scale (ASES were used. ASES developed by Lorig et al. and adjusted fromEnglish to Turkish by Ünsal&Kaşıkçı was used to measure individuals’ self-efficacy. Questionnaire form andscale were completed by the individuals in both groups. Patients in the experimental group were educated withthe booklet. The education program was applied 4 times, once in 3 weeks. The time required for each stage was45~60 minutes. In the control group, care was provided according to the usual routine.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pre-test ASES scores of the individuals inboth groups. Self-efficacy levels after education were significantly improved in the experimental groupcompared to the control group.Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the planned education can be considered an effectiveintervention for increasing self-efficacy perception in arthritis individuals.

  12. Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America) (United States)

    Mayorga Torres, Tannia


    Using DInSAR as a tool to detect unstable terrain areas in an Andes region in Ecuador (South America) 1. INTRODUCTION Monitoring landslides is a mandatory task in charge on the National Institute of Geological Research (INIGEMM) in Ecuador. It is a small country, supposedly will be faster doing monitoring, but what about its geographic characteristics? Lamentably, due to human and financial resources is not possible to put monitoring systems in unstable terrain areas. However, getting ALOS data to accessible price and using open source software to produce interferograms, could be a first step to know steep areas covered by vegetation and where mass movements are not visible. Under this statement, this study is part of the final research in a master study developed at CONAE during 2009-2011, with oral defense in August 2013. As a new technique used in Ecuador, the study processed radar data from ERS-1/2 and ALOS sensor PALSAR for getting differential interferograms, using ROI_PAC software. Stacking DInSAR is applied to get an average of displacement that indicates uplift and subsidence in the whole radar scene that covers two provinces in the Andes region. 2. PROBLEM Mass movements are present in the whole territory, independently of their magnitude and dynamic (slow or fast), they are a latent threat in winter season specially. There are registers of monitoring, such as two GPS's campaigns and artisanal extensometers, which are used to contrast with DInSAR results. However, the campaigns are shorter and extensometers are no trust on all. 3. METHODOLOGY Methodology has four phases of development: (1) Pre-processing of RAW data; (2) Processing of RAW data in ROI_PAC; (3) Post-processing for getting interferograms in units of cm per year; (4) Analysis of the results and comparison with ground truth. Sandwell & Price (1998) proposed Stacking technique to increase the fringes and decrease errors due to the atmosphere, to average several interferograms. L band penetrates

  13. Susceptibility weighted imaging: a new tool in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and detection of prostatic calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI is a new MRI technique which has been proved very useful in the diagnosis of brain diseases, but few study was performed on its value in prostatic diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of SWI in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia and detecting prostatic calcification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 23 patients with prostate cancer and 53 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia proved by prostate biopsy were scanned on a 3.0T MR and a 16-row CT scanner. High-resolution SWI, conventional MRI and CT were performed on all patients. The MRI and CT findings, especially SWI, were analyzed and compared. The analyses revealed that 19 out of 23 patients with prostate cancer presented hemorrhage within tumor area on SWI. However, in 53 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, hemorrhage was detected only in 1 patient in prostate by SWI. When comparing SWI, conventional MRI and CT in detecting prostate cancer hemorrhage, out of the 19 patients with prostate cancer who had prostatic hemorrhage detected by SWI, the prostatic hemorrhage was detected in only 7 patients by using conventional MRI, and none was detected by CT. In addition, CT demonstrated calcifications in 22 patients which were all detected by SWI whereas only 3 were detected by conventional MRI. Compared to CT, SWI showed 100% in the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value(PPV and negative predictive value(NPV in detecting calcifications in prostate but conventional MRI demonstrated 13.6% in sensitivity, 100% in specificity, 75% in accuracy, 100% in PPV and 74% in NPV. CONCLUSIONS: More apparent prostate hemorrhages were detected on SWI than on conventional MRI or CT. SWI may provide valuable information for the differential diagnosis between prostate cancer and prostatic hyperplasia. Filtered phase images can identify prostatic calcifications as

  14. Genetically modified bacteria as a tool to detect microscopic solid tumor masses with triggered release of a recombinant biomarker. (United States)

    Panteli, Jan T; Forkus, Brittany A; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S


