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Sample records for artesunate mefloquine chloroquine

  1. The neurological assessment in young children treated with artesunate monotherapy or artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Singhasivanon Pratap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria throughout much of south-east Asia. Concerns have been raised about the potential central nervous system (CNS effects of both drug components and there are no detailed reports in very young children. Methods Children, aged between three months and five years, with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to either 7 days of artesunate monotherapy or the same schedule of artesunate plus mefloquine on day 7 and 8. Neurological testing targeting coordination and behaviour was carried out at day 0, 7, 9, 10, 14 and 28. Non-febrile healthy control children from the same population were tested on days 0, 7, 14 and 28. Results From December 1994 to July 1997, 91 children with uncomplicated P. falciparum, 45 treated with artesunate monotherapy, 46 treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy and 36 non-febrile controls, underwent neurological testing. Malaria and fever had a significant negative impact on testing performance. By contrast, the anti-malarial treatments were not associated with worsening performances in the various components of the test. Artesunate and mefloquine do not appear to have a significant influence on coordination and behaviour. Children treated with mefloquine were significantly less likely to suffer recurrent malaria infection during follow-up compared to those treated with artesunate alone (P = 0.033. Conclusion In keeping with the results of randomized controlled trials in adults, mefloquine was not associated with a decrease in specific items of neurological performance. Likewise, children treated with artesunate did not perform significantly differently to control children. This study does not exclude subtle or rare treatment CNS effects of artesunate or mefloquine. Treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria results in a significant improvement on items of

  2. Reported side effects to chloroquine, chloroquine plus proguanil, and mefloquine as chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Danish travelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Ronne, T; Ronn, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to provide data on the relative frequency of reported symptoms in travelers using chloroquine, chloroquine plus proguanil, and mefloquine. METHOD: The study was an open, nonrandomized study recording self-reported events in travelers recruited consecutively from...... included and 4,158 questionnaires (76.3%) returned. Compliance was significantly better in mefloquine users with 83.3% of short term travelers compared to 76.3% in chloroquine plus proguanil users. Also, 84.8%, 59.3% and 69.5% using chloroquine, chloroquine plus proguanil, and mefloquine respectively...... reported no symptoms and 0.6%, 1.1% and 2.8% reported "unacceptable" symptoms. Compared to chloroquine, mefloquine users had a significantly higher risk of reporting depression, RR 5.06 (95% CI 2.71 - 9.45), "strange thoughts," RR 6.36 (95% CI 2.52 - 16.05) and altered spatial perception, RR 3.00 (95% CI 1...

  3. Artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children: a field study regarding neurological and neuropsychiatric safety.

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    Frey, Sarabel G; Chelo, David; Kinkela, Mina N; Djoukoue, Florence; Tietche, Felix; Hatz, Christoph; Weber, Peter

    2010-10-21

    Mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria is one of the treatments used in African children. Data concerning neurological safety in adults and children treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is well documented in Asia. Safety data for neurological and neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy in African children are scarce, although WHO recommends this therapy in Africa. A phase IV, open label, single arm study was conducted among African children between 10 and 20 kg with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. They were treated over three consecutive days with a paediatric fixed-dose combination of artesunate (50 mg/d) and mefloquine (125 mg/d). Parasitological, clinical and neurological examinations and standardized questions about neuropsychiatric symptoms were carried out on days 0, 4, 7, 28 and 63. The primary objective was to assess the neurological and neuropsychiatric safety of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in young children. From December 2007 to March 2009, 220 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with artesunate and mefloquine. 213 children were analysed according to study protocol. 50 neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in 28 patients. Eleven drug-related neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in eight patients. Sleeping disorders were present in 2.3%, neurological disorders in 1.4%, neuropsychiatric disorders in 1% and eating disorders in 0.5% of the patients. Adverse events were of mild to moderate intensity and resolved spontaneously. African children showed a low percentage of self-limited neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events, confirming studies on neurological safety in Asian children treated with artesunate and mefloquine. Sleeping disorders were most frequently observed.

  4. Ferrocene-chloroquine analogues as antimalarial agents: in vitro activity of ferrochloroquine against 103 Gabonese isolates of Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Pradines, B; Fusai, T; Daries, W; Laloge, V; Rogier, C; Millet, P; Panconi, E; Kombila, M; Parzy, D

    2001-08-01

    The in vitro activities of ferrochloroquine, chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, halofantrine, amodiaquine, primaquine, atovaquone and artesunate were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from children with uncomplicated malaria from Libreville (Gabon), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The IC(50) values for ferrochloroquine were in the range 0.43-30.9 nM and the geometric mean IC(50) for the 103 isolates was 10.8 nM (95% CI 8.6-13.5 nM), while the geometric means for chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, amodiaquine and primaquine were 370 nM, 341 nM, 8.3 nM, 18.1 nM and 7.6 microM, respectively. Ferrochloroquine was active against P. falciparum isolates, 95% of which showed in vitro resistance to chloroquine. Weak positive significant correlations were observed between the responses to ferrochloroquine and that to chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine, but too low to suggest cross-resistance. There was no significant correlation between the response to ferrochloroquine and those to mefloquine, halofantrine, primaquine, atovaquone or artesunate. Ferrochloroquine may be an important alternative drug for the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria.

  5. Gametocyte clearance in uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria after artesunate-mefloquine treatment in Thailand.

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    Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Srivilairit, Siripan; Phophak, Nanthaporn; Chonsawat, Putza; Yanpanich, Wimon; Kano, Shigeyuki; Wilairatana, Polrat

    2008-06-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently promoted as a strategy for treating both uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria, targeting asexual blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, the effect of ACT on sexual-stage parasites remains controversial. To determine the clearance of sexual-stage P. falciparum parasites from 342 uncomplicated, and 217 severe, adult malaria cases, we reviewed and followed peripheral blood sexual-stage parasites for 4 wk after starting ACT. All patients presented with both asexual and sexual stage parasites on admission, and were treated with artesunate-mefloquine as the standard regimen. The results showed that all patients were asymptomatic and negative for asexual forms before discharge from hospital. The percentages of uncomplicated malaria patients positive for gametocytes on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were 41.5, 13.1, 3.8, 2.0, and 2.0%, while the percentages of gametocyte positive severe malaria patients on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were 33.6, 8.2, 2.7, 0.9, and 0.9%, respectively. Although all patients were negative for asexual parasites by day 7 after completion of the artesunate-mefloquine course, gametocytemia persisted in some patients. Thus, a gametocytocidal drug, e.g., primaquine, may be useful in combination with an artesunate-mefloquine regimen to clear gametocytes, so blocking transmission more effectively than artesunate alone, in malaria transmission areas.

  6. Mefloquine pharmacokinetics and mefloquine-artesunate effectiveness in Peruvian patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Quezada Wilmer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is recommended as a means of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. Different brands of mefloquine (MQ have been reported to be non-bioequivalent; this could result in sub-therapeutic levels of mefloquine with decreased efficacy. In 2002, mefloquine-artesunate (MQ-AS combination therapy was adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Peru. Although MQ resistance has yet to be reported from the Peruvian Amazon, it has been reported from other countries in the Amazon Region. Therefore, continuous monitoring is warranted to ensure that the first-line therapy remains efficacious. This study examines the in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetic parameters through Day 56 of three commercial formulations of MQ (Lariam®, Mephaquin®, and Mefloquina-AC® Farma given in combination with artesunate. Methods Thirty-nine non-pregnant adults with P. falciparum mono-infection were randomly assigned to receive artesunate in combination with either (1 Lariam, (2 Mephaquin, or (3 Mefloquina AC. Patients were assessed on Day 0 (with blood samples for pharmacokinetics at 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours, 1, 2, 3, 7, and then weekly until day 56. Clinical and parasitological outcomes were based on the standardized WHO protocol. Whole blood mefloquine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis of concentration versus time data. Results By day 3, all patients had cleared parasitaemia except for one patient in the AC Farma arm; this patient cleared by day 4. No recurrences of parasitaemia were seen in any of the 34 patients. All three MQ formulations had a terminal half-life of 14–15 days and time to maximum plasma concentration of 45–52 hours. The maximal concentration (Cmax and interquartile range was 2,820 ng

  7. Declining in efficacy of a three-day combination regimen of mefloquine-artesunate in a multi-drug resistance area along the Thai-Myanmar border

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    Ruengweerayut Kulaya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining in clinical efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine combination has been documented in areas along the eastern border (Thai-Cambodian of Thailand. In the present study, the clinical efficacy of the three-day combination regimen of artesunate-mefloquine as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand was monitored in an area along the western border (Thai-Myanmar of the country. Methods A total of 150 Burmese patients (85 males and 65 females aged between 16 and 50 years who were attending the Mae Tao clinic, Mae-Sot, Tak Province, and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were included into the study. Patients were treated initially (day 0 with 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 15 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. The dose regimen on day 2 was 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. On day 3, artesunate at the dose of 4 mg/kg body weight was given with 0.6 mg/kg body weight primaquine. Whole blood mefloquine and plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (active plasma metabolite of artesunate concentrations following treatment were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS, respectively. Results Thirty-four cases had recrudescence during days 7 and 42. Five and 5 cases, respectively had reinfection with P. falciparum and reappearance of Plasmodium vivax in their peripheral blood during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-and 28-day efficacy rates of this combination regimen were 72.58% (95% CI: 63.20-79.07% and 83.06 (95% CI 76.14-94.40%, respectively. Parasite clearance time (PCT and fever clearance time (FCT were significantly prolonged in patients with treatment failure compared with those with sensitive response [median (95% CI values for PCT 32.0 (20.0-48.0 vs 24.0 (14.0-32.0 hr and FCT 30.0 (22.0-42.0 vs 26.0 (18.0-36.0 hr; p vs 525 (452-599 ng

  8. Comparison of chloroquine with artesunate in the treatment of cerebral malaria in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goka, B Q; Adabayeri, V; Ofori-Adjei, E

    2001-01-01

    and neurological deficits were documented. There was no difference in mortality rates (chloroquine, 16.7 per cent; artesunate, 21.7 per cent; p = 0.6), neurological deficit at day 14 (chloroquine, 0 per cent; artesunate, 4.3 per cent; p = 0.3), resolution of fever (p = 0.55), and coma recovery time (p = 0...

  9. Mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and increased pfmdr1 gene copy number.

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    Price, Ric N; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Brockman, Alan; McGready, Rose; Ashley, Elizabeth; Phaipun, Lucy; Patel, Rina; Laing, Kenneth; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Krishna, Sanjeev

    The borders of Thailand harbour the world's most multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 1984 mefloquine was introduced as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but substantial resistance developed within 6 years. A combination of artesunate with mefloquine now cures more than 95% of acute infections. For both treatment regimens, the underlying mechanisms of resistance are not known. The relation between polymorphisms in the P falciparum multidrug resistant gene 1 (pfmdr1) and the in-vitro and in-vivo responses to mefloquine were assessed in 618 samples from patients with falciparum malaria studied prospectively over 12 years. pfmdr1 copy number was assessed by a robust real-time PCR assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of pfmdr1, P falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) and P falciparum Ca2+ ATPase gene (pfATP6) were assessed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Increased copy number of pfmdr1 was the most important determinant of in-vitro and in-vivo resistance to mefloquine, and also to reduced artesunate sensitivity in vitro. In a Cox regression model with control for known confounders, increased pfmdr1 copy number was associated with an attributable hazard ratio (AHR) for treatment failure of 6.3 (95% CI 2.9-13.8, p<0.001) after mefloquine monotherapy and 5.4 (2.0-14.6, p=0.001) after artesunate-mefloquine therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfmdr1 were associated with increased mefloquine susceptibility in vitro, but not in vivo. Amplification in pfmdr1 is the main cause of resistance to mefloquine in falciparum malaria. Multidrug resistant P falciparum malaria is common in southeast Asia, but difficult to identify and treat. Genes that encode parasite transport proteins maybe involved in export of drugs and so cause resistance. In this study we show that increase in copy number of pfmdr1, a gene encoding a parasite transport protein, is the best overall predictor of treatment failure with

  10. Comparative clinical trial of artesunate suppositories and oral artesunate in combination with mefloquine in the treatment of children with acute falciparum malaria.

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    Sabchareon, A; Attanath, P; Chanthavanich, P; Phanuaksook, P; Prarinyanupharb, V; Poonpanich, Y; Mookmanee, D; Teja-Isavadharm, P; Heppner, D G; Brewer, T G; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T

    1998-01-01

    A randomized pilot study to compare the safety and efficacy of artesunate suppositories (15 mg/kg/day for three days) versus oral artesunate (6 mg/kg/day for three days), both in combination with mefloquine (25 mg/kg), was conducted in 52 Thai children with uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Forty-five patients (87%) had a full 28-day follow-up in the hospital to assess efficacy and exclude reinfection. Mean [range] times to fever clearance of the two groups were similar (42 hr [15-104] versus 42 hr [6-119]). Artesunate suppositories resulted in significantly longer times to achieve 50% and 90% reductions of the initial parasite counts (17 and 26 hr versus 9 and 15 hr; P suppositories group (42 hr [14-93] versus 35 hr [16-69]), but the difference was not significant. The cure rates by days 28 were not significantly different, 92% for artesunate suppository-treated patients and 100% for oral artesunate-treated patients. Both drug regimens are safe and effective. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties and the optimum regimen of artesunate suppositories for the treatment of severe malaria.

  11. Six-years monitoring the efficacy of the combination of artesunate and mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

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    Wattanakoon, Yupaporn; Chittamas, Sunee; Pornkulprasit, Vichitra; Kanda, Tozo; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Rojanawatsirivej, Chaiporn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Bunnag, Danai

    2003-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand is multi-drug resistant. In a previous study it was shown that artesunate and mefloquine were effective, as follow up, we monitored the efficacy of this regimen for six years. During 1997-2002, 516 adult male volunteer patients in Chanthaburi Province were enrolled (50 patients in the first year, 400 patients in 1998-2001 and 66 patients in 2002). The symptom complex and parasite count (thick blood film) were monitored on days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dosages used were artesunate (ATS) 150 mg and mefloquine (M) 750 mg at hour 0 and ATS 100 mg and M 500 mg at hour 24. Their ages ranged from 30-35 years and their mean body weights were 54-56 kg. The presenting symptoms were fever 100%, headache 97-100%, anorexia 78-90%, and nausea 28-40%. The geometric mean of parasitemia ranged from 7,357-12,750/mm3. Defervescence in one day was found in 42-76% of patients and 85-100% in 2 days. The sensitivity (S) ranged from 87-94% and RI resistance (recrudescence) ranged from 6-13%. Forty patients demonstrated RI type of response, 37 were cured after being retreated with the same dosage and another 3 patients were cured after the third course of treatment. The aggravated adverse effects included vomiting (8-20%), anorexia (1-41%) and diarrhea (0-16%). These side effects were mild and transient. The efficacy of the artesunate and mefloquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was high. The RI type of response was possibly due to re-infection or multiple broods and not to drug resistance. The adverse effects of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were mild and transient for mefloquine. The combination can be used as stand by treatment in areas of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria.

  12. Use of a colorimetric (DELI) test for the evaluation of chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian R; Chehuan, Yonne F; Siqueira, Maria José; das Graças Alecrim, Maria; Bianco-Junior, Cesare; Druilhe, Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria; Carvalho, Leonardo J M; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T

    2013-08-12

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax resistance to available anti-malarial drugs represents a major drawback in the control of malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoresistance profile of P. falciparum and P. vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in a malaria-endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. The study was carried out in Manaus (Amazonas state), in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 88 P. falciparum and 178 P. vivax isolates was collected from 2004 to 2007. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates was determined to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate and the sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was determined to chloroquine and mefloquine, by using the colorimetric DELI test. As expected, a high prevalence of P. falciparum isolates resistant to chloroquine (78.1%) was observed. The prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance or decreased sensitivity for quinine, mefloquine and artesunate was 12.7, 21.2 and 11.7%, respectively. In the case of P. vivax, the prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance for chloroquine and mefloquine was 9.8 and 28%, respectively. No differences in the frequencies of isolates with profile of resistance or geometric mean IC50s were seen when comparing the data obtained in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, for all tested anti-malarials. The great majority of P. falciparum isolates in the Brazilian malaria-endemic area remain resistant to chloroquine, and the decreased sensitivity to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate observed in 10-20% of the isolates must be taken with concern, especially for artesunate. Plasmodium vivax isolates also showed a significant proportion of isolates with decreased sensitivity to chloroquine (first-line drug) and mainly to mefloquine. The data presented here also confirm the usefulness of the DELI test to generate results able to impact on public health policies.

  13. A longitudinal trial comparing chloroquine as monotherapy or in combination with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil to treat malaria.

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    Laufer, Miriam K; Thesing, Phillip C; Dzinjalamala, Fraction K; Nyirenda, Osward M; Masonga, Rhoda; Laurens, Matthew B; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Taylor, Terrie E; Plowe, Christopher V

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria in Malawi more than a decade after chloroquine's withdrawal permits contemplation of re-introducing chloroquine for targeted uses. We aimed to compare the ability of different partner drugs to preserve chloroquine efficacy and prevent the re-emergence of resistance. Children with uncomplicated malaria were enrolled at a government health center in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were randomized to receive chloroquine alone or combined with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil for all episodes of uncomplicated malaria for one year. The primary outcome was incidence of clinical malaria. Secondary endpoints included treatment efficacy, and incidence of the chloroquine resistance marker pfcrt T76 and of anemia. Of the 640 children enrolled, 628 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Malaria incidence (95% confidence interval) was 0.59 (.46-.74), .61 (.49-.76), .63 (.50-.79) and .68 (.54-.86) episodes/person-year for group randomized to receive chloroquine alone or in combination with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil respectively and the differences were not statistically significant. Treatment efficacy for first episodes was 100% for chloroquine monotherapy and 97.9% for subsequent episodes of malaria. Similar results were seen in each of the chloroquine combination groups. The incidence of pfcrt T76 in pure form was 0%; mixed infections with both K76 and T76 were found in two out of 911 infections. Young children treated with chloroquine-azithromycin had higher hemoglobin concentrations at the study's end than did those in the chloroquine monotherapy group. Sustained chloroquine efficacy with repeated treatment supports the eventual re-introduction of chloroquine combinations for targeted uses such as intermittent preventive treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379821.

  14. Mefloquine

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    ... Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); chloroquine (Aralen); medication for diabetes, mental illness, seizures and ... become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. You should use birth control while you are taking mefloquine and ...

  15. A longitudinal trial comparing chloroquine as monotherapy or in combination with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil to treat malaria.

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    Miriam K Laufer

    Full Text Available The predominance of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria in Malawi more than a decade after chloroquine's withdrawal permits contemplation of re-introducing chloroquine for targeted uses. We aimed to compare the ability of different partner drugs to preserve chloroquine efficacy and prevent the re-emergence of resistance.Children with uncomplicated malaria were enrolled at a government health center in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were randomized to receive chloroquine alone or combined with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil for all episodes of uncomplicated malaria for one year. The primary outcome was incidence of clinical malaria. Secondary endpoints included treatment efficacy, and incidence of the chloroquine resistance marker pfcrt T76 and of anemia. Of the 640 children enrolled, 628 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Malaria incidence (95% confidence interval was 0.59 (.46-.74, .61 (.49-.76, .63 (.50-.79 and .68 (.54-.86 episodes/person-year for group randomized to receive chloroquine alone or in combination with artesunate, azithromycin or atovaquone-proguanil respectively and the differences were not statistically significant. Treatment efficacy for first episodes was 100% for chloroquine monotherapy and 97.9% for subsequent episodes of malaria. Similar results were seen in each of the chloroquine combination groups. The incidence of pfcrt T76 in pure form was 0%; mixed infections with both K76 and T76 were found in two out of 911 infections. Young children treated with chloroquine-azithromycin had higher hemoglobin concentrations at the study's end than did those in the chloroquine monotherapy group.Sustained chloroquine efficacy with repeated treatment supports the eventual re-introduction of chloroquine combinations for targeted uses such as intermittent preventive treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379821.

  16. Effects of chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine on natural killer cell activity in vitro. An analysis of the inhibitory mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I C; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    ) or interleukin 2 (Il-2); preincubation of mononuclear cells with IF or Il-2 followed by addition of anti-malarial drugs decreased the inhibitory effects of the drugs. The drug-induced inhibition of the NK cell activity was not dependent on the presence of monocytes. Using monocyte depleted Percoll fractionated......Natural killer (NK) cell activity against K 562 target cells was inhibited by pharmacological concentrations of chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine. The most potent were mefloquine and quinine. The drug-induced inhibition of the NK cell activity was abolished by addition of alpha-interferon (IF...

  17. Gene encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme is mutated in artesunate- and chloroquine-resistant rodent malaria parasites.

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    Hunt, Paul; Afonso, Ana; Creasey, Alison; Culleton, Richard; Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh; Logan, John; Valderramos, Stephanie G; McNae, Iain; Cheesman, Sandra; do Rosario, Virgilio; Carter, Richard; Fidock, David A; Cravo, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Artemisinin- and artesunate-resistant Plasmodium chabaudi mutants, AS-ART and AS-ATN, were previously selected from chloroquine-resistant clones AS-30CQ and AS-15CQ respectively. Now, a genetic cross between AS-ART and the artemisinin-sensitive clone AJ has been analysed by Linkage Group Selection. A genetic linkage group on chromosome 2 was selected under artemisinin treatment. Within this locus, we identified two different mutations in a gene encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme. A distinct mutation occurred in each of the clones AS-30CQ and AS-ATN, relative to their respective progenitors in the AS lineage. The mutations occurred independently in different clones under drug selection with chloroquine (high concentration) or artesunate. Each mutation maps to a critical residue in a homologous human deubiquitinating protein structure. Although one mutation could theoretically account for the resistance of AS-ATN to artemisinin derivates, the other cannot account solely for the resistance of AS-ART, relative to the responses of its sensitive progenitor AS-30CQ. Two lines of Plasmodium falciparum with decreased susceptibility to artemisinin were also selected. Their drug-response phenotype was not genetically stable. No mutations in the UBP-1 gene encoding the P. falciparum orthologue of the deubiquitinating enzyme were observed. The possible significance of these mutations in parasite responses to chloroquine or artemisinin is discussed.

  18. Effectiveness and tolerance of long-term malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine. Need for a better dosing regimen.

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    Lobel, H O; Bernard, K W; Williams, S L; Hightower, A W; Patchen, L C; Campbell, C C

    1991-01-16

    To measure the effectiveness and tolerance of long-term malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine, the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and of adverse reactions was compared in Peace Corps volunteers in West Africa who took mefloquine every 2 weeks and in volunteers who took chloroquine phosphate weekly. Mefloquine was only 63% more effective than chloroquine; the monthly incidence of P falciparum infections was one case per 100 volunteers who took mefloquine and 2.7 cases per 100 volunteers who took chloroquine. Using daily proguanil (chloroguanide) hydrochloride in addition to chloroquine did not provide additional protection. All mefloquine prophylaxis failures occurred during the second week of the every-2-weeks dosing regimen in volunteers who had used mefloquine for more than 2 months. Blood concentrations of mefloquine were lower during the second week of the alternate-week regimen than during the first week, suggesting that blood levels are too low during the second week to suppress parasitemia. No serious adverse reactions were observed. The results indicate that a dosing regimen of 250 mg of mefloquine weekly should be considered for travelers to areas with chloroquine-resistant P falciparum malaria.

  19. Gene encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme is mutated in artesunate- and chloroquine-resistant rodent malaria parasites§

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    Hunt, Paul; Afonso, Ana; Creasey, Alison; Culleton, Richard; Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh; Logan, John; Valderramos, Stephanie G; McNae, Iain; Cheesman, Sandra; do Rosario, Virgilio; Carter, Richard; Fidock, David A; Cravo, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Artemisinin- and artesunate-resistant Plasmodium chabaudi mutants, AS-ART and AS-ATN, were previously selected from chloroquine-resistant clones AS-30CQ and AS-15CQ respectively. Now, a genetic cross between AS-ART and the artemisinin-sensitive clone AJ has been analysed by Linkage Group Selection. A genetic linkage group on chromosome 2 was selected under artemisinin treatment. Within this locus, we identified two different mutations in a gene encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme. A distinct mutation occurred in each of the clones AS-30CQ and AS-ATN, relative to their respective progenitors in the AS lineage. The mutations occurred independently in different clones under drug selection with chloroquine (high concentration) or artesunate. Each mutation maps to a critical residue in a homologous human deubiquitinating protein structure. Although one mutation could theoretically account for the resistance of AS-ATN to artemisinin derivates, the other cannot account solely for the resistance of AS-ART, relative to the responses of its sensitive progenitor AS-30CQ. Two lines of Plasmodium falciparum with decreased susceptibility to artemisinin were also selected. Their drug-response phenotype was not genetically stable. No mutations in the UBP-1 gene encoding the P. falciparum orthologue of the deubiquitinating enzyme were observed. The possible significance of these mutations in parasite responses to chloroquine or artemisinin is discussed. PMID:17581118

  20. Development and evaluation of a solid oral dosage form for an artesunate and mefloquine drug combination / Abel Hermanus van der Watt

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Watt, Abel Hermanus

    2014-01-01

    Malaria affects about forty percent of the world’s population. Annually more than 1.5 million fatalities due to malaria occur and parasite resistance to existing antimalarial drugs such as mefloquine has already reached disturbingly high levels in South-East Asia and on the African continent. Consequently, there is a dire need for new drugs or formulations in the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Artesunate, an artemisinin derivative, represents a new category of antimalarials that is eff...

  1. Comparison of artemisinin suppositories, intramuscular artesunate and intravenous quinine for the treatment of severe childhood malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X T; Bethell, D B; Pham, T P; Ta, T T; Tran, T N; Nguyen, T T; Pham, T T; Nguyen, T T; Day, N P; White, N J

    1997-01-01

    Severe malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity for children living in many tropical regions. With the emergence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to both chloroquine and quinine, alternative antimalarial agents are required. The artemisinin group of compounds are rapidly effective in severe disease when given by intramuscular or intravenous injection. However, these routes of administration are not always available in rural areas. In an open, randomized comparison 109 Vietnamese children, aged between 3 months and 14 years, with severe P.falciparum malaria, were allocated at random to receive artemisinin suppositories followed by mefloquine (n = 37), intramuscular artesunate followed by mefloquine (n = 37), or intravenous quinine followed by pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (n = 35). There were 9 deaths: 2 artemisinin, 4 artesunate and 5 quinine-treated children. There was no difference in fever clearance time, coma recovery, or length of hospital stay among the 3 groups. However, parasite clearance times were significantly faster in artemisinin and artesunate-treated patients than in those who received quinine (P children receiving these drugs had lower peripheral reticulocyte counts by day 5 of treatment than those in the quinine group (P = 0.011). No other adverse effect or toxicity was found. There was no treatment failure in these 2 groups, but 4 patients in the quinine group failed to clear their parasites within 7 d of starting treatment and required alternative antimalarial therapy. Artemisinin suppositories are easy to administer, cheap, and very effective for treating children with severe malaria. In rural areas where medical facilities are lacking these drugs will allow antimalarial therapy to be instituted earlier in the course of the disease and may therefore save lives.

  2. Artesunate plus pyronaridine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukirwa, Hasifa; Unnikrishnan, B; Kramer, Christine V; Sinclair, David; Nair, Suma; Tharyan, Prathap

    2014-03-04

    artemether-lumefantrine had fewer than 5% PCR adjusted treatment failures during 42 days of follow-up, with no differences between groups (two trials, 1472 participants, low quality evidence). There were fewer new infections during the first 28 days in those given artesunate-pyronaridine (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90, two trials, 1720 participants, moderate quality evidence), but no difference was detected over the whole 42 day follow-up (two trials, 1691 participants, moderate quality evidence). Artesunate-pyronaridine versus artesunate plus mefloquineIn one multicentre trial, enrolling mainly older children and adults from South East Asia, both artesunate-pyronaridine and artesunate plus mefloquine had fewer than 5% PCR adjusted treatment failures during 28 days follow-up (one trial, 1187 participants, moderate quality evidence). PCR-adjusted treatment failures were 6% by day 42 for these treated with artesunate-pyronaridine, and 4% for those with artesunate-mefloquine (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.89 to 3.00, one trial, 1116 participants, low quality evidence). Again, there were fewer new infections during the first 28 days in those given artesunate-pyronaridine (PCR-unadjusted treatment failure: RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73, one trial, 1720 participants, moderate quality evidence), but no differences were detected over the whole 42 days (one trial, 1146 participants, low quality evidence). Adverse effectsSerious adverse events were uncommon in these trials, with no difference detected between artesunate-pyronaridine and comparator ACTs. The analysis of liver function tests showed biochemical elevation were four times more frequent with artesunate-pyronaridine than with the other antimalarials (RR 4.17, 95% CI 1.38 to 12.62, four trials, 3523 participants, moderate quality evidence). Artesunate-pyronaridine performed well in these trials compared to artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate plus mefloquine, with PCR-adjusted treatment failure at day 28

  3. Neuropsychiatric manifestations after mefloquine therapy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria: comparing a retrospective and a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Gøtzsche, P C

    1998-01-01

    Mefloquine has been increasingly used for treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria since its introduction in the late 1970s. In 1987 the first case of toxic encephalopathy was published, and in 1989 the WHO initiated reporting and investigation of neuropsychiatric adverse reactions of mefloquine...

  4. Efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Chavez, Jorge; de Leon, Gabriel Ponce; Durand, Salomon; Arrospide, Nancy; Roberts, Jacquelin; Cabezas, Cesar; Marquiño, Wilmer

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine (MQ) plus artesunate (AS) to treat patients with uncomplicated malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Basin in April 2005-March 2006. Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) or history of fever and Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were included. Patients received antimalarial treatment with MQ (12.5 mg/kg/day for two days) and AS (4.0 mg/kg/day for three days) either by directly observed therapy or without directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed on the basis of clinical and parasitologic outcomes. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in each study group; nine patients were lost to follow-up. All patients, except for one in the observed group, demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitologic response; none had detectable parasitemia on day 3. The efficacy of MQ + AS efficacy was 98.9% (95% confidence interval = 94.1-100.0%) and the effectiveness was 100.0% (95% confidence interval = 95.9-100.0%). Our study shows that MQ + AS is highly efficacious in the Peruvian Amazon.

  5. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of artesunate and mefloquine hydrochloride in fixed-dose combination tablets

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    Fernando Henrique Andrade Nogueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and validated an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of artesunate (AS and mefloquine hydrochloride (MQ in fixed-dose combination tablets, according to ICH guidelines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an XBridge C18 (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size, Waters analytical column. The mobile phase included a 0.05 M monobasic potassium phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3.0 with phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (50 + 50, v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the run time was 13 minutes. A dual-wavelength approach was employed: AS detection was performed at 210 nm and MQ was detected at 283 nm, using a diode array detector. Stability of sample solutions was evaluated for 8 hours after preparation, during which time the solutions remained stable. Youden's test was employed to evaluate robustness. The method proved to be linear (r²>0.99, precise (RSD<2.0%, accurate, selective, and robust, proving to be appropriate for routine drug quality control analysis.

  6. A high performance liquid chromatographic assay of Mefloquine in saliva after a single oral dose in healthy adult Africans

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    Gbotosho Grace O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine-artesunate is a formulation of artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT recommended by the World Health Organization and historically the first ACT used clinically. The use of ACT demands constant monitoring of therapeutic efficacies and drug levels, in order to ensure that optimum drug exposure is achieved and detect reduced susceptibility to these drugs. Quantification of anti-malarial drugs in biological fluids other than blood would provide a more readily applicable method of therapeutic drug monitoring in developing endemic countries. Efforts in this study were devoted to the development of a simple, field applicable, non-invasive method for assay of mefloquine in saliva. Methods A high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 220 nm for assaying mefloquine in saliva was developed and validated by comparing mefloquine concentrations in saliva and plasma samples from four healthy volunteers who received single oral dose of mefloquine. Verapamil was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil ODS column. Results Extraction recoveries of mefloquine in plasma or saliva were 76-86% or 83-93% respectively. Limit of quantification of mefloquine was 20 ng/ml. Agreement between salivary and plasma mefloquine concentrations was satisfactory (r = 0.88, p Conclusion Disposition of mefloquine in saliva paralleled that in plasma, making salivary quantification of mefloquine potentially useful in therapeutic drug monitoring.

  7. Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with mefloquine alone or in combination with i.v. quinine at the Department of Communicable and Tropical Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen 1982-1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1990-01-01

    At the Department of Communicable and Tropical Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, mefloquine has been used since 1982 for the treatment of patients with suspected or verified chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant P. falciparum malaria. Eighty-one patients treated with mefloquine...

  8. Use of mefloquine in children - a review of dosage, pharmacokinetics and tolerability data

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    Schaerer Martin T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of anti-malarial medication in children is hampered by a paucity of dosage, pharmacokinetic and tolerability data. Methods Data on the use of mefloquine in children, particularly in young children weighing less than 20 kg, were reviewed using PubMed literature and reports on file. Results Chemoprophylaxis data: Two studies with a total of 170 children were found. A simulated mefloquine plasma profile showed that doses to achieve protective chemoprophylaxis blood concentration of mefloquine of approximately 620 ng/mL (or 1.67 μmol/L in children should be at least 5 mg/kg. This simulated plasma profile in children corresponds to that seen in adult travellers using a weekly prophylaxis dose of 250 mg. This reinforces current practice of using weight-based dosage for children. Clearance per body weight is higher in older children. For children who travel to malaria risk areas tablets can be broken and crushed as required. It is necessary to disguise the bitter taste of the drug. Treatment data: Mefloquine treatment (alone or in combination data are available for more than 6000 children of all age and weight categories. The stereoselectivity and pharmacokinetic profile of mefloquine in children is similar to that observed in adults. There is higher clearance in older children (aged 5-12 years compared to younger children (aged 6-24 months. Mefloquine treatment is well tolerated in infants (5-12 kg but vomiting is a problem at high doses. This led to the use of a "split dose" regimen with 15 mg/kg initially, followed 12 hours later by 10 mg/kg. Mefloquine 125 mg has been used as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT and was found to be efficacious in reducing episodes of malaria in a moderate-transmission setting but vomiting was a problem in 8% of children aged 2-11 months. Mefloquine is also used as a component of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT in small children. The combination artesunate plus mefloquine is a WHO

  9. Artesunate Exerts a Direct Effect on Endothelial Cell Activation and NF-κB Translocation in a Mechanism Independent of Plasmodium Killing

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    Mariana C. Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivates are an important class of antimalarial drug and are described to possess immunomodulatory activities. Few studies have addressed the effect of artesunate in the murine malaria model or its effect on host immune response during malaria infection. Herein, we study the effect of artesunate treatment and describe an auxiliary mechanism of artesunate in modulating the inflammatory response during experimental malaria infection in mice. Treatment with artesunate did not reduce significantly the parasitemia within 12 h, however, reduced BBB breakdown and TNF-α mRNA expression in the brain tissue of artesunate-treated mice. Conversely, mefloquine treatment was not able to alter clinical features. Notably, artesunate pretreatment failed to modulate the expression of LFA-1 in splenocytes stimulated with parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs in vitro; however, it abrogated the expression of ICAM-1 in pRBC-stimulated endothelial cells. Accordingly, a cytoadherence in vitro assay demonstrated that pRBCs did not adhere to artesunate-treated vascular endothelial cells. In addition, NF-κB nuclear translocation in endothelial cells stimulated with pRBCs was impaired by artesunate treatment. Our results suggest that artesunate is able to exert a protective effect against the P. berghei-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation and the subsequent expression of ICAM-1.

  10. In vitro studies on the sensitivity pattern of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs and local herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, Grace I; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adeyeba, Adegboyega O; Fagade, Obasola E; Valecha, Neena; Ayanda, Isaac O; Ajayi, Adesola A; Egwari, Louis O

    2014-02-20

    The resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds has become considerable concern, particularly in view of the shortage of novel classes of anti-malarial drugs. One way to prevent resistance is by using new compounds that are not based on existing synthetic antimicrobial agents. Sensitivity of 100 Plasmodium falciparum isolates to chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, artemisinin, Momordica charantia ('Ejirin') Diospyros monbuttensis ('Egun eja') and Morinda lucida ('Oruwo') was determined using the in vitro microtest (Mark III) technique to determine the IC50 of the drugs. All the isolates tested were sensitive to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were resistant to chloroquine, 13% to amodiaquine and 5% to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Highest resistance to chloroquine (68.9%) was recorded among isolates from Yewa zone while highest resistance to amodiaquine (30%) was observed in Ijebu zone. Highest resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine was recorded in Yewa and Egba zones, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the responses to artemisinin and mefloquine (P0.05). Highest anti-plasmodial activity was obtained with the ethanolic extract of D. monbuttensis (IC50 = 3.2 nM) while the lowest was obtained from M. lucida (IC50 = 25 nM). Natural products isolated from plants used in traditional medicine, which have potent anti-plasmodial action in vitro, represent potential sources of new anti-malarial drugs.

  11. Complex Membrane Channel Blockade: A Unifying Hypothesis for the Prodromal and Acute Neuropsychiatric Sequelae Resulting from Exposure to the Antimalarial Drug Mefloquine

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    Jane C. Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid toxin quinine and its derivative compounds have been used for many centuries as effective medications for the prevention and treatment of malaria. More recently, synthetic derivatives, such as the quinoline derivative mefloquine (bis(trifluoromethyl-(2-piperidyl-4-quinolinemethanol, have been widely used to combat disease caused by chloroquine-resistant strains of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. However, the parent compound quinine, as well as its more recent counterparts, suffers from an incidence of adverse neuropsychiatric side effects ranging from mild mood disturbances and anxiety to hallucinations, seizures, and psychosis. This review considers how the pharmacology, cellular neurobiology, and membrane channel kinetics of mefloquine could lead to the significant and sometimes life-threatening neurotoxicity associated with mefloquine exposure. A key role for mefloquine blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and connexins in the substantia nigra is considered as a unifying hypothesis for the pathogenesis of severe neuropsychiatric events after mefloquine exposure in humans.

  12. Expression of Plasmodium vivax crt-o Is Related to Parasite Stage but Not Ex Vivo Chloroquine Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, Zuleima; Handayuni, Irene; Wirjanata, Grennady; To, Sheren; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is present in most countries where P. vivax infection is endemic, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Increased expression of P. vivax crt-o (pvcrt-o) has been correlated with in vivo CQ resistance in an area with low-grade resistance. We assessed pvcrt-o expression in isolates from Papua (Indonesia), where P. vivax is highly CQ resistant. Ex vivo drug susceptibilities to CQ, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine, and artesunate were determined using a modified schizont maturation assay. Expression levels of pvcrt-o were measured using a novel real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Large variations in pvcrt-o expression were observed across the 51 isolates evaluated, with the fold change in expression level ranging from 0.01 to 59 relative to that seen with the P. vivax β-tubulin gene and from 0.01 to 24 relative to that seen with the P. vivax aldolase gene. Expression was significantly higher in isolates with the majority of parasites at the ring stage of development (median fold change, 1.7) compared to those at the trophozoite stage (median fold change, 0.5; P determinant of ex vivo drug susceptibility. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach is warranted for an in-depth investigation of the role of gene expression levels and P. vivax drug resistance. Copyright © 2015 Pava et al.

  13. Signal detection to identify serious adverse events (neuropsychiatric events in travelers taking mefloquine for chemoprophylaxis of malaria

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    Naing C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cho Naing,1,3 Kyan Aung,1 Syed Imran Ahmed,2 Joon Wah Mak31School of Medical Sciences, 2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 3School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: For all medications, there is a trade-off between benefits and potential for harm. It is important for patient safety to detect drug-event combinations and analyze by appropriate statistical methods. Mefloquine is used as chemoprophylaxis for travelers going to regions with known chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. As such, there is a concern about serious adverse events associated with mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to assess whether any signal would be detected for the serious adverse events of mefloquine, based on data in clinicoepidemiological studies.Materials and methods: We extracted data on adverse events related to mefloquine chemoprophylaxis from the two published datasets. Disproportionality reporting of adverse events such as neuropsychiatric events and other adverse events was presented in the 2 × 2 contingency table. Reporting odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI] data-mining algorithm was applied for the signal detection. The safety signals are considered significant when the ROR estimates and the lower limits of the corresponding 95% CI are ≥2.Results: Two datasets addressing adverse events of mefloquine chemoprophylaxis (one from a published article and one from a Cochrane systematic review were included for analyses. Reporting odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI: 1.49–1.68 based on published data in the selected article, and 1.195, 95% CI: 0.94–1.44 based on data in the selected Cochrane review. Overall, in both datasets, the reporting odds ratio values of lower 95% CI were less than 2.Conclusion: Based on available data, findings suggested that signals for serious adverse events pertinent to neuropsychiatric event were

  14. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B; Stepniewska, Kasia

    2014-01-01

    Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated...... with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized...

  15. Efikasi Obat Kloroquine, Kina, Artesunate-SP, Artesunate-Amodiaquine, Artesunate-Lumafentrin pada Anak Malaria Falciparum di BLU RSUP Prof. Dr. RD. Kandou Manado

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    Suryadi Nicolaas Napoleon Tatura

    2016-11-01

    Kesimpulan. Artesunate-lumafentrin dan artesunate-SP merupakan obat anti malaria falciparum pilihan. Artesunate-amodiaquine sangat baik menurunkan angka parasit dalam 24 jam I. Telah terjadi ETF pada kloroquine, kina dan arteunate-amodiaquine.

  16. The effect of mimicking febrile temperature and drug stress on malarial development

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    Adisakwattana Poom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains one of the most important tropical diseases of human with 1–2 million deaths annually especially caused by P. falciparum. During malarial life cycle, they exposed to many environmentally stresses including wide temperature fluctuation and pharmacological active molecules. These trigger malarial evolutionarily adaptive responses. The effect of febrile temperature on malarial growth, development and drug susceptibility by mimicking patient in treatment failure before and after drug uptake was examined. Methods Sensitivities of P. falciparum to antimalarial drug (chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine and artesunate were investigated based on the incorporation of [3H] hypoxanthine into parasite nucleic acids or radioisotopic technique. The number of parasites was examined under microscope following Giemsa staining and the parasite development at the end of each phase was counted and comparison of parasite number was made. The proteome was separated, blotted and hybridized with anti-Hsp70s primary antibody. The hybridized proteins were separately digested with trypsin and identified by MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprint. Results The results show that febrile temperature is capable of markedly inhibiting the growth of field isolate P. falciparum but not to K1 and 3D7 standard strains. K1 and 3D7 grown under heat shock developed greater and the reinfection rate was increased up to 2-folds when compared to that of non-heat shock group. The IC50 value of K1 toward chloroquine, mefloquine and quinine under heat shock was higher than that of K1 under non-heat shock which is opposite to that of 3D7. Heat shock caused death in field isolated parasite. It was also found that the febrile temperature coped with chloroquine uptake had no effect to the development, drug sensitivity and the parasite number of K1 strain. In the opposite way, heat shock and chloroquine shows extremely effect toward 3D7 and field isolate PF91 as shown

  17. Artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated childhood malaria in Nigeria: randomized controlled trial

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    Nwachukwu Chukwuemeka

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic efficacy of artesunate plus amodiaquine and artemether/lumefantrine were assessed in an area of Nigeria with high levels of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Participants Children aged 6 to 59 months with uncomplicated P. falciparum infection and parasite density 1,000 to 200,000 parasites/μL enrolled following informed consent by parents. Methods Eligible children were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-day course of artesunate (4 mg/kg plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg or 6-dose course of artemether/lumefantrine (20/120 mg tablets over three days. Patients were followed up with clinical and laboratory assessments until day 14 using standard WHO in-vivo antimalarial drug test protocol. Results A total 119 eligible children were enrolled but 111 completed the study. Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR was 47 (87.0% and 47 (82.5% for artemether-lumefantrine (AL and artesunate+amodiaquine (AAMQ respectively (OR 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 2.22. Early treatment failure (ETF occurred in one participant (1.8% treated with AAQ but in none of those with AL. Two (3.7% patients in the AL group and none in the AAQ group had late clinical failure. Late parasitological failure was observed in 9 (15.8 and 5 (9.3% of patients treated with AAQ and AL respectively. None of participants had a serious adverse event. Conclusion Artemether-lumenfantrine and artesunate plus amodiaquine have high and comparable cure rates and tolerability among under-five children in Calabar, Nigeria.

  18. Mefloquine use, psychosis, and violence: a retinoid toxicity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony

    2013-07-15

    Mefloquine use has been linked to severe gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including cognitive disturbances, anxiety, depression, psychosis, and violence. The adverse effects of the drug are thought to result from the secondary consequences of hepatocellular injury; in fact, mefloquine is known to cause a transient, anicteric chemical hepatitis. However, the mechanism of mefloquine-associated liver damage and the associated neuropsychiatric and behavioral effects of the drug are not well understood. Mefloquine and other 8-amino-quinolines are the only antimalarial drugs that target the liver-stage malaria parasites, which selectively absorb vitamin A from the host. Vitamin A is also stored mainly in the liver, in potentially poisonous concentrations. These observations suggest that both the therapeutic effectiveness of mefloquine and its adverse effects are related to the ability of the 8-aminoquinolines to alter the metabolism of retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners). Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mefloquine neurotoxicity and other adverse effects reflect an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A due to a process involving: mefloquine-induced dehydrogenase inhibition; the accumulation of retinoids in the liver; retinoid-induced hepatocellular damage; the spillage of stored retinoids into the circulation; and the transport of these compounds to the gut and brain in toxic concentrations. The retinoid hypothesis could be tested clinically by comparing cases of mefloquine toxicity and untreated controls in terms of retinoid profiles (retinol, retinyl esters, percent retinyl esters, and retinoic acid). Subject to such tests, retinoid profiling could provide an indicator for assessing mefloquine-associated adverse effects.

  19. Chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria from Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea).

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    Clyde, D F; McCarthy, V C; Miller, R M; Hornick, R B

    1976-02-01

    A strain of Plasmodium falciparum, transmitted in Irian Jaya (Indonesian New Guinea) was isolated in 1974 and sent to the University of Maryland for characterization in nonimmune volunteers. At Maryland the Indonesia (Whit.) strain, as it has been designated, was transmitted to colonized Anopheles stephensi. Prophylactically, it was not suppressed by proguanil hydrochloride 100 mg. daily. Curatively, parasitaemia was not cleared by treatment with 1-5 g. (base) in three days of chloroquine or amodiaquine (RII responses), nor by treatment with 150 mg. of pyrimethamine in three days (RIII), and some resistance was also shown to quinine. A single dose of 1-5 g. of mefloquine (WR 142,490) produced radical cure in the two patients treated with this new 4-quinolinemethanol compound.

  20. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Adamcova, Miriam; Regep, Loredana; Schaerer, Martin T; Rhein, Hans-Georg

    2010-12-09

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis. A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis. Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently recognized fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi. New data were found in the literature on the tolerability of mefloquine and the use of this medication by groups at high risk of malaria. Use of mefloquine for pregnant women in the second and third trimester is sanctioned by the WHO and some authorities (CDC) allow the use of mefloquine even in the first trimester. Inadvertent pregnancy while using mefloquine is not considered grounds for pregnancy termination. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis is allowed during breast-feeding. Studies show that mefloquine is a good option for other high-risk groups, such as long-term travellers, VFR travellers and families with small children. Despite a negative media perception, large pharmaco-epidemiological studies have shown that serious adverse events are rare. A recent US evaluation of serious events (hospitalization data) found no association between mefloquine prescriptions and serious adverse events across a wide range of outcomes including mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system. As part of an in-depth analysis of mefloquine tolerability, a potential trend for increased propensity for neuropsychiatric adverse events in women was identified in a number of published clinical studies. This trend is corroborated by several cohort studies that identified female sex and low body weight as risk factors. The choice of anti-malarial drug should be an evidence-based decision that considers the profile of the individual traveller and the risk of malaria. Mefloquine is an important, first-line anti-malarial drug

  1. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  2. Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia

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    Wongsrichanalai Chansuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the link between pfmdr1 copy number, in vitro susceptibility to individual drugs and treatment failure to combination therapy. Methods Blood samples were collected from P. falciparum-infected patients enrolled in two in vivo efficacy studies in north-western Cambodia: 135 patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL group in Sampovloun in 2002 and 2003, and 140 patients with artesunate-mefloquine (AM group in Sampovloun and Veal Veng in 2003 and 2004. At enrollment, the in vitro IC50 was tested and the strains were genotyped for pfmdr1 copy number by real-time PCR. Results The pfmdr1 copy number was analysed for 115 isolates in the AM group, and for 109 isolates in the AL group. Parasites with increased pfmdr1 copy number had significantly reduced in vitro susceptibility to mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate. There was no association between pfmdr1 polymorphisms and in vitro susceptibilities. In the patients treated with AM, the mean pfmdr1copy number was lower in subjects with adequate clinical and parasitological response compared to those who experienced late treatment failure (n = 112, p p = 0.364. The presence of three or more copies of pfmdr1 were associated with recrudescence in artesunate-mefloquine treated patients (hazard ratio (HR = 7.80 [95%CI: 2.09–29.10], N = 115, p = 0.002 but not with recrudescence in artemether-lumefantrine treated patients (HR = 1.03 [95%CI: 0.24–4.44], N = 109, p = 0.969. Conclusion This study shows that pfmdr1 copy number is a molecular

  3. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis

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    Regep Loredana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis. Methods A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis. Results Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently recognized fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi. New data were found in the literature on the tolerability of mefloquine and the use of this medication by groups at high risk of malaria. Discussion Use of mefloquine for pregnant women in the second and third trimester is sanctioned by the WHO and some authorities (CDC allow the use of mefloquine even in the first trimester. Inadvertent pregnancy while using mefloquine is not considered grounds for pregnancy termination. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis is allowed during breast-feeding. Studies show that mefloquine is a good option for other high-risk groups, such as long-term travellers, VFR travellers and families with small children. Despite a negative media perception, large pharmaco-epidemiological studies have shown that serious adverse events are rare. A recent US evaluation of serious events (hospitalization data found no association between mefloquine prescriptions and serious adverse events across a wide range of outcomes including mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system. As part of an in-depth analysis of mefloquine tolerability, a potential trend for increased propensity for neuropsychiatric adverse events in women was identified in a number of published clinical studies. This trend is corroborated by several cohort studies that identified female sex and low body weight as risk factors. Conclusion The choice of anti-malarial drug should be an evidence-based decision that considers the profile of the individual traveller and the

  4. A study protocol for a randomised open-label clinical trial of artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine in patients with non-severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia (ACT KNOW trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, M J; William, T; Dhanaraj, P; Menon, J; Barber, B E; von Seidlein, L; Rajahram, G; Price, R N; Anstey, N M; Yeo, T W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malaria due to Plasmodium knowlesi is reported throughout South-East Asia, and is the commonest cause of it in Malaysia. P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h and can cause severe disease and death. Current 2010 WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines have no recommendations for the optimal treatment of non-severe knowlesi malaria. Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) and chloroquine have each been successfully used to treat knowlesi malaria; however, the rapidity of parasite clearance has not been prospectively compared. Malaysia's national policy for malaria pre-elimination involves mandatory hospital admission for confirmed malaria cases with discharge only after two negative blood films; use of a more rapidly acting antimalarial agent would have health cost benefits. P. knowlesi is commonly microscopically misreported as P. malariae, P. falciparum or P. vivax, with a high proportion of the latter two species being chloroquine-resistant in Malaysia. A unified ACT-treatment protocol would provide effective blood stage malaria treatment for all Plasmodium species. Methods and analysis ACT KNOW, the first randomised controlled trial ever performed in knowlesi malaria, is a two-arm open-label trial with enrolments over a 2-year period at three district sites in Sabah, powered to show a difference in proportion of patients negative for malaria by microscopy at 24 h between treatment arms (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01708876). Enrolments started in December 2012, with completion expected by September 2014. A total sample size of 228 is required to give 90% power (α 0.05) to determine the primary end point using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points include parasite clearance time, rates of recurrent infection/treatment failure to day 42, gametocyte carriage throughout follow-up and rates of anaemia at day 28, as determined by survival analysis. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in

  5. Mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara

    2018-03-21

    The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, Julie A.; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I.; Di Perri, Gianni; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with

  7. The role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in changing chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine and lumefantrine susceptibility in western-Kenya P. falciparum samples during 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick L Eyase

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ as well as amodiaquine (AQ resistance. mefloquine (MQ and lumefantrine (LU sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001. Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001 during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART Combination Therapy (ACT administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future.