    Current tomographic methods of cancer detection have limited sensitivity and are unable to detect malignant masses smaller than half a centimeter in diameter. Mortality from tumor recurrence and metastatic disease would be reduced if small lesions could be detected earlier. To overcome this limitation, we created a detection system that combines the specificity of tumor-targeting bacteria with the sensitivity of a synthetic biomarker. Bacteria, specifically Salmonella, preferentially accumulate in tumors and microscopic metastases as small as five cell layers thick. To create tumor detecting bacteria, an attenuated strain of Salmonella was engineered to express and release the fluorescent protein ZsGreen. A single-layer antibody method was developed to measure low concentrations of ZsGreen. Engineered bacteria were administered to a microfluidic tumor-on-a-chip device to measure protein production. In culture, half of produced ZsGreen was released by viable bacteria at a rate of 87.6 fg bacterium(-1) h(-1). Single-layer antibody dots were able to detect bacterially produced ZsGreen at concentrations down to 4.5 ng ml(-1). Bacteria colonized in 0.12 mm(3) of tumor tissue in the microfluidic device released ZsGreen at a rate of 23.9 μg h(-1). This release demonstrates that ZsGreen readily diffuses through tissue and accumulates at detectable concentrations. Based on a mathematical pharmacokinetic model, the measured rate of release would enable detection of 0.043 mm(3) tumor masses, which is 2600 times smaller than the current limit of tomographic techniques. Tumor-detecting bacteria would provide a sensitive, minimally invasive method to detect tumor recurrence, monitor treatment efficacy, and identify the onset of metastatic disease.

  15. A study of the performance of the transit detection tool DST in space-based surveys. Application of the CoRoT pipeline to Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Kirste, S; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219337


    Context. Transit detection algorithms are mathematical tools used for detecting planets in the photometric data of transit surveys. In this work we study their application to space-based surveys. Aims: Space missions are exploring the parameter space of the transit surveys where classical algorithms do not perform optimally, either because of the challenging signal-to-noise ratio of the signal or its non-periodic characteristics. We have developed an algorithm addressing these challenges for the mission CoRoT. Here we extend the application to the data from the space mission Kepler. We aim at understanding the performances of algorithms in different data sets. Methods: We built a simple analytical model of the transit signal and developed a strategy for the search that improves the detection performance for transiting planets. We analyzed Kepler data with a set of stellar activity filtering and transit detection tools from the CoRoT community that are designed for the search of transiting planets. Results: We...

  16. Angular distribution of rotons generated by alpha particles in superfluid helium: A possible tool for low energy particle detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, S.R.; Broueer, S.M.; Enss, C.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Porter, F.S.; Seidel, G.M. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)


    We report measurements of the distribution of rotons generated by {alpha} particles interacting in a bath of superfluid helium. The roton flux is found to be anisotropic; it is about 4 times larger transverse to the track direction than along it. This asymmetry may provide a powerful tool in particle and astrophysics experiments where sensitivity to low energy recoil track direction is important.

  17. WASP: a Web-based Allele-Specific PCR assay designing tool for detecting SNPs and mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assawamakin Anunchai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allele-specific (AS Polymerase Chain Reaction is a convenient and inexpensive method for genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and mutations. It is applied in many recent studies including population genetics, molecular genetics and pharmacogenomics. Using known AS primer design tools to create primers leads to cumbersome process to inexperience users since information about SNP/mutation must be acquired from public databases prior to the design. Furthermore, most of these tools do not offer the mismatch enhancement to designed primers. The available web applications do not provide user-friendly graphical input interface and intuitive visualization of their primer results. Results This work presents a web-based AS primer design application called WASP. This tool can efficiently design AS primers for human SNPs as well as mutations. To assist scientists with collecting necessary information about target polymorphisms, this tool provides a local SNP database containing over 10 million SNPs of various populations from public domain databases, namely NCBI dbSNP, HapMap and JSNP respectively. This database is tightly integrated with the tool so that users can perform the design for existing SNPs without going off the site. To guarantee specificity of AS primers, the proposed system incorporates a primer specificity enhancement technique widely used in experiment protocol. In particular, WASP makes use of different destabilizing effects by introducing one deliberate 'mismatch' at the penultimate (second to last of the 3'-end base of AS primers to improve the resulting AS primers. Furthermore, WASP offers graphical user interface through scalable vector graphic (SVG draw that allow users to select SNPs and graphically visualize designed primers and their conditions. Conclusion WASP offers a tool for designing AS primers for both SNPs and mutations. By integrating the database for known SNPs (using gene ID or rs number

  18. [The temporomandibular joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: what radiologists need to look for on magnetic resonance imaging]. (United States)

    De La Hoz Polo, M; Navallas, M


    The term "juvenile idiopathic arthritis" (JIA) encompasses a group of arthritis of unknown cause with onset before the age of 16 years that last for at least 6 weeks. The prevalence of temporomandibular joint involvement in published series ranges from 17% to 87%. Temporomandibular joint involvement is difficult to detect clinically, so imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and monitoring treatment. MRI is the technique of choice for the study of arthritis of the temporomandibular joint because it is the most sensitive technique for detecting acute synovitis and bone edema. Power Doppler ultrasonography can also detect active synovitis by showing the hypervascularization of the inflamed synovial membrane, but it cannot identify bone edema. This article describes the MRI technique for evaluating the temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, defines the parameters to look for, and illustrates the main findings.

  19. Classification and Segregation of Abnormal Lymphocytes through Image Mining for Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Min-max Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Chokkalingam


    Full Text Available Advances in the acquisition of complex medical images and storing it for further analysis through image mining have significantly helped to identify the root causes for various diseases. Mining of medical image data set such as scanned images or blood cell images require extraction of implicit knowledge from the data set through hierarchical image processing techniques and identifying the relationships and patterns that are not explicitly stored in a single image. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease and it cause chronic inflammation of the joints. Causes of the RA is unknown due to that need to find out in the early stage is required. Diagnosis of RA based on blood cell types and shapes requires computational analysis. An assistive technology for the doctor to detect and investigate rheumatoid arthritis is therefore required. The objective of the proposed work is to analyze the shapes of lymphocytes, a key component of blood cells that causes RA complications, to automate the process of identifying abnormal lymphocytes by estimating the centroids of lymphocytes using AIT centroid technique and thereby finding a differential count. The process involves cropping nucleus from the blood cell image, segmenting it and to investigate further whether the shapes of the lymphocytes are irregular and dissimilar. Features are extracted from each cell components for comparison and the abnormal lymphocytes are segregated from the normal. To enhance the segregation process, neural network based perceptron classifier tool is used.

  20. A GC-MS Based Metabonomics Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Interventional Effects of the Simiaowan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang


    Full Text Available Simiaowan (SMW is a famous Chinese prescription widely used in clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The aim of the present study is to determine novel biomarkers to increase the current understanding of RA mechanisms, as well as the underlying therapeutic mechanism of SMW, in RA-model rats. Plasma extracts from control, RA model, and SMW-treated rats were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. An orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model was created to detect metabolites that were expressed in significantly different amounts between the RA model and the control rats and investigate the therapeutic effect of SMW. Metabonomics may prove to be a valuable tool for determining the efficacy of complex traditional prescriptions.

  1. Significance of detection of the autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid Arthritis%类风湿关节炎相关抗体测定及其临床实用性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 何菁; 李茹; 刘田; 刘霞; 王永福; 栗占国