  8. A study protocol for a randomised open-label clinical trial of artesunate-mefloquine versus chloroquine in patients with non-severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia (ACT KNOW trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, M J; William, T; Dhanaraj, P; Menon, J; Barber, B E; von Seidlein, L; Rajahram, G; Price, R N; Anstey, N M; Yeo, T W

    2014-08-19

    Malaria due to Plasmodium knowlesi is reported throughout South-East Asia, and is the commonest cause of it in Malaysia. P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h and can cause severe disease and death. Current 2010 WHO Malaria Treatment Guidelines have no recommendations for the optimal treatment of non-severe knowlesi malaria. Artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT) and chloroquine have each been successfully used to treat knowlesi malaria; however, the rapidity of parasite clearance has not been prospectively compared. Malaysia's national policy for malaria pre-elimination involves mandatory hospital admission for confirmed malaria cases with discharge only after two negative blood films; use of a more rapidly acting antimalarial agent would have health cost benefits. P. knowlesi is commonly microscopically misreported as P. malariae, P. falciparum or P. vivax, with a high proportion of the latter two species being chloroquine-resistant in Malaysia. A unified ACT-treatment protocol would provide effective blood stage malaria treatment for all Plasmodium species. ACT KNOW, the first randomised controlled trial ever performed in knowlesi malaria, is a two-arm open-label trial with enrolments over a 2-year period at three district sites in Sabah, powered to show a difference in proportion of patients negative for malaria by microscopy at 24 h between treatment arms (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01708876). Enrolments started in December 2012, with completion expected by September 2014. A total sample size of 228 is required to give 90% power (α 0.05) to determine the primary end point using intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points include parasite clearance time, rates of recurrent infection/treatment failure to day 42, gametocyte carriage throughout follow-up and rates of anaemia at day 28, as determined by survival analysis. This study has been approved by relevant institutional ethics committees in Malaysia and Australia. Results will be disseminated to inform

  9. The antiplasmodium effects of a traditional South American remedy: Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium against chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cebrian-Torrejon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum chiloperone var. angustifolium Engl., Rutaceae, is used in traditional medicine to treat fungal and protozoal infections in the central area of South America. Considering the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in malarial ridden areas, we explored the anti-plasmodial effects of three compounds isolated from Z. chiloperone. The pyranocoumarin transavicennol and the canthinone alkaloids, canthin-6-one and 5-methoxycanthin-6-one, were found to have IC50 on chloroquine/mefloquine resistant and sensitive strains of P. falciparum of 0.5-2.7, 2.0-5.3 and 5.1-10.4 ƒÊg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the formation of heme adducts by these compounds is described by a novel alternative method based on MS-CID methods. The alkylamide sanshool was also identified, for first time in this plant, in the dichloromethanic and ethanolic extracts and the extracts were found to be notably non-toxic and displayed good anti-plasmodial effects.

  10. Mefloquine in combination with hemin causes severe damage to adult Schistosoma japonicum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Qiao, Chunhua; Xue, Jian; Wang, Lili

    2014-03-01

    In order to explore the interaction of mefloquine with hemin against adult Schistosoma japonicum in vitro, the 50% and 95% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95) of mefloquine and hemin against schistosomes, some factors, such as other iron providing agents, iron chelaters, zinc protoporphyrin-IX, and biological relevant reductants, that might impact on antischistosomal activity induced by interaction of mefloquine with hemin, and preliminary analysis of chemical interaction of both compounds were undertaken. The LC50 and LC95 of mefloquine and hemin alone against schistosomes were determined to be 6.5μg/ml and 7.8μg/ml as well as 232μg/ml and 355μg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC95 of mefloquine in the presence of hemin 100μg/ml was 0.24μg/ml and 0.59μg/ml, respectively. On the other hand the LC50 and LC95 of hemin in the presence of mefloquine 1μg/ml was 23.2μg/ml and 77.2μg/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, mefloquine/hemin combinations showed potential synergistic effects against adult S. japonicum, with combination index (CI) values vitamine C or cysteine showed no apparent worm protection effect from toxic mefloquine-hemin even at higher concentrations (242.3-614.6μg/ml, i.e., 6.4-17.8-fold higher than the concentration of hemin). Chemical interaction of mefloquine with hemin was studied in 40% DMSO-Tris buffer solution. Both UV-Vis spectrum and mass spectrum demonstrated the strong interaction of mefloquine with hemin, which resulted in a reduction of hemin color and emergence of an adduct formed by mefloquine and hemin. The results confirm that mefloquine combined with hemin exhibits potential synergistic effect against adult S. japonicum in vitro. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma levels of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon after administration of 50-milligram artesunate suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpaap, B; Ndjave, M; Paris, M; Benakis, A; Kremsner, P G

    1998-03-01

    A thermostable suppository of artesunate (artesunic acid) has been developed. In Gabon, 12 children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria received two administrations of this suppository in a 4-hr interval. Parasitemia and fever were then measured and the plasma levels of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, were determined by means of a reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method using reductive electrochemical detection. Substantial parasite clearance (97-100%) was noted 24 hr after the beginning of the treatment and body temperature had returned to normal. Absorption, metabolism, and elimination of artesunate were rapid. Mean values of maximum plasma levels (Cmax) and maximum concentration peak times (tmax) were evaluated. The Cmax of dihydroartemisinin (0.18 +/- 0.10 microg/ml [mean +/- SE]) was higher than the Cmax of artesunate (0.09 +/- 0.04 microg/ml) and the tmax of dihydroartemisinin (1.13 +/- 0.58 hr) was higher than the tmax of artesunate (0.58 +/- 0.19 hr). Plasma levels 30 min after the second suppository administration were not consistently higher than those found 30 min after the first administration.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin following Intra-Rectal Dosing of Artesunate in Malaria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Julie A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I; Perri, Gianni Di; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    Background Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Methods and Findings Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa) with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa) with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.64 (l/kg/h) with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 2.75 (l/kg) with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36–1.92) (l/kg/h) for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Simpson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria.Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F was 2.64 (l/kg/h with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F was 2.75 (l/kg with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36-1.92 (l/kg/h for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared with the remainder

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Julie A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I; Di Perri, Gianni; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J

    2006-11-01

    Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa) with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa) with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.64 (l/kg/h) with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 2.75 (l/kg) with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36-1.92) (l/kg/h) for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared with the remainder, independent

  15. Antimalarial drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil using a radioisotope method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerutti Junior Crispim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1996 to August 1997, a study was carried out in a malaria endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region. In vivo sensitivity evaluation to antimalarial drugs was performed in 129 patients. Blood samples (0.5 ml were drawn from each patient and cryopreserved to proceed to in vitro studies. In vitro sensitivity evaluation performed using a radioisotope method was carried out with the cryopreserved samples from September to December 1997. Thirty-one samples were tested for chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine, quinine, arteether and atovaquone. Resistance was evidenced in 96.6% (29/30 of the samples tested for chloroquine, 3.3% (1/30 for quinine, none (0/30 for mefloquine and none for halofantrine (0/30. Overall low sensitivity was evidenced in 10% of the samples tested for quinine, 22.5% tested for halofantrine and in 20% tested for mefloquine. Means of IC 50 values were 132.2 (SD: 46.5 ng/ml for chloroquine, 130.6 (SD: 49.6 ng/ml for quinine, 3.4 (SD: 1.3 ng/ml for mefloquine, 0.7 (SD: 0.3 ng/ml for halofantrine, 1 (SD: 0.6 ng/ml for arteether and 0.4 (SD: 0.2 ng/ml for atovaquone. Means of chloroquine IC 50 of the tested samples were comparable to that of the chloroquine-resistant strain W2 (137.57 ng/ml and nearly nine times higher than that of the chloroquine-sensitive strain D6 (15.09 ng/ml. Means of quinine IC 50 of the tested samples were 1.7 times higher than that of the low sensitivity strain W2 (74.84 ng/ml and nearly five times higher than that of the quinine-sensitive strain D6 (27.53 ng/ml. These results disclose in vitro high resistance levels to chloroquine, low sensitivity to quinine and evidence of decreasing sensitivity to mefloquine and halofantrine in the area under evaluation.

  16. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine?s antimelanoma activity

    OpenAIRE

    Amaravadi, Ravi K.

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. While it is well known that chloroquine impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of chloroquine and the subsequent cascade of events that leads to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, chloroquine induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only prot...

  17. High-Dose Chloroquine for Treatment of Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Bergqvist, Yngve

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Due to development of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum new antimalarial therapies are needed. In Guinea-Bissau, routinely used triple standard-dose chloroquine remained effective for decades despite the existence of "chloroquine-resistant" P. falciparum. This study aimed...... to determine the in vivo efficacy of higher chloroquine concentrations against P. falciparum with resistance-conferring genotypes. METHODS:  Standard or double-dose chloroquine was given to 892 children aged ...-up. The P. falciparum resistance-conferring genotype (pfcrt 76T) and day 7 chloroquine concentrations were determined. Data were divided into age groups (chloroquine is prescribed according to body weight. RESULTS:  Adequate clinical...

  18. Mefloquine in the nucleus accumbens promotes social avoidance and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Mitra; Golden, Sam A; Pfau, Madeline L; Christoffel, Daniel J; Seeley, Elena L; Cahill, Michael E; Khibnik, Lena A; Russo, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    Mefloquine continues to be a key drug used for malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, despite reports of adverse events like depression and anxiety. It is unknown how mefloquine acts within the central nervous system to cause depression and anxiety or why some individuals are more vulnerable. We show that intraperitoneal injection of mefloquine in mice, when coupled to subthreshold social defeat stress, is sufficient to produce depression-like social avoidance behavior. Direct infusion of mefloquine into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, increased stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety behavior. In contrast, infusion into the ventral hippocampus had no effect. Whole cell recordings from NAc medium spiny neurons indicated that mefloquine application increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, a synaptic adaptation that we have previously shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to social defeat stress. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the NAc in mefloquine-induced depression and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was carried out to evaluate the quality of artesunate tablets sold in retail and wholesale pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana. In particular, the study sought to ascertain the presence or otherwise of counterfeit artesunate tablets in Kumasi. Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi ...

  20. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by the Antimalarial Drug Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Bissinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimalarial drug mefloquine has previously been shown to stimulate apoptosis of nucleated cells. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide. Methods: Phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from specific antibody binding. Results: A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with mefloquine significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5 µg/ml, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥5 µg/ml, significantly increased ROS abundance (5 µg/ml, significantly increased [Ca2+]i (7.5 µg/ml and significantly increased ceramide abundance (10 µg/ml. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following mefloquine treatment was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, mefloquine significantly increased annexin-V-binding. Conclusions: Mefloquine treatment leads to erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, effects at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance.

  1. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  2. Mefloquine effectively targets gastric cancer cells through phosphatase-dependent inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanwei [Department of General Surgery, Shiyan Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Chen, Sen [Department of Academic Affairs, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Xue, Rui [Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Zhao, Juan [Department of Oncology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Di, Maojun, E-mail: maoojun_di@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shiyan Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-02-05

    Deregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been recently identified to play a crucial role in the progress of human gastric cancer. In this study, we show that mefloquine, a FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, effectively targets human gastric cancer cells. Mefloquine potently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines, with EC{sub 50} ∼0.5–0.7 μM. In two independent gastric cancer xenograft mouse models, mefloquine significantly inhibits growth of both tumors. The combination of mefloquine with paclitaxel enhances the activity of either drug alone in in vitro and in vivo. In addition, mefloquine potently decreased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and rS6. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt significantly restored mefloquine-mediated inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation and growth, and induction of apoptosis, suggesting that mefloquine acts on gastric cancer cells via suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We further show that mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR singaling is phosphatase-dependent as pretreatment with calyculin A does-dependently reversed mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR phosphorylation. Since mefloquine is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Mefloquine targets a panel of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Combination of mefloquine and paclitaxel is synergistic. • Mefloquine acts on gastric cancer via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. • Mefloquine can be repurposed for gastric cancer treatment.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of artesunate in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Ettebong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potentials of artesunate in albino wistar mice and rats respectively. Methods: For the anti-inflammatory activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg was administered orally against egg albumin- and xylene-induced inflammation in mice using ibuprofen (50 mg/kg as standard drug. To assess antipyretic activity, artesunate (5 mg/kg was administered orally against amphetamine- and 2, 4-dinitrophenol-induced pyrexia in rats using ibuprofen (15 mg/ kg as standard drug. Results: The result showed that artesunate significantly (P < 0.001–0.010 reduced inflammation induced by egg albumin and xylene in a time-dependent manner. It also significantly (P < 0.001–0.050 and time-dependently reduced pyrexia induced by amphetamine and 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These reductions were similar to those produced by the standard drug ibuprofen, and thereby demonstrating that artesunate possesses antiinflammatory and antipyretic activities. Conclusions: These results further support the rationale for the use of artesunate in the treatment of malaria, a disease characterized by fever and inflammation and open up possibilities of its usefulness in other inflammatory and feverish diseases.

  4. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L

    2015-01-01

    Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug's neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug's continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug's perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug's labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence.

  5. Mefloquine prophylaxis prevents malaria during pregnancy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosten, F.; ter Kuile, F.; Maelankiri, L.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; Nopdonrattakoon, L.; Tangkitchot, S.; Boudreau, E.; Bunnag, D.; White, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of mefloquine antimalarial prophylaxis in pregnancy (> 20 weeks of gestation) was conducted in 339 Karen women living in an area of multidrug-resistant malaria transmission on the Thai-Burmese border. Mefloquine gave > or = 86% (95% confidence interval [CI],

  6. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  7. Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl-rhodium and iridium complexes containing (N^N and N^O) bound chloroquine analogue ligands: synthesis, characterization and antimalarial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekengard, Erik; Kumar, Kamlesh; Fogeron, Thibault; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Haukka, Matti; Monari, Magda; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2016-03-07

    The synthesis and characterization of twenty new pentamethylcyclopentadienyl-rhodium and iridium complexes containing N^N and N^O-chelating chloroquine analogue ligands are described. The in vitro antimalarial activity of the new ligands as well as the complexes was evaluated against the chloroquine sensitive (CQS) NF54 and the chloroquine resistant (CQR) Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The antimalarial activity was found to be good to moderate; although all complexes are less active than artesunate, some of the ligands and complexes showed better activity than chloroquine (CQ). In particular, rhodium complexes were found to be considerably more active than iridium complexes against the CQS NF54 strain. Salicylaldimine Schiff base ligands having electron-withdrawing groups (F, Cl, Br, I and NO2) in para position of the salicyl moiety and their rhodium complexes showed good antiplasmodial activity against both the CQS-NF54 and the CQR-Dd2 strains. The crystal structures of (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl){N(1)-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N(2)-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine)} chlororhodium(III) chloride and (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl){(4-chloro-2-(((2-((7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino)ethyl)imino)methyl)phenolate)}chlororhodium(III) chloride are reported. The crystallization of the amino-pyridyl complex (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl){(N(1)-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N(2)-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine)}chloroiridium(III) chloride in acetone resulted in the formation of the imino-pyridyl derivative (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl){(N1-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N2-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)ethane-1,2-diamine)}chloroiridium(III) chloride, the crystal structure of which is also reported.

  8. gross behavioral effects of acute doses of artesunate in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sniffing, climbing and scratching activities and these later effects were also seen at the lower ... It was concluded that artesunate may have some clearly definable central nervous .... behavioral parameters at higher doses of the artesunate.

  9. Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and combination therapy with artesunate in Mozambican children with non-complicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abacassamo, F; Enosse, S; Aponte, J J

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a two-phase study in Manhiça district, Mozambique: first we assessed the clinical efficacy and parasitological response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), then we tested the safety and efficacy in the treatment of......% to AQ. Co-administration of AQ + SP, AR + SP and AQ + AR was safe and had 100% clinical efficacy at 14-day follow-up. The combination therapies affected rapid fever clearance time and reduced the incidence of gametocytaemia during follow-up....

  10. single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Mefloquine 500mg single dose was administered and blood samples were collected ... particle size ODS Hypersil (HETP, Macclesfield, UK) at a pressure of 55 Mpa .... dose to area under the plasma drug concentration - time curve, assuming ...

  11. Strengthening of national capacity in implementation of antimalarial drug quality assurance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykadga, Saowanit; Cholpol, Sawat; Sitthimongkol, Saipin; Pawaphutanan, Anusorn; Pinyoratanachot, Arunya; Rojanawatsirivet, Chaiporn; Kovithvattanapong, Rojana; Thimasarn, Krongthong

    2006-01-01

    Substandard and counterfeit pharmaceutical products, including antimalarial drugs, appear to be widespread internationally and affect both the developing and developed countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the quality of antimalarial drugs, ie, artesunate (ART), chloroquine (CHL), mefloquine (MEF), quinine (QUI), sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) and tetracycline (TT) obtained from the government sector and private pharmacies in 4 Thai provinces: Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Ranong, and Chanthaburi. Three hundred sixty-nine samples of 6 antimalarial drugs from 27 government hospitals, 27 malaria clinics, and 53 drugstores, were collected. Drug quality was assessed by simple disintegration test and semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography in each province; 10% passed, 100% failed and doubtful samples were sent to be verified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at the Thai National Drug Analysis Laboratory, (NL). Fifteen point four percent of ART, 11.1% of CHL and 29.4% of QUI were substandard. Based on the finding, drug regulatory authorities in the country took appropriate action against violators to ensure that antimalarial drugs consumed by malaria patients are of good quality.

  12. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  13. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force (ADF has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies.

  14. The position of mefloquine as a 21st century malaria chemoprophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Regep Loredana; Adamcova Miriam; Schlagenhauf Patricia; Schaerer Martin T; Rhein Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis prevents the occurrence of the symptoms of malaria. Travellers to high-risk Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas need an effective chemoprophylaxis. Methods A literature search to update the status of mefloquine as a malaria chemoprophylaxis. Results Except for clearly defined regions with multi-drug resistance, mefloquine is effective against the blood stages of all human malaria species, including the recently recognized fifth species, Plasmodium ...

  15. Progressive increase in point mutations associates chloroquine resistance: Even after withdrawal of chloroquine use in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ is highly effective against P. vivax, due to the rapid spread of CQ resistance in P. falciparum parasites; it is no longer the drug of choice against P. falciparum. This study elucidates the scenario of chloroquine efficacy at times that coincided with a new drug policy and especially assessed the chloroquine resistant molecular markers after withdrawal of chloroquine in Kolkata and Purulia, two malaria endemic zones of West Bengal, India. In vitro CQ susceptibility was tested in 781 patients with P. falciparum mono infections between 2008 and 2013, of which 338 patients had received CQ in 2008–2009. Genotyping of the pfcrt and the pfmdr1 gene was carried out in all isolates. Early treatment failure was detected in 114 patients {43 (31·39% from Kolkata and 71 (35·32% from Purulia} while recrudescence was identified in 13 (9.49% and 17 (8.46% patients from Kolkata and Purulia respectively. In vivo chloroquine resistance was strongly associated with CVMNT-YYSNY (p < 0.01 and SVMNT-YYSNY (p < 0.05 allele in Kolkata. In Purulia chloroquine resistance was associated with CVMNK-YYSNY (P < 0.005, SVMNT-YYSNY (P < 0.01 allele. The proportion of in vitro chloroquine resistance increased in subsequent years to 87.23% and 93·10% in 2013, in Kolkata and Purulia, respectively. Isolates with SVMNT-YFSND, SVMNT-YFSNY, CVIET-YFSND and CVIET-YYSNY haplotypes increased gradually (p < 0.05 from 2010 to 2013, leading to a rise in IC50 (p < 0.05 of chloroquine. An increase in in vitro chloroquine resistance and candidate gene mutations even after five years of chloroquine withdrawal against P. falciparum calls for synchronized research surveillance and proper containment strategies. Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, ChloroQuine resistance in India, pfcrt polymorphism, pfmdr1 mutation, In vitro chloroquine resistance

  16. Mefloquine pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and in peptic ulcer patients after cimetidine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, J A; Mustapha, A; Abudu-Aguye, I; Ochekpe, N

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of orally administered mefloquine were determined in six healthy male subjects and in six ulcer patients before and after a 3-day course of cimetidine (400 mg morning and evening). Peak plasma concentrations Cmax and AUC0-infinity were similarly and significantly (P infinity was increased by 37.5% in healthy and peptic ulcer subjects respectively. The values of t1/2ab absorption and t1/2 beta elimination, total crearance CLT/F and volume of distribution were altered to varying levels after cimetidine treatment but the changes were not statistically significant in both healthy and peptic ulcer subjects. The established long t1/2 beta and this apparent interaction between mefloquine and cimetidine which resulted in increased mefloquine plasma concentration might be of clinical significant in patients with neurological/psychiatric history.

  17. Artesunate Protects Against the Organ Injury and Dysfunction Induced by Severe Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordi, Regina; Nandra, Kiran K; Chiazza, Fausto; Johnson, Florence L; Cabrera, Claudia P; Torrance, Hew D; Yamada, Noriaki; Patel, Nimesh S A; Barnes, Michael R; Brohi, Karim; Collino, Massimo; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of artesunate on organ injury and dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the rat. HS is still a common cause of death in severely injured patients and is characterized by impairment of organ perfusion, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ failure. There is no specific therapy that reduces organ injury/dysfunction. Artesunate exhibits pharmacological actions beyond its antimalarial activity, such as anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. Rats were submitted to HS. Mean arterial pressure was reduced to 30 mm Hg for 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation. Rats were randomly treated with artesunate (2.4 or 4.8 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle upon resuscitation. Four hours later, parameters of organ injury and dysfunction were assessed. Artesunate attenuated the multiple organ injury and dysfunction caused by HS. Pathway analysis of RNA sequencing provided good evidence to support an effect of artesunate on the Akt-survival pathway, leading to downregulation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1. Using Western blot analysis, we confirmed that treatment of HS rats with artesunate enhanced the phosphorylation (activation) of Protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the phosphorylation (inhibition) of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Moreover, artesunate attenuated the HS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B and reduced the expression of proinflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6). Artesunate attenuated the organ injury/dysfunction associated with HS by a mechanism that involves the activation of the Akt-endothelial nitric oxide synthase survival pathway, and the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and nuclear factor kappa B. A phase II clinical trial evaluating the effects of good manufacturing practice-artesunate in patients with trauma and severe hemorrhage is planned.

  18. Modulation of the transient outward current (Ito) in rat cardiac myocytes and human Kv4.3 channels by mefloquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cortes, E.J.; Islas, A.A.; Arevalo, J.P.; Mancilla, C.; Monjaraz, E.; Salinas-Stefanon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The antimalarial drug mefloquine, is known to be a potassium channel blocker, although its mechanism of action has not being elucidated and its effects on the transient outward current (I to ) and the molecular correlate, the K v 4.3 channel has not being studied. Here, we describe the mefloquine-induced inhibition of the rat ventricular I to and of CHO cells co-transfected with human K v 4.3 and its accessory subunit hKChIP2C by whole-cell voltage-clamp. Mefloquine inhibited rat I to and hK v 4.3 + KChIP2C currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a limited voltage dependence and similar potencies (IC 50 = 8.9 μM and 10.5 μM for cardiac myocytes and K v 4.3 channels, respectively). In addition, mefloquine did not affect the activation of either current but significantly modified the hK v 4.3 steady-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The effects of this drug was compared with that of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a well-known potassium channel blocker and its binding site does not seem to overlap with that of 4-AP. - Highlights: • Mefloquine inhibited ventricular I to and hK v 4.3 channels. IC 50 = 8.9 and 10.5 μM. • Inactivation and recovery from inactivation in the hK v 4.3 channels were modified by mefloquine. • Mefloquine displayed a higher affinity for the inactivated state. • The binding site for mefloquine may be located in the extracellular side of the channel.

  19. Effect of chloroquine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increase...... to large particulate antigens; the response to small antigens was not affected. The mode of action of chloroquine and the possible consequences of the findings for dosage of chloroquine when used for malaria prophylaxis is discussed.......The effect of chloroquine on human blood mononuclear cells was studied. High concentrations of chloroquine in vitro profoundly suppressed the proliferation of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated cells, as indicated by decreased 14C-thymidine incorporation. Lower concentrations of chloroquine increased...... the response to pokeweed mitogen. The response to concanavalin A and to various antigens was suppressed, especially the response to large particulate antigens. Oral intake of 300 mg of chloroquine base/week did not affect the lymphocyte proliferative responses. 600 mg of base/week decreased the response...

  20. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  1. Comparison of oral artesunate and dihydroartemisinin antimalarial bioavailabilities in acute falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton, Paul N.; van Vugt, Michele; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Siriyanonda, Duangsuda; Rasameesoroj, Maneerat; Teerapong, Pramote; Ruangveerayuth, Ronatrai; Slight, Thra; Nosten, Francois; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; White, Nicholas J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma antimalarial activity following oral artesunate or dihydroartemisinin (DHA) treatment was measured by a bioassay in 18 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The mean antimalarial activity in terms of the bioavailability of DHA relative to that of artesunate did not differ

  2. [Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Torres, V A; Silva, C A; Correia, D; Carvalho, E M; Magalhães, A V; Macêdo, V de O

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of skin leishmaniasis in patients infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis at an endemic region. Mefloquine is an oral drug effective against malaria with a prolonged half-life, less toxicity and easier administration than pentavalent antimonials. At Corte de Pedra in the Southern litoral of Bahia State, two randomized groups of ten patients with leishmaniasis were treated. The first group was treated with oral mefloquine, 250 mg per day in a single dose for six days and repeated three weeks later. The second group received meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), 20 mg/kg daily administered intravenously for 20 days. Only one patient in the group treated with mefloquine showed evidence of clinical success. During treatment, one patient with four lesions developed a new lesion. The other three patients with clinical leismaniasis did not show evidence of clinical success after nine weeks of treatment. The group treated with Glucantime showed evident clinical improvement of the skin lesions.

  3. Study of radiation sensitization of artesunate on human HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Rong; Cao Jianping; Chen Xialin; Zhu Wei; Jiang Qing; Pan Chunyan; Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Peng Xiaomei; Liu Yang; Fan Saijun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitizing effects of artesunate on human HeLa cells of cervical cancer in vitro. Methods: Hela cells irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. The dose rate was 0.635 Gy/min and the radiation dose was 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 Gy, respectively. The anti-proliferation activities of artesunate on HeLa cells were evaluated with MTT assay, to determine the most appropriate drug concentration. The effect of radiosensitivity was observed by using clonogenic assay. The single-hit multi-target model was used to plot the HeLa cell's dose-survival curve, to calculate mean lethal dose, quasi-threshold dose and sensitization enhancement rate, and to evaluate its radiosensitization effect. The apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry (FCM) to further test the radiation sensitization of artesunate on HeLa cells. Results: The inhibition of artesunate on HeLa cells increased with concentration. In radiation group, the cell cloning efficiency were 91.67%, 82.02%, 58.06%, 25.01%, respectively, and in artesunate (2.0 μmol/L) + radiation group, the cell cloning efficiency were 74.93%, 60.53%, 22.38%, 5.05%. In radiation group and artesunate (2.0 μmol/L) + radiation group, the mean lethal dose (D 0 ) was 2.95 and 2.07 Gy, respectively, while the qusai-threshold dose (D q ) were 2.01 and 1.24 Gy, respectively, and SER was 1.43. Compared with 2 and 6 Gy radiation group, the apoptosis rate of drug + radiation group increased from 12.26%, 40.08% to 22.71%, 59.92. Conclusions: The inhibiting effect of artesunate on HeLa cells is concentration-dependent. Artesunate has radiosensitizing effect on HeLa cells in vitro. (authors)

  4. Treatment outcome of intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter Annemarie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous (IV artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, however, no GMP-manufactured product is available and treatment data in European travellers are scarce. Fortunately, artesunate became available in the Netherlands and Belgium through a named patient programme. This is the largest case series of artesunate treated patients with severe malaria in Europe. Methods Hospitalized patients treated with IV artesunate between November 2007 and December 2010 in the Netherlands and Belgium were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, treatment and clinical outcome were recorded on a standardized form and mortality, parasite clearance times and the occurrence of adverse events were evaluated. Results Of the 68 treated patients, including 55 with severe malaria, two patients died (2/55 = 3.6%. The mean time to 50% parasite clearance (PCT50, 90% and 99% were 4.4 hours (3.9 - 5.2, 14.8 hours (13.0 - 17.2, and 29.5 hours (25.9 - 34.4 respectively. Artesunate was well tolerated. However, an unusual form of haemolytic anaemia was observed in seven patients. The relationship with artesunate remains uncertain. Conclusions Data from the named patient programme demonstrate that IV artesunate is effective and well-tolerated in European travellers lacking immunity. However, increased attention needs to be paid to the possible development of haemolytic anaemia 2-3 weeks after start of treatment. Treatment of IV artesunate should be limited to the period that IV treatment is required and should be followed by a full oral course of an appropriate anti-malarial drug.

  5. Antimalarial Bioavailability and Disposition of Artesunate in Acute Falciparum Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Paul; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Navaratnam, V; Bates, Imelda; White, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of oral and intravenous artesunate (2 mg/kg of body weight) were studied in 19 adult patients with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria by using a randomized crossover design. A sensitive bioassay was used to measure the antimalarial activity in plasma which results from artesunate and its principal metabolite, dihydroartemisinin. The oral study was repeated with 15 patients during convalescence. The mean absolute oral bioavailability of the antimal...

  6. Artesunate prevents rats from the clozapine-induced hepatic steatosis and elevation in plasma triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanmei Li,1,2 Ruibing Su,3 Shuqin Xu,2 Qingjun Huang,1 Haiyun Xu1,2 1The Mental Health Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Forensics and Pathology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. However, the use of clozapine has been limited by its adverse effects on metabolism. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and was shown to decrease the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in rabbits and rats in recent studies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of artesunate on the clozapine-induced metabolic alterations in rats given saline, clozapine, artesunate, or clozapine plus artesunate for 6 weeks. The clozapine group showed significantly high plasma levels of triglyceride, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis along with high levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the saline group. But the treatment had no effect on weight gain and caused no hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and behavioral changes in the rats. More significantly, these clozapine-induced changes were not seen in rats coadministered with clozapine plus artesunate. These results added evidence supporting psychiatrists to try add-on treatment of artesunate in schizophrenia patients to ameliorate clozapine-induced adverse metabolic effects. Keywords: artesunate, clozapine, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, schizophrenia 

  7. Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe...... malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self...... of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure....

  8. Malaria and mefloquine prophylaxis use among Japan Ground Self-Defense Force personnel deployed in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Kaku, Koki; Jelinek, Tomas; Kimura, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    Malaria poses a significant threat to military personnel stationed in endemic areas; therefore, it is important to examine the risks of military operations, particularly in areas where malaria-related data are scarce. The recent deployment of Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) for a peacekeeping operation in East Timor provided an opportunity to investigate these risks. The results of these studies may be translated into chemoprophylactic strategies for travelers. A total of 1,876 members were deployed between April 2002 and September 2003. They consisted of three battalions; each remained for 6 months and was put on mefloquine prophylaxis. Malaria infection was investigated, including exposure to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, assessed by seroconversion for anticircumsporozoite (anti-CS) protein antibodies. Adherence to and adverse events (AEs) of mefloquine were studied via questionnaires. Four members were evacuated: one each with optic neuritis, lung cancer with brain metastasis, IgA nephropathy, and psychotic reactions that may have been precipitated by mefloquine. Six clinical episodes of Plasmodium vivax occurred, including one relapse, but there were no clinical cases of P falciparum, yielding a crude malaria attack rate of 0.32% for the 6-month period. Overall, 3.1% of the study population seroconverted for the anti-CS protein antibodies, with some regional differences noted. About 24% of questionnaire respondents, reported AEs; however, none of the AEs was severe. The AEs tended to emerge during the initial doses of chemoprophylaxis. The implementation of mefloquine prophylaxis among JGSDF personnel in East Timor, where P falciparum constitutes a moderate risk, appears to have been a success. Mefloquine prophylaxis was generally safe for Japanese unless predisposed to neuropsychiatric illness. However, given that mefloquine is the only chemoprophylactic agent available, a risk-benefit analysis tailored to the traveler is required for visits to

  9. In vitro action of antiparasitic drugs, especially artesunate, against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thaís Cobellis; de Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco; Lescano, Susana Angélica Zevallos; Amato-Neto, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is usually a benign infection, except in the event of ocular, central nervous system (CNS), or congenital disease and particularly when the patient is immunocompromised. Treatment consists of drugs that frequently cause adverse effects; thus, newer, more effective drugs are needed. In this study, the possible activity of artesunate, a drug successfully being used for the treatment of malaria, on Toxoplasma gondii growth in cell culture is evaluated and compared with the action of drugs that are already being used against this parasite. LLC-MK2 cells were cultivated in RPMI medium, kept in disposable plastic bottles, and incubated at 36ºC with 5% CO2. Tachyzoites of the RH strain were used. The following drugs were tested: artesunate, cotrimoxazole, pentamidine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and trimethoprim. The effects of these drugs on tachyzoites and LLC-MK2 cells were analyzed using nonlinear regression analysis with Prism 3.0 software. Artesunate showed a mean tachyzoite inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.075µM and an LLC MK2 toxicity of 2.003µM. Pyrimethamine was effective at an IC50 of 0.482µM and a toxicity of 11.178µM. Trimethoprim alone was effective against the in vitro parasite. Cotrimoxazole also was effective against the parasite but at higher concentrations than those observed for artesunate and pyrimethamine. Pentamidine and quinine had no inhibitory effect over tachyzoites. Artesunate is proven in vitro to be a useful alternative for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, implying a subsequent in vivo effect and suggesting the mechanism of this drug against the parasite.

  10. Carriers, channels and chloroquine efficacy in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that chloroquine resistance is mediated by an energy-dependent saturable chloroquine efflux carrier. An alternative explanation is that resistance is mediated by a channel. In Guinea-Bissau high doses of chloroquine are effective, well-tolerated and commonly used....... This suggests that chloroquine resistance can be overcome by higher doses. Research on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance is of utmost importance and should include the effect of higher doses....

  11. Artesunate-induced testicular injury: Oil from selected spices blend modulates redox homeostasis and exacerbates steroidogenesis in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of oil from blends of selected culinary spices against artesunate-induced testicular injury in albino rats was investigated. Two groups of rats each were pretreated with the oil at 1.5 and 3.00 mL respectively for seven days and after which administered artesunate (100 mg/kg bw for seven days; two other groups were administered artesunate for seven days and after which post treated with the oil at both doses respectively for another seven days; another groups were co-administered artesunate and the oil for seven days. A group was administered artesunate only for seven days, while another was fed chows only. After sacrifice, the testicular homogenates of the rats were analysed for GSH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Lipid peroxidation (LPO, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities. LPO and GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in rats administered artesunate only, these were significantly lowered in all treatment groups. Administration of artesunate significantly suppressed steroidogenesis, this was attenuated in all treatment groups. The antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidative and steriodogenetic effects of the oil indicate its protective potential against artesunate-induced oxidative testicular damage.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of mefloquine and its effect on sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim steady-state blood levels in intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) of pregnant HIV-infected women in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Otieno, Kephas; Katana, Abraham; Slutsker, Laurence; Kariuki, Simon; Ouma, Peter; González, Raquel; Menendez, Clara; ter Kuile, Feiko; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-05

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is contra-indicated in HIV-positive pregnant women receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Since mefloquine is being considered as a replacement for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in this vulnerable population, an investigation on the pharmacokinetic interactions of mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant, HIV-infected women was performed. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 124 HIV-infected, pregnant women on a standard regimen of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Seventy-two subjects received three doses of mefloquine (15 mg/kg) at monthly intervals. Dried blood spots were collected from both placebo and mefloquine arms four to 672 h post-administration and on day 7 following a second monthly dose of mefloquine. A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to simultaneously measure mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim from each blood spot. Non-compartmental methods using a naïve-pooled data approach were used to determine mefloquine pharmacokinetic parameters. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis did not noticeably influence mefloquine pharmacokinetics relative to reported values. The mefloquine half-life, observed clearance (CL/f), and area-under-the-curve (AUC0→∞) were 12.0 days, 0.035 l/h/kg and 431 µg-h/ml, respectively. Although trimethoprim steady-state levels were not significantly different between arms, sulfamethoxazole levels showed a significant 53% decrease after mefloquine administration relative to the placebo group and returning to pre-dose levels at 28 days. Although a transient decrease in sulfamethoxazole levels was observed, there was no change in hospital admissions due to secondary bacterial infections, implying that mefloquine may have provided antimicrobial protection.

  13. In vitro action of antiparasitic drugs, especially artesunate, against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Cobellis Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is usually a benign infection, except in the event of ocular, central nervous system (CNS, or congenital disease and particularly when the patient is immunocompromised. Treatment consists of drugs that frequently cause adverse effects; thus, newer, more effective drugs are needed. In this study, the possible activity of artesunate, a drug successfully being used for the treatment of malaria, on Toxoplasma gondii growth in cell culture is evaluated and compared with the action of drugs that are already being used against this parasite. METHODS: LLC-MK2 cells were cultivated in RPMI medium, kept in disposable plastic bottles, and incubated at 36ºC with 5% CO2. Tachyzoites of the RH strain were used. The following drugs were tested: artesunate, cotrimoxazole, pentamidine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and trimethoprim. The effects of these drugs on tachyzoites and LLC-MK2 cells were analyzed using nonlinear regression analysis with Prism 3.0 software. RESULTS: Artesunate showed a mean tachyzoite inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.075µM and an LLC MK2 toxicity of 2.003µM. Pyrimethamine was effective at an IC50 of 0.482µM and a toxicity of 11.178µM. Trimethoprim alone was effective against the in vitro parasite. Cotrimoxazole also was effective against the parasite but at higher concentrations than those observed for artesunate and pyrimethamine. Pentamidine and quinine had no inhibitory effect over tachyzoites. CONCLUSIONS: Artesunate is proven in vitro to be a useful alternative for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, implying a subsequent in vivo effect and suggesting the mechanism of this drug against the parasite.

  14. The prevalence and degree of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to first-line antimalarial drugs: an in vitro study from a malaria endemic region in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shamahy, H.; Al-Harazy, Abdulilah Hussein; Harmal, Nabil S.; Al-Kabsi, Abdulgudos N.

    2007-01-01

    Unpublished studies on antimalarial drug efficacy have found low levels of chloroquine resistance in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the current prevalence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen to the main anti-malarial drugs and to determine the effective concentration (EC) values. The WHO standard protocol was used for the selection of subjects, collection of blood samples, culture techniques, examination of post-culture blood slides and interpretation of results. The in vitro micro-test Mark III was used for assessing susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates. The criteria for blood parasite density was met by 219 P. falciparum malaria patients. Chloroquine resistance was found in 47% of isolated P. falciparum schizonts. Mefloquine resistance was found in 5.2%. In addition, the EC50 and EC95 values in blood that inhibited schizont maturation in resistant isolates were higher than the normal therapeutic level for mefloquine. No resistance occurred against quinine or artemisinin, with no growth at the cut off level for quinine and inhibition at low concentrations of artemisinin. Our study confirmed the occurrence of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and a slow increase in the rate of this resistance will increase further and spread over all the foci of malaria in Yemen. The low rate of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum was lower than that reported in Africa or Southeast Asia, but is the first report of the mefloquine resistance in Yemen. Finally, the isolates were sensitive to low concentrations of quinine and artemisinin. (author)

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate during severe malaria treatment in Ugandan adults

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline

    2012-04-27

    AbstractBackgroundSevere malaria is a medical emergency with high mortality. Prompt achievement of therapeutic concentrations of highly effective anti-malarial drugs reduces the risk of death. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous artesunate in Ugandan adults with severe malaria.MethodsFourteen adults with severe falciparum malaria requiring parenteral therapy were treated with 2.4 mg\\/kg intravenous artesunate. Blood samples were collected after the initial dose and plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin measured by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study was approved by the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (Ref2010-015) and Uganda National Council of Science and Technology (HS605) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01122134).ResultsAll study participants achieved prompt resolution of symptoms and complete parasite clearance with median (range) parasite clearance time of 17 (8–24) hours. Median (range) maximal artesunate concentration (Cmax) was 3260 (1020–164000) ng\\/mL, terminal elimination half-life (T1\\/2) was 0.25 (0.1-1.8) hours and total artesunate exposure (AUC) was 727 (290–111256) ng·h\\/mL. Median (range) dihydroartemisinin Cmax was 3140 (1670–9530) ng\\/mL, with Tmax of 0.14 (0.6 – 6.07) hours and T1\\/2 of 1.31 (0.8–2.8) hours. Dihydroartemisinin AUC was 3492 (2183–6338) ng·h\\/mL. None of the participants reported adverse events.ConclusionsPlasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were achieved rapidly with rapid and complete symptom resolution and parasite clearance with no adverse events.

  16. Radiosensitizing effect of artesunate on nude mice transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Zhang Xuguang; Zhu Wei; Ni Qianying; Geng Chong; Chen Guanglie; Luo Judong; Fan Saijun; Cao Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitization of artesunate on nude mouse transplanted with HeLa cells,and to explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: HeLa cells were inoculated into the nude mice to establish tumor model. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups as blank control,artesunate group, radiation group and artesunate + radiation group when average volume of tumor were about 5 mm × 5 mm× 5 mm. During the term of treatment, the volume of tumors were measured every 2 days. After 14 days treatment, the mice were killed and tumor tissues were harvested for flow cytometry to detect the alteration of cell cycle. Meanwhile, the pathological change of the tumor tissue was observed with HE staining method, and the change of expression of cycle regulatory protein Cyclin B1, Cdc2 and Wee1 were detected by Western blot. Results: The growth of tumor was significantly inhibited by artesunate combined with radiation and its inhibition rate was 72.34%. Flow cytometry results showed that the percent of cells in G 1 phase increased and G 2 phase decreased in the artesunate + radiation group compared with those in irradiation group (t=4.41, 4.12, P<0.05). The expression level of Cyclin B1 was obviously increased while that of Wee1 decreased in the artesunate + radiation compared with irradiation group. There was no difference in the expression of Cdc2 among the four groups. Conclusions: Artesunate can dramatically increase the radiosensitivity of transplanted tumor of HeLa cells. The possible mechanism might be related to the decreasing G 2 phase by regulating the expression of Cyclin B1 and Wee1. (authors)

  17. PENGOBATAN PENDERITA MALARIA FALSIPARUM TANPA KOMPLIKASI DENGAN MEFLOKUIN DI DAERAH RESISTEN KLOROKUIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with mefloquine of uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients was undertaken in ITCI Hospital, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia in 1991. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of mefloquine, and to assess in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum to other antimalarials currently in use. A total of 16 falciparum malaria patients who had been selected according to WHO criteria for the drug sensitivity test were treated with 750 mg mefloquine single dose orally. All patients were hospitalized for 3-5 days and followed up on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Clinical and parasitological examinations were carried out during the study, haematological and biochemical examinations were also performed before drug administration and when the patient was discharged from the hospital. The main presenting symptoms were chills, headache and fever. Cure rate was 100% with the mean fever clearance time and parasite clearance time was 9.3 ±_ 2.4 hours and 47.1 +_ 3.7 hours respectively. No significant drug-related changes were noted in hematological or biochemical parameters. Only nausea was observed as a side effect of mefloquine which was mild and disappeared without treatment. ITCI Hospital area is a highly chloroquine resistant area (90,9% and also as a multidrug resistant area (50%. This study shows that mefloquine is effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falcipamm malaria resistant to chloroquine as well as for multidrug resistant cases.

  18. Chloroquine induced parkinsonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of parkinsonism is reported in a 5-years-old male child following prolonged use of chloroquine. The patient presented with reduced spontaneous movements and speech with an expressionless face and a parkinsonian gait but no tremors. His investigations including CT scan brain, CSF study and serum ceruloplasmin were normal. Chloroquine was discontinued and the patient was started on oral trihexyphenidyl. The patient showed gradual recovery and the drug was successfully withdrawn. The toxic manifestations were only transient and reversible.

  19. Effective treatment with a tetrandrine/chloroquine combination for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Aotus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro evidence indicates that tetrandrine (TT) can potentiate the action of chloroquine 40-fold against choloquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The key question emanating from that study is “would tetrandine and chloroquine be highly effective in a live Aotus monkey model with chloroquine-resistant parasites”. This study was designed to closely mimic the pharmacological/anti-malarial activity in man. Methods The Vietnam Smith/RE strain of P. falciparum, which is chloroquine-resistant was used in this study. Previous experimental procedures were followed. Panamanian owl monkeys (Aotus) were inoculated with 5×106 erythrocytes parasitized with the CQ-resistant strain of P. falciparum. Oral drug treatment was with CQ (20 mg/kg) and/or tetrandrine at 15 mg/Kg, 30 mg/Kg or 60 mg/Kg or 25 mg/Kg depending on experimental conditions. Results and Discussion Parasitaemia was cleared rapidly with CQ and TT while CQ treatment alone was ineffective. Recrudescence of malaria occurred after seven days post-infection. However, four animals were treated orally with TT and CQ parasites were cleared. It is likely that monkeys were cured via a combination of both drug and host immune responses. A single Aotus monkey infected with P. falciparum and untreated with drugs, died. No side effects were observed with these drug treatments. Conclusions This combination of chloroquine and tetrandrine forms the basis of a new attack on chloroquine-resistant malaria - one based upon inhibition of the basis of chloroquine resistance, the multiple drug resistance pump. Previous studies demonstrated that the parasite MDR pump was found on parasite membranes using 3H azidopine photoaffinity labelling. Since MDR-based choloroquine resistance is induced by chloroquine, the basis of the action of tetrandrine is the following: 1) tetrandrine inhibits the MDR pump by stimulating MDR ATPase which limits the energy of the pump by depletion of parasite ATP, 2) tetrandrine blocks the

  20. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bogaczewicz; Tomasz Sobów

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine anal...

  1. The effect of artesunate on short-term memory in Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Hakkarainen-Smith, J S; Monro, J A

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is associated with memory deficits. While this may be related to cerebral infection by Borrelia bacteria, it may also be caused by concomitant co-infection by Babesia protozoa. The anti-malarial artemisinin-derivative artesunate has been shown to be effective against a number of Babesia species and to have efficacy against human cerebral malaria. We hypothesised that concomitant administration of artesunate in Lyme borreliosis patients would help alleviate the severity of self-reported short-term memory impairment. This hypothesis was tested in a small pilot study in which patients were treated with both an intravenous antibiotic and oral artesunate (20mg four times per day); treatment was associated with a reduction in the severity of short-term memory difficulties (P≃0.08). In light of these findings, we recommend that a formal randomised, placebo-controlled study be carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine analogues used in standard doses, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, skin reactions, hypotension, convulsions, extrapyramidal symptoms and visual disturbances. Psychiatric side effects of chloroquine seem to be rare, but may manifest in a wide range of symptoms, such as confusion, disorientation, ideas of persecution, agitation, outbursts of violence, loss of interest, feeling sad, suicidal ideas and impaired insight. There is also a report of a manic episode with psychotic features in the course of bipolar disorder, and another case report of persecutory delusions, anxiety, derealisation and visual illusions triggered by chloroquine. The duration of psychiatric symptoms usually ranges from one to two weeks, and symptoms usually disappear within several days following cessation of chloroquine usage and starting psychiatric treatment where indicated. This article reviews the case studies of patients diagnosed with mental disorders resulting from the use of chloroquine, and discusses the management in such cases.

  3. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects.

  4. Antimuscarinic effects of chloroquine in rat pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habara, Y.; Williams, J.A.; Hootman, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Chloroquine inhibited carbachol-induced amylase release in a dose-dependent fashion in rat pancreatic acini; cholecystokinin- and bombesin-induced secretory responses were almost unchanged by the antimalarial drug. The inhibition of carbachol-induced amylase release by chloroquine was competitive in nature with a K/sub i/ of 11.7 μM. Chloroquine also inhibited [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine binding to acinar muscarinic receptors. The IC 50 for chloroquine inhibition of [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine binding was lower than that for carbachol or the other antimalarial drugs, quinine and quinidine. These results demonstrate that chloroquine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist in the exocrine pancreas

  5. Post-treatment haemolysis in severe imported malaria after intravenous artesunate: case report of three patients with hyperparasitaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolling Thierry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parenteral artesunate has been shown to be a superior treatment option compared to parenteral quinine in adults and children with severe malaria. Little evidence, however, is available on long-term safety. Recently, cases of late-onset haemolysis after parenteral treatment with artesunate have been reported in European travellers with imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Therefore, an extended follow-up of adult patients treated for severe imported malaria was started in August 2011 at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Until January 2012, three patients with hyperparasitaemia (range: 14-21% were included for analysis. In all three patients, delayed haemolysis was detected in the second week after the first dose of intravenous artesunate. Reticulocyte production index remained inadequately low in the 7 – 14 days following the first dose of artesunate despite rapid parasite clearance. Post-treatment haemolysis after parenteral artesunate may be of clinical relevance in particular in imported severe malaria characterized by high parasite levels. Extended follow-up of at least 30 days including controls of haematological parameters after artesunate treatment seems to be indicated. Further investigations are needed to assess frequency and pathophysiological background of this complication.

  6. Efficacy of monotherapies and artesunate-based combination therapies in children with uncomplicated malaria in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsame, Marian; Atta, Hoda; Klena, John D; Waqar, Butt Ahmed; Elmi, Hussein Haji; Jibril, Ali Mohamed; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Hassan, Abdullahi Mohamed

    2009-02-01

    In order to guide the antimalarial treatment policy of Somalia, we conducted therapeutic efficacy studies of routinely used antimalarial monotherapies as well as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for uncomplicated malaria in three sentinel sites during 2003-2006. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine/pyrimetahmine (SP) monotherapies, and artesunate plus SP (AS+SP) or AQ (AS+AQ) were evaluated in children 6 months to 10 years old with uncomplicated malaria. For the assessment of the monotherapies, 2003 WHO protocol with 14-day follow-up was used while the 2005 WHO protocol with 28-day follow-up was used for testing the ACTs. Of the monotherapies, CQ performed very poorly with treatment failures varying from 76.5% to 88% between the sites. AQ treatment failure was low except for Janale site with treatment failure of 23.4% compared to 2.8% and 8% in Jamame and Jowhar, respectively. For SP, treatment failures from 7.8% to 12.2% were observed. A 28-day test of artemisinin-based combinations, AS+SP and AS+AQ, proved to be highly efficacious with cure rates of 98-100% supporting the choice of AS+SP combination as first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria for Somalia.

  7. Carbamazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adasuve); certain medications to treat malaria such as chloroquine (Aralen) and mefloquine ; medications for anxiety or mental ... pills, patches, rings, injections, implants, or intrauterine devices). Use another form of birth control while taking carbamazepine. ...

  8. Malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers to east Africa: a comparative prospective study of chloroquine plus proguanil with chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogh, S; Schapira, A; Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Mordhorst, C H; Kuijlen, K; Ravn, P; Rønn, A; Gøtzsche, P C

    1988-03-19

    As malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has become resistant to chloroquine alternative drug regimens need to be developed. The prophylactic efficacy against malaria and the side effects of chloroquine phosphate 500 mg weekly with proguanil hydrochloride 200 mg daily was compared with the efficacy of chloroquine 500 mg weekly with sulfadoxine 500 mg-pyrimethamine 25 mg weekly in a randomised study of Scandinavian travellers to Kenya and Tanzania during 1984-5. A total of 767 subjects (416 male and 351 female; 384 taking chloroquine phosphate with proguanil hydrochloride and 383 taking chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) completed a diary on the breakthrough of malaria and the side effects of treatment while taking the drugs. They were also asked to make thick blood films when symptoms like those of malaria occurred, which were sent to and analysed in Denmark. Four subjects taking chloroquine with proguanil hydrochloride and three taking chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine developed falciparum malaria, which was verified microscopically. Side effects were reported by 36 subjects taking chloroquine phosphate with proguanil hydrochloride and 55 taking the other regimen (p = 0.043). The side effects of both regimens were generally mild, but the combination of chloroquine phosphate with proguanil hydrochloride is recommended because it results in fewer side effects. As breakthroughs of malaria occurred at the earliest after seven weeks self treatment should not be recommended for travellers staying only a short time. Thick blood films are useful for diagnosis of suspected cases of malaria, can be prepared by non-specialists in Africa, and can be analysed successfully after long delays.

  9. Chloroquine use improves dengue-related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carvalho Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in the world. As chloroquine, an antimalarial agent, has shown some antiviral effects, this study evaluated its effect in patients with dengue. A randomised, double-blind study was performed by administering chloroquine or placebo for three days to 129 patients with dengue-related symptoms. Of these patients, 37 were confirmed as having dengue and completed the study; in total, 19 dengue patients received chloroquine and 18 received placebo. There was no significant difference in the duration of the disease or the degree and days of fever. However, 12 patients (63% with confirmed dengue reported a substantial decrease in pain intensity and a great improvement in their ability to perform daily activities (p = 0.0004 while on the medication and the symptoms returned immediately after these patients stopped taking the medication. The same effect was not observed in patients with diseases other than dengue. Therefore, this study shows that patients with dengue treated with chloroquine had an improvement in their quality of life and were able to resume their daily activities. However, as chloroquine did not alter the duration of the disease or the intensity and days of fever, further studies are necessary to confirm the clinical effects and to assess the side effects of chloroquine in dengue patients.