    Objective To explore the sensitivity of antibodies against RF,APF,AKA,anti-CCP in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and analyze the relationship between these autoantibodies in RA.Methods Five hundreds of RA patients were studied.Immunoturbidmetry was used to measure the RF-IgM.The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the HRF-IgG,HRF-IgA and anti-CCP.Indirect immunofluorescence was used to measure the APF and AKA.Results The seropositive rates of RF-IgM,anti-CCP,APF,HRF-IgG,AKA and HRF-IgA were 78.0%,70.8%,51.8%,48.4%,45.0% and 20.0% respectively.RF-IgM could not be detected in 110 patients while the seropositive rates of anti-CCP,APF,AKA,HRF-IgG and HRF-IgA were 41.8%,27.3%,22.7%,15.5% and 1.8% respectively.Anti-CCP could not be detected in 146 patients while the seropositive rates of RF-IgM,HRF-IgG,APF,AKA and HRF-IgA were 56.8%,24.7%,16.4%,8.9% and 7.5% respectively.The combined sensitivities of RF-IgM anti-CCP and APF were higher than others.The seropositive rates were 88.6%.Conclusions RF-IgM and anti-CCP are sensitive antibodies for diagnosis of RA.Combinations RF-IgM with anti-CCP can significantly improve the sensitivity of diagnosis of RA.%目的 探讨类风湿关节炎相关抗体测定及临床意义.方法 随机选入于本科住院治疗的RA患者500例,应用免疫比浊法检测RF-IgM,酶联免疫吸附法检测HRF-IgG、HRF-IgA及anti-CCP抗体,间接免疫荧光染色法检测APF和AKA,分析总结上述抗体及其联合检测在RA诊断中的合理应用.结果 ⑴500例RA患者血清中自身抗体RF-IgM、anti-CCP、APF、HRF-IgG、AKA、HRF-IgA检出的敏感性分别为78.0%、70.8%、51.8%、48.4%、45.0%、20.0%.以RF-IgM检出率最高,其次为anti-CCP.⑵在110例RF-IgM阴性的患者中anti-CCP、APF、AKA、HRF-IgG、HRF-IgA抗体的阳性检出率分别为41.8%、27.3%、22.7%、15.5%、1.8%,尤以anti-CCP的互补作用最好.⑶在146例anti-CCP抗体阴性的患者中RF-IgM、HRF-IgG、APF、AKA、HRF-IgA抗体

  2. Cost-effective scat-detection dogs: unleashing a powerful new tool for international mammalian conservation biology (United States)

    Orkin, Joseph D.; Yang, Yuming; Yang, Chunyan; Yu, Douglas W.; Jiang, Xuelong


    Recently, detection dogs have been utilized to collect fecal samples from cryptic and rare mammals. Despite the great promise of this technique for conservation biology, its broader application has been limited by the high cost (tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars) and logistical challenges of employing a scat-detection dog team while conducting international, collaborative research. Through an international collaboration of primatologists and the Chinese Ministry of Public Security, we trained and used a detection dog to find scat from three species of unhabituated, free-ranging primates, for less than $3,000. We collected 137 non-human primate fecal samples that we confirmed by sequencing taxonomically informative genetic markers. Our detection dog team had a 92% accuracy rate, significantly outperforming our human-only team. Our results demonstrate that detection dogs can locate fecal samples from unhabituated primates with variable diets, locomotion, and grouping patterns, despite challenging field conditions. We provide a model for in-country training, while also building local capacity for conservation and genetic monitoring. Unlike previous efforts, our approach will allow for the wide adoption of scat-detection dogs in international conservation biology. PMID:27721442

  3. Using airborne LiDAR in geoarchaeological contexts: Assessment of an automatic tool for the detection and the morphometric analysis of grazing archaeological structures (French Massif Central). (United States)

    Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Florez, Marta; Vautier, Franck; Dousteyssier, Bertrand


    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) of archaeological regions of interest is nowadays a widely used and established method for accurate topographic and microtopographic survey. The penetration of the vegetation cover by the laser beam allows the reconstruction of reliable digital terrain models (DTM) of forested areas where traditional prospection methods are inefficient, time-consuming and non-exhaustive. The ALS technology provides the opportunity to discover new archaeological features hidden by vegetation and provides a comprehensive survey of cultural heritage sites within their environmental context. However, the post-processing of LiDAR points clouds produces a huge quantity of data in which relevant archaeological features are not easily detectable with common visualizing and analysing tools. Undoubtedly, there is an urgent need for automation of structures detection and morphometric extraction techniques, especially for the "archaeological desert" in densely forested areas. This presentation deals with the development of automatic detection procedures applied to archaeological structures located in the French Massif Central, in the western forested part of the Puy-de-Dôme volcano between 950 and 1100 m a.s.l.. These unknown archaeological sites were discovered by the March 2011 ALS mission and display a high density of subcircular depressions with a corridor access. The spatial organization of these depressions vary from isolated to aggregated or aligned features. Functionally, they appear to be former grazing constructions built from the medieval to the modern period. Similar grazing structures are known in other locations of the French Massif Central (Sancy, Artense, Cézallier) where the ground is vegetation-free. In order to develop a reliable process of automatic detection and mapping of these archaeological structures, a learning zone has been delineated within the ALS surveyed area. The grazing features were mapped and typical morphometric attributes

  4. Endomorphins in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and experimental arthritis. (United States)

    Jessop, David S; Fassold, Alexander; Wolff, Christine; Hofbauer, Rafael; Chover-Gonzalez, Antonio; Richards, Louise J; Straub, Rainer H


    The opioid tetrapeptides endomorphins (EM)-1 and EM-2 are widely expressed in central nervous system and immune tissues of rats and humans. Their analgesic properties are well characterized but they also have anti-inflammatory properties. EM-1 significantly attenuated the onset of hindpaw inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of EMs in T cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts in synovial tissues from patients with osteo- or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In an ex vivo superfusion system, EM-1 potently inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from synovial tissues from patients with osteo- or RA. These results demonstrate that EMs are endogenously synthesized within human immune cells and have the potential to act as potent therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. We discuss the clinical potential for EM analogues chemically modified to resist proteolytic degradation and identify modified protease-resistant analogues with enhanced bioactivity.

  5. Polyarticular septic arthritis in an immunocompetent patient. (United States)

    Clements, J; Dinneen, A; Heilpern, G


    Septic arthritis is an uncommon condition with an incidence of 2-3/100,000. It is clinically notable, however, as it is a rapidly destructive joint disease with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Polyarticular septic arthritis has an estimated incidence of 15% of all cases of infectious arthritis. We report a case of polyarticular septic arthritis with involvement of bilateral shoulders and wrist to highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment as well as the high mortality rates associated with this condition. Bilateral septic shoulder arthritis poses a challenge to treat, and its significance should not be underestimated as even with early surgical intervention and aggressive antibiotic and fluid resuscitation death is a sad but perhaps not uncommon outcome. It is therefore imperative that the diagnosis of polyarticular septic arthritis is kept prominent in the physician's mind when confronted with a patient with symptomatic polyarthralgia.

  6. Validation of automatic joint space width measurements in hand radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Olga; Huo, Yinghe; Vincken, Koen L; van de Laar, Mart A; Kuper, Ina H H; Slump, Kees C H; Lafeber, Floris P J G; Bernelot Moens, Hein J


    Computerized methods promise quick, objective, and sensitive tools to quantify progression of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Measurement of joint space width (JSW) in finger and wrist joints with these systems performed comparable to the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS). A next st

  7. Acromioclavicular septic arthritis and sternoclavicular septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis. (United States)

    Corey, Sally A; Agger, William A; Saterbak, Andrew T


    Acromioclavicular (AC) and sternoclavicular (SC) septic arthritis with contiguous pyomyositis are rare, especially in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of septic AC joint with pyomyositis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles and a separate case with septic SC joint with pyomysitis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both patients had similar presentations of infections with Staphylococcus aureus and were successfully treated with surgical incision and drainage followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy.

  8. Septic arthritis due to Roseomonas mucosa in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving infliximab therapy. (United States)

    Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Stefanou, Ioanna; Kalatzis, Konstantinos; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis; Avlamis, Athina


    We report a case of septic arthritis due to Roseomonas mucosa in a rheumatoid arthritis patient receiving infliximab therapy. This is the first report of septic arthritis due to R. mucosa, and infliximab therapy might be a predisposing factor because this infection was never reported in the pre-anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy period.

  9. Equine Septic Arthritis and Serum Amyloid A


    Ludwig, Elsa Karen


    Bacterial infection within a joint, septic arthritis, is a serious condition in horses that can lead to long-term joint disease if the infection is not resolved quickly. Equine septic arthritis is diagnosed primarily based on clinical signs and synovial fluid cytology. Septic synovial fluid is characterized by significant elevations in total protein (TP) and total nucleated cell count (TNCC). However, in some cases it can be difficult to distinguish between septic arthritis and non-septic joi...

  10. Polyarticular septic arthritis following septic circumcision. (United States)

    Millar, Tim M; McGrath, Patrick; McConnachie, Charles C


    Ritual circumcision during an initiation ceremony for young adults is common practice in parts of South Africa. We report on a case of polyarticular septic arthritis in a seventeen-year-old man following septicaemia after circumcision, resulting in severe fixed flexion deformities of both knees. This case illustrates an unusual cause of polyarticular septic arthritis and the treatment difficulties associated with delayed presentation. It is also a reminder of the consequences of untreated acute septic arthritis.