  10. Intravenous artesunate reduces parasite clearance time, duration of intensive care, and hospital treatment in patients with severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous artesunate improves survival in severe malaria, but clinical trial data from nonendemic countries are scarce. The TropNet severe malaria database was analyzed to compare outcomes of artesunate vs quinine treatment. Artesunate reduced parasite clearance time and duration of intensive...

  11. The study on the effect of artesunate on the radio-sensitivity of human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Chong; Cao Jianping; Ni Qianying

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of artesunate on radio-sensitivity of human cervical cancer cells in vitro. The human cervical cancer cells HeLa and Siha were used as the experimental cells. MTT assay was used to determine the most appropriate drug concentration in the subsequent experiment, and the effect of human cervical cancer cells treated with artesunate and irradiation of 60 Co γ-rays was studied by using conventional chromosomal aberration analysis and cytokinesis block method (CB method). The results show that when the concentration of artesunate in this experiment was 2.0 μmol/L for HeLa cell and 4.0 μmol/L for Siha cell respectively, the chromosome aberration, micronuclei cell and micronuclei rates of HeLa cells treated with artesunate were more serious than that of the only irradiation, but there is almost no change with Siha cells. (authors)

  12. A series of structurally simple chloroquine chemosensitizing dibemethin derivatives that inhibit chloroquine transport by PfCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zishiri, Vincent K; Hunter, Roger; Smith, Peter J; Taylor, Dale; Summers, Robert; Kirk, Kiaran; Martin, Rowena E; Egan, Timothy J

    2011-05-01

    A series of 12 new dibemethin (N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-phenylmethanamine) derivatives bearing an N-aminomethyl group attached to the one phenyl ring and an H, Cl, OCH3 or N(CH3)2 group on the other have been synthesized. These compounds all showed strong chloroquine chemosensitizing activity, comparable to verapamil, when present at 1 μM in an in vitro culture of the chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Their N-formylated derivatives also exhibited resistance-reversing activity, but only at substantially higher IC10 concentrations. A number of the dibemethin derivatives were shown to inhibit chloroquine transport via the parasite's 'chloroquine resistance transporter' (PfCRT) in a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. The reduced resistance-reversing activity of the formylated compounds relative to their free amine counterparts can probably be ascribed to two factors: decreased accumulation of the formylated dibemethins within the parasite's internal digestive vacuole (believed to be the site of action of chloroquine), and a reduced ability to inhibit PfCRT. The resistance-reversing activity of the compounds described here demonstrates that the amino group need not be attached to the two aromatic rings via a three or four carbon chain as has been suggested by previous QSAR studies. These compounds may be useful as potential side chains for attaching to a 4,7-dichloroquinoline group in order to generate new resistance-reversing chloroquine analogues with inherent antimalarial activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and amodiaquine in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Alphonse

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacokinetic (PK data on amodiaquine (AQ and artesunate (AS are limited in children, an important risk group for malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK properties of a newly developed and registered fixed dose combination (FDC of artesunate and amodiaquine. Methods A prospective population pharmacokinetic study of AS and AQ was conducted in children aged six months to five years. Participants were randomized to receive the new artesunate and amodiaquine FDC or the same drugs given in separate tablets. Children were divided into two groups of 70 (35 in each treatment arm to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of AS and AQ, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic models for dihydroartemisinin (DHA and desethylamodiaquine (DeAq, the principal pharmacologically active metabolites of AS and AQ, respectively, and total artemisinin anti-malarial activity, defined as the sum of the molar equivalent plasma concentrations of DHA and artesunate, were constructed using the non-linear mixed effects approach. Relative bioavailability between products was compared by estimating the ratios (and 95% CI between the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC. Results The two regimens had similar PK properties in young children with acute malaria. The ratio of loose formulation to fixed co-formulation AUCs, was estimated as 1.043 (95% CI: 0.956 to 1.138 for DeAq. For DHA and total anti-malarial activity AUCs were estimated to be the same. Artesunate was rapidly absorbed, hydrolysed to DHA, and eliminated. Plasma concentrations were significantly higher following the first dose, when patients were acutely ill, than after subsequent doses when patients were usually afebrile and clinically improved. Amodiaquine was converted rapidly to DeAq, which was then eliminated with an estimated median (range elimination half-life of 9 (7 to 12 days. Efficacy was similar in the two treatments groups, with cure rates of 0

  14. Malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers to east Africa: a comparative prospective study of chloroquine plus proguanil with chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, S; Schapira, A; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1988-01-01

    As malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has become resistant to chloroquine alternative drug regimens need to be developed. The prophylactic efficacy against malaria and the side effects of chloroquine phosphate 500 mg weekly with proguanil hydrochloride 200 mg daily was compared...... with the efficacy of chloroquine 500 mg weekly with sulfadoxine 500 mg-pyrimethamine 25 mg weekly in a randomised study of Scandinavian travellers to Kenya and Tanzania during 1984-5. A total of 767 subjects (416 male and 351 female; 384 taking chloroquine phosphate with proguanil hydrochloride and 383 taking...... chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) completed a diary on the breakthrough of malaria and the side effects of treatment while taking the drugs. They were also asked to make thick blood films when symptoms like those of malaria occurred, which were sent to and analysed in Denmark. Four subjects taking...

  15. Comparative study of dihydroartemisinin and artesunate safety in healthy Thai volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpatanakul, S; Chatsiricharoenkul, S; Khuhapinant, A; Atipas, S; Kaewkungwal, J

    2009-09-01

    As part of new drug development initiatives in Thailand, a new tablet formulation of dihydroartemisinin (DHA, an antimalarial drug) has been developed. Our previous bioequivalence study indicated that the new and reference DHA formulations were well tolerated; however, a significant decrease in hemoglobin was detected after a single 200-mg oral dose. To explore further, a clinical study with an emphasis on hematological parameters was conducted. A single-center, randomized, single-blind, cross-over clinical study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers with a dosage of 300 mg daily for 2 days. Artesunate was used as a comparator. Adverse events were monitored and laboratory parameters on study Days 0, 2, 5, and 7 post drug administrations were analyzed. Eighteen volunteers completed both rounds of the study. Both drugs were well tolerated. All adverse events were mild. Significant decrease in hemoglobin compared to baseline was detected for both drugs 7 days after administration (DHA: 0.48 g/dl, p = 0.007; artesunate 0.38 g/dl, p = 0.001). Transient bone marrow suppression was evidenced by reduction of reticulocytes with a lowest number on study Day 5 (artesunate 75% reduction in reticulocyte count; DHA 47%, p < 0.001 for both drugs compared to baseline). The present study confirmed our previous finding on significant decrease in hemoglobin. Artesunate appeared to have more negative effects on the numbers of reticulocytes and white blood cells than DHA. Systemic laboratory and toxicity profiles presented in this study may be used as a framework for future clinical studies of artemisinin and its derivatives.

  16. Chloroquine induced pruritus - questionnaire based epidemiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of ...

  17. Efficacy and safety of atovaquone/proguanil compared with mefloquine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looareesuwan, S; Wilairatana, P; Chalermarut, K; Rattanapong, Y; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B

    1999-04-01

    The increasing frequency of therapeutic failures in falciparum malaria underscores the need for novel, rapidly effective antimalarial drugs or drug combinations. Atovaquone and proguanil are blood schizonticides that demonstrate synergistic activity against multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. In an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in Thailand, adult patients with acute P. falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to treatment with atovaquone and proguanil/hydrochloride (1,000 mg and 400 mg, respectively, administered orally at 24-hr intervals for three doses) or mefloquine (750 mg administered orally, followed 6 hr later by an additional 500-mg dose). Efficacy was assessed by cure rate (the percentage of patients in whom parasitemia was eliminated and did not recur during 28 days of follow-up), parasite clearance time (PCT), and fever clearance time (FCT). Safety was assessed by sequential clinical and laboratory assessments for 28 days. Atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than mefloquine (cure rate 100% [79 of 79] vs. 86% [68 of 79]; P proguanil and mefloquine treatments did not differ with respect to PCT (mean = 65 hr versus 74 hr) or FCT (mean = 59 hr versus 51 hr). Adverse events were generally typical of malaria symptoms and each occurred in proguanil group. Transient elevations of liver enzyme levels occurred more frequently in patients treated with atovaquone/proguanil than with mefloquine, but the differences were not significant and values returned to normal by day 28 in most patients. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil was well tolerated and more effective than mefloquine in the treatment of acute uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand.

  18. Chloroquine is grossly overdosed and overused but well tolerated in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    High chloroquine doses are commonly prescribed in Guinea-Bissau. Double dose chloroquine has been shown to be more efficacious (92% efficacy) than the standard dose (80% efficacy). However, chloroquine is toxic when overdosed and it is not known if the high doses prescribed in Guinea-Bissau are t...... prescribed to children without parasitaemia. Use of high dose CQ is concurrent with an exceptionally low prevalence of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum.......High chloroquine doses are commonly prescribed in Guinea-Bissau. Double dose chloroquine has been shown to be more efficacious (92% efficacy) than the standard dose (80% efficacy). However, chloroquine is toxic when overdosed and it is not known if the high doses prescribed in Guinea......-Bissau are taken or whether they cause adverse effects. We aimed to determine the dosage of chloroquine commonly prescribed, the doses commonly taken and if there were concentration dependent adverse events in routine practice. Chloroquine prescriptions by 8 physicians and chloroquine intake by 102 children were...

  19. Malaria chemoprophylaxis in travellers to east Africa: a comparative prospective study of chloroquine plus proguanil with chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine

    OpenAIRE

    Fogh, S; Schapira, A; Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Mordhorst, C H; Kuijlen, K; Ravn, P; Rønn, A; Gøtzsche, P C

    1988-01-01

    As malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has become resistant to chloroquine alternative drug regimens need to be developed. The prophylactic efficacy against malaria and the side effects of chloroquine phosphate 500 mg weekly with proguanil hydrochloride 200 mg daily was compared with the efficacy of chloroquine 500 mg weekly with sulfadoxine 500 mg-pyrimethamine 25 mg weekly in a randomised study of Scandinavian travellers to Kenya and Tanzania during 1984-5. A total of 767 subjects (416 ...

  20. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  1. Antimalarial drugs in pregnancy: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosten, François; McGready, Rose; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Bonell, Ana; Verhoeff, Francine; Menendez, Clara; Mutabingwa, Thenonest; Brabin, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    In this review we examine the available information on the safety of antimalarials in pregnancy, from both animal and human studies. The antimalarials that can be used in pregnancy include (1) chloroquine, (2) amodiaquine, (3) quinine, (4) azithromycin, (5) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, (6) mefloquine,

  2. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  3. Chloroquine mediated modulation of Anopheles gambiae gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Abrantes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium development in the mosquito is crucial for malaria transmission and depends on the parasite's interaction with a variety of cell types and specific mosquito factors that have both positive and negative effects on infection. Whereas the defensive response of the mosquito contributes to a decrease in parasite numbers during these stages, some components of the blood meal are known to favor infection, potentiating the risk of increased transmission. The presence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine in the mosquito's blood meal has been associated with an increase in Plasmodium infectivity for the mosquito, which is possibly caused by chloroquine interfering with the capacity of the mosquito to defend against the infection.In this study, we report a detailed survey of the Anopheles gambiae genes that are differentially regulated by the presence of chloroquine in the blood meal, using an A. gambiae cDNA microarray. The effect of chloroquine on transcript abundance was evaluated separately for non-infected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. Chloroquine was found to affect the abundance of transcripts that encode proteins involved in a variety of processes, including immunity, apoptosis, cytoskeleton and the response to oxidative stress. This pattern of differential gene expression may explain the weakened mosquito defense response which accounts for the increased infectivity observed in chloroquine-treated mosquitoes.The results of the present study suggest that chloroquine can interfere with several putative mosquito mechanisms of defense against Plasmodium at the level of gene expression and highlight the need for a better understanding of the impacts of antimalarial agents on parasite transmission.

  4. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259

  5. Artesunate suppositories versus intramuscular artemether for treatment of severe malaria in children in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M E

    2006-03-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given.

  6. Novel short chain chloroquine analogues retain activity against chloroquine resistant K1 Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Paul A; Raynes, Kaylene J; Bray, Patrick G; Park, B Kevin; O'Neill, Paul M; Ward, Stephen A

    2002-11-07

    A series of short chain chloroquine (CQ) derivatives have been synthesized in one step from readily available starting materials. The diethylamine function of CQ is replaced by shorter alkylamine groups (4-9) containing secondary or tertiary terminal nitrogens. Some of these derivatives are significantly more potent than CQ against a CQ resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. We conclude that the ability to accumulate at higher concentrations within the food vacuole of the parasite is an important parameter that dictates their potency against CQ sensitive and the chloroquine resistant K1 P. falciparum.

  7. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  8. Effects of body size and gender on the population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin in pediatric malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carrie A; Tan, Beesan; Duparc, Stephan; Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle; Jung, Donald; Shin, Chang-Sik; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Despite the important role of the antimalarial artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in malaria treatment efforts, there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of these agents in pediatric patients. This study evaluated the effects of body size and gender on the pharmacokinetics of artesunate-DHA using data from pediatric and adult malaria patients. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to obtain a base model consisting of first-order artesunate absorption and one-compartment models for artesunate and for DHA. Various methods of incorporating effects of body size descriptors on clearance and volume parameters were tested. An allometric scaling model for weight and a linear body surface area (BSA) model were deemed optimal. The apparent clearance and volume of distribution of DHA obtained with the allometric scaling model, normalized to a 38-kg patient, were 63.5 liters/h and 65.1 liters, respectively. Estimates for the linear BSA model were similar. The 95% confidence intervals for the estimated gender effects on clearance and volume parameters for artesunate fell outside the predefined no-relevant-clinical-effect interval of 0.75 to 1.25. However, the effect of gender on apparent DHA clearance was almost entirely contained within this interval, suggesting a lack of an influence of gender on this parameter. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of artesunate and DHA following oral artesunate administration can be described for pediatric patients using either an allometric scaling or linear BSA model. Both models predict that, for a given artesunate dose in mg/kg of body weight, younger children are expected to have lower DHA exposure than older children or adults.

  9. Synthesis of New 4-Aminoquinolines and Evaluation of Their In Vitro Activity against Chloroquine-Sensitive and Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima S K Rajapakse

    Full Text Available The efficacy of chloroquine, once the drug of choice in the fight against Plasmodium falciparum, is now severely limited due to widespread resistance. Amodiaquine is one of the most potent antimalarial 4-aminoquinolines known and remains effective against chloroquine-resistant parasites, but toxicity issues linked to a quinone-imine metabolite limit its clinical use. In search of new compounds able to retain the antimalarial activity of amodiaquine while circumventing quinone-imine metabolite toxicity, we have synthesized five 4-aminoquinolines that feature rings lacking hydroxyl groups in the side chain of the molecules and are thus incapable of generating toxic quinone-imines. The new compounds displayed high in vitro potency (low nanomolar IC50, markedly superior to chloroquine and comparable to amodiaquine, against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum, accompanied by low toxicity to L6 rat fibroblasts and MRC5 human lung cells, and metabolic stability comparable or higher than that of amodiaquine. Computational studies indicate a unique mode of binding of compound 4 to heme through the HOMO located on a biphenyl moeity, which may partly explain the high antiplasmodial activity observed for this compound.

  10. Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative analysis of some brands of chloroquine tablets marketed in Maiduguri using spectrophotometric ... and compared with that of the standard, wavelength of maximum absorbance at 331nm for chloroquine. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues: A new structural class of antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayam, Venkatareddy; Ravi, Subban

    2017-07-28

    A novel series of cinnamoylated chloroquine hybrid analogues were synthesized and evaluated as antimalarial agents. The trans cinnamic acid derivatives (3-8) were synthesized by utilizing substituted aldehydes and malanoic acid in DMF catalysed by DABCO. The final cinnamoylated chloroquine analogues (9-14) were synthesized by utilizing DCC coupling reagent. The amido chloroquine (17) was prepared from acid (16) and compound 2 in benzene using SOCl 2 as chlorinating agent. The corresponding ester (15) was prepared from 2-hydroxy acetophenone and 2-bromoacetates in actonitrile in presence of K 2 CO 3  as base followed by basic hydrolysis. The preparation of amide based chloroquine-chalcone analogues (18-22), were obtained by the combination of amido chloroquine (17) and aldehydes in 10% aq. KOH in methanol at room temperature. Further we prepared epichlorohydrin based chloroquine-chalcone analogues (25-28), by reacting the epoxide (24a, 24b and 24c) with 2 and methelenedioxy aniline. In vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain 3D7, chloroquine resistant strain K1 of P. falciparum and in vitro cytotoxicity of compounds using VERO cell line was carried out. The synthesized molecules showed significant in vitro antimalarial activity especially against CQ resistant strain (K1). Among tested compounds, 13, 9 and 10 were found to be the most potent compounds of the series with IC 50 value of 44.06, 48.04 and 59.37 nM against chloroquine resistant K1 strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    rate of disintegration in aqueous medium. Colorimetric ... countries. In Ghana, artesunate-amodiaquine is the ACT of choice2. The cure rate ... authenticity of artemisinin products in the market and ... and the development of drug resistance. The.

  13. Effects of Body Size and Gender on the Population Pharmacokinetics of Artesunate and Its Active Metabolite Dihydroartemisinin in Pediatric Malaria Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Carrie A.; Tan, Beesan; Duparc, Stephan; Borghini-Fuhrer, Isabelle; Jung, Donald; Shin, Chang-Sik; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important role of the antimalarial artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in malaria treatment efforts, there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of these agents in pediatric patients. This study evaluated the effects of body size and gender on the pharmacokinetics of artesunate-DHA using data from pediatric and adult malaria patients. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to obtain a base model consisting of first-order artesunate absorption and on...

  14. Characterization of the commercially-available fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a marker for chloroquine resistance and uptake in a 96-well plate assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C Y Loh

    Full Text Available Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y.

  15. Comprehensive study of proteasome inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and field isolates from Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremsner Peter G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to almost all available antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for new chemotherapeutic compounds. The ubiquitin/proteasome system plays a major role in overall protein turnover, especially in fast dividing eukaryotic cells including plasmodia. Previous studies show that the 20S proteasome is expressed and catalytically active in plasmodia and treatment with proteasome inhibitors arrests parasite growth. This is the first comprehensive screening of proteasome inhibitors with different chemical modes of action against laboratory strains of P. falciparum. Subsequently, a selection of inhibitors was tested in field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon. Methods Epoxomicin, YU101, YU102, MG132, MG115, Z-L3-VS, Ada-Ahx3-L3-VS, lactacystin, bortezomib (Velcade®, gliotoxin, PR11 and PR39 were tested and compared to chloroquine- and artesunate-activities in a standardized in vitro drug susceptibility assay against P. falciparum laboratory strains 3D7, D10 and Dd2. Freshly obtained field isolates from Lambaréné, Gabon, were used to measure the activity of chloroquine, artesunate, epoxomicin, MG132, lactacystin and bortezomib. Parasite growth was detected through histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 production. Raw data were fitted by a four-parameter logistic model and individual inhibitory concentrations (50%, 90%, and 99% were calculated. Results Amongst all proteasome inhibitors tested, epoxomicin showed the highest activity in chloroquine-susceptible (IC50: 6.8 nM [3D7], 1.7 nM [D10] and in chloroquine-resistant laboratory strains (IC50: 10.4 nM [Dd2] as well as in field isolates (IC50: 8.5 nM. The comparator drug artesunate was even more active (IC50: 1.0 nM, whereas all strains were chloroquine-resistant (IC50: 113 nM. Conclusion The peptide α',β'-epoxyketone epoxomicin is highly active against P. falciparum regardless the grade of the parasite's chloroquine

  16. Role of oxidative stress in therapeutic administration of artesunate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antioxidants, vitamins C and E, on sperm quality, testosterone levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were studied in artesunate treated rats. 25 male rats (160 to 250 g) divided into five groups were used for the study. Group 1 animals received normal saline ...

  17. High-Affinity Accumulation of Chloroquine by Mouse Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Coy D.; Yunis, Norman G.; Chevli, Rekha; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    1974-01-01

    Washed erythrocytes infected with chloroquine-susceptible (CS) or with chloroquine-resistant (CR) P. berghei were used in model systems in vitro to study the accumulation of chloroquine with high affinity. The CS model could achieve distribution ratios (chloroquine in cells: chloroquine in medium) of 100 in the absence of substrate. 200—300 in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate or lactate, and over 600 in the presence of 1 mM glucose or glycerol. In comparable studies of the CR model, the distribution ratios were 100 in the absence of substrate and 300 or less in the presence of glucose or glycerol. The presence of lactate stimulated chloroquine accumulation in the CR model, whereas the presence of pyruvate did not. Lactate production from glucose and glycerol was undiminished in the CR model, and ATP concentrations were higher than in the CS model. Cold, iodoacetate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, or decreasing pH inhibited chloroquine accumulation in both models. These findings demonstrate substrate involvement in the accumulation of chloroquine with high affinity. In studies of the CS model, certain compounds competitively inhibited chloroquine accumulation, while others did not. This finding is attributable to a specific receptor that imposes structural constraints on the process of accumulation. For chloroquine analogues, the position and length of the side chain, the terminal nitrogen atom of the side chain, and the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring are important determinants of binding to this receptor. PMID:4600044

  18. Chloroquine cardiotoxicity mimicking connective tissue disease heart involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereckei, András; Fazakas, Adám; Baló, Timea; Fekete, Béla; Molnár, Mária Judit; Karádi, István

    2013-04-01

    The authors report a case of rare chloroquine cardiotoxicity mimicking connective tissue disease heart involvement in a 56-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) manifested suddenly as third degree A-V block with QT(c) interval prolongation and short torsade de pointes runs ultimately degenerating into ventricular fibrillation. Immunological tests suggested an MCTD flare, implying that cardiac arrest had resulted from myocardial involvement by MCTD. However, QT(c) prolongation is not a characteristic of cardiomyopathy caused by connective tissue disease, unless anti-Ro/SSA positivity is present, but that was not the case. Therefore, looking for another cause of QT(c) prolongation the possibility of chloroquine cardiotoxicity emerged, which the patient had been receiving for almost two years in supramaximal doses. Biopsy of the deltoid muscle was performed, because in chloroquine toxicity, specific lesions are present both in the skeletal muscle and in the myocardium, and electron microscopy revealed the accumulation of cytoplasmic curvilinear bodies, which are specific to antimalarial-induced myocyte damage and are absent in all other muscle diseases, except neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Thus, the diagnosis of chloroquine cardiotoxicity was established. It might be advisable to supplement the periodic ophthalmological examination, which is currently the only recommendation for patients on long-term chloroquine therapy, with ECG screening.

  19. Identification of a Syndrome Class of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions to Mefloquine from Latent Class Modeling of FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Remington L; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie

    2017-03-01

    Although mefloquine use is known to be associated with a risk of severe neuropsychiatric adverse reactions that are often preceded by prodromal symptoms, specific combinations of neurologic or psychiatric reactions associated with mefloquine use are not well described in the literature. This study sought to identify a distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with mefloquine use in reports of adverse events. Latent class modeling of US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data was performed using indicators defined by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities neurologic and psychiatric high-level group terms, in a study dataset of FAERS reports (n = 5332) of reactions to common antimalarial drugs. A distinct neuropsychiatric syndrome class was identified that was strongly and significantly associated with reports of mefloquine use (odds ratio = 3.92, 95% confidence interval 2.91-5.28), defined by a very high probability of symptoms of deliria (82.7%) including confusion and disorientation, and a moderate probability of other severe psychiatric and neurologic symptoms including dementia and amnesia (18.6%) and seizures (18.1%). The syndrome class was also associated with symptoms that are considered prodromal including anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and abnormal dreams, and neurological symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and paresthesias. This study confirms in FAERS reports the existence of a severe mefloquine neuropsychiatric syndrome class associated with common symptoms that may be considered prodromal. Clinical identification of the characteristic symptoms of this syndrome class may aid in improving case finding in pharmacovigilance studies of more serious adverse reactions to the drug.

  20. Study on the effect of artesunate combined with irradiation on DNA damage of HeLa and Siha cells of human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Zhu Wei; Ni Qianying; Geng Chong; Chen Guanglie; Luo Judong; Fan Sanjun; Cao Jianping; Zhang Xuguang

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of artesunate combined with irradiation on DNA damage of HeLa and Siha cells of human cervical cancer, HeLa and Siha cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to different concentration of artesunate for 24 h and MTT assay was used to observe the inhibitory effect of different concentration of artesunate on the proliferation of HeLa and Siha cells. The cells were divided into 2 groups as the irradiated group and the union treatment group. Here it was set up four absorbed doses of 60 Co γ-irradiation in each group with 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy, and the DNA damage were detected by single cell gel electrophoresis assay. MTT analysis showed that the inhibition of artesunate on HeLa and Siha cells of cervical cancer was in concentration-dependent manners. Single cell gel electrophoresis showed that the DNA damage of HeLa cells treated with artesunate was more serious than that treated only with irradiation (P<0.05), but had no such effect on Siha cells. Artesunate can increase the radio-sensitivity of HeLa cells cervical cancer with p53 mutant, but has no such effect on wide type p53 cells. (authors)

  1. Optical coherence tomography in a patient with chloroquine-induced maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korah Sanita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in a case of chloroquine-induced macular toxicity, which to our knowledge, has so far not been reported. A 53-year-old lady on chloroquine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis developed decrease in vision 36 months after initiation of the treatment. Clinical examination revealed evidence of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE disturbances. Humphrey field analyzer (HFA, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA and OCT for retinal thickness and volume measurements at the parafoveal region were done. The HFA revealed bilateral superior paracentral scotomas, FFA demonstrated RPE loss and OCT revealed anatomical evidence of loss of ganglion cell layers, causing marked thinning of the macula and parafoveal region. Parafoveal retinal thickness and volume measurements may be early evidence of chloroquine toxicity, and OCT measurements as a part of chloroquine toxicity screening may be useful in early detection of chloroquine maculopathy.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimalarial Activity Aqueous Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Root aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides was evaluated for antimalarial activity and analyzed for its phytochemical constituents. Twenty-four (24 albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups of 3 mice each. Group 1 served as the control while groups II–IV were orally administered 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weights of extract. Groups 5 and 6 received 1.75 and 5 mg/kg of artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids (2.37%, saponin (0.336, tannin (0.012 per cent, phenol (0.008 per cent, and anthraquinone (0.002 per cent. There was 100 per cent parasite inhibition in the chloroquine group and 70 per cent in the 50 mg/kg body weight on day 12, respectively. The mean survival time (MST, for the control group was 14 days, artesunate 16 days, and chloroquine 30 days, while the groups that received 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight recorded similar MST of 17 days and the 150 mg/kg body weight group recorded 19 days. The results obtained indicated that the aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides may provide an alternative antimalarial.

  3. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Prophylaxis for malaria. Helping world travelers come home healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N M

    1992-09-01

    Malaria is largely preventable, so travelers should be taught general protective measures and given appropriate chemoprophylaxis before they leave on their trip. Chloroquine phosphate (Aralen) is still the drug of choice in locations where malaria remains chloroquine-sensitive. However, chloroquine-resistant areas infested with Plasmodium falciparum are becoming more numerous. In such areas, mefloquine hydrochloride (Lariam), doxycycline, or proguanil (Paludrine) (obtainable outside the United States) may be used. A single dose of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar) may be used to treat presumptive malarial infection if medical care is not immediately available. For prevention of relapse of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infection, primaquine phosphate is recommended for the final 2 weeks of chemoprophylaxis on return from a malarious area.

  5. Chloroquine increases phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt in myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry D. Spears

    2016-03-01

    Significance: These ATM-independent effects of chloroquine on AMPK and Akt and the additional effect to decrease intracellular calcium are likely to partially underlie the positive metabolic effects of chloroquine that have been reported in the literature.

  6. On the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    KAUST Repository

    Chinappi, Mauro

    2010-11-19

    Resistance to chloroquine of malaria strains is known to be associated with a parasite protein named PfCRT, the mutated form of which is able to reduce chloroquine accumulation in the digestive vacuole of the pathogen. Whether the protein mediates extrusion of the drug acting as a channel or as a carrier and which is the protonation state of its chloroquine substrate is the subject of a scientific debate. We present here an analytical approach that explores which combination of hypotheses on the mechanism of transport and the protonation state of chloroquine are consistent with available equilibrium experimental data. We show that the available experimental data are not, by themselves, sufficient to conclude whether the protein acts as a channel or as a transporter, which explains the origin of their different interpretation by different authors. Interestingly, though, each of the two models is only consistent with a subset of hypotheses on the protonation state of the transported molecule. The combination of these results with a sequence and structure analysis of PfCRT, which strongly suggests that the molecule is a carrier, indicates that the transported species is either or both the mono and di-protonated forms of chloroquine. We believe that our results, besides shedding light on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, have implications for the development of novel therapies against resistant malaria strains and demonstrate the usefulness of an approach combining systems biology strategies with structural bioinformatics and experimental data.

  7. On the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    KAUST Repository

    Chinappi, Mauro; Via, Allegra; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to chloroquine of malaria strains is known to be associated with a parasite protein named PfCRT, the mutated form of which is able to reduce chloroquine accumulation in the digestive vacuole of the pathogen. Whether the protein mediates extrusion of the drug acting as a channel or as a carrier and which is the protonation state of its chloroquine substrate is the subject of a scientific debate. We present here an analytical approach that explores which combination of hypotheses on the mechanism of transport and the protonation state of chloroquine are consistent with available equilibrium experimental data. We show that the available experimental data are not, by themselves, sufficient to conclude whether the protein acts as a channel or as a transporter, which explains the origin of their different interpretation by different authors. Interestingly, though, each of the two models is only consistent with a subset of hypotheses on the protonation state of the transported molecule. The combination of these results with a sequence and structure analysis of PfCRT, which strongly suggests that the molecule is a carrier, indicates that the transported species is either or both the mono and di-protonated forms of chloroquine. We believe that our results, besides shedding light on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, have implications for the development of novel therapies against resistant malaria strains and demonstrate the usefulness of an approach combining systems biology strategies with structural bioinformatics and experimental data.

  8. On the Mechanism of Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to chloroquine of malaria strains is known to be associated with a parasite protein named PfCRT, the mutated form of which is able to reduce chloroquine accumulation in the digestive vacuole of the pathogen. Whether the protein mediates extrusion of the drug acting as a channel or as a carrier and which is the protonation state of its chloroquine substrate is the subject of a scientific debate. We present here an analytical approach that explores which combination of hypotheses on the mechanism of transport and the protonation state of chloroquine are consistent with available equilibrium experimental data. We show that the available experimental data are not, by themselves, sufficient to conclude whether the protein acts as a channel or as a transporter, which explains the origin of their different interpretation by different authors. Interestingly, though, each of the two models is only consistent with a subset of hypotheses on the protonation state of the transported molecule. The combination of these results with a sequence and structure analysis of PfCRT, which strongly suggests that the molecule is a carrier, indicates that the transported species is either or both the mono and di-protonated forms of chloroquine. We believe that our results, besides shedding light on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, have implications for the development of novel therapies against resistant malaria strains and demonstrate the usefulness of an approach combining systems biology strategies with structural bioinformatics and experimental data. PMID:21124966

  9. Multifocal Electroretinography after High Dose Chloroquine Therapy for Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate changes in multifocal electroretinography (mfERG parameters associated with high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria in the Amazonia region of Brazil. Methods: Forty-eight subjects who had received chloroquine treatment for single or multiple malaria infections with a cumulative dose ranging from 1,050 to 27,000mg were included. The control group consisted of 37 healthy aged-matched subjects. Data was collected on amplitude and implicit time of the N1, P1 and N2 waves in the central macular hexagon (R1 and in five concentric rings at different retinal eccentricities (R2-R6. Results: No significant difference was observed in any mfERG parameter between chloroquine treated patients and control subjects. A comparison with previous data obtained from patients with rheumatologic disorders in the same region of Brazil who had received larger cumulative doses of chloroquine and had displayed mfERG changes, indicated that retinal toxicity seems to be dependent on cumulative dose. Conclusion: Lack of mfERG changes in the current study suggests that intensive high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria is not associated with retinal toxicity.

  10. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Oo; Myo Khin; Nwe Nwe Oo

    1997-01-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection

  11. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oo, Myint; Khin, Myo; Oo, Nwe Nwe [Department of Medical Research, Yangon (Myanmar)

    1997-12-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection.

  12. Study of radiosensitization of chloroquine on esophageal cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaoli; Li Tao; Huang Jianming; Zha Xiao; Deng Bifang; Lang Jinyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of chloroquine radiosensitization of esophageal cancer cell line TE-1 and its further mechanism. Methods: Effect of chloroquine on cell viability of TE-1 cells was determined by MTT method. Expression of LC3, Beclin-1 and formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) were determined by Western blot, and fluorescence staining with Lyso-Tracker Red DND-99, respectively. Clonogenic survival of TE-1 cells was examined by clonogenic forming assay. Results: Chloroquine showed dose-dependent inhibition of TE-1 cell growth, and its values of IC_5_0 and IC_1_0 were (72.33±5.28) and (15.42±3.33) μmol/L, respectively. The expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/I markedly increased in irradiated TE-1 cells. The addition of chloroquine with IC_1_0 concentration significantly reduced the fluorescence and intensity of AVOs accumulation in the cytoplasm of TE-1 cells. Clonogenic survival fraction decreased obviously in TE-1 cells with addition of chloroquine after radiation and the value of SERD0 was 1.439. Conclusions: Chloroquine could radiosensitize esophageal cancer cells by blocking autophagy-lysosomal pathway and be used as a potential radiosensitizing strategy. (authors)

  13. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  14. Safety of antimalarial medications for use while scuba diving in malaria Endemic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kyle; Regis, David P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational diving occurs annually in areas of the world where malaria is endemic. The safety and efficacy of antimalarials for travelers in a hyperbaric environment is unknown. Of particular concern would be medications with adverse effects that could either mimic diving related illnesses such as barotrauma, decompression sickness (DCS) and gas toxicities, or increase the risk for such illnesses. We conducted a review of PubMed and Cochrane databases to determine rates of neurologic adverse effects or other effects from antimalarials that may be a problem in the diving environment. One case report was found on diving and mefloquine. Multiple case reports and clinical trials were found describing neurologic adverse effects of the major chemoprophylactic medications atovaquone/proguanil, chloroquine, doxycycline, mefloquine, and primaquine. Of the available literature, atovaquone/proguanil and doxycycline are most likely the safest agents and should be preferred; atovaquone/proguanil is superior due to reduced rates of sunburn in the marine environment. Primaquine also appears to be safe, but has reduced efficacy against P. falciparum ; mefloquine possesses the highest rate of neurologic side effects and therefore these agents should be limited to extreme cases of patients intolerant to other agents. Chloroquine appears unsafe in the hyperbaric environment and should be avoided. More studies are required to include database reviews of returned divers traveling to malaria endemic areas and randomized controlled trials in the hyperbaric environments.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and anti-malarial, drug-resistance marker polymorphisms in populations near the China-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Fang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after seven-day artesunate monotherapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yingjiang County along the China-Myanmar border and investigate genetic polymorphisms in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt, multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1, dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr, dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps and ATPase (pfatp6 genes. Methods Patients ≥ one year of age with fever (axillary temperature ≥37.5°C or history of fever and P. falciparum mono-infection were included. Patients received anti-malarial treatment with artesunate (total dose of 16 mg/kg over seven days by directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed based on clinical and parasitological outcomes. Treatment failure was defined as recrudescence of the original parasite and distinguished with new infection confirmed by PCR. Analysis of gene mutation and amplification were performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled; 10 withdrew from the study, and six were lost to follow-up. All but two patients demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitological response; 12 had detectable parasitaemia on day 3. These two patients were confirmed to be new infection by PCR. The efficacy of artesunate was 95.9%. The pfcrt mutation in codon 76 was found in all isolates (100%, and mutations in codons 71 and 72 were found in 4.8% of parasite isolates. No mutation of pfmdr1 (codons 86 or 1246 was found. Among all samples, 5.1% were wild type for pfdhfr, whereas the other samples had mutations in four codons (51, 59, 108 and 164, and mutations in pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540 and 581 were found in all isolates. No samples had mutations in pfatp6 codons 623 or 769, but two new mutations (N683K and R756K were found in 4.6% and 9.2% of parasite isolates, respectively. Conclusion Plasmodium

  16. Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax: in vitro characterisation and association with molecular polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossarin Suwanarusk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure of chloroquine for P. vivax infections has reached high levels in the eastern provinces of Indonesia, however, in vitro characterization of chloroquine resistance and its associated molecular profile have yet to be determined.Using a modified schizont maturation assay we investigated the in vitro chloroquine susceptibility profile and molecular polymorphisms of P. vivax isolates collected from Papua, Indonesia, where high levels of clinical chloroquine treatment failure have been reported, and from Thailand, where chloroquine treatment is generally effective.The geometric mean chloroquine IC(50 for P. vivax isolates from Papua (n = 145 was 312 nM [95%CI: 237-411 nM] compared to 46.8 nM [95%CI: 34.7-63.1 nM] from Thailand (n = 81; p<0.001. Correlating with the known clinical efficacy of the area, a cut off for chloroquine resistance was defined as 220 nM, a level exceeded in 13.6% (11/81 of Thai isolates and 65% (94/145 of Papuan isolates; p<0.001. Several sequence polymorphisms in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1, and difference in pvmdr1 copy number were identified. A Y976F mutation in pvmdr1 was present in 96% (123/128 of Papuan isolates and 25% (17/69 of Thai isolates; p<0.001. Overall, the geometric mean chloroquine IC(50 in isolates with the Y976F mutation was 283 nM [95%CI: 211-379], compared to 44.5 nM [95%CI: 31.3-63.4] in isolates with the wild type; p< 0.001. Pvmdr1 amplification occurred in 23% (15/66 of Thai isolates compared to none (0/104 of Indonesian isolates (p<0.001, but was not associated with increased chloroquine resistance after controlling for geographical location.In vitro susceptibility testing of P. vivax discriminates between populations with differing levels of clinical efficacy of chloroquine. The pvmdr1 polymorphism at Y976F may provide a useful tool to highlight areas of emerging chloroquine resistance, although further studies defining its clinical correlates are needed.

  17. Interactions of DB75, a Novel Antimalarial Agent, with Other Antimalarial Drugs In Vitro▿

    OpenAIRE

    Purfield, Anne E.; Tidwell, Richard R.; Meshnick, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Pafuramidine is a novel orally active antimalarial. To identify a combination partner, we measured the in vitro antimalarial activities of the active metabolite, DB75, with amodiaquine, artemisinin, atovaquone, azithromycin, chloroquine, clindamycin, mefloquine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, tafenoquine, and tetracycline. None of the drugs tested demonstrated antagonistic or synergistic activity in combination with pafuramidine.

  18. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vega-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ and artemisinin (ART are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr, CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko or higher (pbggcs-oe levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ. Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes associated with chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine is the most commonly used antimalarial in Guinea-Bissau and high doses are routinely prescribed. Blood from 497 patients treated with different doses of chloroquine or amodiaquine were genotyped. Pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms were identified. Pfmsp2 analysis identified recrudescent...... infections. The pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes were CVIET and CVMNK. The pfcrt 76T prevalence was 23% at day 0 and 96%, 83% and 100% at recrudescence following treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of chloroquine and 15 mg/kg of amodiaquine respectively. When treating pfcrt 76T carrying P. falciparum the efficacy...... of 50 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg of chloroquine was 78% and 34% respectively (P = 0.007). The genetic basis of chloroquine resistance is probably the same in Guinea-Bissau as in the rest of Africa. The low pfcrt 76T prevalence suggests that resistance to normal dose chloroquine does not confer a major advantage...

  20. Artesunate inhibits adipogeneis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression and/or phosphorylation levels of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, perilipin A, and STAT-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl, E-mail: jangbc123@gw.kmu.ac.kr

    2016-05-20

    Differentiation of preadipocyte, also called adipogenesis, leads to the phenotype of mature adipocyte. However, excessive adipogenesis is closely linked to the development of obesity. Artesunate, one of artemisinin-type sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia annua L., is known for anti-malarial and anti-cancerous activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of artesunate on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Artesunate strongly inhibited lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) synthesis during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes at 5 μM concentration. Artesunate at 5 μM also reduced not only the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and perilipin A but also the phosphorylation levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, artesunate at 5 μM reduced leptin, but not adiponectin, mRNA expression during adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that artesunate inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipoytes through the reduced expression and/or phosphorylation levels of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, perilipin A, and STAT-3. -- Highlights: •Artesunate, an artemisinin derivative, inhibits adipogenesis. •Artesunate inhibits C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, FAS, perilipin A, and STAT-3 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Artesunate reduces leptin, but not adiponectin, expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Artesunate thus may have therapeutic potential against obesity.

  1. Lack of protection against ebola virus from chloroquine in mice and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Darryl; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been suggested as a treatment for Ebola virus infection. Chloroquine inhibited virus replication in vitro, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes.

  2. Effect of chloroquine on feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Katoh, Yasuichiroh; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2013-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. Several studies have investigated potential treatments for FIP. However, there have been no reports on agents that have exhibited a therapeutic effect. Recently, chloroquine has been reported to antiviral effect. We investigated whether chloroquine can be used to treat FIP in vitro and in vivo. It was demonstrated that chloroquine has inhibitory effect against the replication of FIPV and anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In vivo study using cats with experimentally induced FIP, the clinical score of chloroquine-treatment groups were better than in chloroquine-untreated group. However, alanine aminotransferase levels increased in the chloroquine-treated groups. It will be necessary to further investigate the possibility of FIP treatment with a combination of chloroquine and other agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AND, the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS, andrographolide (AND, and curcumin (CUR were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS. In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%, compared to the control (81%, but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties.

  4. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of chloroquine on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihua; Wang, Juan; Wu, Tong; Wu, Jinan; Ling, Junqi; Cheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine, which is a widely used antimalarial drug, has been reported to exert anticancer activity in some tumor types; however, its potential effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of chloroquine against OSCC. MTT and clonogenic assays were conducted to evaluate the effects of chloroquine on the human OSCC cell lines SCC25 and CAL27. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry. Autophagy was monitored using microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 as an autophagosomal marker. In order to determine the in vivo antitumor effects of chloroquine on OSCC, a CAL27 xenograft model was used. The results demonstrated that chloroquine markedly inhibited the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of both OSCC cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Chloroquine also disrupted the cell cycle, resulting in the cell cycle arrest of CAL27 and SCC25 cells at G0/G1 phase, via downregulation of cyclin D1. In addition, chloroquine inhibited autophagy, and induced autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, thus interfering with degradation; however, OSCC apoptosis was barely affected by chloroquine. The results of the in vivo study demonstrated that chloroquine effectively inhibited OSCC tumor growth in the CAL27 xenograft model. In conclusion, the present study reported the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of chloroquine on OSCC, and the results indicated that chloroquine may be considered a potent therapeutic agent against human OSCC. PMID:28849182

  5. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  6. Visual function and long-term chloroquine treatment | Bartel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small group of patients with relatively poor scores on one or more tests had normal visual fields and ophthalmic findings. There were no significant partial correlations between test results and the cumulative dose of chloroquine. These results support the opinion that currently recommended doses of chloroquine pose a ...

  7. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...... was time- and dose-dependent. A brief treatment solely of the accessory cells with the drug compromised their ability to stimulate primed T cells in a subsequent culture provided the accessory cells were treated with chloroquine before their exposure to the antigen. These results suggest that chloroquine...... acts on an early event in the antigen handling by accessory cells. Chloroquine is a well known inhibitor of lysosomal proteolysis, and it is likely that its effect on antigen presentation is caused by an inhibition of antigen degradation....

  8. Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and response to chloroquine in porphyria cutanea tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzel, Ulrich; Köstler, Erich; Schuppan, Detlef; Richter, Matthias; Wollina, Uwe; Doss, Manfred O; Wittekind, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2003-03-01

    To examine the role of hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations, which are associated with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), in the therapeutic response to chloroquine. We retrospectively analyzed a database (Excel version 2001 [Microsoft Excel, Redmond, Wash]; date range of search, 1985-1999) of chloroquine-treated patients with PCT on whether HFE mutations (C282Y and H63D) might have influenced the clinical response, urinary porphyrin excretion, liver enzyme activities, and serum iron markers. Serum samples and corresponding complete sets of data before and after therapy were available in 62 of 207 patients with PCT who were treated exclusively with chloroquine. Academic teaching hospital. For treatment, low-dose chloroquine diphosphate, 125 to 250 mg twice weekly, was used during a median time of 16 months (range, 12-26 months). Of the 62 German patients with PCT, 37 (60%) carries HFE mutations. Chloroquine therapy was accompanied by clinical remission and reduced urinary porphyrin excretion (P<.001) in the 24 patients (39%) with HFE wild type as well as in 35 HFE heterozygous patients with PCT (56%). Decreases of serum iron markers following chloroquine therapy were limited to patients with PCT and HFE wild type. All patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation (3 [5%] of 62) had high serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation and failed to respond to chloroquine treatment. The therapeutic response to chloroquine was not compromised by C282Y heterozygosity and compound heterozygosity of HFE mutations. Because HFE C282Y homozygotes (+/+) did not respond to chloroquine and a decrease in serum iron concentration was limited to patients with PCT and HFE wild type, phlebotomy should be first-line therapy in patients with PCT and HFE mutations.

  9. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  10. Comparative study of the effects of artesunate and garlic extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crown gall disease causes great economic losses worldwide by reducing crop yields and increases susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. The anti-malarial Artesunate which is a derivative of artemisinin from Artemisia annua leaf and Garlic extracts known for their inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of ...

  11. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures.An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  12. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djimde Abdoulaye A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010–2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002–2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010–2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002–2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0 and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003. The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6. Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002–2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting.

  13. Gametocyte clearance dynamics following oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Maiga, Amelia W; Ouologuem, Dinkorma; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies decrease Plasmodium gametocyte carriage. However, the role of artesunate in monotherapy in vivo, the mechanisms involved, and the utility of gametocyte carriage as a potential tool for the surveillance of antimalarial resistance are poorly understood. In 2010-2011, we conducted an open-label, prospective efficacy study of artesunate as monotherapy in children 1-10 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bougoula-Hameau, Mali. Standard oral doses of artesunate were administered for 7 days and patients were followed up for 28 days. The data were compared to a similar study conducted in 2002-2004. Of 100 children enrolled in the 2010-2011 study, 92 were analyzed and compared to 217 children enrolled in the 2002-2004 study. The proportion of gametocyte carriers was unchanged at the end of treatment (23% at baseline vs. 24% on day 7, p = 1.0) and did not significantly decline until day 21 of follow-up (23% vs. 6%, p = 0.003). The mean gametocyte density at inclusion remained unchanged at the end of treatment (12 gametocytes/μL vs. 16 gametocytes/μL, p = 0.6). Overall, 46% of the 71 initial non-carriers had gametocytes detected by day 7. Similar results were found in the 2002-2004 study. In both studies, although gametocyte carriage significantly decreased by the end of the 28-day follow-up, artesunate did not clear mature gametocytes during treatment and did not prevent the appearance of new stage V gametocytes as assessed by light microscopy. Baseline gametocyte carriage was significantly higher 6 years after the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapies in this setting. © A.A. Djimde et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  14. Effects of three classes of alcoholic beverages on chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three different types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine and gin) on the absorption of chloroquine in the stomach and intestine of rats were determined. The in situ loop method and in situ re-circulation technique were used to determine the absorption of chloroquine [CQ] in the stomach and intestine ...

  15. Effect of ciprofloxacin on single dose chloroquine salivary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ciprofloxacin on the salivary and urinary concentrations of chloroquine (CQ) were investigated in six healthy volunteers, 20 to 30 years of age. Ciprofloxacin reduced the absorption, excretion rate and t1/2 of chloroquine in urine, Cmax and AUC in saliva but increased the Tmax in saliva. Thus, concurrent ...

  16. Roll out of intraveneous artesunate under named patient programmes in the Netherlands, Belgium and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous (IV) artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, this treatment is only available in a few countries via named patient programmes (NPPs). As a case study, the legal and organisational aspects and pharmacovigilance of these NPPs and possibilities for harmonisation within the EU were studied over time and space using IV artesunate (Malacef) in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Methods The legal base and organisation of NPPs in the Netherlands, Belgium and France were studied. The diffusion and cumulative availability of IV artesunate and the pharmacovigilance components were compared among the three countries using distribution data from the period 2007 through 2012. Results Artesunate has quickly gained acceptance for treating severe malaria in the Netherlands, whereas both Belgium and France have introduced this treatment more hesitantly. This difference in acceptance is due to differences in the implementation of NPP legislation among the countries. France currently has a proactive system in which treatment requires the permission for each patient and an intensive follow-up protocol. On the other hand, Belgium and Dutch NPPs are more dependent on the investigators’ initiative and are therefore potentially faster and more flexible, facilitating the discovery of adverse effects that have not been reported by more formal comparative clinical trials. Conclusions NPPs provide a unique opportunity to study both the benefits and risks of unregistered products for treating rare diseases, provided that the patients are actively vigilated. Thus, we recommend that NPPs should be harmonised throughout Europe in order to ensure equal availability of treatment and therapeutic benefit to all Europeans without compromising patient safety. PMID:24063858

  17. Antiplasmodial activity of novel keto-enamine chalcone-chloroquine based hybrid pharmacophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Kumar, Manoj; Modukuri, Ram K; Srivastava, Rajeev Kumar; Soni, Awakash; Srivastava, Kumkum; Singh, Shiv Vardan; Saxena, J K; Gauniyal, Harsh M; Puri, Sunil K

    2012-05-01

    A series of novel keto-enamine chalcone-chloroquine based hybrids were synthesized following new methodology developed in our laboratory. The synthesized compounds were screened against chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7) of Plasmodium falciparum in an in vitro model. Some of the compounds were showing comparable antimalarial activity at par with chloroquine. Compounds with significant in vitro antimalarial activity were then evaluated for their in vivo efficacy in Swiss mice against Plasmodium yoelii (chloroquine resistant N-67 strain), wherein compounds 25 and 27 each showed an in vivo suppression of 99.9% parasitaemia on day 4. Biochemical studies reveal that inhibition of hemozoin formation is the primary mechanism of action of these analogues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tritium labelling and characterization of the antimalarial drug (+/-)-chloroquine by several methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.A.Judith A.; Laseter, Anne G; Filer, C.N.Crist N. E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com

    2002-09-01

    To study its mechanism of antimalarial action, a tritium labelled analogue of (+/-)-chloroquine was required at high specific activity. Two synthetic methods were successfully employed. [3-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-Chloroquine 2 was prepared by the catalytic tritium dehalogenation of an iodo precursor and [N-ethyl-{sup 3}H] (+/-)-chloroquine 4 was synthesized by the alkylation of (+/-)-desethylchloroquine with [{sup 3}H] ethyl iodide.

  19. Tritium labelling and characterization of the antimalarial drug (+/-)-chloroquine by several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.Judith A.; Laseter, Anne G.; Filer, C.N.Crist N.