  11. Septic arthritis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. (United States)

    Wang, Dingyuan Alvin; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah


    Septic arthritis has long been considered an orthopedic emergency. Historically, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus have been the most common causes of septic arthritis worldwide but in the modern era of biological therapy and extensive use of prosthetic joint replacements, the spectrum of microbiological causes of septic arthritis has widened considerably. There are also new approaches to diagnosis but therapy remains a challenge, with a need for careful consideration of a combined medical and surgical approach in most cases.

  12. Development of a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA: Tool for chicken interferon-γ detection ex vivo (United States)

    Dai, Hua; Xu, Zheng-zhong; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Jun-hua; Chen, Xiang; Pan, Zhi-ming; Jiao, Xin-an


    The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) assay. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for ChIFN-γ were generated to establish sandwich ELISA based on 2 different mAbs. To improve the detection sensitivity of ChIFN-γ, a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA was developed using mAb 3E5 as capture antibody and biotinylated mAb 3E3 as a detection reagent. The results revealed that this ELISA has high sensitivity, allowing for the detection of 125 to 500 pg/mL of recombinant ChIFN-γ, and also has an excellent capacity for detecting native ChIFN-γ. This ELISA was then used to detect ChIFN-γ level in chickens immunized with a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, the immunized chicken splenocytes were stimulated by NDV F protein as recall antigen. From our results, it appears that the sensitivity range of this sandwich ELISA test is adequate to measure the ex vivo release of ChIFN-γ. PMID:27127340

  13. Prevalence and significance of MEFV gene mutations in patients with gouty arthritis. (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet; Kobak, Senol; Kaya, Işın; Intepe, Nazım; Orman, Mehmet; Berdelı, Afig


    Gouty arthritis is a chronic erosive autoinflammatory disease. Pyrin has anti-inflammatory effects in the regulation of inflammasome and is encoded by the MEFV gene. The relationship between different rheumatic diseases and the MEFV gene mutations was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MEFV gene mutations in patients with gouty arthritis and identify a possible correlation with disease phenotype. Ninety-three patients with gouty arthritis and 102 healthy controls, compatible with age, gender and ethnicity, were included in the study. MEFV gene mutations were investigated by PCR method. Out of 93 patients with gouty arthritis, 36 (38.7 %) showed MEFV gene mutations carriage, whereas 20.6 % in healthy control group. Distribution of mutations identified in patients with gouty arthritis was as; R202Q in 18 (19.3 %), E148Q in 5 (5.4 %), K695R in 4 (4.3 %), M680I in 2 (2.1 %), V726A in 2 (2.1 %), P369S in 2 (2.1 %), R408Q in 2 (2.1 %), M694 V in 1 (1.1 %), respectively. Three patients were identified with compound heterozygosity. Distribution of MEFV gene mutations carriage in healthy controls was; E148Q in 11 (10.7 %), M694 V in 2 (1.9 %), M694I in 1 (0.9 %), M680I in 2 (1.9 %), V726A in 1 (0.9 %), A744S in 1 (0.9 %), K695R in 2 (1.9 %), and P369S in 1 (0.9 %) patients, respectively. Higher MEFV gene mutations carrier frequency was observed in patients with gouty arthritis, compared with the control group (p = 0.009). Heterozygous R202Q was the most common mutation detected in patients with gouty arthritis, while heterozygous E148Q in healthy control group. Statistically significant difference was not detected between clinical findings of gouty arthritis and the MEFV gene mutations (p > 0.05). We determined higher prevalence of MEFV gene mutations in patients with gouty arthritis compared with the healthy control group. The most frequently detected mutation was heterozygous R202Q, whereas E148Q in healthy

  14. 基于爬虫的XSS漏洞检测工具设计与实现%Design and Implementation of XSS Vulnerability Detection Tool Based on Crawler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈寿忠; 张玉清