    2002-01-01

    To study its mechanism of antimalarial action, a tritium labelled analogue of (+/-)-chloroquine was required at high specific activity. Two synthetic methods were successfully employed. [3- 3 H] (+/-)-Chloroquine 2 was prepared by the catalytic tritium dehalogenation of an iodo precursor and [N-ethyl- 3 H] (+/-)-chloroquine 4 was synthesized by the alkylation of (+/-)-desethylchloroquine with [ 3 H] ethyl iodide

  20. Quantitative genome re-sequencing defines multiple mutations conferring chloroquine resistance in rodent malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug resistance in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum severely compromises the treatment and control of malaria. A knowledge of the critical mutations conferring resistance to particular drugs is important in understanding modes of drug action and mechanisms of resistances. They are required to design better therapies and limit drug resistance. A mutation in the gene (pfcrt) encoding a membrane transporter has been identified as a principal determinant of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, but we lack a full account of higher level chloroquine resistance. Furthermore, the determinants of resistance in the other major human malaria parasite, P. vivax, are not known. To address these questions, we investigated the genetic basis of chloroquine resistance in an isogenic lineage of rodent malaria parasite P. chabaudi in which high level resistance to chloroquine has been progressively selected under laboratory conditions. Results Loci containing the critical genes were mapped by Linkage Group Selection, using a genetic cross between the high-level chloroquine-resistant mutant and a genetically distinct sensitive strain. A novel high-resolution quantitative whole-genome re-sequencing approach was used to reveal three regions of selection on chr11, chr03 and chr02 that appear progressively at increasing drug doses on three chromosomes. Whole-genome sequencing of the chloroquine-resistant parent identified just four point mutations in different genes on these chromosomes. Three mutations are located at the foci of the selection valleys and are therefore predicted to confer different levels of chloroquine resistance. The critical mutation conferring the first level of chloroquine resistance is found in aat1, a putative aminoacid transporter. Conclusions Quantitative trait loci conferring selectable phenotypes, such as drug resistance, can be mapped directly using progressive genome-wide linkage group selection. Quantitative genome-wide short

  1. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  2. Chloroquine Engages the Immune System to Eradicate Irradiated Breast Tumors in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratikan, Josephine Anna; Sayre, James William; Schaue, Dörthe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study used chloroquine to direct radiation-induced tumor cell death pathways to harness the antitumor activity of the immune system. Methods and Materials: Chloroquine given immediately after tumor irradiation increased the cure rate of MCaK breast cancer in C3H mice. Chloroquine blocked radiation-induced autophagy and drove MCaK cells into a more rapid apoptotic and more immunogenic form of cell death. Results: Chloroquine treatment made irradiated tumor vaccines superior at inducing strong interferon gamma-associated immune responses in vivo and protecting mice from further tumor challenge. In vitro, chloroquine slowed antigen uptake and degradation by dendritic cells, although T-cell stimulation was unaffected. Conclusions: This study illustrates a novel approach to improve the efficacy of breast cancer radiation therapy by blocking endosomal pathways, which enhances radiation-induced cell death within the field and drives antitumor immunity to assist therapeutic cure. The study illuminates and merges seemingly disparate concepts regarding the importance of autophagy in cancer therapy

  3. No seasonal accumulation of resistant P. falciparum when high-dose chloroquine is used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2009-01-01

    increase of pfcrt 76T if the high doses of CQ commonly used are effective. METHODS AND FINDINGS: P. falciparum parasite density, age, sex, the proportion of chloroquine resistance associated haplotypes pfcrt 76T and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 86Y were assessed in 988 samples collected from...... to become the dominant P.falciparum type in Guinea-Bissau. This is most likely due to the efficacy of high-dose chloroquine as used in Guinea-Bissau, combined with a loss of fitness associated with pfcrt 76T.......BACKGROUND: Potentially chloroquine resistant P. falciparum, identified by the 76T haplotype in the chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt 76T), are highly prevalent throughout Africa. In Guinea-Bissau, normal and double dose chloroquine have respective efficacies of 34% and 78% against P...

  4. Chloroquine uptake, altered partitioning and the basis of drug resistance: evidence for chloride-dependent ionic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiney, J A; Ferrer, A S; Cerami, A; Dzekunov, S; Roepe, P

    1999-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains unknown. We postulated that chloroquine-resistant strains could alter ion fluxes that then indirectly control drug accumulation within the parasite by affecting pH and/or membrane potential ('altered partitioning mechanism'). Two principal intracellular pH-regulating systems in many cell types are the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), and the sodium-independent, stilbene-sensitive Cl-/HCO3- antiporter (AE). We report that under physiological conditions (balanced CO2 and HCO3-) chloroquine uptake and susceptibility are not altered by amiloride analogues. We also do not detect a significant difference in NHE activity between chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains via single cell photometry methods. AE activity is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Cl- and HCO3- ions. Chloroquine-resistant strains differentially respond to experimental modifications in chloride-dependent homeostasis, including growth, cytoplasmic pH and pH regulation. Chloroquine susceptibility is altered by stilbene DIDS only on chloroquine-resistant strains. Our results suggest that a Cl(-)-dependent system (perhaps AE) has a significant effect on the uptake of chloroquine by the infected erythrocyte, and that alterations of this biophysical parameter may be part of the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum.

  5. Polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter protein links verapamil enhancement of chloroquine sensitivity with the clinical efficacy of amodiaquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warhurst David C

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine accumulates in the acidic digestive vacuole of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, and prevents the detoxication of haematin released during haemoglobin digestion. Changes in protein PfCRT in the digestive vacuole membrane of growing intra-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum are crucial for resistance. Expressed in yeast, PfCRT resembles an anion channel. Depressed anion channel function could increase intralysosomal pH to reduce entry of basic drug, or enhanced function could reduce drug interaction with target haematin. The most important resistance-associated change is from positively-charged lysine-76 to neutral threonine which could facilitate drug efflux through a putative channel. It has been proposed that the resistance-reversing effect of verapamil is due to hydrophobic binding to the mutated PfCRT protein, and replacement of the lost positive charge, which repels the access of 4-aminoquinoline cations, thus partially restoring sensitivity. Desethylamodiaquine, the active metabolite of amodiaquine, which has significant activity in chloroquine-resistance, may also act similarly on its own. Methods Changes in physicochemical parameters in different CQ-resistant PfCRT sequences are analysed, and correlations with drug activity on lines transfected with different alleles of the pfcrt gene are examined. Results and conclusions The results support the idea that PfCRT is a channel which, in resistant parasites, can allow efflux of chloroquine from the digestive vacuole. Activity of the chloroquine/verapamil combination and of desethylamodiaquine both correlate with the mean hydrophobicity of PfCRT residues 72-76. This may partly explain clinical-resistance to amodiaquine found in the first chloroquine-resistant malaria cases from South America and enables tentative prediction of amodiaquine's clinical activity against novel haplotypes of PfCRT.

  6. Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers William O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study

  7. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of artesunate suppositories for treatment of malaria in children in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Kemiki, Adedayo; Alpers, Michael P; Lorry, Kerry; Batty, Kevin T; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M

    2003-03-01

    Although suppositories of artemisinin derivatives may be a valuable option for treatment of malaria in children when circumstances prevent oral and parenteral therapy, few confirmatory data have been published. We assessed the safety and efficacy of rectal artesunate in 47 children ages 5 to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria acquired in a hyperendemic area of Papua New Guinea. Thirty were symptomatic and had Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia >2000/microl (Group 1), 12 had and either a parasitemia suppositories were well-tolerated. After 24 h only one child (from Group 1) had persistent parasitemia, and only one (from Group 3) had not defervesced. These two children received intramuscular quinine and recovered uneventfully. Three Group 2 children redeveloped fever and tachycardia at 24 h, but each responded to simple supportive measures and remained aparasitemic. Intrarectal artesunate is safe, effective initial treatment for uncomplicated malaria in children. A transient fever spike can sometimes occur after parasite clearance. We recommend that children with uncomplicated malaria receive two doses of > or =10 mg/kg rectal artesunate within the first 24 h.

  8. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P.; Whetmore, Eric D.; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C.; Roepe, Paul D.; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino-and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11–15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain st...

  9. Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in southern Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myat P Kyaw

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum malaria burden among Southeast Asian countries.A non-randomized, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of artesunate monotherapy (4 mg/kg daily for seven days was conducted in adults with acute blood-smear positive P. falciparum malaria in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Parasite density was measured every 12 hours until two consecutive negative smears were obtained. Participants were followed weekly at the study clinic for three additional weeks. Co-primary endpoints included parasite clearance time (the time required for complete clearance of initial parasitemia, parasite clearance half-life (the time required for parasitemia to decrease by 50% based on the linear portion of the parasite clearance slope, and detectable parasitemia 72 hours after commencement of artesunate treatment. Drug pharmacokinetics were measured to rule out delayed clearance due to suboptimal drug levels.The median (range parasite clearance half-life and time were 4.8 (2.1-9.7 and 60 (24-96 hours, respectively. The frequency distributions of parasite clearance half-life and time were bimodal, with very slow parasite clearance characteristic of the slowest-clearing Cambodian parasites (half-life longer than 6.2 hours in approximately 1/3 of infections. Fourteen of 52 participants (26.9% had a measurable parasitemia 72 hours after initiating artesunate treatment. Parasite clearance was not associated with drug pharmacokinetics.A subset of P. falciparum infections in southern Myanmar displayed markedly delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment, suggesting either emergence of artemisinin resistance in southern Myanmar or spread

  10. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  11. A pilot study on quality of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets used in the fishing community of Tema, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affum, Andrews O; Lowor, Samuel; Osae, Shiloh D; Dickson, Adomako; Gyan, Benjamin A; Tulasi, Delali

    2013-06-28

    The ineffectiveness of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in malaria treatment remains a health burden to WHO and governments of malaria-endemic countries, including Ghana. The proliferation of illegitimate anti-malarial drugs and its use by patients is of primary concern to international and local drug regulatory agencies because such drugs are known to contribute to the development of the malaria-resistant parasites in humans. No data exist on quality of these drugs in the fishing village communities in Ghana although the villagers are likely users of such drugs. A pilot study on the quality of anti-malarial tablets in circulation during the major fishing season at a malarious fishing village located along the coast of Tema in southern Ghana was determined. Blisterpacks of anti-malarial tablets were randomly sampled. The International Pharmacopoeia and Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab protocols were used to assess the quality of anti-malarial tablets per blisterpacks allegedly manufactured by Guilin Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, China (GPCL) and Letap Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Ghana (LPL) and sold in chemical sales outlets at Kpone-on-Sea. Ferric chloride and cobaltous thiocyanate tests confirmed the presence of active ingredients in the tablets. A confirmatory test for the active ingredient was achieved with artesunate (ICRS1409) and amodiaquine (ICRS0209) reference standards. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the amount of artesunate found in tablets. Based on the International Pharmacopoeia acceptable range of 96/98 to 102% for genuine artesunate per tablet, 10% [relative standard deviation (RSD): 3.2%] of field-selected artesunate blisterpack per tablets manufactured by GPCL, and 50% (RSD: 5.1%) of a similar package per tablet by LPL, passed the titrimetric test. However, 100% (RSD: 2.2%) of amodiaquine blisterpack per tablet by GPCL were found to be within the International Pharmacopeia acceptable range of 90 to 110% for genuine amodiaquine in

  12. Effects of artesunate combining with radiation on apoptosis in nude mice transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanyuan; Feng Yang; Cao Jianping; Zhu Wei; Ni Qianying; Geng Chong; Chen Guanglie; Luo Judong; Zhang Xuguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Artesunate combining with radiation on apoptosis in transplanted tumors. Methods: HeLa cells were inoculated into the nude mice to develop a tumor model. Mice were randomized into four groups as the control group, the Artesunate group,the irradiation group and the combination group when average volume of tumor achieved about 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm. During the period of treatment, the volume of tumors was measured per 2 days. After 14 days treatment, the mice were killed and tumor tissues were harvest, the tumor size and weight were measured, tumor inhibitory rate calculated and TUNEL assay was used to analysis the apoptosis of tumor tissue. Results: The tumor weight in combination group was significantly lower than that than in the irradiation group [(0.64 ± 0.11) gvs (1.31 ± 0.58) g] (P<0.05), the tumor inhibitory rate was 71.17%. The apoptosis in the combination group was obviously higher than that in the irradiation group [(77.5 ± 8.07) %vs (48.80 ± 6.71) %] (P<0.05 ). Conclusion: Artesunate can dramatically increase the radiosensitivity of tumor model transplanted with HeLa cells of cervical cancer, the possible mechanism of radiosensitization of Artesunate is related to increasing apoptosis of tumor cells. (authors)

  13. Use of pre-packaged chloroquine for the home management of presumed malaria in Malagasy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvy Denis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of home malaria management with pre-packaged chloroquine in two areas in the Moramanga district of Madagascar. The knowledge, attitude and practices of care providers in terms of home treatment options were evaluated and compared. The availability of treatment options by studying retailers and community-based service providers was also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional investigation in two communities, in the hamlets and villages located close to carers, retailers, community-based service providers and primary health centres was carried out. Results Carers in the two districts were equally well aware of the use of pre-packaged chloroquine. Their first response to the onset of fever was to treat children with this antimalarial drug at home. The dose administered and treatment compliance were entirely satisfactory (100% with pre-packaged chloroquine and rarely satisfactory (1.6% to 4.5% with non pre-packaged chloroquine. In cases of treatment failure, the carers took patients to health centres. Chloroquine was supplied principally by private pharmacies and travelling salesmen selling unpackaged chloroquine tablets. Non pre-packaged chloroquine was the most common drug used at health centres. The frequency of positive rapid malaria tests (P = 0.01 was significantly higher in children treated with non pre-packaged chloroquine (38% than in children treated with pre-packaged chloroquine (1.3%. Conclusion Home malaria management should be improved in Madagascar. Efforts should focus on communication, the training of community-based service providers, access to pre-packaged drugs and the gradual withdrawal of pre-packaged chloroquine and its replacement by pre-packaged artemisinin-based combination therapies.

  14. Effect of chloroquine on intestinal lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansbach, C.M. II; Arnold, A.; Garrett, M.

    1987-01-01

    Most studies that have quantitated recovery of infused lipid in the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph have only been able to recapture 50-75%. One possibility is that the missing lipid enters a triacylglycerol (TG) storage pool in the enterocyte and is hydrolyzed by lysosomal lipase, and the free fatty acid released is transported by the portal vein. This postulate was tested by comparing glyceryl trioleate (TO)-infused rats pretreated with the lysosomotropic drug, chloroquine (6.3 mg.kg-1.h-1) with saline controls. Chloroquine increased mucosal TG from 94 +/- 6 to 128 +/- 8 mumol. Additionally, the specific activity of the mucosal TG relative to the infused [ 3 H]TO was reduced in the treated rats. The mucosal TG increase was not due to impaired TG output, which remained the same as controls. We conclude that the TG in the acid lipase-sensitive pool derives most of its glyceride-glycerol from endogenous sources. Furthermore, the increment in mucosal TG caused by chloroquine is not enough to explain the majority of the acyl groups unaccounted for in the mucosa and lymph after a TG infusion. For these a direct passage of acyl groups through the enterocyte is postulated

  15. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P; Whetmore, Eric D; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D; Wolf, Christian

    2009-09-15

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino- and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11-15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain structure proved detrimental to the activity against the CQR strain.

  16. Reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum by CDR 87/209 and analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R D; Seth, M; Bhaduri, A P

    1993-03-01

    The spreading of resistance towards chloroquine has diminished its value as a potent and safe drug in malaria endemic areas. Recent reports on the reversal of chloroquine resistance in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in vivo by verapamil, desipramine and other Ca(2+)-channel blockers and antidepressants has initiated a strategy for chemotherapy by treatment with chloroquine in combination with a drug resistance modulator. Described here is a class of modulators of distinct structure which reverse chloroquine resistance in a different manner. Contrary to verapamil and desipramine, CDRI 87/209, the most potent compound of this new class and used as a chemical lead, did not restore chloroquine accumulation in the resistant parasites, thereby indicating that besides the proposed blockade of drug efflux other mechanisms are vulnerable targets for a chemotherapeutic approach towards drug resistance. Similar to the former modulators, CDRI 87/209 showed only weak intrinsic plasmodicidal activity and the increase of drug susceptibility was restricted to resistant plasmodia.

  17. Evaluation on the effectiveness chemoprophylaxis of chloroquine to irradiated plasmodium berghei by in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlina; Teja Kisnanto; Citra Ayu Prapmaningtyas

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine is a compound commonly used as chemoprophylaxis in malaria research. In the malaria vaccine research used chemoprophylaxis that combined with vaccine material was studied to prevent volunteers from malaria. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of chloroquine in inhibiting the growth of malaria parasites after radiation. The effectiveness of chloroquine was shown to inhibit the growth P. berghei growth in experimental animals. The study was conducted in vivo with chloroquine administered orally as 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg of body weight daily for 4 days in mice that had been injected with infectious and radiation P. berghei 175 Gy. Density of parasites in the blood, and percent survival was observed every 2 days for 43 days. The results show until the 20"t"h day is not found parasites in the blood of mice immunized and treated Chloroquine. The chloroquine 10 mg/kg is more effective than 5 and 15 mg/kg as observed in percentage of inhibition and survival of mice. (author)

  18. Regular examinations for toxic maculopathy in long-term chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Melisa; Blachley, Taylor S; Edwards, Paul; Lee, Paul P; Stein, Joshua D

    2014-10-01

    According to evidence-based, expert recommendations, long-term users of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine sulfate should undergo regular visits to eye care providers and diagnostic testing to check for maculopathy. To determine whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine are regularly visiting eye care providers and being screened for maculopathy. Patients with RA or SLE who were continuously enrolled in a particular managed care network for at least 5 years between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2011, were studied. Patients' amount of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine use in the 5 years since the initial RA or SLE diagnosis was calculated, along with their number of eye care visits and diagnostic tests for maculopathy. Those at high risk for maculopathy were identified. Logistic regression was performed to assess potential factors associated with regular eye care visits (annual visits in ≥3 of 5 years) among chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine users, including those at highest risk for maculopathy. Among chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine users and those at high risk for toxic maculopathy, the proportions with regular eye care visits and diagnostic testing, as well as the likelihood of regular eye care visits. Among 18 051 beneficiaries with RA or SLE, 6339 (35.1%) had at least 1 record of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine use, and 1409 (7.8%) had used chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for at least 4 years. Among those at high risk for maculopathy, 27.9% lacked regular eye care visits, 6.1% had no visits to eye care providers, and 34.5% had no diagnostic testing for maculopathy during the 5-year period. Among high-risk patients, each additional month of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine use was associated with a 2.0% increased likelihood of regular eye care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03). High-risk patients whose SLE or RA was managed by rheumatologists had a 77

  19. Design of simple UV Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for assay of artesunate and amodiaquine in fixed dose tablet formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashie, Agatha Dei

    2013-07-01

    Artesunate and Amodiaquine combination is one of the first line drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. To prevent treatment failures and emergence of resistant strains of the Plasmodium parasite, patients are entreated to comply with treatment regimens. Thus fixed dose tablet formulations came as a relieve to patients, ensuring proper compliance as the number of tablets to be taken was reduced. It is therefore important to develop simple methods of assay for these formulations to ensure that quality drugs are available and to prevent resistance to these drugs. This thesis describes Ultraviolet (UV) and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) methods of assay for Artesunate (AS) and Amodiaduine Hydrochloride (AMQ) in fixed dose tablet formulations. The UV absorption spectroscopy was used to establish a wavelength of maximum absorption and the Beer’s plot generated. At 339nm, Amodiaquine Hydrochloride was assayed accurately in methanol with a high r"2 value of 0.998, an intra and inter day precision of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 1.52% and 1.86% respectively. The Beer’s plot was obeyed in a concentration range of 3.5 - 24.8(µg/mL). The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 1.23(µg/mL) and 3.73(µg/mL) respectively. However the UV method could not be used to assay AS simultaneously with AMQ. A mobile phase of 60% acetonitrile and 40% of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate of 1ml/min, wavelength of detection of 225nm and a C_1_8 stationary phase are the parameters for the HPLC method. The r"2 for the HPLC method was 0.996 and 0.995 for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and Artesunate respectively. The intra and inter day precision were 1.07% and 1.42% respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.015%w/v and 0.0465%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.054%w/v and 0.019%w/v for Artesunate respectively. The concentration ranges were 0.01 - 0.16%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.01 – 0.2%w/v for

  20. Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, 90% of sub-Saharan African countries had adopted policies of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 2007. In Malawi, cessation of chloroquine use was followed by the re-emergence of chloroquine-susceptible malaria. It was expected that introduction of ACT would lead to a return in chloroquine susceptibility throughout Africa, but this has not yet widely occurred. This observation suggests that there is continuing use of ineffective anti-malarials in Africa and that persistent chloroquine-resistant malaria is due to ongoing drug pressure despite national policy changes. Methods To estimate drug use on a national level, 2006-2007 Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data from 21 African countries were analysed. Resistance data were compiled by systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter polymorphism at codon 76, which causes chloroquine resistance. Results Chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial used according to surveys from 14 of 21 countries analysed, predominantly in West Africa. SP was most commonly reported in two of 21 countries. Among eight countries with longitudinal molecular resistance data, the four countries where the highest proportion of children treated for fever received chloroquine (Uganda, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, and Mali) also showed no significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine-resistant infections. The three countries with low or decreasing chloroquine use among children who reported fever treatment (Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania) had statistically significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in 2006-2007, chloroquine and SP continued to be used at high rates in many African countries. In countries reporting

  1. Macrocognition in Teams and Analysis of Information Flow During the Haiti Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Coded as Sensemaking .......45 Table 17. Examples from the Hospital Theme Coded as Using Analogues ....................46 Table 18. Examples from the...Atovaquone/Proguanil, Chloroquine , Docycycline and Mefloquine.” c. Team Solution Option Generation (TSOG) Definition: TSOG involves the...the rumors of security and the racism behind the idea of security has been our major block to getting aid in.” 8. Using Analogues (UA

  2. Mefloquine treatment of acute falciparum malaria: a prospective study of non-serious adverse effects in 3673 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, F. O.; Nosten, F.; Luxemburger, C.; Kyle, D.; Teja-Isavatharm, P.; Phaipun, L.; Price, R.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; White, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1994, a series of prospective studies were conducted to optimize the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria on the borders of Thailand. The tolerance of various treatment regimens containing either mefloquine 15 mg/kg (M15) or 25 mg/kg (M25) was evaluated in 3673

  3. Uptake of 14C-labelled chloroquine and an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in some polypeptide hormone producing cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Tjaelve, H.

    1976-01-01

    After the injection of 14 C-labelled chloroquine and the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3 1 -dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline [ 125 I]DAPQ into mice, rats and a monkey the distribution of the radioactivity was studied by autoradiographical methods. A high and persistent uptake occurred in some endocrine cell systems, such as the pancreatic islets, the hypophysis, the adrenal medulla and the thyroid (in cells that were probably identical with the parafollicular cells). The melanin-containing tissues were the only ones which showed a higher uptake and retention of radioactivity. The above mentioned endocrine cells and the melanocytes have a common embryological origin and common morphological and cytochemical characteristics. They have been called the APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylation)-cell series. It is proposed that the polypeptide hormone producing cells and the melanocytes may use a similar mechanism for accumulating chloroquine and (as shown earlier) also some other drugs such as nicotine, alprenolol, local anesthetics and atropine. These drugs however, accumulate stronger within the melanocytes and become bound to the melanin for a long time. The ability to accumulate these drugs may be considered another characteristic of the APUD-cell series. (author)

  4. Open-label comparative clinical study of chlorproguanil-dapsone fixed dose combination (Lapdap alone or with three different doses of artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Wootton

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG-DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years and 107 children (median age 38 months with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups to receive CPG-DDS alone or plus 4, 2 or 1 mg/kg of artesunate once daily for 3 days. Assessments took place on Days 0-3 in hospital and follow-up on Days 7 and 14 as out-patients. Efficacy was evaluated in the Day 3 per-protocol (PP population using mean time to reduce baseline parasitemia by 90% (PC90. A number of secondary outcomes were also included. Appropriate artesunate dose was determined using a pre-defined decision matrix based on primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded from clinical assessments and blood parameters. Safety was evaluated in the intent to treat (ITT population.In the Day 3 PP population for the adult group (N = 85, mean time to PC90 was 19.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, significantly longer than for the +artesunate 1 mg/kg (12.5 h; treatment difference -6.6 h [95%CI -11.8, -1.5], 2 mg/kg (10.7 h; -8.4 h [95%CI -13.6, -3.2] and 4 mg/kg (10.3 h; -8.7 h [95%CI -14.1, -3.2] groups. For children in the Day 3 PP population (N = 92, mean time to PC90 was 21.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, similar to the +artesunate 1 mg/kg group (17.7 h; -3.3 h [95%CI -8.6, 2.0], though the +artesunate 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg groups had significantly shorter mean times to PC90 versus CPG-DDS; 14.4 h (treatment difference -6.4 h [95%CI -11.7, -1.0] and 12.8 h (-7.4 h [95%CI -12.9, -1.8], respectively. An analysis of mean time

  5. Stability of chloroquine phosphate tablets inoculated with bacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.; Orhe, C.A.; Iwaagu, M.U.

    2003-01-01

    Five popular brands of chloroquine tablets available to the average Nigerian consumers were examined for the effects of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, on the dissolution, disintegration and hardness after six weeks of incubation. The maximum percent dissolution was 98.34% with bacillus subtilis while the minimum was 19.12% with staphylococcus aureus. The disintegration results showed a maximum of 69 min. 19 sec with Staphylococcus aureus while the least was 56 sec with Bacillus subtilis. The maximum hardness obtained was 12.75 kg and the least was 1.25 kg also with Staphylococcus aureus. The dissolution, disintegration and hardness also varied with the control. The metabolic activities of the bacterial species were believed to have caused the variations in the physical properties of the chloroquine phosphate tablets. The results from this investigation strongly advises adequate storage of chloroquine phosphate tablets, especially when it is the drug of choice for the of sub-Saharan Africa. (author)

  6. Recycling antimalarial leads for cancer: Antiproliferative properties of N-cinnamoyl chloroquine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Bianca C; Fernandes, Iva; Mateus, Nuno; Teixeira, Cátia; Gomes, Paula

    2013-12-15

    Cinnamic acids and quinolines are known as useful scaffolds in the discovery of antitumor agents. Therefore, N-cinnamoylated analogues of chloroquine, recently reported as potent dual-action antimalarials, were evaluated against three different cancer cell lines: MKN-28, Caco-2, and MCF-7. All compounds display anti-proliferative activity in the micromolar range against the three cell lines tested, and most of them were more active than their parent drug, chloroquine, against all cell lines tested. Hence, N-cinnamoyl-chloroquine analogues are a good start towards development of affordable antitumor leads. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. pfmdr1 Amplification and Fixation of pfcrt Chloroquine Resistance Alleles in Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean; Syphard, Luke; Sridaran, Sankar; McCollum, Andrea M.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Vinayak, Sumiti; Villegas, Leopoldo; Barnwell, John W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-01-01

    Molecular tools are valuable for determining evolutionary history and the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites. These tools have helped to predict decreased sensitivity to antimalarials and fixation of multidrug resistance genotypes in some regions. In order to assess how historical drug policies impacted Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela, we examined molecular changes in genes associated with drug resistance. We examined pfmdr1 and pfcrt in samples from Sifontes, Venezuela, and integrated our findings with earlier work describing dhfr and dhps in these samples. We characterized pfmdr1 genotypes and copy number variation, pfcrt genotypes, and proximal microsatellites in 93 samples originating from surveillance from 2003 to 2004. Multicopy pfmdr1 was found in 12% of the samples. Two pfmdr1 alleles, Y184F/N1042D/D1246Y (37%) and Y184F/S1034C/N1042D/D1246Y (63%), were found. These alleles share ancestry, and no evidence of strong selective pressure on mutations was found. pfcrt chloroquine resistance alleles are fixed with two alleles: StctVMNT (91%) and SagtVMNT (9%). These alleles are associated with strong selection. There was also an association between pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps genotypes/haplotypes. Duplication of pfmdr1 suggests a potential shift in mefloquine sensitivity in this region, which warrants further study. A bottleneck occurred in P. falciparum in Sifontes, Venezuela, and multidrug resistance genotypes are present. This population could be targeted for malaria elimination programs to prevent the possible spread of multidrug-resistant parasites. PMID:20145087

  8. Chloroquine resistant P. falciparum prevalence is low and unchanged between 1990 and 2005 in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Schmidt, Berit Aydin; Lebbad, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine resistant malaria was first reported in Guinea-Bissau in 1990 but chloroquine remains the most commonly used antimalarial in the country. Since 1990, we have conducted nearly annual standardized WHO in vitro micro-tests to assess chloroquine resistance. We have identified pfcrt 76T...... and other genetic polymorphisms in samples from 1992, 1993, 1995, 2004 and 2005. We have also monitored drug prescriptions for febrile illnesses. The mean proportion of in vitro tests indicating chloroquine resistance was 33% (range 14-54%) with the exception of an outlying value year 2000. The proportion...... of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum detected by in vitro testing did not increase over time. Pfcrt 76T was associated with chloroquine resistance but pfmdr1 86Y was not. The mean pfcrt 76T prevalence varied between 13% and 38%. The prevalence of SNPs at Pfcrt positions 76, 271, 326 and pfmdr1 position 86 did...

  9. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P; Monteiro, Fábio L; Loiola, Erick C; Dias, André A; Silva, Fábio J M; Aliota, Matthew T; Caine, Elizabeth A; Osorio, Jorge E; Bellio, Maria; O'Connor, David H; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-11-29

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  10. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Delvecchio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres.

  11. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M.; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P.; Monteiro, Fábio L.; Loiola, Erick C.; Dias, André A.; Silva, Fábio J. M.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Caine, Elizabeth A.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bellio, Maria; O’Connor, David H.; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres. PMID:27916837

  12. Antimalarial activity of 4-(5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-chloroquine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunico, Wilson; Cechinel, Cleber A; Bonacorso, Helio G; Martins, Marcos A P; Zanatta, Nilo; de Souza, Marcus V N; Freitas, Isabela O; Soares, Rodrigo P P; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2006-02-01

    The antimalarial activity of chloroquine-pyrazole analogues, synthesized from the reaction of 1,1,1-trifluoro-4-methoxy-3-alken-2-ones with 4-hydrazino-7-chloroquinoline, has been evaluated in vitro against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum clone. Parasite growth in the presence of the test drugs was measured by incorporation of [(3)H]hypoxanthine in comparison to controls with no drugs. All but one of the eight (4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl) chloroquine 2 derivatives tested showed a significant activity in vitro, thus, are a promising new class of antimalarials. The three most active ones were also tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei in mice. However, the (pyrazol-1-yl) chloroquine 3 derivatives were mostly inactive, suggesting that the aromatic functionality of the pyrazole ring was critical.

  13. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  14. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additio...

  15. Synthesis of chiral chloroquine and its analogues as antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manish; Dola, Vasanth R; Soni, Awakash; Agarwal, Pooja; Srivastava, Kumkum; Haq, Wahajul; Puri, Sunil K; Katti, Seturam B

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, we describe a new approach to chiral synthesis of chloroquine and its analogues. All tested compounds displayed potent activity against chloroquine sensitive as well as chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo. Compounds S-13 b, S-13c, S-13 d and S-13 i displayed excellent in vitro antimalarial activity with an IC50 value of 56.82, 60.41, 21.82 and 7.94 nM, respectively, in the case of resistant strain. Furthermore, compounds S-13a, S-13c and S-13 d showed in vivo suppression of 100% parasitaemia on day 4 in the mouse model against Plasmodium yoelii when administered orally. These results underscore the application of synthetic methodology and need for further lead optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chloroquine induced pruritus--questionnaire based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Adekunle O

    2004-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a very useful drug with a broad spectrum of uses (as anti malarial, anti amoebiasis and for connective tissue diseases). A major side effect preventing or limiting its utilization in blacks is chloroquine induced pruritus (CP). A descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based epidemiological study of medical and nursing students, medical doctors and other workers with historic CP in a Nigerian tertiary (teaching) hospital was carried out to determine factors and features related to the development of CP. From the study the intensity of CP was not reduced by taking less CQ. About 92% of the subjects had close relations who suffered from CP. 84.5% of responders itched for 1-3 days. The longest duration for CP was 7 days. The sites of itching in descending order were generalized (49.2%) hands (46%), legs and feet (46%), perineum/genitalia (28.5%). Relieving factor/drug was identified in 66.6% of responders. Itching with oral CQ occurred in 100%. Intramuscular injection of CQ caused 49% of itching. 19% had pre-chloroquine itch. 28.5% had CP with other antimalarials notably Amodiaquine (23.8%). 50.7% took other antimalarials when down with malaria. There is a need for the identification of a cheap and readily available antidote for CP to enable CQ remain useful/relevant in Nigeria and in the West African sub-region.

  17. Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mombo-Ngoma Ghyslain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing drug resistance necessitates the urgent evaluation of alternative drugs. Currently, the most promising candidates in clinical development are mefloquine and azithromycin. Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as IPTp - though systematic clinical evaluation of this action is still lacking. Methods In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against bacterial pathogens with clinical importance in pregnancy in a standard microdilution assay. Results SP was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All tested Gram-positive bacteria, except Enterococcus faecalis, were sensitive to azithromycin. Additionally, azithromycin was active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. Conclusion These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs. Given the large scale use of IPTp in Africa, the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal health and on the risk of promoting specific drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is discussed.

  18. A Case Report of Suicide with Chloroquine Overdose and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Suicide is considered as the tenth cause of death worldwide. There are several suicide reports consist in the use of certain unusual drugs, such as chloroquine. Case report: The cadaver of a 25-year-old single woman was found dead in her home and with suspect to using toxins or drugs was brought to Fars Province Forensic administration. She had history of psychiatric problems for which had referred to psychologist several times. Results: After the autopsy, there was no observation of pathologic lesions in her samples of liver, kidney, or heart. In bile samples, using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods, chloroquine was detected. In visceral and gut samples, chloroquine was found using TLC as +4 reactions and it was confirmed by HPLC and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. After examining all the aspects, eventually chloroquine overdose and its complications was determined as the cause of the death. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of suicide in depressed patients and according to family and previous positive experience, preventive strategies based on the recognition and the treatment of depressed patients and also teaching the families to diagnose the illness in addition to the limitation of the free access to chloroquine and similar drugs is suggested to reduce overdose complications or suicide.

  19. Synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of asymmetric chloroquine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witiak, D T; Grattan, D A; Heaslip, R J; Rahwan, R G

    1981-06-01

    Asymmetric chloroquine analogues (1-4) were prepared of known absolute configuration in order to assess stereochemical influences on selected biological activities. Since chloroquine has been shown to possess spasmolytic properties, analogues 1-4 were tested for similar pharmacological effects on smooth-muscle contraction. The (S)- and (R)-chlorochloroquine enantiomers (1 and 2, respectively) were more potent antispasmodics than the less lipophilic (S)- and (R)-hydroxychloroquines (3 and 4, respectively) when tested against KCl- or acetylcholine-induced contractions of the isolated mouse ileum. A membrane stabilizing mechanism of action for the chloroquine analogues is proposed since neither cellular toxicity nor calcium antagonism plays a role in the spasmolytic action of these compounds. Although compounds 1-4 also inhibited PGF2 alpha-induced contractions of the ileum, 1 was significantly more potent than 2; the latter in turn was equipotent to 3 and 4. It is tentatively proposed that 1 may possess stereoselective affinity for the PGF2 alpha receptor in the ileum. This observation may be further exploited to obtain more selective profiles of biological activity through molecular manipulation.

  20. Synthesis of isocryptolepine analogues and their structure-activity relationship studies as antiplasmodial and antiproliferative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroonkit, Pasuk; Thongsornkleeb, Charnsak; Tummatorn, Jumreang; Krajangsri, Suppachai; Mungthin, Mathirut; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2015-04-13

    Novel isocryptolepine analogues have been conveniently synthesized and evaluated for antimalarial and antiproliferative activities. We have found 3-fluoro-8-bromo-isocryptolepine (1n) to have the highest activities against chloroquine-resistant K1, chloroquine-sensitive 3D7, and chloroquine- and mefloquine-resistant SKF58 and SRIV35 strains. Several fluorine-substituted analogues (1b, 1n, and 1q) also showed excellent selectivities while maintaining good to excellent activities against all four Plasmodium falciparum strains. Additionally, antiproliferative properties of isocryptolepine derivatives against HepG2, HuCCA-1, MOLT-3 and A549 cancer cell lines are reported for the first time in this study. 2-Chloroisocryptolepine (1c) and benzo-fused-2-chloroisocryptolepine (1i) showed significant bioactivities whereas several novel fluorinated compounds and 2-chloro-8-bromoisocryptolepine (1f) displayed excellent selectivities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Mefloquine improved progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Minako; Kawamoto, Michi; Nukuzuma, Souichi; Kohara, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of a 67-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with progressive left hemiplegia. Although the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the JC virus was negative, a brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The tapering of prednisone and the use of cidofovir could not arrest the disease progression. Administration of mefloquine stopped the extension of the lesion, and resulted in obvious clinical improvement. The CSF nested PCR for the JC virus also became negative. This widely used drug should be tried for the treatment of non-HIV PML.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum after an artemisinin resistance containment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thita, Thunyapit; Jadsri, Pimrat; Thamkhantho, Jarupatr; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Mahotorn, Kittiya; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2018-05-15

    In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone ® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before. One hundred and nine of P. falciparum isolates collected from Thai-Cambodia border from Chanthaburi and Trat provinces during 1988-2016 were used in this study. Of these, 58 isolates were collected after the containment. These parasite isolates were characterized for in vitro antimalarial sensitivities including chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), piperaquine (PPQ), artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), ATQ and PG and genetic markers for drug resistance including the Kelch13 (k13), Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. Mean CQ, QN, MQ, PPQ and AS IC 50 s of the parasite isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 exhibited significantly higher than those of parasites collected before 2009. Approximately 57% exhibited in vitro MQ resistance. Approximately 94% of the isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 contained the pfmdr1 184F allele. Mutations of the k13 gene were detected in approximately 90% of the parasites collected from 2009 to 2016 which were significantly higher than the parasite isolates collected before. No ATQ-resistant genotype and phenotype of P. falciparum were found among the isolates collected after the containment project. Although the containment project had been

  3. The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the treatment of malaria: a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Catherine; Kauss, Tina; Kiechel, Jean-René; Caminiti, Antonella; Fawaz, Fawaz; Terrassin, Laurent; Cuart, Sylvie; Grislain, Luc; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Ghezzoul, Bellabes; Gaudin, Karen; White, Nick J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal

    2011-05-23

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy is currently recommended worldwide for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Fixed-dose combinations are preferred as they favour compliance. This paper reports on the initial phases of the pharmaceutical development of an artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) bilayer co-formulation tablet, undertaken following pre-formulation studies by a network of scientists and industrials from institutions of both industrialized and low income countries. Pharmaceutical development was performed by a research laboratory at the University Bordeaux Segalen, School of Pharmacy, for feasibility and early stability studies of various drug formulations, further transferred to a company specialized in pharmaceutical development, and then provided to another company for clinical batch manufacturing. The work was conducted by a regional public-private not-for-profit network (TropiVal) within a larger Public Private partnership (the FACT project), set up by WHO/TDR, Médecins Sans Frontières and the Drugs for Neglected Disease initiative (DNDi). The main pharmaceutical goal was to combine in a solid oral form two incompatible active principles while preventing artesunate degradation under tropical conditions. Several options were attempted and failed to provide satisfactory stability results: incorporating artesunate in the external phase of the tablets, adding a pH regulator, alcoholic wet granulation, dry granulation, addition of an hydrophobic agent, tablet manufacturing in controlled conditions. However, long-term stability could be achieved, in experimental batches under GMP conditions, by physical separation of artesunate and amodiaquine in a bilayer co-formulation tablet in alu-alu blisters. Conduction of the workplan was monitored by DNDi. Collaborations between research and industrial groups greatly accelerated the process of development of the bi-layered ASAQ tablet. Lack of public funding was the main obstacle hampering the development process

  4. Assessment of the molecular marker of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) in Senegal after several years of chloroquine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Faye, Babacar; Tine, Roger; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Lo, Aminata; Abiola, Annie; Dieng, Yemou; Ndiaye, Daouda; Hallett, Rachel; Alifrangis, Michael; Gaye, Oumar

    2012-10-01

    As a result of widespread antimalarial drug resistance, all African countries with endemic malaria have, in recent years, changed their malaria treatment policy. In Senegal, the health authorities changed from chloroquine (CQ) to a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) in 2003. Since 2006, the artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate plus amodiaquine (AS/AQ) were adopted for uncomplicated malaria treatment. After several years of CQ withdrawal, the current study wished to determine the level of CQ resistance at the molecular level in selected sites in Senegal, because the scientific community is interested in using CQ again. Finger prick blood samples were collected from Plasmodium falciparum-positive children below the age of 10 years (N = 474) during cross-sectional surveys conducted in two study sites in Senegal with different malaria transmission levels. One site is in central Senegal, and the other site is in the southern part of the country. All samples were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt; codons 72-76) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR methods. In total, the 72- to 76-codon region of Pfcrt was amplified in 449 blood samples (94.7%; 285 and 164 samples from the central and southern sites of Senegal, respectively). In both study areas, the prevalence of the Pfcrt wild-type single CVMNK haplotype was very high; in central Senegal, the prevalence was 70.5% in 2009 and 74.8% in 2010, and in southern Senegal, the prevalence was 65.4% in 2010 and 71.0% in 2011. Comparing data with older studies in Senegal, a sharp decline in the mutant type Pfcrt prevalence is evident: from 65%, 64%, and 59.5% in samples collected from various sites in 2000, 2001, and 2004 to approximately 30% in our study. A similar

  5. Chloroquine targets pancreatic cancer stem cells via inhibition of CXCR4 and hedgehog signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic, Anamaria; Sørensen, Morten Dræby; Trabulo, Sara Maria

    2014-01-01

    effectively eliminating established tumors and improved overall survival. The inhibitory effect of chloroquine was not related to inhibition of autophagy, but was due to inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling, resulting in reduced phosphorylation of ERK and STAT3. Furthermore, chloroquine showed potent...... is an effective adjuvant therapy to chemotherapy, offering more efficient tumor elimination and improved cure rates. Chloroquine should be further explored in the clinical setting as its success may help to more rapidly improve the poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer...

  6. Labeled chloroquine analog in diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of the melanin-specific properties of chloroquine, an 125 I-labeled chloroquine analog (NM-113) was synthesized for use in the diagnosis of ocular and dermal melanomas. The limitations and indications for the use of NM-113 in the diagnosis of dermal melanomas are summarized, and its efficiency in the diagnosis of ocular melanomas is discussed. The low probability of side effects (radiation effects) on the retina from a diagnostic dose of 2 m Ci (46 rads) is mentioned. (U.S.)

  7. Malaria Parasite Infection and Chloroquine-Induced Pruritus: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced body scratching, whereas, the histaminergic system was implicated in CQ-induced itching. Keywords: Rats, parasitaemia, chloroquine, opioids, antihistamine, naltrexone. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  8. Combination cyclosporine and (hydroxy)chloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, B. A.; Landewé, R. B.; van den Borne, B. E.; Breedveld, F. C.

    1999-01-01

    Antimalarials are attractive candidates for combination therapy. In vitro experiments have revealed a synergistic mode of action of cyclosporine and chloroquine which could not, however, be confirmed in a clinical trial

  9. Chloroquine clinical failures in P. falciparum malaria are associated with mutant Pfmdr-1, not Pfcrt in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Andriantsoanirina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies have demonstrated that mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt play a major role in chloroquine resistance, while mutations in P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene (Pfmdr-1 act as modulator. In Madagascar, the high rate of chloroquine treatment failure (44% appears disconnected from the overall level of in vitro CQ susceptibility (prevalence of CQ-resistant parasites 60% of isolates, but did not explore their association with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance. To document the association of Pfmdr-1 alleles with chloroquine resistance in Madagascar, 249 P. falciparum samples collected from patients enrolled in a chloroquine in vivo efficacy study were genotyped in Pfcrt/Pfmdr-1 genes as well as the estimation of the Pfmdr-1 copy number. Except 2 isolates, all samples displayed a wild-type Pfcrt allele without Pfmdr-1 amplification. Chloroquine treatment failures were significantly associated with Pfmdr-1 86Y mutant codon (OR = 4.6. The cumulative incidence of recurrence of patients carrying the Pfmdr-1 86Y mutation at day 0 (21 days was shorter than patients carrying Pfmdr-1 86N wild type codon (28 days. In an independent set of 90 selected isolates, in vitro susceptibility to chloroquine was not associated with Pfmdr-1 polymorphisms. Analysis of two microsatellites flanking Pfmdr-1 allele showed that mutations occurred on multiple genetic backgrounds. In Madagascar, Pfmdr-1 polymorphism is associated with late chloroquine clinical failures and unrelated with in vitro susceptibility or Pfcrt genotype. These results highlight the limits of the current in vitro tests routinely used to monitor CQ drug resistance in this unique context. Gaining insight about the mechanisms that regulate polymorphism in Pfmdr1 remains important, particularly regarding the evolution and spread of Pfmdr-1 alleles in P. falciparum populations under changing drug pressure which may have important

  10. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaini, Ramesh R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and UNM Cancer and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hu, Chien-An A., E-mail: AHu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and UNM Cancer and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaini, Ramesh R.; Hu, Chien-An A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. ► Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. ► Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. ► Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Prashant K; Sutton, Patrick L; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Ashok K; Carlton, Jane M; Bhasin, Virendra K

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite's acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST=0.253, Pstructure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation at both neutral and adaptive loci across India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost implication of irrational prescribing of chloroquine in Lagos State general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Bolajoko A; Tayo, Fola; Taylor, Ogori

    2008-02-01

    A major share of the hospital budget is spent on drugs. Irrational use of these drugs is a waste of financial and human resources that could have been deployed for another use within the hospital setting especially in cases where such drugs are provided free to patients. Also there is increased morbidity and progression of severity with irrational use. The objective of this study was to determine the irrational use of chloroquine and the subsequent cost implications in Lagos State general hospitals. A retrospective study period of one year (January to December, 2000) was selected. A total of 18,781 prescription forms of "Free Eko Malaria" were sampled for children and adults from all the Lagos State general hospitals. Drug costs in each prescription form were identified. Cost effectiveness analysis of chloroquine tablet and intramuscular injection was undertaken. The average cost of medicine per prescription was 132.071 ($1.03) which should have been 94.22 ($0.73) if prescribed rationally. The total cost of prescriptions for malaria under study was 2,480,425.00 ($19,348.09). About 68% {(1,679,444.00) ($13,100.19)} of the total cost was lost to irrational prescribing. This is a waste of scarce resources. When the prescriptions were differentiated into the different dosage forms prescribed, the prescriptions containing intramuscular injections only had over 90% of the cost lost to irrational prescribing. Cost effectiveness analysis showed that chloroquine tablet was 17 times more cost effective than chloroquine injection (intramuscular) from a health care system perspective while it was 14 times more cost effective from a patient perspective. There is waste of scarce resources with irrational dispensing of drugs and these resources could have been deployed to other uses or areas within the hospitals. The tablet chloroquine was more cost effective than injection chloroquine (intramuscular). Increasing the cost of tablets, decreasing effectiveness of tablets

  14. Blood schizontocidal activity of methylene blue in combination with antimalarials against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavito G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue (MB is the oldest synthetic antimalarial. It is not used anymore as antimalarial but should be reconsidered. For this purpose we have measured its impact on both chloroquine sensitive and resistant Plasmodium strains. We showed that around 5 nM of MB were able to inhibit 50% of the parasite growth in vitro and that late rings and early trophozoites were the most sensitive stages; while early rings, late trophozoites and schizonts were less sensitive. Drug interaction study following fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC method showed antagonism with amodiaquine, atovaquone, doxycycline, pyrimethamine; additivity with artemether, chloroquine, mefloquine, primaquine and synergy with quinine. These results confirmed the interest of MB that could be integrated in a new low cost antimalarial combination therapy.

  15. The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the treatment of malaria: a public-private partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudin Karen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy is currently recommended worldwide for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Fixed-dose combinations are preferred as they favour compliance. This paper reports on the initial phases of the pharmaceutical development of an artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ bilayer co-formulation tablet, undertaken following pre-formulation studies by a network of scientists and industrials from institutions of both industrialized and low income countries. Methods Pharmaceutical development was performed by a research laboratory at the University Bordeaux Segalen, School of Pharmacy, for feasibility and early stability studies of various drug formulations, further transferred to a company specialized in pharmaceutical development, and then provided to another company for clinical batch manufacturing. The work was conducted by a regional public-private not-for-profit network (TropiVal within a larger Public Private partnership (the FACT project, set up by WHO/TDR, Médecins Sans Frontières and the Drugs for Neglected Disease initiative (DNDi. Results The main pharmaceutical goal was to combine in a solid oral form two incompatible active principles while preventing artesunate degradation under tropical conditions. Several options were attempted and failed to provide satisfactory stability results: incorporating artesunate in the external phase of the tablets, adding a pH regulator, alcoholic wet granulation, dry granulation, addition of an hydrophobic agent, tablet manufacturing in controlled conditions. However, long-term stability could be achieved, in experimental batches under GMP conditions, by physical separation of artesunate and amodiaquine in a bilayer co-formulation tablet in alu-alu blisters. Conduction of the workplan was monitored by DNDi. Conclusions Collaborations between research and industrial groups greatly accelerated the process of development of the bi-layered ASAQ tablet. Lack of public

  16. Antiplasmodial activity of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives against chloroquine resistant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manish; Dola, Vasanth R; Agarwal, Pooja; Srivastava, Kumkum; Haq, Wahajul; Puri, Sunil K; Katti, Seturam B

    2014-07-15

    Emergence and spread of multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum has severely limited the antimalarial chemotherapeutic options. In order to overcome the obstacle, a set of new side-chain modified 4-aminoquinolines were synthesized and screened against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (K1) strains of P. falciparum. The key feature of the designed molecules is the use of methylpiperazine linked α, β(3)- and γ-amino acids to generate novel side chain modified 4-aminoquinoline analogues. Among the evaluated compounds, 20c and 30 were found more potent than CQ against K1 and displayed a four-fold and a three-fold higher activity respectively, with a good selectivity index (SI=5846 and 11,350). All synthesized compounds had resistance index between 1.06 and >14.13 as against 47.2 for chloroquine. Biophysical studies suggested that this series of compounds act on heme polymerization target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of a three-day chloroquine treatment in patients with Plasmodium vivax infection on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Richard; Moussavi, Younis; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Cheomung, Anurak; Äbelö, Angela; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2016-02-29

    A three-day course of chloroquine remains a standard treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in Thailand with satisfactory clinical efficacy and tolerability although a continuous decline in in vitro parasite sensitivity has been reported. Information on the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and its active metabolite desethylchloroquine are required for optimization of treatment to attain therapeutic exposure and thus prevent drug resistance development. The study was conducted at Mae Tao Clinic for migrant worker, Tak province, Thailand. Blood samples were collected from a total of 75 (8 Thais and 67 Burmeses; 36 males and 39 females; aged 17-52 years) patients with mono-infection with P. vivax malaria [median (95 % CI) admission parasitaemia 4898 (1206-29,480)/µL] following treatment with a three-day course of chloroquine (25 mg/kg body weight chloroquine phosphate over 3 days). Whole blood concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Concentration-time profiles of both compounds were analysed using a population-based pharmacokinetic approach. All patients showed satisfactory response to standard treatment with a three-day course of chloroquine with 100 % cure rate within the follow-up period of 42 days. Neither recurrence of P. vivax parasitaemia nor appearance of P. falciparum occurred. A total of 1045 observations from 75 participants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Chloroquine disposition was most adequately described by the two-compartment model with one transit compartment absorption model into the central compartment and a first-order transformation of chloroquine into desethylchloroquine with an additional peripheral compartment added to desethylchloroquine. First-order elimination from the central compartment of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine was assumed. The model exhibited a strong predictive ability and the pharmacokinetic parameters were

  18. Visual function and long-term chloroquine treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amsler grids and a further battery offour tests of macular function (visual evoked potentials, criti- cal flicker fusion threshold, Cambridge contrast sensitivity and the macular dazzle test) were administered. No case of retinal pigmentary abnonnalities plus visual loss was found, but 2 patients were advised to cease chloroquine.

  19. Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria chemotherapy: The past, the present and the future. ... regions. It was initially highly effective against the four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malaria, P. ovale and P. vivax) infecting human. It is also effective against gametocytes except those of P. falciparum.

  20. [Comparative observation on inhibition of hemozoin formation and their in vitro and in vivo anti-schistosome activity displayed by 7 antimalarial drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Cong-Shan; Sun, Jun; Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2013-06-01

    To observe and compare the inhibition of hemozoin formation and the in vitro as well as in vivo antischistosomal activity induced by seven antimalarial drugs. Inhibition of hemozoin formation displayed by chloroquine phosphate, quinine hydrochloride, quinidine, mefloquine hydrochloride, pyronaridine phosphate and lumefantrine at 25 micromol/L, and artemether at 100 micromol/L was performed by assay of inhibition of beta-hematin formation in 1 mol/L sodium acetate buffers containing hematin with various pH of 4.0, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, and 5.0. In in vitro antischistosomal study, the medium of RPMI 1640 supplemented by 10% calf serum was used to maintain the adult Schistosoma japonicum, and the 50% and 95% lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) to kill the adult worms of each drug were then determined. Meanwhile, the interaction of quinine, pyronaridine and chloroquine combined with hemin against adult schistosomes was also undertaken. As to in vivo test, the efficacy of seven antimalarial drugs administered orally or intraperitoneally to mice infected with adult schistosomes was observed. In the acidic acetate-hematin solution, 25 micromol/L pyronaridine showed significant inhibition of beta-hematin formation at pH 4.4-5.0 with inhibition rates of 81.3%-97.0%. At pH 4.6, the inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation in acetate-hematin solution induced by mefloquine, chloroquine or quinine at concentration of 25 beta mol/L were 79.7%, 72.8% or 65.8%, respectively, and the beta-hematin formation was continually inhibited by these 3 antimalarial drugs at pH 4.8 and 5.0 with inhibition rates of 83.1%-90.6%, 41.9%-49.0% or 53.2-62.0%. The inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation at pH 4.6 and 4.8-5.0 induced by lumefantrine 25 micromol/L were 74.3% and 40.4%-40.5%, respectively. While under the same concentration of quinidine, 53.4% and 50.9% inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation were observed at pH 4.8 and 5.0. As to artemether, higher concentration of 100

  1. In situ localization of chloroquine and immunohistological studies in UVB-irradiated skin of photosensitive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjölin-Forsberg, G.; Berne, B.; Eggelte, T. A.; Karlsson-Parra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Chloroquine can prevent photosensitivity reactions, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. To investigate if the drug may interfere with inflammatory or immunological mechanisms of the UV-induced erythema of photosensitive patients, we studied the localization of chloroquine in the skin

  2. Using a genome-scale metabolic network model to elucidate the mechanism of chloroquine action in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivendra G. Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine, long the default first-line treatment against malaria, is now abandoned in large parts of the world because of widespread drug-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. In spite of its importance as a cost-effective and efficient drug, a coherent understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected by chloroquine and how they influence the fitness and survival of the parasite remains elusive. Here, we used a systems biology approach to integrate genome-scale transcriptomics to map out the effects of chloroquine, identify targeted metabolic pathways, and translate these findings into mechanistic insights. Specifically, we first developed a method that integrates transcriptomic and metabolomic data, which we independently validated against a recently published set of such data for Krebs-cycle mutants of P. falciparum. We then used the method to calculate the effect of chloroquine treatment on the metabolic flux profiles of P. falciparum during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle. The model predicted dose-dependent inhibition of DNA replication, in agreement with earlier experimental results for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant P. falciparum strains. Our simulations also corroborated experimental findings that suggest differences in chloroquine sensitivity between ring- and schizont-stage P. falciparum. Our analysis also suggests that metabolic fluxes that govern reduced thioredoxin and phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis are significantly decreased and are pivotal to chloroquine-based inhibition of P. falciparum DNA replication. The consequences of impaired phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis and redox metabolism are reduced carbon fixation and increased oxidative stress, respectively, both of which eventually facilitate killing of the parasite. Our analysis suggests that a combination of chloroquine (or an analogue and another drug, which inhibits carbon fixation and/or increases oxidative stress, should increase the clearance of P

  3. Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Prashant K.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P.; Dash, Aditya P.; Singh, Ashok K.; Carlton, Jane M.; Bhasin, Virendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite’s acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST = 0.253, P<0.001) suggests a long period of isolation or a possibility of different origin between them. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed in low transmission areas (r = 0.49, P=0.003, N = 83, Mantel test). An unanticipated pattern of spread of hitchhiking suggests genetic structure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation

  4. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus chloroquine to treat vivax malaria in Afghanistan: an open randomized, non-inferiority, trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodrow Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, the parasite responsible for the majority of its malaria burden. Chloroquine resistance in P. vivax is emerging in Asia. Therapeutic responses across Afghanistan have not been evaluated in detail. Methods Between July 2007 and February 2009, an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted. Consistent with current national guidelines, primaquine was not administered. Subjects were followed up daily during the acute phase of illness (days 0-3 and weekly until day 56. The primary endpoint was the overall cumulative parasitological failure rate at day 56 after the start of treatment, with the hypothesis being that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was non-inferior compared to chloroquine (Δ = 5% difference in proportion of failures. Results Of 2,182 individuals with positive blood films for P. vivax, 536 were enrolled in the trial. The day 28 cure rate was 100% in both treatment groups. Parasite clearance was more rapid with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than chloroquine. At day 56, there were more recurrent infections in the chloroquine arm (8.9%, 95% CI 6.0-13.1% than the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm (2.8%, 95% CI 1.4-5.8%, a difference in cumulative recurrence rate of 6.1% (2-sided 90%CI +2.6 to +9.7%. The log-rank test comparing the survival curves confirmed the superiority of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine over chloroquine (p = 0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that a lower initial haemoglobin concentration was also independently associated with recurrence. Both regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. In a setting where radical

  5. Effect of Mefloquine, a Gap Junction Blocker, on Circadian Period2 Gene Oscillation in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmi Koo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn mammals, the master circadian pacemaker is localized in an area of the ventral hypothalamus known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Previous studies have shown that pacemaker neurons in the SCN are highly coupled to one another, and this coupling is crucial for intrinsic self-sustainability of the SCN central clock, which is distinguished from peripheral oscillators. One plausible mechanism underlying the intercellular communication may involve direct electrical connections mediated by gap junctions.MethodsWe examined the effect of mefloquine, a neuronal gap junction blocker, on circadian Period 2 (Per2 gene oscillation in SCN slice cultures prepared from Per2::luciferase (PER2::LUC knock-in mice using a real-time bioluminescence measurement system.ResultsAdministration of mefloquine causes instability in the pulse period and a slight reduction of amplitude in cyclic PER2::LUC expression. Blockade of gap junctions uncouples PER2::LUC-expressing cells, in terms of phase transition, which weakens synchrony among individual cellular rhythms.ConclusionThese findings suggest that neuronal gap junctions play an important role in synchronizing the central pacemaker neurons and contribute to the distinct self-sustainability of the SCN master clock.

  6. Presumed Chloroquine Retinopathy in Ibadan | Ajayi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review patients with clinical features of chloroquine retinopathy seen during the study period with the view of identifying the trend and creating public awareness for behavioural change. Methods: A retrospective review of case notes of patients seen between 1996 and 2002. Results: 19 patients with features of ...

  7. Chloroquine Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Vero Cells but Not in C6/36 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Juvenal Silva Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2. Real-time RT-PCR and plaque assays were used to quantify the DENV-2 load in infected Vero and C6/36 cells after chloroquine treatment. Our results showed that a dose of 50 μg/ml of chloroquine was not toxic to the cells and induced a statistically significant inhibition of virus production in infected Vero cells when compared to untreated cells. In C6/36 cells, chloroquine does not induce a statistically significant difference in viral replication when compared to untreated cells, showing that this virus uses an unlikely pathway of penetration in these cells, and results were also confirmed by the plaque assay (PFU. These data suggest that the inhibition of virus infection induced by chloroquine is due to interference with acidic vesicles in mammalian cells.

  8. Chloroquine inhibits dengue virus type 2 replication in Vero cells but not in C6/36 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Real-time RT-PCR and plaque assays were used to quantify the DENV-2 load in infected Vero and C6/36 cells after chloroquine treatment. Our results showed that a dose of 50 μg/ml of chloroquine was not toxic to the cells and induced a statistically significant inhibition of virus production in infected Vero cells when compared to untreated cells. In C6/36 cells, chloroquine does not induce a statistically significant difference in viral replication when compared to untreated cells, showing that this virus uses an unlikely pathway of penetration in these cells, and results were also confirmed by the plaque assay (PFU). These data suggest that the inhibition of virus infection induced by chloroquine is due to interference with acidic vesicles in mammalian cells.

  9. Recycling antimalarial leads for cancer: Antiproliferative properties of N-cinnamoyl chloroquine analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca C Perez; Iva Fernandes; Nuno Mateus; Catia Teixeira; Paula Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acids and quinolines are known as useful scaffolds in the discovery of antitumor agents. Therefore, N-cinnamoylated analogues of chloroquine, recently reported as potent dual-action antimalarials, were evaluated against three different cancer cell lines: MKN-28, Caco-2, and MCF-7. All compounds display anti-proliferative activity in the micromolar range against the three cell lines tested, and most of them were more active than their parent drug, chloroquine, against all cell lines t...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated to pruritus in Plasmodium vivax patients using chloroquine in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballut, Priscilla C; Siqueira, Andre M; Orlando, Aline C B; Alexandre, Marcia A A; Alecrim, Maria Graças C; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2013-12-01

    Chloroquine-induced pruritus has been described as a common adverse event in African patients being treated for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and has been associated with treatment discontinuation in this setting. In Latin America, where Plasmodium vivax is the most common species causing malaria and chloroquine is still used as the first-line schizonticidal for treating this parasite infection, there are no reports on chloroquine-induced pruritus. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of pruritus and associated risk factors in P. vivax-infected patients treated with chloroquine in a reference centre in the Brazilian Amazon. In this cross-sectional study, patients who were prescribed with chloroquine for the treatment of microscopy-confirmed P. vivax infection in the past five days were actively asked about the occurrence of any level of pruritus and potential risk factors were investigated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was performed for the analysis of possible risk factors in two sets of patients: (1) all the patients interviewed and (2) restricted to patients with previous use of chloroquine. Among the 510 patients interviewed, 20.4% (95%CI: 16.9-23.9%) developed any level of pruritus during treatment with chloroquine. Most episodes of pruritus occurred during the first two days of treatment and the most common location was hands and feet. In multivariate analysis performed in the entire population, the only risk factors independently associated to pruritus were allergy history (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83; 95%CI 1.02-3.31; p=0.044) and high parasitaemia (AOR: 1.96: 95%CI 1.22-3.13; p=0.005). In the analysis restricted to the 215 patients with previous use of chloroquine, previous chloroquine-induced pruritus was a strong predictor of pruritus occurrence (AOR: 11.84: 95%CI 3.15-44.47; pAmazon. Host-parasite interaction may play a relevant role in the development of pruritus and concurs with the finding of strong association of

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter with a novel perfluorophenylazido chloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekostaj, Jacqueline K; Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Paguio, Michelle F; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D

    2008-09-30

    Several models describing how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Further progress requires molecular analysis of interactions between purified reconstituted PfCRT protein and these drugs. We have thus designed and synthesized several perfluorophenyl azido (pfpa) CQ analogues for PfCRT photolabeling studies. One particularly useful probe (AzBCQ) places the pfpa group at the terminal aliphatic N of CQ via a flexible four-carbon ester linker and includes a convenient biotin tag. This probe photolabels PfCRT in situ with high specificity. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes harboring partially purified recombinant PfCRT, we analyze AzBCQ photolabeling versus competition with CQ and other drugs to probe the nature of the CQ binding site. We also inspect how pH, the chemoreversal agent verapamil (VPL), and various amino acid mutations in PfCRT that cause CQ resistance (CQR) affect the efficiency of AzBCQ photolabeling. Upon gel isolation of AzBCQ-labeled PfCRT followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry analysis, we are able to define a single AzBCQ covalent attachment site lying within the digestive vacuolar-disposed loop between putative helices 9 and 10 of PfCRT. Taken together, the data provide important new insight into PfCRT function and, along with previous results, allow us to propose a model for a single CQ binding site in the PfCRT protein.

  12. Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Brian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the high malaria-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits of IPTp are declining due to SP resistance. The combination of azithromycin and chloroquine is a potential alternative to SP for IPTp. This review summarizes key in vitro and in vivo evidence of azithromycin and chloroquine activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, as well as the anticipated secondary benefits that may result from their combined use in IPTp, including the cure and prevention of many sexually transmitted diseases. Drug costs and the necessity for external financing are discussed along with a range of issues related to drug resistance and surveillance. Several scientific and programmatic questions of interest to policymakers and programme managers are also presented that would need to be addressed before azithromycin-chloroquine could be adopted for use in IPTp.

  13. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  14. Chloroquine allows the secretion of internalized 125I-epidermal growth factor from fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakshull, E.; Cooper, J.L.; Wharton, W.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of cells with labelled hormone in the presence of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine produces an enhanced intracellular accumulation of hormone and receptor. Using a pulse-chase paradigm in which cell surface receptors were labelled with 125 I-EGF at 4 degrees C, it was found that when 100 microM chloroquine was present in the 37 degrees C chase medium intact hormone was accumulated in the medium. Without chloroquine, low molecular weight (mw) degradation products were found in the medium. The processes of receptor-mediated endocytosis and subcellular distribution of 125 I-EGF-receptor complexes were unchanged by chloroquine. The source of the intact hormone accumulating in the medium was therefore an intracellular compartment(s). The 125 I-EGF released from the cells could rebind to surface receptors and be re-internalized; rebinding was inhibited by unlabelled EGF or Concanavalin A in the incubation medium. The concentration of unlabelled EGF required to inhibit rebinding was more than three orders of magnitude greater than the amount of 125 I-EGF whose rebinding was inhibited. Thus, the 125 I-EGF released from intracellular sites was rebound preferentially over exogenous EGF. The possible pathways for secretion of intact 125 I-EGF and mechanisms of its preferential rebinding are discussed

  15. Rapid selection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene and multidrug resistance gene-1 haplotypes associated with past chloroquine and present artemether-lumefantrine use in Inhambane District, southern Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thomas T; Madsen, Laura B; Hansson, Helle H

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) use in Mozambique was stopped in 2002 and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was implemented in 2008. In light of no use of CQ and extensive use of AL, we determined the frequency of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance/tolerance to CQ and AL in persons living...... in Linga-Linga, an isolated peninsula and in Furvela village, which is located 8 km inland. The P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK wild type increased in frequency from 43.9% in 2009 to 66.4% in 2010 (P = 0.001), and combined P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 N86-184F-D1246...... haplotype increased significantly between years (P = 0.039). The combination of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVMNK and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene NFD increased from 24.3% (2009) to 45.3% in (2010, P = 0.017). The rapid changes observed may largely be caused by decreased...

  16. A study of the pharmaceutical quality of chloroquine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    products obtained from a major Nigerian drug “market” using a less elaborate sampling procedure. Results have ... chloroquine and paracetamol tablets (10 brands each) and syrups (6 brands ..... strategy aimed at attaining the United Nations'.

  17. No Evidence of Delayed Parasite Clearance after Oral Artesunate Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Amelia W.; Fofana, Bakary; Sagara, Issaka; Dembele, Demba; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Oumar Bila; Toure, Sekou; Sanogo, Kassim; Dama, Souleymane; Sidibe, Bakary; Kone, Aminatou; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins by delayed parasite clearance is present in Southeast Asia. Scant data on parasite clearance after artemisinins are available from Africa, where transmission is high, burden is greatest, and artemisinin use is being scaled up. Children 1–10 years of age with uncomplicated malaria were treated with 7 days of artesunate and followed for 28 days. Blood smears were done every 8 hours until negative by light microscopy. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in the same village in 2002–2004. The polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rate was 100%, identical to 2002–2004. By 24 hours after treatment initiation, 37.0% of participants had cleared parasitemia, compared with 31.9% in 2002–2004 (P = 0.5). The median parasite clearance time was 32 hours. Only one participant still had parasites at 48 hours and no participant presented parasitemia at 72 hours. Artesunate was highly efficacious, with no evidence of delayed parasite clearance. We provide baseline surveillance data for the emergence or dissemination of P. falciparum resistance in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22764287

  18. Chloroquine treatment enhances regulatory T cells and reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The modulation of inflammatory processes is a necessary step, mostly orchestrated by regulatory T (Treg cells and suppressive Dendritic Cells (DCs, to prevent the development of deleterious responses and autoimmune diseases. Therapies that focused on adoptive transfer of Treg cells or their expansion in vivo achieved great success in controlling inflammation in several experimental models. Chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malarial drug, was shown to reduce inflammation, although the mechanisms are still obscure. In this context, we aimed to access whether chloroquine treatment alters the frequency of Treg cells and DCs in normal mice. In addition, the effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with CQ on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, an experimental model for human Multiple Sclerosis, was investigated as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with chloroquine. Results show that the CQ treatment provoked an increase in Treg cells frequency as well as a decrease in DCs. We next evaluated whether prophylactic CQ administration is capable of reducing the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE. Our results demonstrated that CQ-treated mice developed mild EAE compared to controls that was associated with lower infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system CNS and increased frequency of Treg cells. Also, proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells was significantly inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Similar results were observed when chloroquine was administrated after disease onset. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that CQ treatment promotes the expansion of Treg cells, corroborating previous reports indicating that chloroquine has immunomodulatory properties. Our results also show that CQ treatment suppress the inflammation in the CNS of

  19. Enhanced lysosomal acidification leads to increased chloroquine accumulation in CHO cells expressing the pfmdr1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, H. H.; Renkema, H.; Aerts, H.; Schurr, E.

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the pfmdr1-encoded Pgh1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum in CHO cells confers a phenotype of increased sensitivity to chloroquine due to an increased Pgh1-mediated accumulation of this antimalarial. Pgh1 carrying amino acid substitutions associated with chloroquine resistance in P.

  20. Prevalence of the molecular marker of chloroquine resistance (pfcrt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In line with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on chloroquine (CQ) resistance, CQ was withdrawn as the ... prevention, loss of working hours, etc.1 ... at position 76 being the last in the long process leading to CQ.

  1. A study of the uptake of chloroquine in malaria-infected erythrocytes. High and low affinity uptake and the influence of glucose and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diribe, C O; Warhurst, D C

    1985-09-01

    A study of concentration- and substrate-dependence of chloroquine uptake has been carried out on mouse erythrocytes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NK65 and the chloroquine-resistant RC strains of Plasmodium berghei. The presence of drug binding sites of high and low affinity in such strains of P. berghei was confirmed. High affinity uptake sites in cells parasitized with chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant parasites have similar characteristics, but in the sensitive strain the major component of chloroquine-uptake is at high affinity and dependent on the availability of ATP whilst in the resistant strain the major component of uptake is at low affinity and independent of energy. An absolute increase in the quantity of the low affinity site in erythrocytes parasitized with chloroquine-resistant P. berghei was noted, which may be related to an increase in quantity of parasite membrane.

  2. Similar efficacy and tolerability of double-dose chloroquine and artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele,......, was routinely used. The present study compared the efficacy and tolerability of a double standard dose of chloroquine with the efficacy and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine.......In 2008, Guinea-Bissau introduced artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Previously, 3 times the standard dose of chloroquine, that was probably efficacious against Plasmodium falciparum with the resistance-associated chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele...

  3. Chloroquine, quinine, procaine, quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants, and methylxanthines as prostaglandin agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manku, M S; Horrobin, D F

    1976-11-20

    Chloroquine, quanine, procaine, quinidine, clomipramine, theophylline, and caffeine have been shown to be strong prostaglandin antagonists and weak agonists. The antagonist effect is clearly demonstrable at concentrations reached in human plasma when the drugs are used therapeutically. This suggests that prostaglandins are important in several situations in which their role has hitherto been unsuspected. New approaches to the development of prostaglandin antagonists and new uses for established drugs are indicated. In a preliminary study chloroquine has been successfully used to close patent ductus arteriosus in three infants.

  4. Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt exon 2 haplotypes in the Pacific from 1959 to 1979.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim W Chan

    Full Text Available Nearly one million deaths are attributed to malaria every year. Recent reports of multi-drug treatment failure of falciparum malaria underscore the need to understand the molecular basis of drug resistance. Multiple mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt are involved in chloroquine resistance, but the evolution of complex haplotypes is not yet well understood. Using over 4,500 archival human serum specimens collected from 19 Pacific populations between 1959 and 1979, the period including and just prior to the appearance of chloroquine treatment failure in the Pacific, we PCR-amplified and sequenced a portion of the pfcrt exon 2 from 771 P. falciparum-infected individuals to explore the spatial and temporal variation in falciparum malaria prevalence and the evolution of chloroquine resistance. In the Pacific, the prevalence of P. falciparum varied considerably across ecological zones. On the island of New Guinea, the decreases in prevalence of P. falciparum in coastal, high-transmission areas over time were contrasted by the increase in prevalence during the same period in the highlands, where transmission was intermittent. We found 78 unique pfcrt haplotypes consisting of 34 amino acid substitutions and 28 synonymous mutations. More importantly, two pfcrt mutations (N75D and K76T implicated in chloroquine resistance were present in parasites from New Hebrides (now Vanuatu eight years before the first report of treatment failure. Our results also revealed unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity in pfcrt exon 2 prior to the historical chloroquine resistance selective sweep, particularly in areas where disease burden was relatively low. In the Pacific, parasite genetic isolation, as well as host acquired immune status and genetic resistance to malaria, were important contributors to the evolution of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum.

  5. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene—A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug...

  6. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Llanos-Cuentas, A.; Campos, P.; Clendenes, M.; Canfield, C. J.; Hutchinson, D. B. A.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM) were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15) or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base) over a 3 day period (n=14) (phase 1). The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were sub...

  7. Chloroquine inhibited Ebola virus replication in vitro but failed to protect against infection and disease in the in vivo guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Bosworth, Andrew; Watson, Robert; Bewley, Kevin; Taylor, Irene; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Pearson, Geoff; Easterbrook, Linda; Pitman, James; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W

    2015-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is highly pathogenic, with a predisposition to cause outbreaks in human populations accompanied by significant mortality. Owing to the lack of approved therapies, screening programmes of potentially efficacious drugs have been undertaken. One of these studies has demonstrated the possible utility of chloroquine against EBOV using pseudotyped assays. In mouse models of EBOV disease there are conflicting reports of the therapeutic effects of chloroquine. There are currently no reports of its efficacy using the larger and more stringent guinea pig model of infection. In this study we have shown that replication of live EBOV is impaired by chloroquine in vitro. However, no protective effects were observed in vivo when EBOV-infected guinea pigs were treated with chloroquine. These results advocate that chloroquine should not be considered as a treatment strategy for EBOV.

  8. Identification of antitumor activities of artesunate and steroid compounds in a model of type T lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Alpizar, Lilliana

    2014-01-01

    The cancer has constituted a public health problem. It has been the second leading cause of death in Costa Rica and it is anticipated that cases and deaths will increase in the coming years. One of the main problems of cancer has been the development of resistance to chemotherapy, so many research are focused on the search for new drugs and synergistic activities. The National Cancer Institute through the Developmental Therapeutics Program has made screening lot of natural compounds and synthetic on 60 cell lines derived from human tumors. This screening is presented with practical limitations and without evaluation of synergism with chemotherapeutic drugs at clinically relevant concentrations. Antitumour activities of artesunate and steroidal compounds are identified on a model of type T lymphoblastic leukemia, through optimization of various procedures, in order to build a more practical test platform for screening and confirm anticancer activity by new compounds. Compounds were screened by assaying of sulforhodamine B. An assay was optimized with fluorochromes calcein and ethidium homodimer-1. A cell cycle assay was used to confirm antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms of death were characterized in a basic way by a trial with annexin V/iodide of prospidium, using inhibitors of autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis to assess vias which have been the most important in cell death. The observation has been that only the artesunate has presented important activity on the cell line, being autotumoral and cytotoxic type. Also, a synergistic effect has presented with doxorrubicina chemotherapy and has caused cycle arrest at the G1/S phase. The ethidium/calcein homodimer-1 assay and V/iodide annexin of prospidium have showed that compound and the drug used has caused necrotic and apoptotic populations that have increased of dependent dose manner. The results have suggested that both agents activate several cell death pathways

  9. Monitoring of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum response to chloroquine in Bandar-Abbas district, Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateghpour M M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Malaria is an important parasitic vector-borne disease with considerable infectivity and world-wide distribution. Since prevalence of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum at the malarious areas such as Iran and reliable reports from many countries indicating emergence of chloroquine- resistant strains of P.vivax, this study was conducted to monitor the current response of vivax and falciparum plasmodia to chloroquine in Bandar-Abbas district, a malarious area in Iran."n"nMethods: The study was conducted at the Bandar-Abbas district in Hormozgan province, Iran. 123 patients were enrolled and considered. The patients were treated with a standard 3-day regimen of chloroquine and were followed-up clinically and parasitologically. The results were interpreted as mean parasite clearance time (MPCT in P. vivax and early treatment failure (ETF, late treatment failure (LTF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR in P. falciparum."n"nResults: The patients with vivax malaria were responded to the regimen of chloroquine within 24-216 hours. Most cases of the parasite clearance time occurred at 48 hours (50.40%, and less of them at 120, 168, 192 and 216 hours

  10. [Extraction of artemisinin and synthesis of its derivates artesunate and artemether].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekem, L; Wierucki, S

    2006-12-01

    Artemisinin is extracted from Artemisia annua, a shrub also known as sweet wormwood that was used in traditional medicine in Asia for more than 1500 years. Recent studies in numerous malarious zones have demonstrated the effectiveness of artemisinin and have reported no evidence of the resistance now associated with almost all other antimalarials on the market. Despite its remarkable activity, artermisinin is not accessible to many patients due to high cost. This situation confronts all players in the fight against malaria with the urgent need to develop a simple process to produce massive supplies of artemisinin and its derivative at an affordable price. The purpose of the study described here was to develop a simple, cost-effective method that could be used by all professionals to extract artemisinin and transform it into artesunate or artemether. Artemisinin was extracted with dichloromethane and purified on the basis of variations in polarity and in the hydrophile/lipophile balance of solvents. Transformation into artesunate was a two-step process involving reduction to dihydroartemisinin using diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL) followed by esterification using succinic anhydride. Artemether was obtained from dihydroartemisinin using boron trifluoride. Extraction using dichloromethane presents several advantages. Since dichloromethane is not explosive it can be safely transported and used for extraction on farms where Artemisia annua is grown. Evaporation and recovery of dichloromethane is relatively easy so that it can be re-used. These advantages result in a significant decrease in purchasing and shipping costs. Extraction on the farm eliminates the expense and facilities that would otherwise be required to transport and store leaves at the laboratory (250 kg of leaves yield 4 to 5 kg of raw artemisinin extract that yields approximately 1 kg of pure artemisinin). The low-cost process described here is feasible for any pharmaceutical laboratory including

  11. Simple analogues of qinghaosu (artemisinin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Hao, Hong-Dong; Wittlin, Sergio; Wu, Yikang

    2012-08-01

    A series of 1,2,4-trioxanes were synthesized in which the key peroxy bonds were installed through a molybdenum-catalyzed perhydrolysis of the epoxy rings. A core structure was identified that may serve as a promising lead structure for further investigations because of its high antimalarial activity (comparable to that of artesunate and chloroquine), apparent potential for scale-up and derivatization, and facile monitoring/tracing by using UV light. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Activity of two chlorinated lincomycin analogues against chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, K G; Jacobs, R L

    1972-01-01

    The chloroquine-resistant Oak Knoll strain of Plasmodium falciparum, recently adapted to the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), was insusceptible to chloroquine therapy. Two chlorinated lincomycin analogues tested in this host-parasite system cured blood-induced infections. Acute infections were treated orally for 7 consecutive days with either 15 or 75 mg of clindamycin hydrochloride (U-21) per kg per day, 10 or 50 mg of N-demethyl-4'-pentyl clindamycin hydrochloride (U-24) per kg per day, or 20 mg of chloroquine base per kg per day. These lincomycin analogues cleared trophozoites from the peripheral blood by the end of the 7-day treatment period. The speed of clearance of parasites was not dose-related, but curative activity appeared dependent upon the amount of drug given as well as the number of daily treatments. The efficacy of U-21 and U-24 is of particular interest since they represent major structural departures from compounds commonly used in the treatment of malaria.

  13. Antagonism of immunostimulatory CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides by quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, D E; Manzel, L

    1998-02-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG (CpG-ODN) activate immune responses. We report that quinacrine, chloroquine, and structurally related compounds completely inhibit the antiapoptotic effect of CpG-ODN on WEHI 231 murine B lymphoma cells and inhibit CpG-ODN-induced secretion of IL-6 by WEHI 231. They also inhibit IL-6 synthesis and thymidine uptake by human unfractionated PBMC induced by CpG-ODN. The compounds did not inhibit LPS-induced responses. Half-maximal inhibition required 10 nM quinacrine or 100 nM chloroquine. Inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to CpG-ODN. Quinine, quinidine, and primaquine were much less powerful. Quinacrine was effective even when added after the CpG-ODN. Near-toxic concentrations of ammonia plus bafilomycin A1 (used to inhibit vesicular acidification) did not reduce the efficacy of the quinacrine, but the effects of both quinacrine and chloroquine were enhanced by inhibition of the multidrug resistance efflux pump by verapamil. Agents that bind to DNA, including propidium iodide, Hoechst dye 33258, and coralyne chloride did not inhibit CpG-ODN effect, nor did 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Examination of the structure-activity relationship of seventy 4-aminoquinoline and 9-aminoacridine analogues reveals that increased activity was conferred by bulky hydrophobic substituents on positions 2 and 6 of the quinoline nucleus. No correlation was found between published antimalarial activity and ability to block CpG-ODN-induced effects. These results are discussed in the light of the ability of quinacrine and chloroquine to induce remission of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.

  14. Iron is a substrate of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter PfCRT in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakouh, Naziha; Bellanca, Sebastiano; Nyboer, Britta; Moliner Cubel, Sonia; Karim, Zoubida; Sanchez, Cecilia P; Stein, Wilfred D; Planelles, Gabrielle; Lanzer, Michael

    2017-09-29

    The chloroquine resistance transporter of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , PfCRT, is an important determinant of resistance to several quinoline and quinoline-like antimalarial drugs. PfCRT also plays an essential role in the physiology of the parasite during development inside erythrocytes. However, the function of this transporter besides its role in drug resistance is still unclear. Using electrophysiological and flux experiments conducted on PfCRT-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, we show here that both wild-type PfCRT and a PfCRT variant associated with chloroquine resistance transport both ferrous and ferric iron, albeit with different kinetics. In particular, we found that the ability to transport ferrous iron is reduced by the specific polymorphisms acquired by the PfCRT variant as a result of chloroquine selection. We further show that iron and chloroquine transport via PfCRT is electrogenic. If these findings in the Xenopus model extend to P. falciparum in vivo , our data suggest that PfCRT might play a role in iron homeostasis, which is essential for the parasite's development in erythrocytes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Comparative In - vitro Efficacy of Chloroquine, Fansidar, Cotecxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    le test de medicament invitro avec la methode microtest de l'OMS on été utilisés pour comparer l'efficacité de quatre antimalariales: chloroquine, Fansidar, Cotexin and Amalar sur des plasmodium malariae isolés. Une période de trios jous (72hrs) d'incubation pour interaction medicament-parasite était utilisé. Treize (13) ...

  16. In Vivo Efficacy of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine versus Artesunate/Amodiaquine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated P. falciparium Malaria in Children around the Slope of Mount Cameroon: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias O. Apinjoh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and spread of antimalarial drug resistant parasites contributes to the global impact of the disease. In vivo efficacy assessments of treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are essential for ensuring effective case management. Artemisinin-based combinations have been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Cameroon since 2004. Methods: A total of 177 children aged six-months to 10 years with uncomplicated mono-infected falciparum malaria were randomized (1:1 to receive artesunate/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS/SP or artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ pediatric tablets and followed up for 28 days according to the standard World Health Organization in vivo drug efficacy monitoring protocol. The primary and secondary endpoints were PCR uncorrected and corrected cure rates, as measured by adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR on day 28. Results: The PCR corrected cure rate was high, overall (88.1%, 95% CI 83.1–93.1, 85.9% (95% CI 78.2–93.6, and 90.2% (95% CI 83.8–96.6 for AS/SP and AS/AQ, respectively. Twenty-one treatment failures were observed during follow-up, constituting one (4.6%, 14 (8.2%, and six (3.5% early treatment failure (ETF, late clinical failure (LCF, and late parasitological failure (LPF, respectively. The drugs were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. Conclusions: Both AS/SP and AS/AQ are highly effective and well-tolerated treatments for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria around the slope of Mount Cameroon.

  17. Atovaquone and proguani hydrochloride compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfodaxine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Cuentas, A; Campos, P; Clendenes, M; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15) or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base) over a 3 day period (n=14) (phase 1). The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9) or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5) (phase 2). In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] vs. 8% [1/13], Pproguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]). There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.

  18. Chloroquine Interference with Hemoglobin Endocytic Trafficking Suppresses Adaptive Heme and Iron Homeostasis in Macrophages: The Paradox of an Antimalarial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Schaer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The CD163 scavenger receptor pathway for Hb:Hp complexes is an essential mechanism of protection against the toxicity of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb, which can accumulate in the vasculature and within tissues during hemolysis. Chloroquine is a lysosomotropic agent, which has been extensively used as an antimalarial drug in the past, before parasite resistance started to limit its efficacy in most parts of the world. More recent use of chloroquine is related to its immunomodulatory activity in patients with autoimmune diseases, which may also involve hemolytic disease components. In this study we examined the effects of chloroquine on the human Hb clearance pathway. For this purpose we developed a new mass-spectrometry-based method to specifically quantify intracellular Hb peptides within the endosomal-lysosomal compartment by single reaction monitoring (SRM. We found that chloroquine exposure impairs trafficking of Hb:Hp complexes through the endosomal-lysosomal compartment after internalization by CD163. Relative quantification of intracellular Hb peptides by SRM confirmed that chloroquine blocked cellular Hb:Hp catabolism. This effect suppressed the cellular heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 response and shifted macrophage iron homeostasis towards inappropriately high expression of the transferrin receptor with concurrent inhibition of ferroportin expression. A functional deficiency of Hb detoxification and heme-iron recycling may therefore be an adverse consequence of chloroquine treatment during hemolysis.

  19. Further studies on the effect of chloroquine on the uptake, metabolism and intracellular translocation of [35S]cystine in cystinotic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpure, C J; Jennings, P R; Fyfe, D A

    1986-03-14

    The present study uses the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine to investigate the mechanisms by which exogenous [35S]cystine is able to label the intracellular (intralysosomal) cystine pool(s) in cystinotic fibroblasts. When cystinotic fibroblasts were labelled for short periods of time (8 h or less), chloroquine (20 microM) inhibited the labelling of the intracellular cystine pool(s). However, when the cells were labelled for longer periods of time (24 h or more) chloroquine stimulated the labelling of the intracellular cystine pool(s). The short-term effect was selectively abolished when the cells were washed free of chloroquine, while the long-term effect was selectively abolished when the medium was depleted of cystine. Two routes of translocation of exogenous cystine to the lysosomes could be defined. One route was fast, had a low capacity, was inhibited by chloroquine and increased with increasing medium pH, while the other route was slow, had a high capacity, was stimulated by chloroquine and was more active at low pH. The former pathway probably consisted of plasma membrane transport of cystine into the cytosol followed by direct or indirect transport into the lysosomes. The latter route possibly consisted of pinocytosis with fusion of the cystine-containing pinosomes with lysosomes.

  20. Trends in chloroquine resistance marker, Pfcrt-K76T mutation ten years after chloroquine withdrawal in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Asia; Ndaro, Arnold; Kalinga, Akili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to the control of malaria. In 2001 Tanzania replaced chloroquine (CQ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line drug, which in turn was replaced by artemisinin combination therapy in 2006. SP has however......, continued to be used in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) despite reports of high levels of resistance to SP due to the lack of alternatives to SP for IPTp. Recent reports have indicated recovery of CQ-susceptibility in Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania based...

  1. Selective elution of HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin from human platelets by chloroquine diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether chloroquine can specifically elute HLA antigens and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) from the platelet surface, quantitative immunofluorescence flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies were used to show that HLA antigens and beta 2-M were proportionally eluted from the platelet surface without affecting the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. Second, an autoradiogram of electrophoresed I-125-labeled platelets showed that only beta 2-M but not other I-125-labeled membrane proteins could be eluted. Although HLA antigens were poorly labeled by I-125 and could not be detected on the autoradiogram, the eluted HLA antigens could be detected by anti-HLA monoclonal antibody and immunoblotting techniques. No loss of plasma membrane integrity was observed by transmission electron microscopy after chloroquine treatment of platelets. The results indicate that chloroquine selectively elutes HLA antigens and their noncovalently associated beta 2-M without affecting other integral platelet membrane proteins

  2. Analysis of the ABCR (ABCA4) gene in 4-aminoquinoline retinopathy: is retinal toxicity by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine related to Stargardt disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, N F; Lewis, R A; Lupski, J R

    2001-06-01

    To determine if mutations in ABCR (ABCA4) are associated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. DNA from eight patients with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine retinopathy was studied. Controls were 80 individuals over age 65 years with normal retinal examinations. Ophthalmoscopy, color vision testing, visual fields, retinal photography, and fluorescein angiography were performed on the eight patients. Direct DNA sequencing of the exons and flanking intronic regions of the ABCR gene was completed for all patients. Clinical evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and excluded Stargardt disease in each patient. Two patients had heterozygous ABCR missense mutations previously associated with Stargardt disease. None of the controls had these missense mutations. Three other patients had other missense polymorphisms. Some individuals who have ABCR mutations may be predisposed to develop retinal toxicity when exposed to chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. We urge further study of a larger cohort of patients with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine retinopathy.

  3. Simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its three metabolites in human plasma, whole blood and urine by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, P; de Reynies, A; Baud, F J; Benatar, M F; Pays, M

    1992-02-14

    A method was developed for the separation and measurement of chloroquine and three metabolites (desethylchloroquine, bisdesethylchloroquine and 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline) in biological samples by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The method uses 2,3-diaminoaphthalene as an internal standard and provides a limit of detection between 1 and 2 ng/ml for chloroquine and its metabolites. The assay was linear in the range 12.5-250 ng/ml and the analytical recovery and reproducibility were sufficient. The assay was applied to the analysis of biological samples from a patient undergoing chloroquine chemoprophylaxis and a patient who had ingested chloroquine in a suicide attempt.

  4. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4N, 4S and 4O derivatives vs. μ-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs. dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs. CQR malaria. PMID:18512900

  5. Microbial hara-kiri: Exploiting lysosomal cell death in malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Ch’ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ has been sidelined in the fight against falciparum malaria due to wide-spread CQ resistance. Replacement drugs like sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine and mefloquine have also since been surpassed with the evolution of multi-drug resistant parasites. Even the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies show signs of compromise due to the recent spread of artemisinin delayed-clearance parasites. Though there have been promising breakthroughs in the pursuit of new effective antimalarials, the development and strategic deployment of such novel chemical entities takes time. We therefore argue that there is a crucial need to re-examine the usefulness of ‘outdated’ drugs like chloroquine, and explore if they might be effective alternative therapies in the interim. We suggest that a novel parasite cell death (pCD pathway may be exploited through the reformulation of CQ to address this need.

  6. In vivo testing of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine on falciparum malaria infections in Chirundu, Mashonaland West, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barduagni, P; Schwartz, U; Nyamayaro, W; Chauke, T L

    1998-10-01

    To detect the level of the in vivo chloroquine efficacy in falciparum malaria infections, in order to assess the need for change in the management and treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Prospective descriptive study. Chirundu Rural Clinic, Mashonaland West Province. 63 patients confirmed by a positive blood slide for P. falciparum who attended Chirundu clinic, who were eligible for the study and, who also agreed to participate. Frequency of treatment success, early treatment failure and late treatment failure in uncomplicated patients treated with chloroquine. Out of 63 cases enrolled and completely followed up, chloroquine treatment was effective in 54 cases (85.7%) and was not effective in nine cases (14.3%). All treatment failures were successfully treated with sulphadoxine + pyrimethamine (Fansidar) or quinine following the approved guidelines. Chloroquine remains highly effective in the treatment of malaria due to P. falciparum in the Zambezi Valley of Hurungwe district and therefore, has to remain the first line drug. Likewise, guidelines for the use of sulphadoxine + pyrimethamine (Fansidar) or quinine as second line drugs, are adequate to the local situation. Health workers directly supervised the patients when they were swallowing the tablets during the whole course, and this without doubt, indirectly increased the efficacy of chloroquine. It is vital to confirm the malaria diagnosis on the spot appointing microscopists or distributing a limited stock of Parasight-F test.

  7. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of marine sponge Clathria vulpina extract against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Prasanna Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiplasmodial potential of marine sponge Clathria vulpina (C. vulpina against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum. Methods: The marine sponge C. vulpina was collected from Thondi coast, authenticated and subjected for extraction by soaking in ethanol:water mixture (3:1 ratio. The percentage of extract was calculated. Filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 μg/mL were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum. The extract was also tested for its hemolytic activity. Results: The percentage yield of extract of C. vulpina was found to be 4.8%. The crude extract of C. vulpina showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC 50=14.75 μg/mL which was highly comparable to the positive control chloroquine (IC50=7 μg/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that the significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.05 was observed between the concentrations and the time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out, which showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extracts of sponges after 48 h of incubation. The extract showed slight hemolytic activity which almost equal to chloroquine at 100 μg/mL concentration (1.023%. Conclusions: The marine sponge C. vulpina can be used as a putative antiplasmodial drug after completing successful clinical trials.

  8. Prevalence of the molecular marker of chloroquine resistance ( pfcrt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on chloroquine (CQ) resistance, CQ was withdrawn as the first-line antimalarial drug in Nigeria in 2005 as a result of ... We monitored the resistance pattern 5 years after withdrawal of CQ, using the pfcrt K76T mutation as a molecular marker for CQ resistance.

  9. Effects of co-administration of chloroquine with paracetamol or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of co-administration of oral chloroquine with paracetamol or with ibuprofen on renal function were studied using 6 groups of New Zealand White rabbits. Group 1, the control group received only feed and water. The other groups (Groups 2-6) either received single therapies of paracetamol (10 mg/kg of body ...

  10. Sensitive radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its metabolites in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, C.; Chevalier, P.; Verdier, F.; Bourdon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Two new methods for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and its two main metabolites (monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine) in biological samples, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are described. Antiserum is produced in rabbits immunized with N-(2-carboxyethyl)desethylchloroquine:protein conjugate. Besides chloroquine, this antiserum recognizes with good affinity the two main metabolites, monodesethylchloroquine and bisdesethylchloroquine (70 and 40% of crossreaction, respectively). Amodiaquine cross reacts by 4.5%; cross reactions with monodesethylamodiaquine, bisdesethylamodiaquine, and other antimalarial drugs are less than 1%. No extraction step or sample preparation is required for either system. Sensitivity limits are, respectively, 0.70 nM (3 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 10 microL of plasma sample) for RIA, and 10 nM (22 pg of chloroquine sulfate measured in 5 microL of plasma sample) for ELISA. The interassay coefficients of variation are, respectively, less than 10 and less than 16% for RIA and ELISA in the range 14-410 nM (6-180 ng/mL). The results of both methods are well correlated (r = 0.97) and correlate with spectrophotometry (r = 0.98) and HPLC results (r = 0.93). Because of their high sensitivity, both methods can be used in the case of chloroquine poisoning and in the control of malaria prophylaxis and treatment

  11. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Llanos-Cuentas

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.

  12. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine for treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanos-Cuentas A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (MalaroneTM were compared with chloroquine or pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine in patients with acute falciparum malaria in northern Peru. Patients were initially randomized to receive 1,000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride daily for 3 days (n=15 or 1,500 mg chloroquine (base over a 3 day period (n=14 (phase 1. The cure rate with chloroquine was lower than expected and patients were subsequently randomized to receive a single dose of 75 mg pyrimethamine and 1,500 mg sulfadoxine (n=9 or atovaquone/proguanil as before (n=5 (phase 2. In phase 1, atovaquone/proguanil was significantly more effective than chloroquine (cure rate 100% [14/14] versus 8% [1/13], P<0.0001. In phase 2, atovaquone/proguanil and pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine were both highly effective (cure rates 100% [5/5] and 100% [7/7]. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in parasite or fever clearance times. Adverse events were typical of malarial symptoms and did not differ significantly between groups. Overall efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 100% for treatment of acute falciparum malaria in a region with a high prevalence of chloroquine resistance.

  13. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chelating chloroquine analogue ligands: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimalarial activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glans, Lotta; Ehnbom, Andreas; de Kock, Carmen; Martínez, Alberto; Estrada, Jesús; Smith, Peter J.; Haukka, Matti; Sánchez-Delgado, Roberto A.; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Three new ruthenium complexes with bidentate chloroquine analogue ligands, [Ru(η6-cym)(L1)Cl]Cl (1, cym = p-cymene, L1 = N-(2-((pyridin-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine), [Ru(η6-cym)(L2)Cl]Cl (2, L2 = N-(2-((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylamino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) and [Ru(η6-cym)(L3)Cl] (3, L3 = N-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)methylimino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine) have been synthesized and characterized. In addition, the X-ray crystal structure of 2 is reported. The antimalarial activity of complexes 1–3 and ligands L1, L2 and L3, as well as the compound N-(2-(bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)ethyl)-7-chloroquinolin-4-amine (L4), against chloroquine sensitive and chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria strains was evaluated. While 1 and 2 are less active than the corresponding ligands, 3 exhibits high antimalarial activity. The chloroquine analogue L2 also shows good activity against both the choloroquine sensitive and the chloroquine resistant strains. Heme aggregation inhibition activity (HAIA) at an aqueous buffer/n-octanol interface (HAIR50) and lipophilicity (D, as measured by water/n-octanol distribution coefficients) have been measured for all ligands and metal complexes. A direct correlation between the D and HAIR50 properties cannot be made because of the relative structural diversity of the complexes, but it may be noted that these properties are enhanced upon complexation of the inactive ligand L3 to ruthenium, to give a metal complex (3) with promising antimalarial activity. PMID:22249579

  14. Inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin and chloroquine decreases mitochondrial quality and bioenergetic function in primary neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Redmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cell recycling program responsible for the clearance of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles. Pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been extensively utilized in a wide range of basic research and pre-clinical studies. Bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine are commonly used compounds that inhibit autophagy by targeting the lysosomes but through distinct mechanisms. Since it is now clear that mitochondrial quality control, particularly in neurons, is dependent on autophagy, it is important to determine whether these compounds modify cellular bioenergetics. To address this, we cultured primary rat cortical neurons from E18 embryos and used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and a targeted metabolomics approach to measure the effects of bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine on bioenergetics and metabolism. We found that both bafilomycin and chloroquine could significantly increase the autophagosome marker LC3-II and inhibit key parameters of mitochondrial function, and increase mtDNA damage. Furthermore, we observed significant alterations in TCA cycle intermediates, particularly those downstream of citrate synthase and those linked to glutaminolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate a significant impact of bafilomycin and chloroquine on cellular bioenergetics and metabolism consistent with decreased mitochondrial quality associated with inhibition of autophagy.

  15. Chloroquine analogues in drug discovery: new directions of uses, mechanisms of actions and toxic manifestations from malaria to multifarious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bari, Md Abdul Alim

    2015-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs (e.g. chloroquine and its close structural analogues) were developed primarily to treat malaria; however, they are beneficial for many dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and severe infectious diseases, for which they are used mostly today. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, two of the most fascinating drugs developed in the last 50 years, are increasingly recognized for their effectiveness in myriad non-malarial diseases. In advanced research, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been shown to have various immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive effects, and currently have established roles in the management of rheumatic diseases, lupus erythematosus (different forms) and skin diseases, and in the treatment of different forms of cancer. Recently, chloroquine analogues have also been found to have metabolic, cardiovascular, antithrombotic and antineoplastic effects. This review is concerned with the lysosomotropic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine and related analogues, and the current evidence for both their beneficial effects and potential adverse manifestations in various diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paul N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Methods Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa. Packaging, chemical composition (high performance liquid chromatography, direct ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, stable isotope analysis and botanical investigations were performed. Results Counterfeit artesunate containing chloroquine, counterfeit dihydroartemisinin (DHA containing paracetamol (acetaminophen, counterfeit DHA-piperaquine containing sildenafil, counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine containing pyrimethamine, counterfeit halofantrine containing artemisinin, and substandard/counterfeit or degraded artesunate and artesunate+amodiaquine in eight countries are described. Pollen analysis was consistent with manufacture of counterfeits in eastern Asia. These data do not allow estimation of the frequency of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Conclusions Criminals are producing diverse harmful anti-malarial counterfeits with important public health consequences. The presence of artesunate monotherapy, substandard and/or degraded and counterfeit medicines containing sub-therapeutic amounts of unexpected anti-malarials will engender drug resistance. With the threatening spread of artemisinin resistance to Africa, much greater investment is required to ensure the quality of ACTs and removal of artemisinin monotherapies. The International Health Regulations may need to be invoked to counter these serious public health problems.

  17. Severe Plasmodium ovale malaria complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome in a young Caucasian man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Gebremeskel Tekle, Saba; Iannetta, Marco; Scorzolini, Laura; Oliva, Alessandra; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Corpolongo, Angela; Nicastri, Emanuele

    2018-04-02

    Although Plasmodium ovale is considered the cause of only mild malaria, a case of severe malaria due to P. ovale with acute respiratory distress syndrome is reported. A 37-year old Caucasian man returning home from Angola was admitted for ovale malaria to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani in Rome, Italy. Two days after initiation of oral chloroquine treatment, an acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed through chest X-ray and chest CT scan with intravenous contrast. Intravenous artesunate and oral doxycycline were started and he made a full recovery. Ovale malaria is usually considered a tropical infectious disease associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, severe disease and death have occasionally been reported. In this case clinical failure of oral chloroquine treatment with clinical progression towards acute respiratory distress syndrome is described.

  18. Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90: Towards Reversing Antimalarial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Shahinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to exact a great human toll in tropical settings. Antimalarial resistance is rife and the parasite inexorably develops mechanisms to outwit our best drugs, including the now first-line choice, artesunate. Novel strategies to circumvent resistance are needed. Here we detail drug development focusing on heat shock protein 90 and its central role as a chaperone. A growing body of evidence supports the role for Hsp90 inhibitors as adjunctive drugs able to restore susceptibility to traditionally efficacious compounds like chloroquine.

  19. Activity of Two Chlorinated Lincomycin Analogues Against Chloroquine-Resistant Falciparum Malaria in Owl Monkeys1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kendall G.; Jacobs, Richard L.

    1972-01-01

    The chloroquine-resistant Oak Knoll strain of Plasmodium falciparum, recently adapted to the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), was insusceptible to chloroquine therapy. Two chlorinated lincomycin analogues tested in this host-parasite system cured blood-induced infections. Acute infections were treated orally for 7 consecutive days with either 15 or 75 mg of clindamycin hydrochloride (U-21) per kg per day, 10 or 50 mg of N-demethyl-4′-pentyl clindamycin hydrochloride (U-24) per kg per day, or 20 mg of chloroquine base per kg per day. These lincomycin analogues cleared trophozoites from the peripheral blood by the end of the 7-day treatment period. The speed of clearance of parasites was not dose-related, but curative activity appeared dependent upon the amount of drug given as well as the number of daily treatments. The efficacy of U-21 and U-24 is of particular interest since they represent major structural departures from compounds commonly used in the treatment of malaria. PMID:4207758

  20. Manual blood exchange transfusion does not significantly contribute to parasite clearance in artesunate-treated individuals with imported severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter, Annemarie R.; Melo, Mariana de Mendonça; de Vries, Peter J.; Koelewijn, Rob; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exchange transfusion (ET) has remained a controversial adjunct therapy for the treatment of severe malaria. In order to assess the relative contribution of ET to parasite clearance in severe malaria, all patients receiving ET as an adjunct treatment to parenteral quinine or to artesunate were

  1. Chloroquine Increases Glucose Uptake via Enhancing GLUT4 Translocation and Fusion with the Plasma Membrane in L6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chloroquine can induce an increase in the cellular uptake of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Methods: In this study, translocation of GLUT4 and intracellular Ca2+ changes were simultaneously observed by confocal microscope in L6 cells stably over-expressing IRAP-mOrange. The GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane (PM was traced using HA-GLUT4-GFP. Glucose uptake was measured using a cell-based glucose uptake assay. GLUT4 protein was detected by Western blotting and mRNA level was detected by RT-PCR. Results: We found that chloroquine induced significant increases in glucose uptake, glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane (GTPM, GLUT4 fusion with the PM, and intracellular Ca2+ in L6 muscle cells. Chloroquine-induced increases of GTPM and intracellular Ca2+ were inhibited by Gallein (Gβγ inhibitor and U73122 (PLC inhibitor. However, 2-APB (IP3R blocker only blocked the increase in intracellular Ca2+ but did not inhibit GTPM increase. These results indicate that chloroquine, via the Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R pathway, induces elevation of Ca2+, and this Ca2+ increase does not play a role in chloroqui-ne-evoked GTPM increase. However, GLUT4 fusion with the PM and glucose uptake were significantly inhibited with BAPTA-AM. This suggests that Ca2+ enhances GLUT4 fusion with the PM resulting in glucose uptake increase. Conclusion: Our data indicate that chloroquine via Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R induces Ca2+ elevation, which in turn promotes GLUT4 fusion with the PM. Moreover, chloroquine can enhance GLUT4 trafficking to the PM. These mechanisms eventually result in glucose uptake increase in control and insulin-resistant L6 cells. These findings suggest that chloroquine might be a potential drug for improving insulin tolerance in diabetic patients.