    Through the deep study and analysis oftbe Cross Site Scripting(XSS) vulnerability, this paper knows that how the XSS vulnerability produces and to be used. Further analysis and improvement are made about the XSS vulnerability's detection mechanism. This paper realizes an XSS vulnerability detection tools(XSS-Scan) based on Crawler's technology, and does the analysis and comparison with some popular soRwares. This tool can be used to audit the Web site's safety and detect the existence of XSS vulnerability in it.%通过对XSS漏洞的研究,剖析其产生、利用的方式,在此基础上针对XSS漏洞的检测机制进行进一步的分析和完善.结合阿络爬虫的技术,研究设计并实现了一款XSS漏洞的检测工具(XSS-Scan),并与当前比较流行的一些软件做了分析比较,证明利用该工具可以对Web网站进行安全审计,检测其是否存在XSS漏洞.

  15. Application of (1)H NMR-based serum metabolomic studies for monitoring female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Zabek, Adam; Swierkot, Jerzy; Malak, Anna; Zawadzka, Iga; Deja, Stanisław; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mlynarz, Piotr


    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune-based inflammatory disease that leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, which is the main cause of mortality in this population of patients. Although several biomarkers are routinely used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, there is a high demand for novel biomarkers to further improve the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, stratification of patients, and the prediction of a better response to a specific therapy. In this study, the metabolomics approach was used to provide relevant biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy, define prognosis and predict and monitor treatment efficacy. The results indicated that twelve metabolites were important for the discrimination of healthy control and rheumatoid arthritis. Notably, valine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, creatinine, GPC  APC and histidine relative levels were lower in rheumatoid arthritis, whereas 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, acetate, NAC, acetoacetate and acetone relative levels were higher. Simultaneously, the analysis of the concentration of metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis and 3 months after induction treatment revealed that L1, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lysine, L5, acetoacetate, creatine, GPC+APC, histidine and phenylalanine were elevated in RA, whereas leucine, acetate, betaine and formate were lower. Additionally, metabolomics tools were employed to discriminate between patients with different IL-17A genotypes. Metabolomics may provide relevant biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy, define prognosis and predict and monitor treatment efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Retinal occlusive vasculer disorder and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ortak


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease that affected older women with many ocular manifestations. Also, these systemic diseases can cause retinal vein occlusion and arterial occlusion that lead to serious and permanent visual loss. Rheumatoid arthritis's the most common manifestation is that retinal vasculitis and retinal vascular complications are associated with this complication. In this review, retinal vascular occlusive diseases are presented to associated with rheumatoid arthritis in literature. Rheumatoid arthritis and its complications have been outlined and was made to create a new perspective. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 71-73

  17. Galectin-3: A key player in arthritis. (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yéléhé-Okouma, Mélissa; Ea, Hang-Korng; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Reboul, Pascal


    Arthritis is more and more considered as the leading reason for the disability in the world, particularly regarding its main entities, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The common feature of arthritis is inflammation, which is mainly supported by synovitis (synovial inflammation), although the immune system plays a primary role in rheumatoid arthritis and a secondary one in osteoarthritis. During the inflammatory phase of arthritis, many pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators are secreted by infiltrating immune and resident joint cells, which are responsible for cartilage degradation and excessive bone remodeling. Amongst them, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, galectin-3, has been reported to be highly expressed and secreted by inflamed synovium of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Furthermore, galectin-3 has been demonstrated to induce joint swelling and osteoarthritis-like lesions after intra-articular injection in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying its pathophysiological role in arthritis have not been fully elucidated. This review deals with the characterization of arthritis features and galectin-3 and summarizes our current knowledge of the contribution of galectin-3 to joint tissue lesions in arthritis.

  18. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T


    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  19. Clinimetric criteria of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galasso


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease, mainly poli-artycular, among wide-spread chronic inflammatory diseases, that cause pain, functional limitation, damage and joints deformations, and disability. It is characterized by turns of active inflammation and remission phases. Inflammation degree and persistence are associated to a bad functional prognosis and progressive joint disability. These patients management require a continuous valuation of inflammatory activity index of disease both therapeutic management and to prevent disablement process. We focus on many valuation index of joint disability and functional damage. Very important are both the scales of auto-values concerning the pain and the joint swelling and clinical data get by physician to valuate activity index of disease as defined by DAS28. Significant data come by health-related quality of life, disability and by AIMS2 (Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale.

  20. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.