  2. Effects of ethanol and/or chloroquine with low protein dietary intake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filtration rate, aldosterone synthesis and alteration of kidney structure [8]. ... faeces and urine to pass into a lower compartment filled with sawdust preventing any .... Figure 3: Serum levels of urea in ethanol and/or chloroquine-treated rats, fed.

  3. Efficacies of artesunate plus either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, for the treatment of uncomplicated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahium, A M; Kheir, M M; Osman, M E

    2007-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is increasingly being adopted as the first-line treatment for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. In September-November 2005, in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, the efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for the treatment of uncomplicated...... of uncomplicated, P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan....

  4. 4-N-, 4-S-, and 4-O-chloroquine analogues: influence of side chain length and quinolyl nitrogen pKa on activity vs chloroquine resistant malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Alumasa, John N; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A; Casabianca, Leah B; de Dios, Angel C; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D

    2008-06-26

    Using predictions from heme-quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure-function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4-N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4-O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4-N, 4-S, and 4-O derivatives vs mu-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs CQR malaria.

  5. Chloroquine is grossly under dosed in young children with malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Eksborg, Staffan; Rombo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is treated with 25 mg/kg of chloroquine (CQ) irrespective of age. Theoretically, CQ should be dosed according to body surface area (BSA). The effect of dosing CQ according to BSA has not been determined but doubling the dose per kg doubled the efficacy...

  6. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  7. Fundus auto fluorescence and spectral domain ocular coherence tomography in the early detection of chloroquine retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Megan B. Goodman; Ari Ziskind

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus auto fluorescence (FAF) images as a screening test to detect early changes in the retina prior to the onset of chloroquine retinopathy. Method: The study was conducted using patients taking chloroquine (CQ), referred by the Rheumatology Department to the Ophthalmology Department at Tygerberg Academic Hospital. Group A consisted of 59 patients on CQ for less than 5 years, and Group B co...

  8. Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina I Adekunle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for either blood stage infection alone (chloroquine, or the blood and liver stages of infection (chloroquine + primaquine. In addition, we also analysed rates of infection in a study in Papua New Guinea (PNG where patients were treated with either artesunate, or artesunate + primaquine. Our results show that up to 96% of the P. vivax infection is due to hypnozoite reactivation in individuals living in endemic areas in Thailand. Similar analysis revealed the around 70% of infections in the PNG cohort were due to hypnozoite reactivation. We show how the age of the cohort, primaquine drug failure, and seasonality may affect estimates of the ratio of primary P. vivax infection to hypnozoite reactivation. Modeling of P. vivax primary infection and hypnozoite reactivation provides important insights into infection dynamics, and suggests that 90-96% of blood stage infections arise from hypnozoite reactivation. Major differences in infection kinetics between Thailand and PNG suggest the likelihood of drug failure in PNG.

  9. Developing artemisinin based drug combinations for the treatment of drug resistant falciparum malaria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olliaro P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of drug resistant malaria represents a considerable challenge to controlling malaria. To date, malaria control has relied heavily on a comparatively small number of chemically related drugs, belonging to either the quinoline or the antifolate groups. Only recently have the artemisinin derivatives been used but mostly in south east Asia. Experience has shown that resistance eventually curtails the life-span of antimalarial drugs. Controlling resistance is key to ensuring that the investment put into developing new antimalarial drugs is not wasted. Current efforts focus on research into new compounds with novel mechanisms of action, and on measures to prevent or delay resistance when drugs are introduced. Drug discovery and development are long, risky and costly ventures. Antimalarial drug development has traditionally been slow but now various private and public institutions are at work to discover and develop new compounds. Today, the antimalarial development pipeline is looking reasonably healthy. Most development relies on the quinoline, antifolate and artemisinin compounds. There is a pressing need to have effective, easy to use, affordable drugs that will last a long time. Drug combinations that have independent modes of action are seen as a way of enhancing efficacy while ensuring mutual protection against resistance. Most research work has focused on the use of artesunate combined with currently used standard drugs, namely, mefloquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and chloroquine. There is clear evidence that combinations improve efficacy without increasing toxicity. However, the absolute cure rates that are achieved by combinations vary widely and depend on the level of resistance of the standard drug. From these studies, further work is underway to produce fixed dose combinations that will be packaged in blister packs. This review will summarise current antimalarial drug developments and outline recent

  10. Monitoring of clinical efficacy and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in area along Thai Myanmar border during 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsihirunrat Kanchana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, the proportion of Plasmodium vivax infection has become equal to Plasmodium falciparum. Reports of a trend of gradual decline of in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax to chloroquine in some areas of the country, together with accumulating evidences of chloroquine resistance P. vivax in other parts of the world, emphasize the need for closely and continuously monitoring clinical efficacy in conjunction with in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates. Methods The study was conducted at Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during March 2008 - August 2009. A total of 130 patients (17 Thais and 113 Burmeses; 64 males and 66 females with mono-infection of P. vivax malaria, aged between 15-60 years and weighing more than 40 kg, were included in the study. Patients received treatment with chloroquine (2,000 mg chloroquine phosphate over three days and the anti-relapse drug primaquine (15 mg for 14 days. In vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Results All patients showed satisfactory response to treatment. The cure rate was virtually 100% within the follow-up period of 42 days. Neither recurrence of P. vivax parasitaemia nor appearance of P. falciparum occurred during the investigation period. In vitro data showed a stable sensitivity of chloroquine in this area since 2006. Geometric mean and median (95% CI values of IC50 for chloroquine were 100.1 and 134.7 (1.1-264.9 nM, respectively. Conclusion In vivo results suggest that the standard regimen of chloroquine was still very effective for the treatment of blood infections with P. vivax in the Thai-Myanmar border area. In vitro sensitivity data however, raise the possibility of potential advent of resistance in the future. Regular monitoring of the chloroquine sensitivity of P. vivax is essential to facilitate the early recognition of treatment failures and to expedite the formulation of appropriate changes to

  11. Chloroquine-Primaquine versus Chloroquine Alone to Treat Vivax Malaria in Afghanistan: An Open Randomized Superiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awab, Ghulam Rahim; Imwong, Mallika; Bancone, Germana; Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2017-12-01

    Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing. The primary outcome was P. vivax recurrence assessed by survival analysis over one year follow-up. Of 593 patients enrolled, 570 attended at or after 14 days of follow-up. Plasmodium vivax recurrences occurred in 37 (13.1%) of 282 patients in the CQ+PQ arm versus 86 (29.9%) of 288 in the CQ arm (Cox proportional hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.54) (intention-to-treat analysis). Protection against recurrence was greater in the first 6 months of follow-up (HR 0.082; 95% CI 0.029-0.23) than later (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.41-1.03). Five of seven patients requiring hospital admission were considered possible cases of PQ-related hemolysis, and PQ was stopped in a further six; however, in none of these cases did hemoglobin fall by ≥ 2 g/dL or to below 7 g/dL, and genotyping did not detect any cases of Mediterranean variant G6PD deficiency. PQ 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days prevents relapse of P. vivax in Afghanistan. Patient visits during the first week may improve adherence. Implementation will require deployment of point-of-care phenotypic tests for G6PD deficiency.

  12. Updated CDC Recommendations for Using Artemether-Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Pregnant Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Salinger, Allison; Arguin, Paul M; Desai, Meghna; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-04-13

    Malaria infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In the United States, treatment options for uncomplicated, chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pregnant women are limited to mefloquine or quinine plus clindamycin (1). However, limited availability of quinine and increasing resistance to mefloquine restrict these options. Strong evidence now demonstrates that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) (Coartem) is effective and safe in the treatment of malaria in pregnancy. The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), such as AL, for treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and is currently considering whether to add ACTs, including AL, as an option for malaria treatment during the first trimester (2,3). This policy note reviews the evidence and updates CDC recommendations to include AL as a treatment option for uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and during the first trimester of pregnancy when other treatment options are unavailable. These updated recommendations reflect current evidence and are consistent with WHO treatment guidelines.

  13. In vivo seasonal assessment of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to chloroquine in two different malaria endemic communities in Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, Edwin A.; Dunyo, Samuel; Appawu, Maxwell; Nkrumah, Francis K.

    1994-08-01

    A two year (1992 to 1993) in vivo assessment of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to chloroquine was conducted in two communities at Dodowa (hyperendemic) and Prampram (mesoendemic) in Southern Ghana. A slightly modified World Helath Organization standard field test (7 day test) for response of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites to chloroquine was used for the survey. In 1992, 16.2% (12/74) responses were classified as exhibiting chloroquine resistance at RI (14.8% ) and RII (1.4%) in the dry season and 8.2% (10/122) responses at RI in the wet season in the hyperendemic community. Only a single response (1/144; 0.7%) at RI showed resistance in the mesoendemic community. The rest of the responses in both communities were classified as sensitive to chloroquine. In the hyperendemic community, 8.4% (13/154) of responses in the dry season showed resistance at RI and 1.3% (82/150) at RI (0.7%) and RII (0.7%) in the wet season in 1993. In the mesoendemic community 1 (1.0%) response was resistant at RI in the wet season. The rest of the responses were classified as sensitive responses to chloroquine. No RIII response was encountered in any of the communities. The pattern of RI and RII responses did not show any seasonal variations in the mesoendemic community. However, they were generally higher in the dry season than in the wet season in the hyperendemic community.

  14. Chloroquine, quinine, procaine, quinidine and clomipramine are prostaglandin agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manku, M S; Horrobin, D F

    1976-11-01

    Chloroquine, quinine, procaine, quinidine and clomipramine behave as prostaglandin (PG) antagonists in a rat mesenteric vascular bed preparation. The ID50 concentrations were within the range of therapeutically effective human plasma levels in each case. Antagonism to PGE2 was studied in detail and seemed to be at least in part competitive. The drugs also antagonized the effects of PGs A1, A2, F2alpha and E1. Each drug also had weak prostaglandin agonist activity but only over a very narrow range of concentrations. It is possible that some of the clinical actions of these drugs may depend on blockade or imitation of natural PG effects. The findings suggest new approaches to the search for PG antagonists, a new screening technique for anti-inflammatory drugs and possible new uses for these established drugs. A preliminary study suggests that chloroquine may be successful in closing a patent ductus arteriosus in infants.

  15. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  16. Chloroquine: novel uses & manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Magwere, T

    2008-04-01

    Chloroquine (CHQ) is a cheap, relatively well tolerated drug initially developed for the treatment of malaria in the 1930s. CHQ has, however, since accrued a plethora of uses in the treatment and amelioration of several other diseases and conditions because of its lysosomotropic properties. It also has characteristic physiological and systemic effects. This review gives an overview of the history and pharmacology of CHQ, and progresses to consider some of the mechanisms that may underlie its biochemical and physiological effects. Additionally, an overview of some of the novel uses of CHQ in the treatment of viral infections and cancer are presented. The antimalarial mechanisms of CHQ were not discussed in this review. The message is that CHQ, despite its welldocumented toxicity and adverse side effects may have important future uses that are associated with its lysosomotropic and immunomodulatory mechanisms. The possibility exists therefore that CHQ might be re-introduced into regular malaria treatment.

  17. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density a...

  18. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  19. Interaction of chloroquine and its analogues with heme: An isothermal titration calorimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhawat, K; Thomas, C J; Surolia, N; Surolia, A

    2000-10-05

    Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. Identification of ferriprotoporphyrin IX ([Fe(III)PPIX], haematin) as the drug receptors for these antimalarials called for investigations of the binding affinity, mode of interaction, and the conditions affecting the interaction. The parameters obtained are significant in recent times with the emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the malaria parasites. This has underlined the need to unravel the molecular mechanism of their action so as to meet the requirement of an alternative to the existing antimalarial drugs. The isothermal titration calorimetric studies on the interaction of chloroquine with haematin lead us to propose an altered mode of binding. The initial recognition is ionic in nature mediated by the propionyl group of haematin with the quaternary nitrogen on CQ. This ionic interaction induces a conformational change, such as to favour binding of subsequent CQ molecules. On the contrary, conditions emulating the cytosolic environment (pH 7.4 and 150 mM salt) reveal the hydrophobic force to be the sole contributor driving the interaction. Interaction of a carefully selected panel of quinoline antimalarial drugs with monomeric ferriprotoporphyrin IX has also been investigated at pH 5.6 mimicking the acidic environment prevalent in the food vacuoles of parasite, the center of drug activity, which are consistent with their antimalarial activity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Atovaquone-proguanil versus chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune travellers: a randomised, double-blind study. Malarone International Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgh, B; Clarke, P D; Camus, D; Nothdurft, H D; Overbosch, D; Günther, M; Joubert, I; Kain, K C; Shaw, D; Roskell, N S; Chulay, J D

    2000-12-02

    Chloroquine plus proguanil is widely used for malaria chemoprophylaxis despite low effectiveness in areas where multidrug-resistant malaria occurs. Studies have shown that atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is safe and effective for prevention of falciparum malaria in lifelong residents of malaria-endemic countries, but little is known about non-immune travellers. In a double-blind equivalence trial, 1083 participants travelling to a malaria-endemic area were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: atovaquone-proguanil plus placebos for chloroquine and proguanil, or chloroquine, proguanil, and placebo for atovaquone-proguanil. Follow-up was by telephone 7 and 60 days after travel and at a clinic at 28 days. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to a malaria circumsporozoite protein. Blood and serum samples of participants with a potential malaria diagnosis were tested in a reference laboratory. 7 days after travel, at least one adverse event was reported by 311 (61%) of 511 participants who received atovaquone-proguanil and 329 (64%) of 511 who received chloroquine-proguanil. People receiving atovaquone-proguanil had a lower frequency of treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events (59 [12%] vs 100 [20%], p=0.001), and of treatment-related adverse events of moderate or severe intensity (37 [7%] vs 56 [11%], p=0.05). There were fewer treatment-related adverse events that caused prophylaxis to be discontinued in the atovaquone-proguanil group than in the chloroquine-proguanil group (one [0.2%] vs ten [2%], p=0.015). Overall the two preparations were similarly tolerated. However, significantly fewer adverse gastrointestinal events were observed in the atovaquone-proguanil group in than in the chloroquine-proguanil group.

  1. Adaptations of the Saker-Solomons test: simple, reliable colorimetric field assays for chloroquine and its metabolites in urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Mount, D. L.; Nahlen, B. L.; Patchen, L. C.; Churchill, F. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two field-adapted colorimetric methods for measuring the antimalarial drug chloroquine in urine are described. Both are modifications of the method of Saker and Solomons for screening urine for phencyclidine and other drugs of abuse, using the colour reagent tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. One method is semiquantitative, detecting the presence of chloroquine (Cq) and its metabolites in urine with a 1 microgram/ml detection limit; it is more sensitive and reliable than the commonly used...

  2. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in Albino and Pigmented Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Rokh, Najla; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Pino, Michael; Sallez, Valérie; Thevenard, Françoise; Roome, Nigel; Rosolen, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine

  3. The effect of chloroquine on the male worms of Onchocerca volvulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroqunie is a well-known anti-malaria drug commonly used in the tropics. Chloroquine was in this study, tested on adult male worms of Onchocerca volvulus to assess its possible effect. Male worms were mechanically isolated from nodules of untreated onchocerciasis patients. After 24hours incubation in a drug-free ...

  4. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax in the Saharan zone in Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Mohamed Lemine, Yeslim Ould; Deida, Jemila Mint; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Ba, Mamadou dit Dialaw; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Khairy, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Boubacar; Ringwald, Pascal; Basco, Leonardo K; Niang, Saidou Doro; Lebatt, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health adopted a new therapeutic strategy based on the systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine, for the first-and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively, regardless of Plasmodium spp. In the Saharan zone of the country, recent studies have shown that Plasmodium vivax largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. Anti-malarial drug response of P. v...

  5. Artemisia annua dried leaf tablets treated malaria resistant to ACT and i.v. artesunate: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddy, Nsengiyumva Bati; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bagire, Pascal Gisenya; Watt, Robert L; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2017-08-15

    Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. Of many patients treated with ACTs and i.v. artesunate during the 6 mon study period, 18 did not respond and were subsequently treated with DLA Artemisia annua. Patients were given a dose of 0.5g DLA per os, twice daily for 5d. Total adult delivered dose of artemisinin was 55mg. Dose was reduced for body weight under 30kg. Clinical symptoms, e.g. fever, coma etc., and parasite levels in thick blood smears were tracked. Patients were declared cured and released from hospital when parasites were microscopically undetectable and clinical symptoms fully subsided. All patients were previously treated with Coartem® provided through Santé Rurale (SANRU) and following the regimen prescribed by WHO. Of 18 ACT-resistant severe malaria cases compassionately treated with DLA, all fully recovered. Of the 18, this report details two pediatric cases. Successful treatment of all 18 ACT-resistant cases suggests that DLA should be rapidly incorporated into the antimalarial regimen for Africa and possibly wherever else ACT resistance has emerged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Chloroquine Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Vero Cells but Not in C6/36 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Real-time RT-PCR a...

  7. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXX. sequence analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase resistance markers in clinical isolates from children treated with an artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance.

  8. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in albino and pigmented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Rokh, Najla; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Pino, Michael; Sallez, Valérie; Thevenard, Françoise; Roome, Nigel; Rosolen, Serge

    2013-06-07

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring the efficacy of antimalarial medicines in India via sentinel sites: Outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelima; Srivastava, Bina; Bharti, Ram Suresh; Rana, Roma; Kaitholia, Kamlesh; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Das, Manoj Kumar; Ghosh, Susanta K; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Tyagi, Prajesh K; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan; Wattal, Suman Lata; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Dhariwal, Akshay Chand; Valecha, Neena

    2016-01-01

    To combat the problem of antimalarial drug resistance, monitoring the changes in drug efficacy over time through periodic surveillance is essential. Since 2009, systematic and continuous monitoring is being done through nationwide sentinel site system. Potential early warning signs like partner drug resistance markers were also monitored in the clinical samples from the study areas. A total of 1864 patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum; those infected with P. vivax were given chloroquine (CQ). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to distinguish post-treatment reinfection from treatment failures. Isolates of P. falciparum were also analysed for dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene mutations. Overall, 1687 (91.7%) patients completed the follow-up. In most of the falciparum patients the parasitaemia was cleared within 24 h of treatment, except 12 patients who remained parasite positive after 72 h. Presence of dhfr and dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. A daily dose of artesunate of 95% cases in all the sentinel sites except in Northeastern region (NE). Chloroquine remained 100% efficacious in case of P. vivax infections. Till 2012, India's national antimalarial drug resistance monitoring system proved highly efficacious and safe towards first-line antimalarials used in the country, except in Northeastern region where a decline in efficacy of AS+SP has been observed. This led to change in first-line treatment for P. falciparum to artemether-lumefantrine in Northeastern region.

  10. Is chloroquine still effective for the treatment of vivax malaria in children in northern punjab of pakistan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhani, F.A.; Shaheen, S.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Every year more than one billion persons in the world suffer from malaria. It kills about 1-3 million people in the world per year. In Pakistan estimated burden of malaria is 1.6 million cases each year. As most of people belong to poor socioeconomic group, it is essential that cost effective remedial measures must be taken. Moreover judicious use of antimalarials is required to avoid development of resistance. Objective: To determine the frequency of types of malaria and frequency of cases responding to chloroquine as first line treatment in vivax malaria in children of Northern Punjab of Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From Jun 2011 to Sept 2012 at Combined Military Hospital Gujranwala in children reporting from surrounding areas both rural and urban with clinical suspicion of malaria. Materials and Methods: During the study period, 175 children were admitted with clinical suspicion of malaria. Out of which 102 were smear positive for malarial parasites, 13 cases were excluded from the study as they lost to follow up, leaving a total of 89 children in the study. Patients under study remained admitted till the fever settled and malarial parasites were negative on smear. Chloroquine was used as first line treatment in cases with vivax malaria. On discharge from hospital, parents of children were advised fortnightly follow up for 28 days. Results: Out of 89 children approx 54% were males and 46% were females. Mean age of participants was 5.91 years. The minimum age was 1 year and maximum 11 years (SD +- 3.09) out of the 89 cases, 84 (94.3%) had vivax malaria, 2 (2.24%) had falciparum malaria and 3 (3.37%) had mixed infection. Our study showed that 79 (94%) cases of vivax malaria fully responded to chloroquine, 5 (6%) cases treated with Chloroquine reported with relapse. Conclusion: Chloroquine is still the drug of choice in vivax malaria. (author)

  11. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Gold(I)-Chloroquine Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Maribel; Castro, William; González, Sorenlis; Abad, María Jesús; Taylor, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Two new gold(I) -chloroquine complexes, Au(CQ)(Cl) (1) and Au(CQ)(tgta) (2), were prepared and their most probable structure were established through a combination of different spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Their interaction with two important targets of action, DNA and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), were investigated. These studies showed that complexes 1 and 2 displayed two types of interaction with DNA, covalent binding through the metal center, and additionally a non-covalent in...

  12. The behavior of chloroquine (a synthesized anti-malaria drug) labeled with 14C in healthy and malarious animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, Kafana

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C labeled chloroquine is identical in healthy and malarious animals. Fixation (by order of intensity) takes place in the liver, spleen, lungs, lacrimal glands, cerebrospinal fluid, bones, thyroid, and intestinal walls. This was confirmed from quantitative studies and demonstrates the traversing of the blood-brain barrier and the intestinal elimination after biliary excretion. Pharmaco-kinetic studies were undertaken with healthy animals and those afflicted with malaria. After a phase, in which the distribution of chloroquine is identical for both types of animal, a more rapid decrease in the blood level is observed with the malarious animals. The leucocytes contained distinctly more of the tracer than the normal or malarious red corpuscles or the blood plasma. Examination of the urinary elimination revealed a mono-exponential function; nevertheless, the urinary elimination was less regular with the malarious rats. This elimination corresponds to the excretion of unchanged chloroquine accompanied by two metabolites. A third metabolite appeared after a delay period. (author) [fr

  13. Analysis of Chloroquine and Metabolites Directly from Whole-body Animal Tissue Sections by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, Whitney B [ORNL; Koeniger, Stormy L [Abbott Laboratories; Johnson, Robert W [Abbott Laboratories; Erickson, Jamie [Abbott Laboratories; Tian, Yu [Abbott Laboratories; Stedman, Christopher A. [Abbott Laboratories; Schwartz, Annette [Abbott Laboratories; Tarcsa, Edit [Abbott Laboratories; Cole, Roderic [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The rapid and direct analysis of the amount and spatial distribution of exogenous chloroquine and chloroquine metabolites from tissue sections by liquid extraction surface sampling analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) was demonstrated. LESA-MS results compared well with previously published chloroquine quantification data collected by organ excision, extraction and fluorescent detection. The ability to directly sample and analyze spatially-resolved exogenous molecules from tissue sections with minimal sample preparation and analytical method development has the potential to facilitate the assessment of target tissue penetration of pharmaceutical compounds, to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships, and to complement established pharmacokinetic methods used in the drug discovery process during tissue distribution assessment.

  14. A randomised controlled trial of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate for uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum treatment in pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To date no comparative trials have been done, to our knowledge, of fixed-dose artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy. Evidence on the safety and efficacy of ACTs in pregnancy is needed as these drugs are being used increasingly throughout the malaria-affected world. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, the most widely used fixed ACT, with 7 d artesunate monotherapy in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.An open-label randomised controlled trial comparing directly observed treatment with artemether-lumefantrine 3 d (AL or artesunate monotherapy 7 d (AS7 was conducted in Karen women in the border area of northwestern Thailand who had uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The primary endpoint was efficacy defined as the P. falciparum PCR-adjusted cure rates assessed at delivery or by day 42 if this occurred later than delivery, as estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Infants were assessed at birth and followed until 1 y of life. Blood sampling was performed to characterise the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine in pregnancy. Both regimens were very well tolerated. The cure rates (95% confidence interval for the intention to treat (ITT population were: AS7 89.2% (82.3%-96.1% and AL 82.0% (74.8%-89.3%, p = 0.054 (ITT; and AS7 89.7% (82.6%-96.8% and AL 81.2% (73.6%-88.8%, p = 0.031 (per-protocol population. One-third of the PCR-confirmed recrudescent cases occurred after 42 d of follow-up. Birth outcomes and infant (up to age 1 y outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that low concentrations of artemether and lumefantrine were the main contributors to the poor efficacy of AL.The current standard six-dose artemether-lumefantrine regimen was well tolerated and safe in pregnant Karen women with

  15. PUMA: a puzzle piece in chloroquine's antimelanoma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2013-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) can induce cell death in a subset of cancer cell lines, and some melanoma cell lines are quite susceptible. Although it is well known that CQ impairs lysosomal function and can serve as an autophagy inhibitor, the molecular target of CQ and the subsequent cascade of events that lead to cell death are not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that in melanoma cell lines, CQ induces apoptosis by preventing degradation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. This finding adds to the unfolding story of CQ's mechanism of action as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  16. Color vision loss in patients treated with chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura Dora F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients that make use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, drugs which are frequently administered for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erithromatosus or malaria, may suffer alterations in color vision and in contrast sensitivity. The present work evaluates the visual function of these patients in a joint study of the University of São Paulo (USP, in São Paulo, and of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA, in Belém. Thirty two chloroquine user patients without alterations in the eye fundus exam were evaluated in São Paulo (n=10; aged 38 to 71 years; mean=55,8 years and in Belém (n=22; aged 20 to 67; mean=40 years. The prescribed accumulated chloroquine dose was 45 to 430 g (mean=213 g; sd = 152 g for the São Paulo group, and 36 to 540 g (mean=174 g; sd=183 g for the Belém group. Tests were performed monocularly with corrected eye refractive state. Color discrimination was evaluated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: the color discrimination threshold was measured first in the protan, deutan and tritan axes and, in succession, three MacAdam's ellipses were determined. The patient's color vision was also evaluated with color arrangement tests: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM100, the Farnsworth-Munsell D15, and the Lanthony Desaturated (D15d tests. We also measured the contrast sensitivity for black-and-white sine wave grating of twenty two patients. The results were compared with controls without ophthalmologic or neuro-ophthalmologic pathologies. Twenty four patients presented acquired dyschromatopsia. There were cases of selective loss (11 patients and of diffuse loss (13 patients. Although losses were present in the FM100 there was no correlation between the FM100 error score and the ellipse area measured by the CCT. Moreover, three patients that scored normal in the FM100, failed to reach normal threshold in the CCT. The Lanthony test was less sensitive than the other two tests, since it failed to indicate loss in about

  17. Internalized insulin-receptor complexes are unidirectionally translocated to chloroquine-sensitive degradative sites. Dependence on metabolic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, P.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin receptors on the surface of isolated rat adipocytes were photoaffinity labeled at 12 degrees C with the iodinated photoreactive insulin analogue, 125I-B2 (2-nitro-4-azidophenylacetyl)-des-PheB1-insulin, and the pathways in the intracellular processing of the labeled receptors were studied at 37 degrees C. During 37 degrees C incubations, the labeled 440-kDa insulin receptors were continuously internalized (as assessed by trypsin inaccessibility) and degraded such that up to 50% of the initially labeled receptors were lost by 120 min. Metabolic poisons (0.125-0.75 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and 1-10 mM NaF), which led to dose-dependent depletion of adipocyte ATP pools, inhibited receptor loss, and caused up to 3-fold increase in intracellular receptor accumulation. This effect was due to inhibition of intracellular receptor degradation, and there was no apparent effect of the metabolic poisons on initial internalization of the receptors. Following maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled insulin receptors in the presence of NaF or DNP, removal of these agents resulted in a subsequent, time-dependent degradation of the accumulated receptors. However, when the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine (0.2 mM), was added immediately following removal of the metabolic poisons, further degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors was prevented, suggesting that the chloroquine-sensitive degradation of insulin receptors occurs distal to the site of inhibition by NaF or DNP. To confirm this, maximal intracellular accumulation of labeled receptors was first allowed to occur in the presence of chloroquine and the cells were then washed and reincubated in chloroquine-free media in the absence or presence of NaF or DNP. Under these conditions, degradation of the intracellularly accumulated receptors continued to occur, and NaF or DNP failed to block the degradation

  18. Dynamics of pfcrt alleles CVMNK and CVIET in chloroquine-treated Sudanese patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warhurst David C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite resistance to the anti-malarial drug chloroquine is common in eastern Sudan. Dynamic within-host changes in the relative abundance of both sensitive and resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites were examined in a cohort of chloroquine-treated patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, using a novel allele-specific quantitative approach. Methods Treatment outcomes were determined for 93 patients of all ages in a per protocol cohort using a modified 14-day WHO protocol. Parasite DNA samples at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 following treatment were analysed using real-time quantitative PCR methods that distinguished resistant and sensitive genotypes at amino acids 72 - 76 of the pfcrt locus. Results Chloroquine treatment was not efficacious, and of 93 assessable patients, only 10 individuals (10.7%; 95% C.I. 4.34 - 17.2% enjoyed an adequate clinical and parasitological response. Resistant parasites with the haplotype CVIET at codons 72-76 of the pfcrt locus were dominant in the starting population. Chloroquine sensitive parasites with the haplotype CVMNK were detected in 19 individuals prior to treatment (20.43%; 95% C.I. 5.14 - 18.5%. In these patients, CQ treatment rapidly selected CVIET parasites, and this haplotype overwhelmingly dominated the parasite population in each individual by day 2 after treatment. Conclusions Such rapid intra-host selection of particular genotypes after the introduction of drug will cause frequent misidentification of parasite genotypes present in the starting population. This will have a potentially serious confounding effect on clinical trials which employ PCR-corrected estimates of treatment failure, as resistant parasites below the detection threshold in the pre-treatment sample can be erroneously classified as "new" infections during follow-up, over-estimating drug efficacy.

  19. Chloroquine transport in Plasmodium falciparum. 1. Influx and efflux kinetics for live trophozoite parasites using a novel fluorescent chloroquine probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Mynthia; Natarajan, Jayakumar; Paguio, Michelle F; Wolf, Christian; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Roepe, Paul D

    2009-10-13

    Several models for how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Distinguishing between these models requires detailed analysis of high-resolution CQ transport data that is unfortunately impossible to obtain with traditional radio-tracer methods. Thus, we have designed and synthesized fluorescent CQ analogues for drug transport studies. One probe places a NBD (6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoic acid) group at the tertiary aliphatic N of CQ, via a flexible 6 C amide linker. This probe localizes to the malarial parasite digestive vacuole (DV) during initial perfusion under physiologic conditions and exhibits similar pharmacology relative to CQ, vs both CQ-sensitive (CQS) and CQ-resistant (CQR) parasites. Using live, synchronized intraerythrocytic parasites under continuous perfusion, we define NBD-CQ influx and efflux kinetics for CQS vs CQR parasites. Since this fluorescence approach provides data at much higher kinetic resolution relative to fast-filtration methods using (3)H-CQ, rate constants vs linear initial rates for CQ probe flux can be analyzed in detail. Importantly, we find that CQR parasites have a decreased rate constant for CQ influx into the DV and that this is due to mutation of PfCRT. Analysis of zero trans efflux for CQS and CQR parasites suggests that distinguishing between bound vs free pools of intra-DV drug probe is essential for proper kinetic analysis of efflux. The accompanying paper (DOI 10.1021/bi901035j ) further probes efflux kinetics for proteoliposomes containing purified, reconstituted PfCRT.

  20. Research progress of hydroxychloroquine and autophagy inhibitors on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting-Ting; Yu, Xiao-Xu; Yan, Li-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Tao

    2017-02-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the analog of chloroquine, augments the effect of chemotherapies and radiotherapy on various tumors identified in the current clinical trials. Meanwhile, the toxicity of HCQ retinopathy raises concern worldwide. Thus, the potent autophagy inhibitors are urgently needed. A systematic review was related to 'hydroxychloroquine' or 'chloroquine' with 'clinical trials,' 'retinopathy' and 'new autophagy inhibitors.' This led to many cross-references involving HCQ, and these data have been incorporated into the following study. Many preclinical studies indicate that the combination of HCQ with chemotherapies or radiotherapies may enhance the effect of anticancer, providing base for launching cancer clinical trials involving HCQ. The new and more sensitive diagnostic techniques report a prevalence of HCQ retinopathy up to 7.5%. Lys05, SAR405, verteporfin, VATG-027, mefloquine and spautin-1 may be potent autophagy inhibitors. Additional mechanistic studies of HCQ in preclinical models are still required in order to answer these questions whether HCQ actually inhibits autophagy in non-selective tumors and whether the extent of inhibition would be sufficient to alter chemotherapy or radiotherapy sensitivity.

  1. Optimal designs for population pharmacokinetic studies of oral artesunate in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

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    Lindegardh Niklas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, population pharmacokinetic (PK studies of anti-malarial drugs are designed primarily by the logistical and ethical constraints of taking blood samples from patients, and the statistical models that are fitted to the data are not formally considered. This could lead to imprecise estimates of the target PK parameters, and/or designs insufficient to estimate all of the parameters. Optimal design methodology has been developed to determine blood sampling schedules that will yield precise parameter estimates within the practical constraints of sampling the study populations. In this work optimal design methods were used to determine sampling designs for typical future population PK studies of dihydroartemisinin, the principal biologically active metabolite of oral artesunate. Methods Optimal designs were derived using freely available software and were based on appropriate structural PK models from an analysis of data or the literature and key sampling constraints identified in a questionnaire sent to active malaria researchers (3-4 samples per patient, at least 15 minutes between samples. The derived optimal designs were then evaluated via simulation-estimation. Results The derived optimal sampling windows were 17 to 29 minutes, 30 to 57 minutes, 2.5 to 3.7 hours and 5.8 to 6.6 hours for non-pregnant adults; 16 to 29 minutes, 31 minutes to 1 hour, 2.0 to 3.4 hours and 5.5 to 6.6 hours for designs with non-pregnant adults and children and 35 to 59 minutes, 1.2 to 3.4 hours, 3.4 to 4.9 hours and 6.0 to 8.0 hours for pregnant women. The optimal designs resulted in acceptable precision of the PK parameters. Conclusions The proposed sampling designs in this paper are robust and efficient and should be considered in future PK studies of oral artesunate where only three or four blood samples can be collected.

  2. Effects of chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine on the risk of cancer, metastasis, and death: a population-based cohort study on patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, L; Nazareth, I; Petersen, I

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine may reduce the risk of cancer as they inhibit autophagy, in particular, in people with connective tissue diseases. The hazard ratios of cancers, metastases, and death were assessed in adults with connective tissue diseases prescribed hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for at least 1 year in comparison with unexposed individuals with the same underlying conditions. A competing risk survival regression analysis was performed. Data were extracted from the Health Improvement Network UK primary care database. Eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine (98.6%) or chloroquine (1.4%) and 24,118 unexposed individuals were included in the study (median age: 56 [45-66] years, women: 76.8%). When compared to the unexposed group, individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine were not at lower risk of non-skin cancers (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 1.04 [0.92-1.18], p =0.54), hematological malignancies (adjusted sHR: 1.00 [0.73-1.38], p =0.99), or skin cancers (adjusted sHR: 0.92 [0.78-1.07], p =0.26). The risk of metastasis was not significantly different between the two groups. However, it was significantly lower during the exposure period when compared with the unexposed (adjusted sHR: 0.64 [0.44-0.95] for the overall population and 0.61 [0.38-1.00] for those diagnosed with incident cancers). The risk of death was also significantly lower in those exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (adjusted HR: 0.90 [0.81-1.00] in the overall population and 0.78 [0.64-0.96] in those diagnosed with incident cancer). Individuals on long-term exposure to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine are not at lower risk of cancer. However, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine may lower the risk of metastatic cancer and death.

  3. Analysis of polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum genes related to drug resistance: a survey over four decades under different treatment policies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Juliana; Lopes, Dinora; do Rosário, Virgílio; Machado, Marta; Hristov, Angélica D; Lima, Giselle Fmc; Costa-Nascimento, Maria J; Segurado, Aluísio C; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2014-09-19

    Anti-malarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains an obstacle for malaria control. Resistance-associated genes were analysed in Brazilian samples over four decades to evaluate the impact of different treatment regimens on the parasite genetic profile. Samples were collected on filter paper from patients infected in the Amazon region from 1984 to 2011. DNA was extracted with Chelex® 100 and monoinfection confirmed by PCR. SNPs in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were assessed by PCR-RFLP. The pfmdr1 copy number was estimated using real time quantitative PCR with SYBR® Green. Parasite response was assessed ex vivo with seven concentrations of each anti-malarial. Patients were treated according to Brazilian guidelines: quinine plus tetracycline or mefloquine in period 1 and ACT in period 2. All 96 samples presented the pfcrt 76T mutant throughout the assessed periods. In addition, all isolates showed ex vivo chloroquine resistance. The pfmdr1 86Y was detected in 1.5% of samples in period 1, and in 25% in period 2. All samples presented the pfmdr1 1246Y. The analysis of pfmdr1 copy number showed amplification in 37.3% in period 1 and in 42% in period 2. Mutations in pfdhfr were shown as follows: 51I in all samples in period 1 and in 81.2% in period 2; 59R in 6.4% in period 2. The pfdhfr 108N and the pfdhps 437G were seen in all samples along time; the pfdhps 540E in 93.7% in period 1 and in 75% in period 2. The 76T mutation associated to chloroquine resistance is still present in the parasite population, although this anti-malarial was withdrawn from the chemotherapy of P. falciparum in Brazil in the mid-1980s. All isolates assayed ex vivo for chloroquine showed resistant phenotype and 76T. No association was observed between pfmdr1 mutations and resistance to quinine, mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives. Additionally, the pfdhfr 108N mutation was detected in all samples throughout the evaluated periods, demonstrating fixation of the mutant

  4. Compliance, Safety, and Effectiveness of Fixed-Dose Artesunate-Amodiaquine for Presumptive Treatment of Non-Severe Malaria in the Context of Home Management of Malaria in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Ravony, Harintsoa; Vonimpaisomihanta, Jeanne-Aimée; Raherinjafy, Rogelin; Jahevitra, Martial; Rapelanoro, Rabenja; Rakotomanga, Jean De Dieu Marie; Malvy, Denis; Millet, Pascal; Ménard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Home management of malaria is recommended for prompt, effective antimalarial treatment in children less than five years of age. Compliance, safety, and effectiveness of the new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine regimen used to treat suspected malaria were assessed in febrile children enrolled in a 24-month cohort study in two settings in Madagascar. Children with fever were asked to visit community health workers. Presumptive antimalarial treatment was given and further visits were scheduled for follow-up. The primary endpoint was the risk of clinical/parasitologic treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included fever/parasite clearance, change in hemoglobin levels, and frequency of adverse events. The global clinical cure rate was 98.4% by day 28 and 97.9% by day 42. Reported compliance was 83.4%. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study provides comprehensive data concerning the clinical cure rate obtained with artesunate-amodiaquine and evidence supporting the scaling up of home management of malaria. PMID:22302849

  5. Disposition of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin after administration of artesunate suppositories in children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Ilett, Kenneth F; Dufall, Kitiya; Kemiki, Adedayo; Bockarie, Moses; Alpers, Michael P; Barrett, P Hugh; Vicini, Paolo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2004-08-01

    A detailed pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with 47 children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria treated with artesunate (ARTS) suppositories (Rectocaps) given in two doses of approximately 13 mg/kg of body weight 12 h apart. Following an intensive sampling protocol, samples were assayed for ARTS and its primary active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the data. Following administration of the first dose, the mean maximal concentrations of ARTS and DHA were 1,085 nmol/liter at 0.9 h and 2,525 nmol/liter at 2.3 h, respectively. The absorption half-life for ARTS was 2.3 h, and the conversion half-life (ARTS to DHA) was 0.27 h, while the elimination half-life of DHA was 0.71 h. The mean common volumes of distribution for ARTS and DHA relative to bioavailability were 42.8 and 2.04 liters/kg, respectively, and the mean clearance values relative to bioavailability were 6 and 2.2 liters/h/kg for ARTS and DHA, respectively. Substantial interpatient variability was observed, and the bioavailability of the second dose relative to that of the first was estimated to be 0.72. The covariates age, sex, and alpha-thalassemia genotype were not influential in the pharmacokinetic model development; but the inclusion of weight as a covariate significantly improved the performance of the model. An ARTS suppositories dose of 10 of 20 mg/kg is appropriate for use in children with uncomplicated malaria.

  6. In Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium Vivax to Chloroquine in Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dittrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species causes of malaria with about 90% total annual reported malaria in Iran. This study conducted to determine the susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax isolates to chloroquine in Sistan and Balochistan Province, southeastern Iran.Methods: A total 270 subjects with symptomatic malaria and confirmed P. vivax infection completed the designed 28-day in vivo study. The thick and thin film blood smears were screened for malaria parasites by microscopy. The nested PCR was applied using the Plasmodium 18 subunit ribosomal ribonu­cleic (Ssr RNA genes for detecting mixed infections and diagnosis of parasites in the samples with low parasite on days 0, 5, 6, 7, and 28. Results: P. vivax was cleared in 15%, 50%, 95%, and 100% of patients on days 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively by microscopy assessment. Six patients were exhibited specific P. vivax band in nested PCR on day 5. No recurrence was observed on days 7, 14 and 28. Mean (±standard deviation parasite clearance time was 2.41 (±0.8 days. Conclusion: P. vivax is still susceptible to chloroquine in Southeatern Iran. This finding is compati­ble with results of neighboring countries Pakistan and Afghanistan.

  7. Efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine + artesunate, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine + amodiaquine, and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine alone in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Hamma; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Beavogui, Abdoul H; Toure, Ousmane; Tekete, Mamadou; Sangare, Cheick Papa O; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana I; Traore, Oumar B; Dama, Souleymane; N'Dong, Christelle; Niangaly, Hamidou; Diallo, Nouhoum; Dembele, Demba; Sagara, Issaka; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2015-02-07

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin has been reported in South-East Asia. Long half-life drugs are increasingly being used for malaria prevention. The potential spread of parasite resistance to these regimens is real and makes regular efficacy surveillance a priority. From August to December 2004 and July to December 2005, a randomized open label trial of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) + artesunate (AS) versus SP + amodiaquine (AQ), and SP alone, was conducted in two villages of Mali. PCR was used to distinguish new infections from recrudescent P. falciparum infections. Patients were followed for 28 days to assess treatment efficacy. Overall 912 children aged between six to 59 months, with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar in the three treatment arms. Crude ACPRs were 94.9%; 98.6% and 93.5% for SP + AS; SP + AQ and SP alone arms respectively (SP + AS versus SP + AQ, p = 0.01; SP + AS versus SP, p = 0.5; SP + AQ versus SP, p = 0.001). After PCR adjustment, cACPRs were 99%; 100% and 97.2% for SP + AS; SP + AQ and SP alone arms, respectively (SP + AS versus SP + AQ, p = 0.25; SP + AS versus SP, p = 0.12; SP + AQ versus SP, p = 0.007). Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine + amodiaquine therapy was as efficacious as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine + artesunate, but more efficacious than sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine alone in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Mali.

  8. Detection of K76T Mutation in pfcrt Gene as an Applicable Ge-netic Marker for Prediction of Chloroquine Resistant falciparum Malaria in Isolates from an Endemic District of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Raeisi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the association between pfcrt, T76 allele and chloroquine resistance in patients with falciparum malaria. Molecular assays for point mutations on drugs resistance-related genes are applied tools for monitoring emerging resistance and surveillance malaria control strategies in endemic areas. The mutant genotype at codon 76 of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt has been proposed as a molecular marker for the faster detection of chloroquine resistance in field. Methods: In 64 samples from patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from Sarbaz district in southeast of Iran,  the clinical response to chloroquine and the prevalence of K76T  mutations in pfcrt gene were investigated by in vivo and nested-PCR  followed restriction enzyme digestion methods. Results:  The occurrence of the K76T mutation was very high (60 of 64, i.e. 93.75% among these filed isolates. Only 4 of 64 isolates harbored wild type K76 codon and no case was a mixed of K76 and 76T codons. All of the 22 (100% chloroquine-resistant and 16.7% of sensitive isolates were found to harbor the 76T mutation and none was found to contain the wild type (K76 allele. Conclusions: The frequency of chloroquine resistance associated point mutation K76T, in pfcrt gene in this region suggest that detection of this mutation can be applied for predicting chloroquine resistance in epidemiologic settings with sufficiently high sensitivity to make it an attractive alternative to time and labor-consuming in vivo trials.

  9. Temporal and seasonal changes of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovel, Irina Tatiana; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rombo, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guinea-Bissau, West-Africa introduced artemether-lumefantrine in 2008 but quinine has also been commonly prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regimen was used previously. Temporal and seasonal changes...... of genetic polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility to chloroquine, lumefantrine and quinine are described. METHODS: Pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 gene copy numbers, N86Y, Y184F and 1034-1246 sequences were determined using PCR-based methods. Blood samples came from virtually all (n=1806) children aged.......001). CONCLUSIONS: Following the discontinuation of an effective chloroquine regimen highly artemether-lumefantrine susceptible P. falciparum (with pfcrt 76T) accumulated possibly due to suboptimal use of quinine and despite a fitness cost linked to 76T....

  10. Introducing New Antimalarial Analogues of Chloroquine and Amodiaquine: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arezoo Rafiee Parhizgar; Azar Tahghighi

    2017-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ), have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the othe...

  11. Evolution of malaria mortality and morbidity after the emergence of chloroquine resistance in Niakhar, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been assumed that resistance of Plasmodium to chloroquine increased malaria mortality. The study aimed to assess the impact of chemoresistance on mortality attributable to malaria in a rural area of Senegal, since the emergence of resistance in 1992, whilst chloroquine was used as first-line treatment of malaria, until the change in national anti-malarial policy in 2003. Methods The retrospective study took place in the demographic surveillance site (DSS) of Niakhar. Data about malaria morbidity were obtained from health records of three health care facilities, where diagnosis of malaria was based on clinical signs. Source of data concerning malaria mortality were verbal autopsies performed by trained fieldworkers and examined by physicians who identified the probable cause of death. Results From 1992 to 2004, clinical malaria morbidity represented 39% of total morbidity in health centres. Mean malaria mortality was 2.4‰ and 10.4‰ among total population and children younger than five years, respectively, and was highest in the 1992-1995 period. It tended to decline from 1992 to 2003 (Trend test, total population p = 0.03, children 0-4 years p = 0.12 - children 1-4 years p = 0.04- children 5-9 years p = 0.01). Conclusion Contrary to what has been observed until 1995, mortality attributable to malaria did not continue to increase dramatically in spite of the growing resistance to chloroquine and its use as first-line treatment until 2003. Malaria morbidity and mortality followed parallel trends and rather fluctuated accordingly to rainfall. PMID:19943921

  12. Fundus auto fluorescence and spectral domain ocular coherence tomography in the early detection of chloroquine retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan B. Goodman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT and fundus auto fluorescence (FAF images as a screening test to detect early changes in the retina prior to the onset of chloroquine retinopathy. Method: The study was conducted using patients taking chloroquine (CQ, referred by the Rheumatology Department to the Ophthalmology Department at Tygerberg Academic Hospital. Group A consisted of 59 patients on CQ for less than 5 years, and Group B consisted of 53 patients on CQ for more than 5 years. A 200 × 200 macula thickness map, 5-line raster SD-OCT on a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus HD-OCT and FAF images on a Carl Zeiss Meditec Visucam 500 were recorded for 223 eyes. Images were reviewed independently, and then those of Groups A and B compared. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B. The criteria included the internal limiting membrane and the retinal pigment epithelium (ILM-RPE thickness, interdigitation zone integrity (p = 0.891, df = 1, χ² = 0.1876, ellipsoid zone integrity (p = 0.095, df = 2, χ² = 4.699 and FAF image irregularities (p = 0.479, df = 1, χ²= 4995978. Conclusion: The inclusion of SD-OCT and FAF as objective tests into the prescribed screening guidelines does not appear to simplify the detection of subclinical injury in patients on chloroquine treatment.

  13. Effects of chronic exposure of hydroxychloroquine/ chloroquine on the risk of cancer, metastasis, and death: a population-based cohort study on patients with connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardet L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L Fardet,1–3 I Nazareth,1 I Petersen1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, UK; 2Department of Dermatology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, Créteil, France; 3Equipe d’Accueil 7379 EpiDermE, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France Background: Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine may reduce the risk of cancer as they inhibit autophagy, in particular, in people with connective tissue diseases.Methods: The hazard ratios of cancers, metastases, and death were assessed in adults with connective tissue diseases prescribed hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for at least 1 year in comparison with unexposed individuals with the same underlying conditions. A competing risk survival regression analysis was performed. Data were extracted from the Health Improvement Network UK primary care database.Results: Eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine (98.6% or chloroquine (1.4% and 24,118 unexposed individuals were included in the study (median age: 56 [45–66] years, women: 76.8%. When compared to the unexposed group, individuals exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine were not at lower risk of non-skin cancers (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 1.04 [0.92–1.18], p=0.54, hematological malignancies (adjusted sHR: 1.00 [0.73–1.38], p=0.99, or skin cancers (adjusted sHR: 0.92 [0.78–1.07], p=0.26. The risk of metastasis was not significantly different between the two groups. However, it was significantly lower during the exposure period when compared with the unexposed (adjusted sHR: 0.64 [0.44–0.95] for the overall population and 0.61 [0.38–1.00] for those diagnosed with incident cancers. The risk of death was also significantly lower in those exposed to hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (adjusted HR: 0.90 [0.81–1.00] in the overall population and 0.78 [0.64–0.96] in those diagnosed with incident cancer.Conclusion: Individuals on long-term exposure

  14. Structural characteristics of chloroquine-bridged ferrocenophane analogues of ferroquine may obviate malaria drug-resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Paloma F; Herrmann, Christoph; Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Nimphius, Corinna; Kenkel, Alexander; Chen, Jessie; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Patrick, Brian O; Adam, Michael J; Orvig, Chris

    2013-02-28

    Five compounds displaying an unprecedented binding mode of chloroquine to ferrocene through the bridging of the cyclopentadienyl rings were studied alongside their monosubstituted ferrocene analogues and organic fragments. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated against strains of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). While the chloroquine-bridged ferrocenyl derivatives were less active than their five monosubstituted ferrocenyl analogues, they retained activity in the drug-resistant strains. The biological and physical properties were correlated to antiplasmodial activity. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding was associated with increased antiplasmodial action, but it is not the determining factor. Instead, balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity had a greater influence. It was found that calculated partition coefficient (log P) values of 4.5-5.0 and topological polar surfaces area (tPSA) values of ∼26.0 Å(2) give the best balance. The particular conformation, compact size, and lipophilicity/hydrophilicity balance observed in the bridged compounds provide them with the structural characteristics needed to escape the mechanisms responsible for resistance.

  15. Assessment of the molecular marker of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) in Senegal after several years of chloroquine withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Faye, Babacar; Tine, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. As a result of widespread antimalarial drug resistance, all African countries with endemic malaria have, in recent years, changed their malaria treatment policy. In Senegal, the health authorities changed from chloroquine (CQ) to a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus...... at the molecular level in selected sites in Senegal, because the scientific community is interested in using CQ again. Finger prick blood samples were collected from Plasmodium falciparum-positive children below the age of 10 years (N = 474) during cross-sectional surveys conducted in two study sites in Senegal...... with different malaria transmission levels. One site is in central Senegal, and the other site is in the southern part of the country. All samples were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt; codons 72-76) using polymerase chain reaction...

  16. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin ("old drugs") to their recently recognized CSC targets ("new uses") within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the "old drugs-new uses" repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism-based design of parasite-targeted artemisinin derivatives: synthesis and antimalarial activity of new diamine containing analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindley, Stephen; Ward, Stephen A; Storr, Richard C; Searle, Natalie L; Bray, Patrick G; Park, B Kevin; Davies, Jill; O'Neill, Paul M

    2002-02-28

    The potent antimalarial activity of chloroquine against chloroquine-sensitive strains can be attributed, in part, to its high accumulation in the acidic environment of the heme-rich parasite food vacuole. A key component of this intraparasitic chloroquine accumulation mechanism is a weak base "ion-trapping" effect whereupon the basic drug is concentrated in the acidic food vacuole in its membrane-impermeable diprotonated form. By the incorporation of amino functionality into target artemisinin analogues, we hoped to prepare a new series of analogues that, by virtue of increased accumulation into the ferrous-rich vacuole, would display enhanced antimalarial potency. The initial part of the project focused on the preparation of piperazine-linked analogues (series 1 (7-16)). Antimalarial evaluation of these derivatives demonstrated potent activity versus both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant parasites. On the basis of these observations, we then set about preparing a series of C-10 carba-linked amino derivatives. Optimization of the key synthetic step using a newly developed coupling protocol provided a key intermediate, allyldeoxoartemisinin (17) in 90% yield. Further elaboration, in three steps, provided nine target C-10 carba analogues (series 2 (21-29)) in good overall yields. Antimalarial assessment demonstrated that these compounds were 4-fold more potent than artemisinin and about twice as active as artemether in vitro versus chloroquine-resistant parasites. On the basis of the products obtained from biomimetic Fe(II) degradation of the C-10 carba analogue (23), we propose that these analogues may have a mode of action subtly different from that of the parent drug artemisinin (series 1 (7-16)) and other C-10 ether derivatives such as artemether. Preliminary in vivo testing by the WHO demonstrated that four of these compounds are active orally at doses of less than 10 mg/kg. Since these analogues are available as water-soluble salts and cannot

  18. Chloroquine Analog Interaction with C2- and Iota-Toxin in Vitro and in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronhardt, Angelika; Beitzinger, Christoph; Barth, Holger; Benz, Roland

    2016-08-10

    C2-toxin from Clostridium botulinum and Iota-toxin from Clostridium perfringens belong both to the binary A-B-type of toxins consisting of two separately secreted components, an enzymatic subunit A and a binding component B that facilitates the entry of the corresponding enzymatic subunit into the target cells. The enzymatic subunits are in both cases actin ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify R177 of globular actin finally leading to cell death. Following their binding to host cells' receptors and internalization, the two binding components form heptameric channels in endosomal membranes which mediate the translocation of the enzymatic components Iota a and C2I from endosomes into the cytosol of the target cells. The binding components form ion-permeable channels in artificial and biological membranes. Chloroquine and related 4-aminoquinolines were able to block channel formation in vitro and intoxication of living cells. In this study, we extended our previous work to the use of different chloroquine analogs and demonstrate that positively charged aminoquinolinium salts are able to block channels formed in lipid bilayer membranes by the binding components of C2- and Iota-toxin. Similarly, these molecules protect cultured mammalian cells from intoxication with C2- and Iota-toxin. The aminoquinolinium salts did presumably not interfere with actin ADP-ribosylation or receptor binding but blocked the pores formed by C2IIa and Iota b in living cells and in vitro. The blocking efficiency of pores formed by Iota b and C2IIa by the chloroquine analogs showed interesting differences indicating structural variations between the types of protein-conducting nanochannels formed by Iota b and C2IIa.

  19. Atovaquone/proguanil for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; Kain, Kevin C

    2005-12-01

    Increases in international travel and escalating drug resistance have resulted in a growing number of travelers at risk of contracting malaria. Drug resistance and intolerance to standard agents such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and mefloquine has highlighted the need for new antimalarials. The recently licensed fixed combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride (Malarone) is a promising new agent to prevent and treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Randomized controlled trials have shown that atovaquone/proguanil is well tolerated and efficacious for the prevention and treatment of drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria. Atovaquone/proguanil is active against the liver stage of P. falciparum malaria parasites and when used as a prophylactic agent it can be discontinued shortly after leaving malaria-endemic areas, offering a clear advantage for drug adherence.

  20. Screening for chloroquine maculopathy in populations with uncertain reliability in outcomes of automatic visual field testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kunavisarut (Paradee); Chavengsaksongkram, P. (Pimploy); A. Rothová (Aniki); K. Pathanapitoon (Kessara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of this study was to compare screening methods for the early detection of maculopathy in patients treated with chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and to identify the risk factors for the development of toxic maculopathy. Methods: We performed a prospective

  1. Novel lipophilic chloroquine analogues for a highly efficient gene transfer into gynecological tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, O; Bojar, H; Prisack, H B; Dall, P

    2001-10-08

    Liposomal vectors based on cationic lipids have been proven to be an attractive alternative to viral vectors in gene therapy protocols with regard to safety and manufacturing concerns. In order to improve the transfection efficiency we have synthesized two novel carboxycholesteryl-modified chloroquine analogues. Due to their potential endosomal buffering capacity these compounds enable the efficient transfection of various gynecological tumors and therefore are promising reagents in gene therapy applications.

  2. Chloroquine-treatment failure in northern Ghana: roles of pfcrt T76 and pfmdr1 Y86

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, F. P.; Ehrhardt, S.; Eggelte, T. A.; Agana-Nsiire, P.; Stollberg, K.; Mathieu, A.; Markert, M.; Otchwemah, R. N.; Bienzle, U.

    2005-01-01

    Although chloroquine (CQ) monotherapy is now generally inadequate for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern Ghana--recently, 58% of 225 children failed treatment by day 14--use of the drug continues because of its low cost and wide availability. The risk factors associated with

  3. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus showed a significant improvement in their glucose tolerance, which paralleled the severity of their diabetes. This response seems to reflect decreased degradation of insulin rather than increased pancreatic output. These observations suggest that treatment with chloroquine or suitable analogues may be a new approach to the management of diabetes. PMID:3103729

  4. Evaluation of chloroquine as a potent anti-malarial drug: issues of public health policy and healthcare delivery in post-war Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Moses B F; Kennedy, Stephen B

    2003-02-01

    Chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious public health threat that is spreading rapidly across Sub-Saharan Africa. It affects over three quarters (80%) of malarial endemic countries. Of the estimated 300-500 million cases of malaria reported annually, the vast majority of malarial-related morbidities occur among young children in Africa, especially those concentrated in the remote rural areas with inadequate access to appropriate health care services. In Liberia, in vivo studies conducted between 1993 and 2000 observed varying degrees of plasmodium falciparum malaria infections that were resistant to chloroquine, including sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine. As the country emerges from a prolonged civil war, the health care delivery system may not be adequately prepared to implement an effective nation-wide malarial control strategy. As a result, the management of uncomplicated malaria in Liberia poses a significant public health challenge for the government-financed health care delivery system. Therefore, based on extensive literature review, we report the failure of chloroquine as an effective first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum malaria in Liberia and recommend that national health efforts be directed at identifying alternative drug(s) to replace it.

  5. Potentiation of Artemisinin Activity against Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strains by Using Heme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Robert, Anne; Meunier, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    The influence of different metalloporphyrin derivatives on the antimalarial activity of artemisinin was studied with two chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum (FcB1-Colombia and FcM29-Cameroon) cultured in human erythrocytes. This potentiation study indicates that the manganese complex of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin has a significant synergistic effect on the activity of artemisinin against both Plasmodium strains. PMID:10508044

  6. Evolução temporal da resistência in vitro do Plasmodium falciparum às drogas antimaláricas em duas áreas da amazônia brasileira com distintas características sócio-econômicas e geográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Augusto Couto

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a evolução temporal da resistência in vitro do Plasmodium falciparum às drogas cloroquina, amodiaquina, quinino e mefloquina em duas áreas com distintas características sócio-econômicas e geográficas: Lourenço, no Estado do Amapá e Paragominas no Estado do Pará. A primeira caracteriza-se por ser uma área de garimpos a céu aberto e a segunda uma área de colonização, pecuária e extrativismo de madeiras. O estudo revela alta prevalência de resistência à cloroquina nas duas áreas (79,8% em Lourenço e 68,4% em Paragominas, enquanto que para amodiaquina e quinino observamos uma certa flutuação nas respostas para essas drogas, dependendo do período em que foi avaliada, fá para mefloquina, não foram obsewadas cepas resistentes, mas uma perda da sensibilidade ao longo do período estudado.We evaluated the temporal progression of in vitro P. falciparum resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine and mefloquine in two areas with distinct socioeconomical and geographical characteristics: Lourenço, in Amapá state and Paragominas, in Pará state. The former region is essentially an "open" gold mining camp, whereas the latter is one currently undergoing a colonization settlement process, in addition to expanding economical activities which mainly include cattle raising and wood exploitation. Our results show high resistance rates to chloroquine in the two study areas: 79.8% and 68.4% in Lourenço and Paragominas, respectively. Variations in the response of P. falciparum to both amodiaquine and quinine were recorded throughout the study period. On the other hand, no mefloquine P. falciparum resistant strains could be identified, despite the tact we had noted a decrease in sensitivity to this antimalarial drug throughout the study period.

  7. Effect of concomitant artesunate administration and cytochrome P4502C8 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, George O; Kristensen, Kim; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2008-01-01

    Artesunate (AS) is used in combination with amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in many countries. We investigated the effect of concomitant AS administration on the pharmacokinetics of AQ and compared concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the main metabolite...... implications for weight-based dosing of higher-body-weight children with AQ. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin combination therapies should be studied in malaria patients, because the rapid parasite clearance caused by the artemisinin may affect the kinetics of the partner drug and the combination....

  8. Synthesis and antimalarial evaluation of prodrugs of novel fosmidomycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faísca Phillips, Ana Maria; Nogueira, Fátima; Murtinheira, Fernanda; Barros, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The continuous development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum, the agent responsible for the most severe forms of malaria, creates the need for the development of novel drugs to fight this disease. Fosmidomycin is an effective antimalarial and potent antibiotic, known to act by inhibiting the enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), essential for the synthesis of isoprenoids in eubacteria and plasmodia, but not in humans. In this study, novel constrained cyclic prodrug analogues of fosmidomycin were synthesized. One, in which the hydroxamate function is incorporated into a six-membered ring, was found have higher antimalarial activity than fosmidomycin against the chloroquine and mefloquine resistant P. falciparum Dd2 strain. In addition, it showed very low cytotoxicity against cultured human cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of Novel Chloroquine Analogues with Bulky Basic Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasso, Bruno; Novelli, Federica; Tonelli, Michele; Barteselli, Anna; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Taramelli, Donatella; Sparatore, Anna; Sparatore, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Chloroquine is commonly used in the treatment and prevention of malaria, but Plasmodium falciparum, the main species responsible for malaria-related deaths, has developed resistance against this drug. Twenty-seven novel chloroquine (CQ) analogues characterized by a side chain terminated with a bulky basic head group, i.e., octahydro-2H-quinolizine and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-1,5-methano-8H-pyrido[1,2-a][1,5]diazocin-8-one, were synthesized and tested for activity against D-10 (CQ-susceptible) and W-2 (CQ-resistant) strains of P. falciparum. Most compounds were found to be active against both strains with nanomolar or sub-micromolar IC50 values. Eleven compounds were found to be 2.7- to 13.4-fold more potent than CQ against the W-2 strain; among them, four cytisine derivatives appear to be of particular interest, as they combine high potency with low cytotoxicity against two human cell lines (HMEC-1 and HepG2) along with easier synthetic accessibility. Replacement of the 4-NH group with a sulfur bridge maintained antiplasmodial activity at a lower level, but produced an improvement in the resistance factor. These compounds warrant further investigation as potential drugs for use in the fight against malaria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The treatment of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes with chloroquine leads to accumulation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX bound to particular parasite proteins and to the inhibition of the parasite's 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famin O.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX is a potentially toxic product of hemoglobin digestion by intra-erythrocytic malaria parasites. It is detoxified by biomineralization or through degradation by glutathione. Both processes are inhibited by the antimalarial drug chloroquine, leading to the accumulation of FPIX in the membranes of the infected cell and their consequent permeabilization. It is shown here that treatment of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes with chloroquine also leads to the binding of FPIX to a subset of parasite proteins. Parasite enzymes such as aldolase, pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase and pyrimidine 5'- nucleotidase were inhibited by FPIX in vitro, but only the activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was reduced significantly in cells after drug treatment. Additional proteins were extracted from parasite cytosol by their ability to bind FPIX. Sequencing of these proteins identified heat shock proteins 90 and 70, enolase, elongation factor 1-α, phoshoglycerate kinase, glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase and gametocytogenesis onset-specific protein. The possible involvement of these proteins in the antimalarial mode of action of chloroquine is discussed. It is concluded that drug-induced binding of FPIX to parasite glycolytic enzymes could underlie the demonstrable inhibition of glycolysis by chloroquine. The inhibition of 6- phosphogluconate dehydrogenase could explain the reduction of the activity of the hexose monophosphate shunt by the drug. Inhibition of both processes is deleterious to parasite survival. Binding of FPIX to other proteins is probably inconsequential to the rapid killing of the parasite by chloroquine.

  11. PENGOBATAN MALARIA FALSIPARUM TANPA KOMPLIKASI DENGAN HALOFANTRIN DI DAERAH RESISTEN KLOROKUIN

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    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with halofantrine was carried out at ITCI Hospital, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, Indonesia in 1990/1991. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of halofantrine. Eighty out of 96 malaria falciparum patients who had been selected according to WHO criteria for the in-vivo sensitivity test were treated with 500 mg halofantrine 6 hourly for three doses orally. The other 16 patients were treated with mefloquine 750 mg single dose orally as a control group. All patients were hospitalized for 3-5 days and followed up on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. The cure rate of halofantrine was 98.4% (62/63 and relapse rate was 1.6% (1/63 as a late RI. The mean fever clearance time (FCT and parasite clearance time (PCT were 22.4 ± 2.7 h and 58.3 ± 5.2 h respectively. Tlte FCT was significantly different compared to that of mefloquine (9.3 ± 2.4 h. Some haematological abnormalities appeared to be associated with malaria but no biochemical abnormalities were found. Mild diarrhoea (11.5%, nausea (6.4%, palpitation (2.6% and dizziness (1.3% were observed as side effects of halofantrine but disappeared without treatment.This study showed that halofantrine is effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a chloroquine resistant area.

  12. Plasma metabolomics reveals membrane lipids, aspartate/asparagine and nucleotide metabolism pathway differences associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Val, Fernando; Cordy, Regina J.; Liu, Ken; Melo, Gisely C.; Siqueira, Andre M.; Magalhaes, Belisa; Galinski, Mary R.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Jones, Dean P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ) is the main anti-schizontocidal drug used in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax (PvCR) malaria in the Western Pacific region, Asia and in the Americas indicates a need for biomarkers of resistance to improve therapy and enhance understanding of the mechanisms associated with PvCR. In this study, we compared plasma metabolic profiles of P. vivax malaria patients with PvCR and chloroquine sensitive parasites before treatment to identify potential molecular markers of chloroquine resistance. Methods An untargeted high-resolution metabolomics analysis was performed on plasma samples collected in a malaria clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Male and female patients with Plasmodium vivax were included (n = 46); samples were collected before CQ treatment and followed for 28 days to determine PvCR, defined as the recurrence of parasitemia with detectable plasma concentrations of CQ ≥100 ng/dL. Differentially expressed metabolic features between CQ-Resistant (CQ-R) and CQ-Sensitive (CQ-S) patients were identified using partial least squares discriminant analysis and linear regression after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing correction. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Mummichog. Results Linear regression and PLS-DA methods yielded 69 discriminatory features between CQ-R and CQ-S groups, with 10-fold cross-validation classification accuracy of 89.6% using a SVM classifier. Pathway enrichment analysis showed significant enrichment (p<0.05) of glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycosphingolipid metabolism, aspartate and asparagine metabolism, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and xenobiotics metabolism. Glycerophosphocholines levels were significantly lower in the CQ-R group as compared to CQ-S patients and also to independent control samples. Conclusions The results show differences in lipid, amino acids, and nucleotide metabolism pathways in the plasma of CQ-R versus

  13. Interaction of primaquine and chloroquine with ionic micelles: 1 H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perussi, Janice R.; Monte, Shirley C.; Imasato, Hidetake; Tabak, Marcel; Yushmanov, Victor E.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic of binding of primaquine (PQ) and chloroquine (CQ) to micelles of surfactants with different charge of headgroups were studied by 1 H-NMR and optical absorption spectroscopy. Cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAC) was used as a cationic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant and N-hexadecyl-N, N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (HPS) as zwitterionic. The pK values and binding constants were estimated. (author)

  14. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I; Henrichsen, J; Heron, I; Petersen, I; Skinhoj, P

    1991-11-01

    In vitro studies have shown that anti-malarial drugs suppress immunity. In this study, the effects of chloroquine and proguanil (Paludrine) on the cellular and humoral immune system were measured by two in vivo methods: 1) cell-mediated immunity (delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity) i.e., skin tests with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined on days 0, 28, and 42. The skin tests induced a significant increase in skin reactive areas from day 0 to day 28 in all groups. Furthermore, the skin test induced an increase in the level of specific IgG for diphtheria and tetanus, but had no effect on antibodies to antigens not included in the skin test. The results showed that there were no significant differences among the four groups regarding skin test areas and increases in antibody titers following vaccination. Therefore, it is concluded that in healthy persons, six weeks intake of chloroquine, even in double doses, or proguanil in chemoprophylactic dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens.

  15. Artesunate-loaded chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Renu; Gupta, Sushma; Pathak, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    Artesunate (AST), the most widely used artemisnin derivative, has poor aqueous solubility and suffers from low oral bioavailability (~40%). Under these conditions, nanoparticles with controlled and sustained released properties can be a suitable solution for improving its biopharmaceuticals properties. This work reports the preparation and characterization of auto-assembled chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles loaded with AST and AST complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to boost its antimalarial activity. The nanoparticles prepared by direct injection of lecithin alcoholic solution into chitosan/water solution have shown the particle size distribution below 300 nm. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be maximum (90%) for nanoparticles containing 100 mg of AST. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical shape with contrasted corona (chitosan) surrounded by a lipidic core (lecithin + isopropyl myristate). Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated the presence of drug in drug-loaded nanoparticles along with the disappearance of decomposition exotherm suggesting the increased physical stability of drug in prepared formulations. Negligible changes in the characteristic peaks of drug in Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated the absence of any interaction among the various components entrapped in the nanoparticle formulation. In vitro drug release behavior was found to be influenced by pH value. Increased in vivo antimalarial activity in terms of less mean percent parasitemia was observed in infected Plasmodium berghei mice after the oral administration of all the prepared nanoparticle formulations.

  16. Antimalarial drug prescribing practice in private and public health facilities in South-east Nigeria: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okebe Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria's national standard has recently moved to artemisinin combination treatments for malaria. As clinicians in the private sector are responsible for attending a large proportion of the population ill with malaria, this study compared prescribing in the private and public sector in one State in Nigeria prior to promoting ACTs. Objective To assess prescribing for uncomplicated malaria in government and private health facilities in Cross River State. Method Audit of 665 patient records at six private and seven government health facilities in 2003. Results Clinicians in the private sector were less likely to record history or physical examination than those in public facilities, but otherwise practice and prescribing were similar. Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnostic blood slides; 77% were prescribed monotherapy, either chloroquine (30.2%, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (22.7% or artemisinin derivatives alone (15.8%. Some 20.8% were prescribed combination therapy; the commonest was chloroquine with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. A few patients (3.5% were prescribed sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-mefloquine in the private sector, and only 3.0% patients were prescribed artemisinin combination treatments. Conclusion Malaria treatments were varied, but there were not large differences between the public and private sector. Very few are following current WHO guidelines. Monotherapy with artemisinin derivatives is relatively common.

  17. Caregivers' acceptance of using artesunate suppositories for treating childhood malaria in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Rachael L; Auwun, Alma; Pongua, Grace; Oa, Olive; Davis, Timothy M E; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John C

    2007-04-01

    Community-based interventions using artemisinin-derived suppositories may potentially reduce malaria-related childhood mortality. However, their sociocultural acceptability is unknown in Papua New Guinea and a formal examination of caregiver's attitudes to rectal administration was needed to inform effective deployment strategies. Caregivers (n = 131) of children with uncomplicated malaria were questioned on their prior experience with, and attitudes to, rectal administration and then offered artesunate suppositories as treatment of their child. The 29% who refused this alternative were further questioned to determine their reasons for this refusal. Lack of spousal approval and fear of side effects were the most common reasons for refusal. Sixty-six percent of caregivers agreed to self-administer suppositories, which were perceived as effective (99%), safe (96%), and fast-acting (91%), but problematic to administer to a struggling child (56%). Shame, embarrassment, and hygiene were not significant concerns. Acceptability of rectal administration should be relatively high in Papua New Guinea. However, deployment must be accompanied by health education that addresses the practical aspects of administration, is appropriate for the illiterate, and is directed at fathers as well as mothers.

  18. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites

  19. Chemopreventive effect of artesunate in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazal Patyar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artesunate (ART is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin. Artemisinin and its derivatives have shown profound cytotoxicity and antitumor activity in addition to antimalarial activity in various studies. As the in vivo chemopreventive efficacy of ART in colon carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, the aim of the current study was to study the chemopreventive effect of ART in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6: Group I - vehicle (1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group II - DMH (20 mg/kg, Group III - DMH + 5-fluorouracil (81 mg/kg, Group IV - DMH + ART (6.7 mg/kg. After completion of 15 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed under ether anesthesia by cervical dislocation for assessment of lipid peroxidation (LPO, antioxidant status, average number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, and cytokine levels. ART administration significantly decreased the average number of ACF/microscopic field. Similarly, LPO level was decreased and antioxidant activities were enhanced after ART treatment. ART decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and induced apoptosis in the colons of DMH-treated rats. The results of this study suggest that ART has a beneficial effect against chemically induced colonic preneoplastic progression in rats.

  20. The Effects of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 and Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perečko, Tomáš; Kassab, R.B.; Vašíček, Ondřej; Pekarová, Michaela; Jančinová, V.; Lojek, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-44 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : chloroquine * cytotoxicity * hydroxychloroquine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  1. Survey of chloroquine-resistant mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Hadhramout, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Yemen. More than 95% of the malaria cases are due to Plasmodium ‎falciparum‎. Recently in Yemen, the antimalarial treatment policy was changed from chloroquine (CQ) to artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs). However, CQ is still available and prescribed in the Yemeni market. The persistence of CQ resistance will be prolonged if the shift to ACT and the simultaneous withdrawal of CQ are not rigorously implemented. The aim of the current survey is to detect chloroquine-resistant mutations in P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 (pfmdr1) genes. These data will be important for future monitoring and assessment of antimalarial drug policy in Yemen. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals from different districts of the Hadhramout province, Yemen by house-to-house visit. Mutation-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to investigate the mutations in the pfmdr1(codons 86 and 1246) and pfcrt (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) genes. The overall prevalence of pfcrt mutations at codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 were 50.4%, 58.7%, 54.3% and 44.9%, respectively. All isolates had wild-type pfcrt 356 allele. The majority of pfmdr1 86 alleles (83.3%) and all pfmdr1 1246 alleles were wild type. There was no association between pfcrt mutations and symptomatology, gender and age groups. In conclusion, point mutations in codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 of pfcrt of P. falciparum are high suggesting a sustained high CQ resistance even after 4 years of shifting to ACTs. These findings warrant complete withdrawal of CQ use from the Yemeni market for P. falciparum and careful usage of CQ for treating Plasmodium vivax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following single- and multiple-dosing of oral artesunate in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsch Lee E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA were studied in healthy subjects receiving single- or multiple-dosing of AS orally either in combination with pyronaridine (PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Methods Data from 118 concentration-time profiles arising from 91 healthy Korean subjects were pooled from four Phase I clinical studies. Subjects received 2-5 mg/kg of single- and multiple-dosing of oral AS either in combination with PYR or as a monotherapy with or without food. Plasma AS and DHA were measured simultaneously using a validated liquid chromatography- mass spectrometric method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/mL for both AS and DHA. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability (inter-individual and residual variability parameter estimates. Results A novel parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model consisting of a dosing compartment, a central compartment for AS, a central compartment and a peripheral compartment for DHA was developed. AS and DHA data were modelled simultaneously assuming stoichiometric conversion to DHA. AS was rapidly absorbed with a population estimate of absorption rate constant (Ka of 3.85 h-1. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V2/F for AS were 1190 L/h with 36.2% inter-individual variability (IIV and 1210 L with 57.4% IIV, respectively. For DHA, the population estimates of apparent clearance (CLM/F and central volume of distribution (V3/F were 93.7 L/h with 28% IIV and 97.1 L with 30% IIV, respectively. The population estimates of apparent inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F and peripheral volume of distribution (V4/F for DHA were 5.74 L/h and 18.5 L, respectively. Intake of high-fat and high-caloric meal prior to the drug administration resulted in 84% reduction in Ka. Body weight impacted CLM/F, such that a unit change in

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong; Kim, Kwang Soo; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of chloroquine and amodiaquine through p21-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation and Th1 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sera; Shin, Ji Hyun; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi- Gyeong [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Soo [Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478 (United States); Hwang, Eun Sook, E-mail: eshwang@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-27

    Chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ) have been used for treating or preventing malaria for decades, and their application has expanded into treating inflammatory disease in humans. CQ and AQ are applicable for controlling rheumatoid arthritis, but their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of CQ and AQ on T cell activation and T cell-mediated immune response. CQ had no significant effect on T cell numbers, but decreased the population of T cells with a high division rate. However, AQ treatment significantly increased the number of cells with low division rates and eliminated cells with high division rates, resulting in the inhibition of T cell proliferation triggered by T cell receptor stimulation, of which inhibition occurred in developing effector T helper and regulatory T cells, regardless of the different exogenous cytokines. Interestingly, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was significantly and dose-dependently increased by CQ, and more potently by AQ, while other cell cycle regulators were unchanged. Both CQ and AQ elevated the transcription level of p21 though the activation of p53, but also blocked p21 protein degradation in the presence of cycloheximide, causing p21 protein accumulation mainly in the nucleus. Sustained treatment of developing T cells with either CQ or AQ suppressed IFN-γ production in a dose dependent manner and potently inhibited the differentiation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. These results demonstrate that CQ and AQ increase the expression level of p21 and inhibit T cell proliferation and the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells, thereby revealing beneficial roles in treating a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases mediated by inflammatory T cells. -- Highlights: •T cell division rates are suppressed by chloroquine and amodiaquine treatment. •Chloroquine and amodiaquine potently increased the p21 expression. •The p21 induction is

  5. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy in Tanzanian children gives rapid parasite clearance but slow fever clearance that is improved by chloroquine in combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2002-01-01

    Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage para...... on possible delayed parasitological and clinical responses to SP that could result from its action on late stage parasites. Despite its diminishing antimalarial activity, CQ has beneficial in vivo antipyretic effects in therapeutic combination with SP.......Following widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance, sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine (SP) is now the first line antimalarial drug in a number of African countries including Tanzania. Unlike CQ, SP has no antipyretic effects, a feature that might delay fever clearance, and by acting on late stage...

  6. Mefloquine treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in young children 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, David J; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Utz, Gregory; Baird, J Kevin; Koram, Kwadwo A; Binka, Fred; Nkrumah, Francis; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2007-02-01

    Mefloquine (MQ) single dose 20 mg/kg treatment of falciparum malaria was evaluated in 186 children of 6-24 months of age in northern Ghana. There were 15 RII/RIII-type parasitologic failures, all with Day 2 MQ blood levels significantly lower than children whose parasitemias cleared before Day 7 and remained clear through 28 days. Predictors of RII/RIII parasitologic response were vomiting after MQ dosing, Day 2 MQ levels < 500 ng/mL, and undetectable Day 2 levels of the carboxymefloquine metabolite. There were 50 cases of delayed RI parasitologic failure, but 71% of these cases had undetectable Day 28 blood levels of MQ and drug levels in the remaining 29% ranged below the 620 ng/mL level that suppresses MQ sensitive strains of P. falciparum. Drug levels among infants that tolerated MQ well were not associated with age, weight, hemoglobin, parasitemia, and pre-existing symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea. An observed recurrent parasitemia of 34,400 trophozoites/microL against a MQ blood concentration of 550 ng/mL was taken as indication of tolerance to suppressive levels of the drug at this location.

  7. Investigating the activity of quinine analogues versus chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinio, Theresa; Gorka, Alexander P; McGinniss, Andrew; Roepe, Paul D; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2012-05-15

    Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malarial parasite species, has developed resistance against nearly all man-made antimalarial drugs within the past century. However, quinine (QN), the first antimalarial drug, remains efficacious worldwide. Some chloroquine resistant (CQR) P. falciparum strains or isolates show mild cross resistance to QN, but many do not. Further optimization of QN may provide a well-tolerated therapy with improved activity versus CQR malaria. Thus, using the Heck reaction, we have pursued a structure-activity relationship study, including vinyl group modifications of QN. Certain derivatives show good antiplasmodial activity in QN-resistant and QN-sensitive strains, with lower IC(50) values relative to QN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative study on the efficacy of artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine versus artemether-lumefantrine in eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Fathi A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of artesunate (AS plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP as first-line and artemether-lumefantrine (AL as second-line treatment are currently recommended against uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in Sudan. However, there is limited information on the efficacy of ACTs in the country and only one report of PCR-corrected results for AS/SP only. Methods The WHO protocol for the assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was employed. Artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS/SP was compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in a 28-day follow up. Samples that were classified as early treatment failure (ETF, late treatment failure (LCF or late parasitological failure (LPF were genotyped for msp-1 and msp-2 genes to differentiate recrudescence from reinfection. Results A total of 178 patients were screened and 160 met the enrolment criteria and were recruited to the study of which 157 (98.1% completed the follow up and had an analysed treatment outcome. On the AS/SP arm, three (0.038% patients were lost during the follow-up, two on day 1 and one on day 7, and 77 (96.3 completed the study, while all 80 (100% patients completed the follow up in the AL arm. In the per protocol analysis for AS/SP the treatment outcome for patients who completed the follow-up were as follows: adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR; 84.4% ETF; 1.3%, LCF; 3.9%, (LPF; 10.4%. For the AL arm the out come was as follows, ACPR; 90%, ETF; 0%, LCF; 6.3% and LPF; 3.8%. However, when PCR-corrected, 6.5% (5/77 of patients treated with AS/SP maintained parasites from their primary infection, while (7/80 in the AL group maintained their initial parasite genotype. Therefore, PCR-corrected efficacy was 93.5% in the AS/SP treated group and for AL it was 91.3%. Conclusion Both AS/SP and AL are highly effective for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. However

  9. Optimization of 2-Anilino 4-Amino Substituted Quinazolines into Potent Antimalarial Agents with Oral in Vivo Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Paul R; Tan, Cyrus; Jarman, Kate E; Lowes, Kym N; Curtis, Joan M; Nguyen, William; Di Rago, Adrian E; Bullen, Hayley E; Prinz, Boris; Duffy, Sandra; Baell, Jonathan B; Hutton, Craig A; Jousset Subroux, Helene; Crabb, Brendan S; Avery, Vicky M; Cowman, Alan F; Sleebs, Brad E

    2017-02-09

    Novel antimalarial therapeutics that target multiple stages of the parasite lifecycle are urgently required to tackle the emerging problem of resistance with current drugs. Here, we describe the optimization of the 2-anilino quinazoline class as antimalarial agents. The class, identified from publicly available antimalarial screening data, was optimized to generate lead compounds that possess potent antimalarial activity against P. falciparum parasites comparable to the known antimalarials, chloroquine and mefloquine. During the optimization process, we defined the functionality necessary for activity and improved in vitro metabolism and solubility. The resultant lead compounds possess potent activity against a multidrug resistant strain of P. falciparum and arrest parasites at the ring phase of the asexual stage and also gametocytogensis. Finally, we show that the lead compounds are orally efficacious in a 4 day murine model of malaria disease burden.

  10. [Mutant alleles associated to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethanime resistance in Plasmodium falciparum of the Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia borders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Hijar-Guerra, Gisely; de Mora, Doménica; Diaz-Cortéz, César Eduardo; Veloz-Perez, Raúl; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas-Sánchez, César

    2014-04-01

    The frequency of mutations in pfCRT and DHFR/DHPS genes of Plasmodium falciparum associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was evaluated in 83 strains from the districts of Esmeralda and Machala, located on the borders of Ecuador-Peru and Ecuador-Colombia in 2002. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional and its variants, was used. Mutations in the pfCRT gene were found in more than 90% of the samples from Esmeralda and Machala. For the DHFR gene, 90% of the strains were mutant samples from Esmeralda, 3 were double mutations and 1 was a triple mutation. In Machala, 25% were simple mutant forms and 75% mixed mutant forms (wild forms/mutant). In conclusion, resistance to chloroquine has been fixed in strains carrying K76T pfCRT mutation, whereas genetic imprinting for resistance to pyrimethamine is evolving, particularly in the district of Esmeralda.

  11. Intralesional Versus Oral Chloroquine in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Comparison of Outcome, Duration of Treatment and Total Dose of Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M. M.; Akram, K.; Mustafa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare intralesional versus oral chloroquine in cutaneous leishmaniasis and determine the cure rate, duration of treatment, and total dose of drug. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology, Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, from November 2013 to June 2014. Methodology: Consecutive 86 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with single to multiple lesions of various sizes were enrolled and divided randomly into group A and B for the purpose of intralesional and oral chloroquine administration, respectively to compare the effect of the two routes on duration of treatment and total dose of the drug. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis after data entry into it. Quantitative variables like, duration, cost and total dose of treatment were calculated as mean and standard deviation and compared by using T-test. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Cure rate was 100% in both groups towards the end of treatment. Mean duration of treatment was 9.17 ± 3 weeks in intralesional (A) group as against 11.37 ± 3 weeks in oral (B) group (p = 0.0028). Mean total dose of the drug given to each patient in group A was 5.8 ± 0.5 gm and in group B, it was 19.2 ± 1.5 gm, which is significantly higher (p=0.001). The total cost of treatment in group A was Rs. 90 ± 8 and in group B it was Rs. 91 ± 1 (p=0.446). Conclusion: Duration of treatment is significantly shorter and total dose is lesser with intralesional compared to oral chloroquine in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  12. Adaptations of the Saker-Solomons test: simple, reliable colorimetric field assays for chloroquine and its metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, D L; Nahlen, B L; Patchen, L C; Churchill, F C

    1989-01-01

    Two field-adapted colorimetric methods for measuring the antimalarial drug chloroquine in urine are described. Both are modifications of the method of Saker and Solomons for screening urine for phencyclidine and other drugs of abuse, using the colour reagent tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester. One method is semiquantitative, detecting the presence of chloroquine (Cq) and its metabolites in urine with a 1 microgram/ml detection limit; it is more sensitive and reliable than the commonly used Dill-Glazko method and is as easy to apply in the field. The second method uses a hand-held, battery-operated filter photometer to quantify Cq and its metabolites with a 2 microgram/ml detection limit and a linear range up to 8 micrograms/ml. The first method was validated in the field using a published quantitative colorimetric method and samples from a malaria study in Nigeria. The second method was validated in the laboratory against high-performance liquid chromatographic results on paired samples from the Nigerian study. Both methods may be used in remote locations where malaria is endemic and no electricity is available.

  13. Early treatment failure in concurrent dengue and mixed malaria species infection with suspected resistance to artemisinin combination therapy from a tertiary care center in Delhi: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, Rushika; Matlani, Monika; Singh, Vineeta; Kumar, Amit; Anveshi, Anupam; Kumar, Dilip; Gaind, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent dengue and mixed malaria infections in a single patient present with overlapping clinical manifestations which pose a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma in areas of common endemicities. We report a case of a young male who tested positive for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum along with dengue infection. He showed signs of early treatment failure to artemisinin combination therapy (artesunate with sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine). Molecular analysis for the drug resistance genes viz: chloroquine resistance ( pfcrt ), multidrug resistance ( pfmdr-1 ), sulfadoxine ( pfdhps ), pyrimethamine ( pfdhfr ), and artemisinin resistance ( keltch 13 ) was performed. A rise in parasitemia from treatment. Mutations in pfcrt , pfmdr-1 , pfdhfr , and pfdhps genes were detected as a possible cause of treatment failure. Increased severity, overlapping symptoms, and suspected resistance to treatment warrants a multidimensional diagnostic approach and diligent therapeutic monitoring.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance genes, pfcrt and pfmdr1, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Reteng, Patrick; Vrisca, Visia; Sukarno, Inka; Djarkoni, Ilham Habib; Kalangi, Jane Angela; Jacobs, George Eduardo; Runtuwene, Lucky Ronald; Eshita, Yuki; Maeda, Ryuichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Mongan, Arthur Elia; Warouw, Sarah Maria; Yamagishi, Junya; Tuda, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Background Malaria still poses one of the major threats to human health. Development of effective antimalarial drugs has decreased this threat; however, the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a cause of Malaria, is disconcerting. The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been effectively used, but resistant parasites have spread worldwide. Interestingly, the withdrawal of the drug reportedly leads to an increased population of susceptible parasites in some cases. We examined the p...

  15. Preliminary formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles containing chloroquine and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor: Influences of lipid-surfactant ratios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nzekwe, IT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available . In this work, the inclusion of a P-gp inhibitor, chlorpheniramine, and chloroquine in a lipid-based nanoparticle carrier is proposed, with the aim of ensuring that adequate drug levels are attained, so as to overcome drug resistance. Methods: The nanoparticles...

  16. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  17. Photoaffinity Labeling of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter with a Novel Perfluorophenylazido Chloroquine†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekostaj, Jacqueline K.; Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Paguio, Michelle F.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Several models describing how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Further progress requires molecular analysis of interactions between purified reconstituted PfCRT protein and these drugs. We have thus designed and synthesized several perfluorophenyl azido (pfpa) CQ analogues for PfCRT photolabeling studies. One particularly useful probe (AzBCQ) places the pfpa group at the terminal aliphatic N of CQ via a flexible four-carbon ester linker and includes a convenient biotin tag. This probe photolabels PfCRT in situ with high specificity. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes harboring partially purified recombinant PfCRT, we analyze AzBCQ photolabeling versus competition with CQ and other drugs to probe the nature of the CQ binding site. We also inspect how pH, the chemoreversal agent verapamil (VPL), and various amino acid mutations in PfCRT that cause CQ resistance (CQR) affect the efficiency of AzBCQ photolabeling. Upon gel isolation of AzBCQ-labeled PfCRT followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry analysis, we are able to define a single AzBCQ covalent attachment site lying within the digestive vacuolar-disposed loop between putative helices 9 and 10 of PfCRT. Taken together, the data provide important new insight into PfCRT function and, along with previous results, allow us to propose a model for a single CQ binding site in the PfCRT protein. PMID:18767816

  18. Inhibition of FMLP-stimulated neutrophil chemiluminescence by blood platelets increased in the presence of the serotonin-liberating drug chloroquine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Drábiková, K.; Nosáľ, R.; Petríková, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Danihelová, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 109, 5-6 (2003), s. 293-298 ISSN 0049-3848 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 198 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 2/1012/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : blood platelets * neutrophils * chloroquine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  19. [13-year old girl with fever 6 months after returning from sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Jonas; Frank, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with regular fevers, 6 months after a prolonged trip through Africa. The patient reported relapsing fevers at 48 hour intervals. Each febrile episode was followed by pronounced fatigue and a subsequent recovery back to her usual state of health. She reported having taken weekly mefloquine during and after the trip to Africa. Labortory evaluation revealed a hemoltytic anemia (hemoglobin: 10.8 g / dl, normal range: 12.3-16.0; haptoglobin:  13.1 cm). A peripheral blood film showed Plasmodium parasites with marked stippling. PCR and sequenicing of the ribosomal RNA gene identified Plasmodium ovale. The patient responded well to oral chloroquine therapy and laboratory parameters normalized within 8 days. After determination of a normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity a 2-week-long therapy with primaquine was initiated (0,3 mg / kg per kg bodyweight of primaquine base daily for 14 days) to eliminate the hyponozoite stage of the parasite. Currently used prophylacic agents against Malaria (mefloquine, atovaquone / proguanil hydrochloride, doxyxycline) do not prevent chronic liver stage infection (hypnozoite stage) with Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax. After chemoprophylaxis tertian malaria due Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale can occur. Therefore, tertian malaria should always be considered in febrile individuals who returned from a trip to the tropics even if chemoprophylaxis was taken. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) isoforms PH1 and PH2 perturb vacuolar physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Paul S.; Siriwardana, Amila; Hassett, Matthew R.; Roepe, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent work has perfected yeast-based methods for measuring drug transport by the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT). Methods The approach relies on inducible heterologous expression of PfCRT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. In these experiments selecting drug concentrations are not toxic to the yeast, nor is expression of PfCRT alone toxic. Only when PfCRT is expressed in the presence of CQ is the growth of yeast impaired, due to inward transpo...

  2. Chloroquine inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, TAO; LI, PEI; LUO, ZHONGGUANG; CHEN, XIAOYU; ZHANG, JINGYANG; WANG, CHUNYAO; CHEN, PING; DONG, ZIMING

    2016-01-01

    Recently, chloroquine (CQ) has been widely used to improve the efficacy of different chemotherapy drugs to treat tumors. However, the effects of single treatment of CQ on liver cancer have not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of CQ on the growth and viability of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and revealed that CQ treatment triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, induced DNA damage and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in liver cancer cells. Moreover, administration of CQ to tumor-bearing mice suppressed the tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of liver cancer. These findings extend our understanding and suggest that CQ could be repositioned as a treatment option for liver cancer as a single treatment or in combination. PMID:26530158

  3. Molecular interaction of selected phytochemicals under the charged environment of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saumya K; Khedkar, Vijay M; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A; George, Linz-Buoy; Highland, Hyacinth N; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals of Catharanthus roseus Linn. and Tylophora indica have been known for their inhibition of malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), a widely used antimalarial drug, is due to the CQ resistance transporter (CRT) system. The present study deals with computational modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and development of charged environment to mimic a condition of resistance. The model of PfCRT was developed using Protein homology/analogy engine (PHYRE ver 0.2) and was validated based on the results obtained using PSI-PRED. Subsequently, molecular interactions of selected phytochemicals extracted from C. roseus Linn. and T. indica were studied using multiple-iterated genetic algorithm-based docking protocol in order to investigate the translocation of these legends across the PfCRT protein. Further, molecular dynamics studies exhibiting interaction energy estimates of these compounds within the active site of the protein showed that compounds are more selective toward PfCRT. Clusters of conformations with the free energy of binding were estimated which clearly demonstrated the potential channel and by this means the translocation across the PfCRT is anticipated.

  4. A Critical Review of the Effects of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine on the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Dunogué, Bertrand; Leroux, Gaëlle; Morel, Nathalie; Jallouli, Moez; Le Guern, Véronique; Piette, Jean-Charles; Brézin, Antoine P; Melles, Ronald B; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine have been used for more than 50 years to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases. In general, these drugs are well tolerated and rarely need to be discontinued because of an adverse systemic reaction. However, both medications can be irreversibly toxic to the retina. A new study indicates that toxicity is not as rare as once believed, but depends critically on daily dosage and duration of use, as well as other risk factors. With attention to dosage and other factors, and with proper screening for early signs of toxicity, HCQ can be prescribed with relative safety even over long periods of time.

  5. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) isoforms PH1 and PH2 perturb vacuolar physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Paul S; Siriwardana, Amila; Hassett, Matthew R; Roepe, Paul D

    2016-03-31

    Recent work has perfected yeast-based methods for measuring drug transport by the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT). The approach relies on inducible heterologous expression of PfCRT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. In these experiments selecting drug concentrations are not toxic to the yeast, nor is expression of PfCRT alone toxic. Only when PfCRT is expressed in the presence of CQ is the growth of yeast impaired, due to inward transport of chloroquine (CQ) via the transporter. During analysis of all 53 known naturally occurring PfCRT isoforms, two isoforms (PH1 and PH2 PfCRT) were found to be intrinsically toxic to yeast, even in the absence of CQ. Additional analysis of six very recently identified PfCRT isoforms from Malaysia also showed some toxicity. In this paper the nature of this yeast toxicity is examined. Data also show that PH1 and PH2 isoforms of PfCRT transport CQ with an efficiency intermediate to that catalyzed by previously studied CQR conferring isoforms. Mutation of PfCRT at position 160 is found to perturb vacuolar physiology, suggesting a fitness cost to position 160 amino acid substitutions. These data further define the wide range of activities that exist for PfCRT isoforms found in P. falciparum isolates from around the globe.

  7. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  8. Role of Autophagy in Glycogen Breakdown and Its Relevance to Chloroquine Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, Jonathan; Nieuwenhuis, Joppe; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Several myopathies are associated with defects in autophagic and lysosomal degradation of glycogen, but it remains unclear how glycogen is targeted to the lysosome and what significance this process has for muscle cells. We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model to study glycogen autophagy in skeletal muscles, using chloroquine (CQ) to simulate a vacuolar myopathy that is completely dependent on the core autophagy genes. We show that autophagy is required for the most efficient degradation of glycogen in response to starvation. Furthermore, we show that CQ-induced myopathy can be improved by reduction of either autophagy or glycogen synthesis, the latter possibly due to a direct role of Glycogen Synthase in regulating autophagy through its interaction with Atg8. PMID:24265594

  9. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enosse, Sonia; Magnussen, Pascal; Abacassamo, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin...... Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here...... haplotype (CIRNI) remained high and only changed marginally from 46% to 53% (P = 0.405) after one year with SP as first-line treatment in the study area. Conversely, the combined Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quintuple mutant haplotype increased from 8% to 26% (P = 0.005). The frequency of the chloroquine resistance...

  10. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  11. Intensification of the inhibitory effect of X-rays on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in monolayer culture by quinacrine (atebrine) or chloroquine (resochine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, H.; Pfab, R.; Hess, F.; Schachtschabel, D.O.; Leising, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Monolayers of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in their logarithmic phase of growth were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 1 to 16 Gy. Following exposure, the monolayers were cultured for several days or weeks with or without an addition of 4 x to 6 x 10 -6 M of quinacrine (atebrine) or 3.3 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -4 M of chloroquine. Proliferation activity was controlled by the daily microscopical count of representative areas out of the total population. A significant delay resulted from exposure to 4 Gy (particularly during the 1st day), while sole irradiation with 1 or 2 Gy did not much influence the proliferation of the cells. An 8-Gy dose and to a larger extent 16 Gy led to a fall of the cell number down to 20% (8 Gy) or around 10% (16 Gy) of the initial value between the 7th and the 10th day. The cells subsequently multiplied with nearly the growth rate of controls. The inhibitory effect on cells proliferation produced by an exposure to X-rays was distinctly intensified by means of incubation with continuously replaced quinacrine or chloroquine containing culture media. Treatment with 1 x 10 -4 mol chloroquine thus brought about a more pronounced inhibition after pre-irradiation with a single dose of 2 or 8 Gy. If 4 x 10 -6 or 6 x 10 -6 M of quinacrine were added to cultures pretreated with 4 Gy, a more intense inhibition of growth resulted therefrom than from sole treatment with either quinacrine or X-rays. Incubation of cultures pretreated with 8 Gy in the presence of 6 x 10 -6 M quinacrine led to the death of all the cells within 8 days. Quinacrine and chloroquine effects on cells previously exposed to X-rays are discussed in view of the well-known effects these agents exert by inhibiting enzymatic repair processes of DNA damage. (orig.) [de

  12. Falciparum malaria in the north of Laos: the occurrence and implications of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotype SVMNT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Alifrangis, Michael; Stohrer, Jörg M

    2005-01-01

    the SVMNT haplotype. METHOD: Eighty-eight samples from an area with reported in vivo Chloroquine and in vitro Amodiaquine-resistance were screened for the K76T mutation and their Pfcrt-haplotype (c72-76) using a new SSOP-ELISA. RESULTS: Hundred percent of the analysed samples showed the K76T mutation which......OBJECTIVE: The Pfcrt-gene encodes a transmembrane protein located in the Plasmodium falciparum digestive vacuole. Chloroquine resistant (CQR) strains of African and Southeast Asian origin carry the Pfcrt-haplotype (c72-76) CVIET, whereas most South American and Papua New Guinean CQR stains carry...... is highly associated with in vivo drug failure. This very high rate of a CQR-marker is alarming in an area were CQ is still used as first line drug. The distribution of the three main Pfcrt-haplotypes was as follows: 68% CVIET, 31% SVMNT, 0% CVMNT. CONCLUSIONS: These data show, for the first time, the South...

  13. A simple, high-throughput method to detect Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms in the dihydrofolate reductase, dihydropteroate synthase, and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter genes using polymerase chain reaction- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Enosse, Sonia; Pearce, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps), and chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) genes are used as molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine....... However, to be a practical tool in the surveillance of drug resistance, simpler methods for high-throughput haplotyping are warranted. Here we describe a quick and simple technique that detects dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  14. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil

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    Cássio Braga e Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Side effects of antimalarial drug can overlap with malaria symptoms. We evaluated 50 patients with vivax malaria in Mâncio Lima, Acre, treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Patients were evaluated for the presence of 21 symptoms before and after treatment and for reported side effects of these drugs after treatment was started. The most frequent symptoms before medication were headache, fever, chills, sweating, arthralgia, back pain, and weakness, which were present in between 40% and 76% of respondents. The treatment reduced the occurrence of these symptoms and reduced the lack of appetite, but gastrointestinal symptoms and choluria increased in frequency. There were no reports of pale stools before medication, but 12% reported the occurrence of this symptom after treatment started. Other symptoms such as blurred vision (54%, pruritus (22%, paresthesia (6%, insomnia (46%, and “stings” into the skin (22% were reported after chloroquine was taken. The antimalarial drugs used to treat P. vivax malaria reduce much of the systemic and algic symptoms but cause mainly gastrointestinal side effects that may lead to lack of adherence to drug treatment. It is important to guide the patient for the appearance and the transience of such side effects in order to avoid abandoning treatment.

  15. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

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    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  16. Factors associated with chloroquine induced pruritus during malaria treatment in Mozambican University students Factores asociados a la aparición de prurito por cloroquina durante el tratamiento de la malaria en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique

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    Helena Gama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been suggested that reductions in chloroquine use may be followed by a resurgence of chloroquine-susceptible falciparum malaria, and chloroquine might once again be an effective treatment choice, which renews the importance of aspects related to its use and misuse. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in Mozambican University students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a private University in Maputo. Students were approached in the classrooms to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, number of previous malaria episodes, utilization of antimalarial drugs, and life prevalence of chloroquine induced pruritus. Results: Among 795 respondents, 77.4% (601/777 reported at least one malaria episode and 73.2% (542/740 had used chloroquine before. The life-prevalence of chloroquine-induced pruritus was 30.1% (158/525. Pruritus tended to be more frequent when chloroquine was used for treatment compared with prophylaxis only (31.2% vs. 10.3%, pIntroducción: Se ha sugerido que la reducción en el uso de la cloroquina puede derivar en el resurgimiento de la malaria falciparum sensible a la cloroquina, por lo que ésta puede volver a ser un tratamiento efectivo de elección, renovando la importancia de aspectos relacionados con su uso y su mal uso. Se pretende estimar la prevalencia de prurito inducido por cloroquina e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a su ocurrencia en estudiantes universitarios de Mozambique. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta transversal en una Universidad privada de Mozambique. Los estudiantes fueron abordados en las aulas para completar un cuestionario autoadministrado, que contenía datos sociodemográficos e información sobre el número de episodios previos de malaria, la utilización de fármacos antipalúdicos y la prevalencia de prurito inducido por

  17. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt) gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka 1996-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72......-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples...

  18. [Chloroquine analogues from benzofuro- and benzothieno[3,2-b]-4-pyridone-2-carboxylic acid esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölitzer, K; Meyer, H; Jomaa, H; Wiesner, J

    2004-08-01

    The amides 7 were synthesized from the annulated methyl 4-pyridone-2-carboxylates 4 via the carboxylic acids 5 and their acid chlorides by reacting with the novaldiamine base 6. The alcohol 8b, obtained from DIBAH reduction of the ester 4b, was transformed to the chloromethyl derivative 9 which reacted with 6 and 18-crown-6 leading to the 2-novaldiaminomethyl-4-pyridone 10. Compound 10 was obtained with higher yield from DIBAH reduction of the amide 7b. The substances 7 and 10 were inactive when tested against the chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain Dd2.

  19. Genetics of chloroquine-resistant malaria: a haplotypic view

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    Gauri Awasthi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and rapid spread of chloroquine resistance (CQR in Plasmodium falciparum have triggered the identification of several genetic target(s in the P. falciparum genome. In particular, mutations in the Pfcrt gene, specifically, K76T and mutations in three other amino acids in the region adjoining K76 (residues 72, 74, 75 and 76, are considered to be highly related to CQR. These various mutations form several different haplotypes and Pfcrt gene polymorphisms and the global distribution of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes in endemic and non-endemic regions of P. falciparum malaria have been the subject of extensive study. Despite the fact that the Pfcrt gene is considered to be the primary CQR gene in P. falciparum , several studies have suggested that this may not be the case. Furthermore, there is a poor correlation between the evolutionary implications of the Pfcrt haplotypes and the inferred migration of CQR P. falciparum based on CQR epidemiological surveillance data. The present paper aims to clarify the existing knowledge on the genetic basis of the different CQR- Pfcrt haplotypes that are prevalent in worldwide populations based on the published literature and to analyse the data to generate hypotheses on the genetics and evolution of CQR malaria.

  20. Malaria prophylaxis in the French armed forces: evolution of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touze, J E; Paule, P; Baudon, D; Boutin, J P

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is still a serious public health problem in the world and control remains a major priority for the approximately 25.000 French troops deployed, mostly on permanent assignment, in malaria transmission regions. Epidemiological surveillance of malaria provides data necessary to assess morbidity, monitor changing patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug-sensitivity, and evaluate the efficacy of malaria control measures. About 540 cases were observed in 1999 for an incidence of 4.1 p. 100 men. year. Since 1991, strong emphasis has been placed on prophylaxis. In addition to vector control measures and individual protection against mosquito bites (impregnated bednets, protective clothing, application of repellents, and indoor insecticide spraying), drug prophylaxis has been recommended using a combination of 100 mg of chloroquine and 200 mg of proguanil chlorhydrate (CQ + PG) in a single capsule manufactured by the French Health Army Service. Initially this policy led to a significant decrease in malaria cases among French soldiers. However the incidence of malaria rose in 1995 and 1996. This recrudescence was attributed to poor compliance with chemoprophylaxis and to the declining efficacy of the CQ + PG combination. In response to these problems, a new policy was implemented especially in countries where cycloguanil-resistant Plasmodium falciparum incidence rate is increasing. The new chemoprophylactic regimen calls for a personal prescription of mefloquine. Doxycycline monohydrate is used in case of mefloquine contra-indication or intolerance. Combination of CQ + PG delivered in a single capsule remains a suitable chemoprophylactic regimen in Sahel countries as well as Horn of Africa.

  1. Synthesis and study of effects of new 4-chloro – amodiaquine analogues against two resistant and sensitive forms to chloroquine Plasmodium Falciparum, in vitro

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    afra Khosravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to chloroquine (CQ in Plasmodium falciparum malaria has become a major health concern of the developing countries.This resistance has prompted a re-examination of the pharmacology of alternative antimalarials that may be effective against resistant strains. Amodiaquine (AQ is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial which is effective against many chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum. However, clinical use of AQ has been severely restricted because of associations with hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of replacing the 4’OH function of amodiaquine with either chlorine or fluorine. Materials and Methods: A successful four-step synthesis of a new series of 4-chloro analogues has been designed and applied to the synthesis of an array of 10 analogues. Malaria parasites were maintained in continuous culture using the method of Jensen and Trager. Cultures were grown in flasks containing human erythrocytes (2-5% with parasitemia in the range of 1% to 10% suspended in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 25 mM HEPES and 32 mM NaHCO3, and 10% human serum (complete medium. Cultures were gassed with a mixture of 3% O2, 6% CO2 and 91% N2 and were kept in a 30 degree temperature. Results: It is apparent that several analogues had very potent antimalarial activity against both strains of the parasite. In particular 5b, 5c and 5i were not only active in the single nanomolar range, but they also displayed little cross-resistance. Against the sensitive HB3 strain, these analogues were superior to chloroquine and slightly more potent than amodiaquine. Activity was reduced when the side-chain was large (eg. dibutyl analogue and pyridine analogues, 5g and 5j respectively. Discussion: In a four - step Process, 10 different chloro - amodiaquine were synthesized which showed (in vitro Promising effects against chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. It is clear that the 4

  2. Alteração da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em usuários crônicos de cloroquina Retinal nerve fiber layer alteration in chronic users of chloroquine

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    Daniela de Almeida Lyra Antunes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a camada de fibras nervosas da retina (CFN por meio da polarimetria a laser, em pacientes em uso crônico de cloroquina. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 44 olhos de 22 pacientes em uso de cloroquina por doenças reumatológicas, por pelo menos um ano. Como controle, foram incluídos vinte indivíduos sem uso de cloroquina com idade, gênero e raça similares. Foram excluídos os pacientes que apresentavam história familiar de hipertensão ocular ou glaucoma. Ambos os olhos foram submetidos à análise da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, com o aparelho GDx® Nerve Fiber Analyser, pelo mesmo examinador. RESULTADOS: Nos usuários crônicos de cloroquina, verificou-se alteração em mais de dois parâmetros do GDx em 28 olhos (63,6%. Ocorreu também alteração no gráfico "Deviation from normal" com perda de fibras nervosas em 11 olhos (25%. Quando comparado com o grupo controle, os parâmetros que demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante foram: Superior Ratio, Inferior Ratio, Superior Nasal, Elipse Modulation, The Number, Superior Average e Superior Integral. Houve também associação estatisticamente significante entre o tempo de uso de cloroquina e perda da CFN. CONCLUSÕES: Comprovou-se a associação entre o uso crônico da cloroquina e a alteração da CFN detectada pelo GDx. Desta forma, esses resultados podem contribuir para o diagnóstico precoce da perda de fibras nervosas na retinopatia por cloroquina.PURPOSES: To evaluate the retina nerve fiber layer by laser polarimetry in patients in chronic use of chloroquine. METHODS: Forty-four eyes of twenty-two patients were studied. These were in use of chloroquine due to rheumatic diseases during at least one year. As a control group, twenty patients without use of chloroquine with similar characteristics (age, gender and race were included. Patients who had a family history of ocular hypertension or glaucoma were not included in this group. Both eyes were

  3. Dual-mode gradient HPLC procedure for the simultaneous determination of chloroquine and proguanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, A; Caire-Maurisier, A-M; Rieutord, A; Brion, F; Clair, P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assay the antipaludic capsule of the Service de Santé des Armées (SSA), that contains two antimalarial drugs, i.e. chloroquine sulfate (CQS, cp1) and proguanil hydrochloride (PGH, cp5), a HPLC procedure was developed. A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with an ultraviolet detection at 254 nm was set up and validated. Elution system includes programming of both organic concentration and flow-rate known as 'dual-mode gradient'. This method allows the simultaneous determination of both active compounds and separation of four process related substances. The method is simple, rapid, selective and accurate, and the precision is good with an inter- and intra-assay of <2%. The sensitivity is particularly suitable for pharmaceutical quality control.

  4. A histidine-rich protein 2-based malaria drug sensitivity assay for field use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noedl, Harald; Attlmayr, Bernhard; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Miller, Robert S

    2004-12-01

    With the spread of antimalarial drug resistance, simple and reliable tools for the assessment of antimalarial drug resistance, particularly in endemic regions and under field conditions, have become more important than ever before. We therefore developed a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based drug sensitivity assay for testing of fresh isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. In contrast to the HRP2 laboratory assay, the field assay uses a procedure that further simplifies the handling and culturing of malaria parasites by omitting centrifugation, washing, the use of serum, and dilution with uninfected red blood cells. A total of 40 fresh Plasmodium falciparum isolates were successfully tested for their susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin, mefloquine, quinine, and chloroquine (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.43, 61.89, 326.75, and 185.31 nM, respectively). Results very closely matched those obtained with a modified World Health Organization schizont maturation assay (R2 = 0.96, P < 0.001; mean log difference at IC50 = 0.054).

  5. Perspective for the reproduction of antimalarial drugs in Brazil

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    Benjamin Gilbert

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The appears to be no chemical manufacture of antimalarial drugs is Brazil. Technology at laboratory process level has been developed for chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine and cycloquanil, but not perfected nor scaled-up, largely for economic reasons and market uncertainty. Development of primaquine has been contracted but it will run into the same difficulty. Manufacturing capacity for sulfadoxine was registred in the SDI by Roche. A project to produce artemisinine and its derivates is under way at UNICAMP-CPQBA but is hampered by low content in the plant. Proguanil could be produced easily, but apparently no attempt has been made to do so. Quinine is imported on a large scale mostly for softdrink production. Since malarial treatment falls largely within responsability of the Government health authorities, manufacture of drugs in Brazil will depend on an assured medium-term purchase order made to a potential local manufacturer, since competition in the world market is scarcelyviable at the present moment.

  6. The efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone and in combination with chloroquine for malaria treatment in rural Eastern Sudan: the interrelation between resistance, age and gametocytogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A-Elbasit, Ishraga E; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Khalil, Insaf F

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine (SP)+chloroquine (CQ) combination treatment against falciparum malaria with SP treatment alone. METHOD: In-vivo study of 254 patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in rural eastern Sudan, where the population is semi...

  7. Characterization and evaluation of acid-modified starch of Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablets

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    Adenike Okunlola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia starch modified by acid hydrolysis was characterized and compared with native starch as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations. The physicochemical and compressional properties (using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations of modified Chinese yam starch were determined, and its quantitative effects as a binder on the mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate were analyzed using a 2³ full factorial design. The nature (X1, concentration of starch (X2 and packing fraction (X3 were taken as independent variables and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR, disintegration time (DT and dissolution time (t80 as dependent variables. Acid-modified Chinese yam starch showed a marked reduction (p<0.05 in amylose content and viscosity but increased swelling and water-binding properties. The modified starch had a faster onset and greater amount of plastic flow. Changing the binder from native to acid-modified form led to significant increases (p<0.05 in CSFR and DT but a decrease in t80. An increase in binder concentration and packing fraction gave similar results for CSFR and DT only. These results suggest that acid-modified Chinese yam starches may be useful as tablet binders when high bond strength and fast dissolution are required.

  8. Challenges in a product development partnership: a malaria treatment case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, Vera Lucia; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Barboza, Tayná Marques Torres; Gonçalves, Luciana de Paula Barros; Stobbaerts, Eric G

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the development of a treatment - a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and mefloquine - in Brazil, from three points of view: in terms of access to medication; to record and report successes; and to look at the lessons learned. This product development took place in the ambit of a public-private partnership. Semi-structured interviews were held with key actors involved in the different phases of the development, and documents were analyzed. Two important points of reference orienting the design of the study and analysis were: a logical model for access to medication; and evaluation of programs. It is concluded that there were several successes over the course of the project, but insufficient attention was given in the project's architecture to planning of adoption of the product: irregularities in demand caused difficulties in planning and production, and adoption of the product was irregular in the Americas. It is concluded that the project can be considered to have been successful: the product was created, and the aims were met - strengthening of institutional and individual capacities and alliances, and advocacy. However, there were weaknesses in the process, which need to be mitigated in future projects of the same type.

  9. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  10. In vitro sensitivity pattern of chloroquine and artemisinin in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Supriya Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin (ART and its derivatives form the mainstay of antimalarial therapy. Emergence of resistance to them poses a potential threat to future malaria control and elimination on a global level. It is important to know the mechanism of action of drug and development of drug resistance. We put forwards probable correlation between the mode of action of chloroquine (CQ and ART. Modified trophozoite maturation inhibition assay, WHO Mark III assay and molecular marker study for CQ resistance at K76T codon in Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistant transporter gene were carried out on cultured P. falciparum. On comparing trophozoite and schizont growth for both CQ-sensitive (MRC-2 and CQ-resistant (RKL-9 culture isolates, it was observed that the clearance of trophozoites and schizonts was similar with both drugs. The experiment supports that CQ interferes with heme detoxification pathway in food vacuoles of parasite, and this may be correlated as one of the plausible mechanisms of ART.

  11. Effect of chloroquine on insulin and glucose homoeostasis in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G D; Amos, T A; Mahler, R; Peters, T J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C peptide concentrations were determined after an oral glucose load in normal subjects and in a group of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before and during a short course of treatment with chloroquine. In the control group there was a small but significant reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration but overall glucose tolerance and hormone concentrations were unaffected. In contrast, the patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes melli...

  12. Study protocol of a phase IB/II clinical trial of metformin and chloroquine in patients with IDH1-mutated or IDH2-mutated solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J; Coelen, Robert J S; Khurshed, Mohammed; Roos, Eva; Caan, Matthan W A; van Linde, Myra E; Kouwenhoven, Mathilde; Bramer, Jos A M; Bovée, Judith V M G; Mathôt, Ron A; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Vandertop, W Peter; Gelderblom, Hans; van Gulik, Thomas M; Wilmink, Johanna W

    2017-06-10

    High-grade chondrosarcoma, high-grade glioma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are aggressive types of cancer with a dismal outcome. This is due to the lack of effective treatment options, emphasising the need for novel therapies. Mutations in the genes IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2) occur in 60% of chondrosarcoma, 80% of WHO grade II-IV glioma and 20% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. IDH1/2 -mutated cancer cells produce the oncometabolite D -2-hydroxyglutarate ( D -2HG) and are metabolically vulnerable to treatment with the oral antidiabetic metformin and the oral antimalarial drug chloroquine. We describe a dose-finding phase Ib/II clinical trial, in which patients with IDH1/2 -mutated chondrosarcoma, glioma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are treated with a combination of metformin and chloroquine. Dose escalation is performed according to a 3+3 dose-escalation scheme. The primary objective is to determine the maximum tolerated dose to establish the recommended dose for a phase II clinical trial. Secondary objectives of the study include (1) determination of pharmacokinetics and toxic effects of the study therapy, for which metformin and chloroquine serum levels will be determined over time; (2) investigation of tumour responses to metformin plus chloroquine in IDH1/2 -mutated cancers using CT/MRI scans; and (3) whether tumour responses can be measured by non-invasive D -2HG measurements (mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy) of tumour tissue, serum, urine, and/or bile or next-generation sequencing of circulating tumour DNA (liquid biopsies). This study may open a novel treatment avenue for IDH1/2 -mutated high-grade chondrosarcoma, glioma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by repurposing the combination of two inexpensive drugs that are already approved for other indications. This study has been approved by the medical-ethical review committee of the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The report

  13. Effect of selected local medicinal plants on the asexual blood stage of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Abd Razak, Mohd Ridzuan; Afzan, Adlin; Ali, Rosnani; Amir Jalaluddin, Nur Fasihah; Wasiman, Mohd Isa; Shiekh Zahari, Siti Habsah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2014-12-15

    The development of resistant to current antimalarial drugs is a major challenge in achieving malaria elimination status in many countries. Therefore there is a need for new antimalarial drugs. Medicinal plants have always been the major source for the search of new antimalarial drugs. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial properties. Each part of the plants were processed, defatted by hexane and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and water. The antiplasmodial activities of 54 plant extracts from 14 species were determined by Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein II ELISA technique. In order to determine the selectivity index (SI), all plant extracts demonstrating a good antiplasmodial activity were tested for their cytotoxicity activity against normal Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell lines by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Twenty three extracts derived from Curcuma zedoaria (rhizome), Curcuma aeruginosa (rhizome), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Morinda elliptica (leaf), Curcuma mangga (rhizome), Elephantopus scaber (leaf), Vitex negundo (leaf), Brucea javanica (leaf, root and seed), Annona muricata (leaf), Cinnamomun iners (leaf) and Vernonia amygdalina (leaf) showed promising antiplasmodial activities against the blood stage chloroquine resistant P. falciparum (EC50 toxicity effect to MDBK cells in vitro (SI ≥10). The extracts belonging to eleven plant species were able to perturb the growth of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum effectively. The findings justified the bioassay guided fractionation on these plants for the search of potent antimalarial compounds or formulation of standardized extracts which may enhance the antimalarial effect in vitro and in vivo.

  14. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

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    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  15. High frequency of Plasmodium falciparum CICNI/SGEAA and CVIET haplotypes without association with resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine combination in the Daraweesh area, in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A-Elbasit, I E; Khalil, I F; Elbashir, M I

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the prevalence of the molecular markers of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) resistance and validation of the association of mutations with resistance in different settings is needed for local policy guidance and for contributing to a global map for anti-malarial d......Estimation of the prevalence of the molecular markers of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) resistance and validation of the association of mutations with resistance in different settings is needed for local policy guidance and for contributing to a global map for anti......-malarial drug resistance. In this study, malaria patients treated with SP alone (60) and SP with CQ (194) had a total treatment failure (TF) of 35.4%, with no difference between the two arms. The polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) method was used to identify polymorphisms...

  16. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  17. Identification of chloroquine resistance Pfcrt-K76T and determination of Pfmdr1-N86Y copy number by SYBR Green I qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addimas Tajebe

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence level and fixation of Pfcrt, 76T mutation after chloroquine withdrawal. The prevalence of Pfmdr1 copy number variant suggested that the presence of modulating factor for emergence of Plasmodium falciparum strains with higher copy numbers. However, the prevalence level was not statistically significant.

  18. Structure-function correlation of chloroquine and analogues as transgene expression enhancers in nonviral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Zeidan, Ryan; Mishra, Swaroop; Liu, Aijie; Pun, Suzie H; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Jensen, Gregory S; Bellocq, Nathalie C; Davis, Mark E

    2006-11-02

    To understand how chloroquine (CQ) enhances transgene expression in polycation-based, nonviral gene delivery systems, a number of CQ analogues with variations in the aliphatic amino side chain or in the aromatic ring are synthesized and investigated. Our studies indicate that the aliphatic amino moiety of CQ is essential to provide increased gene expression. Further, the enhancements are more dramatically affected by changes to the aromatic ring and are positively correlated to the strength of intercalation between DNA and the CQ analogues. Quinacrine (QC), a CQ analogue with a fused acridinyl structure that can strongly intercalate DNA, enhances transfection similarly to CQ at a concentration 10 times lower, while N(4)-(4-pyridinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CP), a CQ analogue that has a weakly intercalating pyridinyl ring, shows no effect on gene expression. Subtle change on the 7-substituent of the chloroquine aromatic structure can also greatly affect the ability of the CQ analogues to enhance transgene expression. Transfection in the presence of N(4)-(7-trifluoromethyl-4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamin e (CQ7a) shows expression efficiency 10 times higher than in the presence of CQ at same concentration, while transfection in the presence of N(4)-(4-quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine (CQ7b) does not reveal any enhancing effects on expression. Through a number of comparative studies with CQ and its analogues, we conclude that there are at least three mechanistic features of CQ that lead to the enhancement in gene expression: (i) pH buffering in endocytic vesicles, (ii) displacement of polycations from the nucleic acids in polyplexes, and (iii) alteration of the biophysical properties of the released nucleic acid.

  19. Autophagy inhibitor chloroquine increases sensitivity to cisplatin in QBC939 cholangiocarcinoma cells by mitochondrial ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhi Qu

    Full Text Available The tumor cells have some metabolic characteristics of the original tissues, and the metabolism of the tumor cells is closely related to autophagy. However, the mechanism of autophagy and metabolism in chemotherapeutic drug resistance is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of autophagy and glucose metabolism in chemotherapeutic drug resistance by using cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells with primary cisplatin resistance and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We found that QBC939 cells with cisplatin resistance had a higher capacity for glucose uptake, consumption, and lactic acid generation, and higher activity of the pentose phosphate pathway compared with HepG2 cells, and the activity of PPP was further increased after cisplatin treatment in QBC939 cells. It is suggested that there are some differences in the metabolism of glucose in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells, and the activation of PPP pathway may be related to the drug resistance. Through the detection of autophagy substrates p62 and LC3, found that QBC939 cells have a higher flow of autophagy, autophagy inhibitor chloroquine can significantly increase the sensitivity of cisplatin in cholangiocarcinoma cells compared with hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of QBC939 cells with higher activity of the PPP, the key enzyme G6PDH, which reduces the antioxidant capacity of cells and increases intracellular ROS, especially mitochondrial ROS. Therefore, we hypothesized that autophagy and the oxidative stress resistance mediated by glucose metabolism may be one of the causes of cisplatin resistance in cholangiocarcinoma cells. It is suggested that according to the metabolism characteristics of tumor cells, inhibition of autophagy lysosome pathway with chloroquine may be a new route for therapeutic agents against cholangiocarcinoma.

  20. Nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay for the detection of minority-variant chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ariey, Frédéric; Mwapasa, Victor; Meshnick, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Background Strains of Plasmodium falciparum genetically resistant to chloroquine (CQ) due to the presence of pfcrt 76T appear to have been recently introduced to the island of Madagascar. The prevalence of such resistant genotypes is reported to be low (chloroquine resistant parasites were described in Malawian patients using an isotopic heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), which can detect pfcrt 76T-bearing P. falciparum minority variants in individual patients that were undetectable by conventional PCR. However, as this assay required a radiolabeled probe, it could not be used in many resource-limited settings. Methods This study describes a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled chemiluminescent heteroduplex tracking assay (DIG-HTA) to detect pfcrt 76T-bearing minority variant P. falciparum. This assay was compared to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and to the isotopic HTA for detection of genetically CQ-resistant parasites in clinical samples. Results Thirty one clinical P. falciparum isolates (15 primary isolates and 16 recurrent isolates) from 17 Malagasy children treated with CQ for uncomplicated malaria were genotyped for the pfcrt K76T mutation. Two (11.7%) of 17 patients harboured genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains after therapy as detected by HTA. RFLP analysis failed to detect any pfcrt K76T-bearing isolates. Conclusion These findings indicate that genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum are more common than previously thought in Madagascar even though the fitness of the minority variant pfcrt 76T parasites remains unclear. In addition, HTAs for malaria drug resistance alleles are promising tools for the surveillance of anti-malarial resistance. The use of a non-radioactive label allows for the use of HTAs in malaria endemic countries. PMID:19291288

  1. Chlorpheniramine Analogues Reverse Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum by Inhibiting PfCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Karen J; Summers, Robert L; Lehane, Adele M; Martin, Rowena E; Barrow, Russell A

    2014-05-08

    The emergence and spread of malaria parasites that are resistant to chloroquine (CQ) has been a disaster for world health. The antihistamine chlorpheniramine (CP) partially resensitizes CQ-resistant (CQR) parasites to CQ but possesses little intrinsic antiplasmodial activity. Mutations in the parasite's CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to CQ by enabling the protein to transport the drug away from its site of action, and it is thought that resistance-reversers such as CP exert their effect by blocking this CQ transport activity. Here, a series of new structural analogues and homologues of CP have been synthesized. We show that these compounds (along with other in vitro CQ resistance-reversers) inhibit the transport of CQ via a resistance-conferring form of PfCRT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore, the level of PfCRT-inhibition was found to correlate well with both the restoration of CQ accumulation and the level of CQ resensitization in CQR parasites.

  2. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  3. A serological study of removal of UV-induced photoproducts in the DNA of tetrahymena pyriformis GL: influence of caffeine, quinacrine and chloroquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhanisky, Th.; Hendrickx, B.; Mouton, R.F.; Cornelis, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Antisera that recognise specifically UV-photoproducts in DNA have been used to follow the elimination of photolesions in UV irradiated Tetrahymena pyriformis. The amount of bound tritium-labelled antibodies to nuclei has been estimated by autoradiography. Curves of dose-response of DNA photo-products, their elimination by dark repair, and effect of caffeine, quinacrine, and chloroquine on the disappearance of UV-lesions have been evaluated. (author)

  4. Different Patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 Polymorphisms in P. falciparum Isolates from Nigeria and Brazil: The Potential Role of Antimalarial Drug Selection Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbotosho, Grace O.; Folarin, Onikepe A.; Bustamante, Carolina; Pereira da Silva, Luis Hildebrando; Mesquita, Elieth; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Zalis, Mariano G.; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.; Happi, Christian T.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of antimalarial drug selection on pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two distinct geographical locations was determined in 70 and 18 P. falciparum isolates from Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, using nested polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing approaches. All isolates from Brazil and 72% from Nigeria harbored the mutant SVMNT and CVIET pfcrt haplotype, respectively. The pfcrt CVMNT haplotype was also observed in (7%) of the Nigerian samples. One hundred percent (100%) and 54% of the parasites from Brazil and Nigeria, respectively, harbored wild-type pfmdr1Asn86. We provide first evidence of emergence of the CVMNT haplotype in West Africa. The high prevalence of pfcrt CVIET and SVMNT haplotypes in Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, is indicative of different selective pressure by chloroquine and amodiaquine. Continuous monitoring of pfcrt SVMNT haplotype is required in endemic areas of Africa, where artesunate-amodiaquine combination is used for treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria. PMID:22302850

  5. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. FET-PET-based reirradiation and chloroquine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. First tolerability and feasibility results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilger, Angelika; Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca L.; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele; Milanovic, Dusan [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, York Avenue, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) remains an unsolved clinical problem. Reirradiation (re-RT) can be used to treat some patients with rGBM, but as a monotherapy it has only limited efficacy. Chloroquine (CQ) is an anti-malaria and immunomodulatory drug that may inhibit autophagy and increase the radiosensitivity of GBM. Between January 2012 and August 2013, we treated five patients with histologically confirmed rGBM with re-RT and 250 mg CQ daily. Treatment was very well tolerated; no CQ-related toxicity was observed. At the first follow-up 2 months after finishing re-RT, two patients achieved partial response (PR), one patient stable disease (SD), and one patient progressive disease (PD). One patient with reirradiated surgical cavity did not show any sign of PD. In this case series, we observed encouraging responses to CQ and re-RT. We plan to conduct a CQ dose escalation study combined with re-RT. (orig.) [German] Die Behandlung rezidivierter Glioblastome (rGBM) ist problematisch. Manche Patienten koennen erneut bestrahlt (re-RT) werden, jedoch nur mit begrenzter Wirksamkeit. Das Antimalariamittel Chloroquin (CQ) wirkt immunmodulatorisch, hemmt die Autophagie und kann die Radiosensibilitaet erhoehen. Zwischen Januar 2012 und August 2013 wurden 5 Patienten mit einem histologisch gesicherten rGBM mit re-RT und zusaetzlich taeglich 250 mg CQ behandelt. Diese Behandlung wurde sehr gut, ohne CQ-assoziierte Nebenwirkungen toleriert. Zum ersten Follow-up, 2 Monate nach der re-RT, fanden sich zwei partielle Remissionen (PR), ein stabiler Verlauf (SD) und ein Progress (PD). Ein zuvor operierter Patient war in anhaltender Remission. Diese Fallstudie zeigt ein ermutigendes Ansprechen von Patienten mit rGBM auf eine Behandlung mit CQ und re-RT. Eine Dosiseskalationsstudie CQ/re-RT ist geplant. (orig.)

  7. Development of ELISA-based methods to measure the anti-malarial drug chloroquine in plasma and in pharmaceutical formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Insaf F; Alifrangis, Michael; Recke, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ) remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1...... therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries. The use of fake/substandard drugs will result in sub-therapeutic levels endangering the patient and possibly select for parasite...

  8. The roles of the pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y mutations, immunity and the initial level of parasitaemia, in predicting the outcome of chloroquine treatment in two areas with different transmission intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, I F; Alifrangis, M; Tarimo, D S

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ) is probably mediated by point mutations in two genes: pfcrt and pfmdr1. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in patients treated with CQ, the association between host factors, such as immunity and initial level of parasitaemia......, and the ability to clear P. falciparum parasites carrying the key chloroquine-resistance (CQR) mutations, pfcrt 76T and pfmdr1 86Y. Identical CQ-efficacy trials were performed in 51 young children (aged ..., such as level of parasitaemia when treated and age, are also important. The 76T and 86Y alleles could still be used as predictive markers for CQR, in non-immune individuals and low-transmission areas....

  9. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

  10. Formulation, process development and evaluation of artemether and lumefantrine soft gelatin capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemether and Lumefantrine capsules are indicated for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria cases resistant to both chloroquine and sulphadoxine, pyrimethamine combination. Both artemether and lumefantrine act as blood schizontocides. Artemether is a sesquiterpene lactone derived from artemisinin. Artemisinin is a compound derived from the sweet wormwood plant and has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever. Lumefantrine is a synthetic aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial (quinine, mefloquine and halofantrine are members of the same group. Artemether is absorbed fairly rapidly with peak plasma concentrations reached about 2 hours after dosing. Absorption of lumefantrine, a highly lipophilic compound, starts after a lag period of up to 2 hours, with peak plasma concentration about 6-8 hours after dosing. In order to overcome this problem, we have observed that when the drug is given in the soft gelatin dosage form, the bioavailability of the drug is increased. Thus, increasing the absorption of the drug and peak plasma concentration is reached earlier then the conventional dosage form.

  11. [Malaria in a changed health care system in Vietnam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bont, L; Schepel, N; de Vries, P; Kager, P A

    1995-09-23

    To determine how and where malaria was diagnosed in a forestry area in South-Vietnam and how it was treated. Descriptive. Hieu Liem, Dong Nai province, Vietnam. In the government hospital and health posts malaria diagnosis and treatment were free of charge while treatment had to be paid for in four private clinics. A population survey was carried out in the forestry area and outside this area: the people were examined for splenic enlargement and a blood sample was analysed. Most patients went to private clinics and it was here that malaria was most frequently diagnosed. In 7.5% of the population in the forest area parasites were found while 1.8% of those living outside the forest appeared to have parasites in the blood. None of the persons with parasitaemia had splenomegaly. Splenomegaly was found in 2.9% of the population, 6.7% in and 0.9% outside the forest area. Recent changes in the health sector in Vietnam have liberalized malaria treatment, possibly control. The wide distribution and extensive use of effective drugs like artesunate and mefloquine have probably contributed to reduction of (severe) malaria, but development of resistance to these drugs is to be feared. Control of drug distribution and of prescription practices is urgently needed.

  12. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew M; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polg?r, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphoryla...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine in Children in Kampala, Uganda▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigwa, Julia; Parikh, Sunil; McGee, Bryan; German, Polina; Drysdale, Troy; Kalyango, Joan N.; Clark, Tamara D.; Dorsey, Grant; Lindegardh, Niklas; Annerberg, Anna; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Kamya, Moses R.; Aweeka, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The two most widely adopted ACT regimens are artemether (AR)-lumefantrine (LR) (the combination is abbreviated AL) and amodiaquine (AQ)-artesunate (AS). Pharmacokinetic (PK) data informing the optimum dosing of these drug regimens is limited, especially in children. We evaluated PK parameters in Ugandan children aged 5 to 13 years with uncomplicated malaria treated with AL (n = 20) or AQ-AS (n = 21), with intensive venous sampling occurring at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 120 h following administration of the last dose of 3-day regimens of AL (twice daily) or AQ-AS (once daily). AS achieved an estimated maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) of 51 ng/ml and an area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) of 113 ng·h/ml; and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), achieved a geometric mean Cmax of 473 ng/ml and an AUC0-∞ of 1,404 ng·h/ml. AR-DHA exhibited a Cmax of 34/119 ng/ml and an AUC0-∞ of 168/382 ng·h/ml, respectively. For LR, Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 6,757 ng/ml and 210 μg·h/ml, respectively. For AQ and its active metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the Cmaxs were 5.2 ng/ml and 235 ng/ml, respectively, and the AUC0-∞s were 39.3 ng·h/ml and 148 μg·h/ml, respectively. Comparison of the findings of the present study to previously published data for adults suggests that the level of exposure to LR is lower in children than in adults and that the level of AQ-DEAQ exposure is similar in children and adults. For the artemisinin derivatives, differences between children and adults were variable and drug specific. The PK results generated for children must be considered to optimize the dosing strategies for these widely utilized ACT regimens. PMID:19841149

  14. Distribution of Mutations Associated with Antifolate and Chloroquine Resistance among Imported Plasmodium vivax in the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Devendra; Acharya, Anushree; Bharti, Praveen K; Abdelraheem, Mohamed H; Elmalik, Ashraf; Abosalah, Salem; Khan, Fahmi Y; ElKhalifa, Mohamed; Kaur, Hargobinder; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Sehgal, Rakesh; Idris, Mohammed A; Mahanta, Jagadish; Singh, Neeru; Babiker, Hamza A; Sultan, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent parasite worldwide, escalating by spread of drug resistance. Currently, in Qatar, chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine are recommended for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase ( dhfr ), dihydropteroate synthase ( dhps ) genes and CQ resistance transporter ( crt-o ) genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. Blood samples were collected from patients positive for P. vivax and seeking medical treatment at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, during 2013-2016. The Sanger sequencing method was performed to examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pvdhfr , Pvdhps , and Pvcrt-o genes. Of 314 examined P. vivax isolates, 247 (78.7%), 294 (93.6%) and 261 (83.1%) were successfully amplified and sequenced for Pvdhfr , Pvdhps , and Pvcrt-o , respectively. Overall, 53.8% ( N = 133) carried mutant alleles (58R/117N) in Pvdhfr , whereas 77.2% ( N = 227) and 90% ( N = 235) isolates possessed wild type allele in Pvdhps and Pvcrt-o genes, respectively. In addition, a total of eleven distinct haplotypes were detected in Pvdhfr / Pvdhps genes. Interestingly, K10 insertion in the Pvcrt-o gene was observed only in patients originating from the Indian subcontinent. The results suggested that CQ remains an acceptable treatment regimen but further clinical data are required to assess the effectiveness of CQ and SP in Qatar to support the current national treatment guidelines. In addition, limited distribution of genetic polymorphisms associated with CQ and SP resistance observed in imported P. vivax infections, necessitates regular monitoring of drug resistant P. vivax malaria in Qatar.

  15. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Versus Artemether/Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Uganda: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeka, Adoke; Kigozi, Ruth; Conrad, Melissa D.; Lugemwa, Myers; Okui, Peter; Katureebe, Charles; Belay, Kassahun; Kapella, Bryan K.; Chang, Michelle A.; Kamya, Moses R.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Dorsey, Grant; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In treating malaria in Uganda, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been associated with a lower risk of recurrent parasitemia, compared with artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ), but changing treatment practices may have altered parasite susceptibility. Methods. We enrolled 602 children aged 6–59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 3 health centers in 2013–2014 and randomly assigned them to receive treatment with AS/AQ or AL. Primary outcomes were risks of recurrent parasitemia within 28 days, with or without adjustment to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. Drug safety and tolerability and Plasmodium falciparum resistance–mediating polymorphisms were assessed. Results. Of enrolled patients, 594 (98.7%) completed the 28-day study. Risks of recurrent parasitemia were lower with AS/AQ at all 3 sites (overall, 28.6% vs 44.6%; P AQ (1.73 vs 1.39 g/dL; P = .04). Both regimens were well tolerated; serious adverse events were uncommon (1.7% in the AS/AQ group and 1.0% in the AL group). AS/AQ selected for mutant pfcrt/pfmdr1 polymorphisms and AL for wild-type pfcrt/pfmdr1 polymorphisms associated with altered drug susceptibility. Conclusions. AS/AQ treatment was followed by fewer recurrences than AL treatment, contrasting with older data. Each regimen selected for polymorphisms associated with decreased treatment response. Research should consider multiple or rotating regimens to maintain treatment efficacies. PMID:26597254

  16. Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: revisiting molecular markers in an area of emerging AQ and SP resistance in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wele Mamadou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To update the National Malaria Control Programme of Mali on the efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods During the malaria transmission seasons of 2002 and 2003, 455 children – between six and 59 months of age, with uncomplicated malaria in Kolle, Mali, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms. In vivo outcomes were assessed using WHO standard protocols. Genotyping of msp1, msp2 and CA1 polymorphisms were used to distinguish reinfection from recrudescent parasites (molecular correction. Results Day 28 adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR were 14.1%, 62.3% and 88.9% in 2002 and 18.2%, 60% and 85.2% in 2003 for chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. After molecular correction, ACPRs (cACPR were 63.2%, 88.5% and 98.0% in 2002 and 75.5%, 85.2% and 96.6% in 2003 for CQ, AQ and SP, respectively. Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever. Amodiaquine therapy selected molecular markers for chloroquine resistance, while in the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine arm the level of dhfr triple mutant and dhfr/dhps quadruple mutant increased from 31.5% and 3.8% in 2002 to 42.9% and 8.9% in 2003, respectively. No infection with dhps 540E was found. Conclusion In this study, treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine emerged as the most efficacious on uncomplicated falciparum malaria followed by amodiaquine. The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  17. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askling Helena H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the

  18. Impact of community-based presumptive chloroquine treatment of fever cases on malaria morbidity and mortality in a tribal area in Orissa State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandane Candasamy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global Strategy for Malaria Control, one of the basic elements is early detection and prompt treatment of malaria cases, especially in areas where health care facilities are inadequate. Establishing or reviving the existing drug distribution centers (DDC at the peripheral levels of health care can achieve this. The DDCs should be operationally feasible, acceptable by community and technical efficient, particularly in remote hard-core malaria endemic areas. Methods Volunteers from villages were selected for distribution of chloroquine and the selection was made either by villagers or head of the village. The services of the volunteers were absolutely free and voluntary in nature. Chloroquine was provided free of charge to all fever cases. The impact was evaluated based on the changes observed in fever days, fever incidence, parasite incidence and parasite prevalence (proportion of persons harbouring malaria parasite in the community. Comparisons were made between 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of operation in the experimental villages and between the experimental and check areas. Results A total of 411 village volunteers in 378 villages in the experimental community health center with a population of 125,439 treated 88,575 fever cases with a mean annual incidence of 331.8 cases per 1,000 population during the three-year study period. The average morbid days due to fever (AFD was reduced to 1.6 ± 0.1 from 5.9 ± 2.1 in the experimental villages while it remained at 5.0 ± 1.0 in the check villages. There was a significant reduction, (p 0.05. In plain villages that were low endemic, the reductions in AFI and API in experimental villages were statistically significant (p nd and 3rd year when compared with the check area (p 0.0.5. Mortality due to malaria declined by 75% in the experimental villages in the adult age group whereas there was an increasing trend in check villages. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a passive

  19. The rate of uptake of cardiac glycosides into human cultured cells and the effects of chloroquine on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharably, N; Owler, D; Lamb, J F

    1986-10-15

    HeLa cells grown on Petri dishes were either pulse labelled with various cardiac glycosides or grown in low concentrations of them for up to 2 days; either in the presence of chloroquine or not. The cells were then homogenised and the cell free homogenate layered on a continuous sucrose gradient; and the glycoside content and that of various markers measured. In another series of experiments HeLa cells were grown on plastic beads under the above conditions and then the content of glycosides and of some marker enzymes measured. The rate of internalisation of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin from the plasma membrane preparation produced by the bead method is at 9% hr-1, similar to the rate of loss of digoxin and digitoxin from whole cells but much faster than that of ouabain. In the sucrose gradient experiments it was found that [3H]ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin all initially co-distribute with the plasma membrane marker, 5'-nucleotidase, and then leave this fraction of the homogenate at a fast rate when kept at 37 degrees, to co-distribute with the lysosomal marker, beta-hexosaminidase. At 2 degrees the ouabain remains co-distributed with the plasma membrane marker. The rate of transfer is estimated to be some 90% hr-1, much faster than previously thought. Chloroquine causes an increased retention of digoxin and digitoxin in the lysosomal fraction of the homogenate. These results are best explained by supposing that the sodium pump-glycoside complex rapidly enters a region of the peripheral cytoplasm, and that this region then controls the subsequent exit of digoxin and digitoxin from the cell. The main barrier for ouabain occurs at a stage later than this. The consequences of this model on other aspects of pump activity is discussed.

  20. Malarone (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride): a review of its clinical development for treatment of malaria. Malarone Clinical Trials Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looareesuwan, S; Chulay, J D; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B

    1999-04-01

    The continuing spread of drug-resistant malaria emphasizes the need for new antimalarial drugs. Atovaquone is a broad-spectrum antiprotozoal drug with a novel mechanism of action, via inhibition of parasite mitochondrial electron transport, and a favorable safety profile. Early studies with atovaquone alone for treatment of malaria demonstrated good initial control of parasitemia but an unacceptable rate of recrudescent parasitemia. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with atovaquone alone were resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil is synergistic in vitro, and clinical studies demonstrated enhanced efficacy of the combination compared to either drug alone for treatment of malaria. Malarone, a fixed-dose combination of 250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride, is available in many countries for treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. At the recommended dose (in adults, four tablets once a day for three days), the overall cure rate was > 98% in more than 500 patients with falciparum malaria. In four randomized, controlled clinical trials, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was significantly more effective than mefloquine (Thailand), amodiaquine (Gabon), chloroquine (Peru and the Philippines) or chloroquine plus pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Philippines). In clinical trials where the comparator drug was highly effective, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was equally effective. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with the combination of atovaquone and proguanil were not resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The most commonly reported adverse events in clinical trials (abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and coughing) occurred with similar frequency in patients treated with a comparator drug. Malarone is a safe and effective new agent for treatment of malaria.

  1. [Importance of a regional observatory of malarial chemoresistance, an emerging public health problem in the Guyanas region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterre, P; Volney, B; Meynard, J-B; Legrand, E

    2009-08-01

    A regular implementation of prophylactic and therapeutic decision trees was organized on a consensus basis in Cayenne, French Guiana in 1990, 1995 and 2002. The updated recommendations were based on the knowledge of the in vitro chemosensitivity profiles of the local isolates, mainly coming from big rivers (Maroni and Oyapock, frontiers with Suriname and Brazil, respectively; and more recently Approuague). Most of the patients infected by Plasmodium falciparum were followed by the medical staff of the main hospitals (Cayenne and Saint-Laurent) and of the peripheral health centers in remote areas. Consequently the epidemiological situation and evolution of chemoresistance have been widely observed on a long-term (since 1994) basis in the Maroni region. Yet, we have only partial information coming from the Oyapock valley, even though an important (most of the time) illegal immigration has been developing since the 90s' leading to a notable modification of the epidemiological status of malaria in this eastern region, including a regular increase of P. vivax infections. Presently very little P. vivax chloroquine (and mefloquine) resistance has been identified but this result could lead to a real public health problem in a near future. As such, the National Reference Center on Plasmodium Chemoresistance in the French West Indies and Guiana (CNRCP-AG in French) is a unique observatory of malaria chemoresistance in the Guyanese shield which works with research laboratories of the Institut Pasteur, Paris. This network strategy offers a very attractive perspective for applications of modern tools, including the validation of chemoresistance molecular markers, for malaria control at both medical and public health levels. Some examples related to chloroquine and artemether resistance are given.

  2. Chloroquine enhances the efficacy of cisplatin by suppressing autophagy in human adrenocortical carcinoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liang Qin,1,* Tianyuan Xu,1,* Leilei Xia,1 Xianjin Wang,1 Xiang Zhang,1 Xiaohua Zhang,1 Zhaowei Zhu,1 Shan Zhong,1 Chuandong Wang,2 Zhoujun Shen1 1Department of Urology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It has been demonstrated that chloroquine (CQ enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, little is known about whether CQ could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin (DDP in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC. In this study, we explore the efficacy and mechanism by which CQ affects DDP sensitivity in human ACC in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The autophagic gene Beclin-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein levels were analyzed using immunoblotting assays of ACC tissues and normal adrenal cortex tissues. The ACC SW13 cells were treated with DDP and/or CQ. The cell viability assay was performed using the MTT method. Qualitative autophagy detection was performed by monodansylcadaverine staining of autophagic vacuoles. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was used to count cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The autophagy-related protein (Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 and apoptosis relative protein (Bax and Bcl-2 levels were evaluated with Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a murine model of nude BALB/c mice bearing SW13 cell xenografts was established to evaluate the efficacy of concomitant therapy.Results: The expression of the autophagic gene Beclin-1 was significantly downregulated in ACC tissues compared to normal adrenal cortex tissues. The Beclin-1 protein level in ACC tissues was lower than that in normal adrenal cortex tissues (P<0.05. In vitro concomitant therapy (DDP and CQ was more

  3. Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin. Identification of the binding site for chloroquine and related compounds and influence of the binding site on properties of the C2II channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Schiffler, Bettina; Maier, Elke; Lang, Alexander E; Aktories, Klaus; Benz, Roland

    2008-02-15

    Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin belongs to the family of binary AB type toxins that are structurally organized into distinct enzyme (A, C2I) and binding (B, C2II) components. The proteolytically activated 60-kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells. It oligomerizes into heptamers and forms channels in lipid bilayer membranes. The C2II channel is cation-selective and can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds. Residues 303-330 of C2II contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which has been implicated in the formation of two amphipathic beta-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. In the present study, C2II mutants created by substitution of different negatively charged amino acids by alanine-scanning mutagenesis were analyzed in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. The results suggested that most of the C2II mutants formed SDS-resistant oligomers (heptamers) similar to wild type. The mutated negatively charged amino acids did not influence channel properties with the exception of Glu(399) and Asp(426), which are probably localized in the vestibule near the channel entrance. These mutants show a dramatic decrease in their affinity for binding of chloroquine and its analogues. Similarly, F428A, which represents the Phi-clamp in anthrax protective antigen, was mutated in C2II in several other amino acids. The C2II mutants F428A, F428D, F428Y, and F428W not only showed altered chloroquine binding but also had drastically changed single channel properties. The results suggest that amino acids Glu(399), Asp(426), and Phe(428) have a major impact on the function of C2II as a binding protein for C2I delivery into target cells.

  4. Return of chloroquine sensitivity to Africa? Surveillance of African Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance through malaria imported to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Zhang, Meihua; Culleton, Richard L; Xu, Sui; Tang, Jianxia; Zhou, Huayun; Zhu, Guoding; Gu, Yaping; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Yaobao; Wang, Weiming; Cao, Yuanyuan; Li, Julin; He, Xinlong; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2017-07-26

    Chloroquine (CQ) was the cornerstone of anti-malarial treatment in Africa for almost 50 years, but has been widely withdrawn due to the emergence and spread of resistance. Recent reports have suggested that CQ-susceptibility may return following the cessation of CQ usage. Here, we monitor CQ sensitivity and determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in the CQ resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) of Plasmodium falciparum isolates recently imported from Africa to China. Blood samples were collected from falciparum malaria patients returning to China from various countries in Africa. Isolates were tested for their sensitivity to CQ using the SYBR Green I test ex vivo, and for a subset of samples, in vitro following culture adaptation. Mutations at positions 72-76 and codon 220 of the pfcrt gene were analyzed by sequencing and confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Correlations between drug sensitivity and pfcrt polymorphisms were investigated. Of 32 culture adapted isolates assayed, 17 (53.1%), 6 (18.8%) and 9 (28.1%) were classified as sensitive, moderately resistant, and highly resistant, respectively. In vitro CQ susceptibility was related to point mutations in the pfcrt gene, the results indicating a strong association between pfcrt genotype and drug sensitivity. A total of 292 isolates were typed at the pfcrt locus, and the prevalence of the wild type (CQ sensitive) haplotype CVMNK in isolates from East, South, North, West and Central Africa were 91.4%, 80.0%, 73.3%, 53.3% and 51.7%, respectively. The only mutant haplotype observed was CVIET, and this was almost always linked to an additional mutation at A220S. Our results suggest that a reduction in drug pressure following withdrawal of CQ as a first-line drug may lead to a resurgence in CQ sensitive parasites. The prevalence of wild-type pfcrt CQ sensitive parasites from East, South and North Africa was higher than from the West and Central areas, but this varied greatly between countries. Further surveillance is

  5. A single LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, E M; Zanolari, B; Mercier, T; Biollaz, J; Keiser, J; Olliaro, P; Genton, B; Decosterd, L A

    2009-04-01

    Among the various determinants of treatment response, the achievement of sufficient blood levels is essential for curing malaria. For helping us at improving our current understanding of antimalarial drugs pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity, we have developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) requiring 200mul of plasma for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites which are the components of the current first-line combination treatments for malaria (artemether, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, amodiaquine, N-desethyl-amodiaquine, lumefantrine, desbutyl-lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, mefloquine, chloroquine, quinine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine). Plasma is purified by a combination of protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution in methanol/ammonium formate 20mM (pH 4.0) 1:1. Reverse-phase chromatographic separation of antimalarial drugs is obtained using a gradient elution of 20mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile both containing 0.5% formic acid, followed by rinsing and re-equilibration to the initial solvent composition up to 21min. Analyte quantification, using matrix-matched calibration samples, is performed by electro-spray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection in the positive mode. The method was validated according to FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yield, matrix effect variability, overall process efficiency, standard addition experiments as well as antimalarials short- and long-term stability in plasma. The reactivity of endoperoxide-containing antimalarials in the presence of hemolysis was tested both in vitro and on malaria patients samples. With this method, signal intensity of artemisinin decreased by about 20% in the presence of 0.2% hemolysed red-blood cells in plasma, whereas its derivatives were essentially not affected. The method is precise (inter-day CV%: 3.1-12.6%) and sensitive

  6. Molecular analysis demonstrates high prevalence of chloroquine resistance but no evidence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Ley, Benedikt; Nima, Maisha Khair; Johora, Fatema Tuj; Hossain, Mohammad Enayet; Thriemer, Kamala; Auburn, Sarah; Marfurt, Jutta; Price, Ric N; Khan, Wasif A

    2017-08-15

    Artemisinin resistance is present in the Greater Mekong region and poses a significant threat for current anti-malarial treatment guidelines in Bangladesh. The aim of this molecular study was to assess the current status of drug resistance in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh near the Myanmar border. Samples were obtained from patients enrolled into a Clinical Trial (NCT02389374) conducted in Alikadam, Bandarban between August 2014 and January 2015. Plasmodium falciparum infections were confirmed by PCR and all P. falciparum positive isolates genotyped for the pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y markers. The propeller region of the kelch 13 (k13) gene was sequenced from isolates from patients with delayed parasite clearance. In total, 130 P. falciparum isolates were available for analysis. The pfcrt mutation K76T, associated with chloroquine resistance was found in 81.5% (106/130) of cases and the pfmdr1 mutation N86Y in 13.9% (18/130) cases. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the k13 propeller region. This study provides molecular evidence for the ongoing presence of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum in Bangladesh, but no evidence of mutations in the k13 propeller domain associated with artemisinin resistance. Monitoring for artemisinin susceptibility in Bangladesh is needed to ensure early detection and containment emerging anti-malarial resistance.

  7. Occurrence of the Southeast Asian/South American SVMNT haplotype of the chloroquine-resistance transporter gene in Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Dalgaard, Michael B; Lusingu, John P

    2006-01-01

    Two main haplotypes, CVIET and SVMNT, of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt) are linked to 4-aminoquinoline resistance. The CVIET haplotype has been reported in most malaria-endemic regions, whereas the SVMNT haplotype has only been found outside Africa. We...... investigated Pfcrt haplotype frequencies in Korogwe District, Tanzania, in 2003 and 2004. The SVMNT haplotype was not detected in 2003 but was found in 19% of infected individuals in 2004. Amodiaquine use has increased in the region. The introduction and high prevalence of the SVMNT haplotype may reflect...... this and may raise concern regarding the use of amodiaquine in artemisinin-based combination therapies in Africa....

  8. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    severe malaria should also be treated with empirical broad spectrum antibiotics until bacterial infection can be excluded (Grade 1B). 15. Haemolysis occurs in approximately 10-15% patients following intravenous artesunate treatment. Haemoglobin concentrations should be checked approximately 14 days following treatment in those treated with IV artemisinins (Grade 2C). 16. Falciparum malaria in pregnancy is more likely to be complicated: the placenta contains high levels of parasites, stillbirth or early delivery may occur and diagnosis can be difficult if parasites are concentrated in the placenta and scanty in the blood. 17. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy should be treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Grade 2B). Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy should usually be treated with quinine and clindamycin but specialist advice should be sought. Severe malaria in any trimester of pregnancy should be treated as for any other patient with artesunate preferred over quinine (Grade 1C). 18. Children with uncomplicated malaria should be treated with an ACT (artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) as first line treatment (Grade 1A). Quinine with doxycycline or clindamycin, or atovaquone-proguanil at appropriate doses for weight can also be used. Doxycycline should not be given to children under 12 years. 19. Either an oral ACT or chloroquine can be used for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria. An oral ACT is preferred for a mixed infection, if there is uncertainty about the infecting species, or for P. vivax infection from areas where chloroquine resistance is common (Grade 1B). 20. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine (1A). Primaquine is more effective at preventing relapse if taken at the same time as chloroquine (Grade 1C). 21

  9. Cytostatic versus cytocidal activities of chloroquine analogues and inhibition of hemozoin crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Alumasa, John N; Sherlach, Katy S; Jacobs, Lauren M; Nickley, Katherine B; Brower, Jonathan P; de Dios, Angel C; Roepe, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved, nonhazardous, high-throughput assay for in vitro quantification of antimalarial drug inhibition of β-hematin (hemozoin) crystallization performed under conditions that are more physiological relative to previous assays. The assay uses the differential detergent solubility of crystalline and noncrystalline forms of heme and is optimized via the use of lipid catalyst. Using this assay, we quantify the effect of pH on the crystal growth-inhibitory activities of current quinoline antimalarials, evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of different lipids, and test for a possible correlation between hemozoin inhibition by drugs versus their antiplasmodial activity. Consistent with several previous reports, we found a good correlation between hemozoin inhibition potency versus cytostatic antiplasmodial potency (50% inhibitory concentration) for a series of chloroquine (CQ) analogues. However, we found no correlation between hemozoin inhibition potency and cytocidal antiplasmodial potency (50% lethal dose) for the same drugs, suggesting that cellular targets for these two layers of 4-aminoquinoline drug activity differ. This important concept is also explored further for QN and its stereoisomers in the accompanying paper (A. P. Gorka, K. S. Sherlach, A. C. de Dios, and P. D. Roepe, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:365-374, 2013).

  10. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of qinghaosu derivatives: how do they impact on the choice of drug and the dosage regimens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, D E; Teja-Isavadharm, P; Li, Q; Leo, K

    1998-01-01

    The critical decisions of which artemisinin derivative(s) to use and by which route(s) of administration for falciparum malaria are complex scientifically and politically. Despite the need for additional pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicokinetic data, these drugs are too important to delay concise, rational recommendations any longer. These types of decisions must be made now, implemented on a multinational level with WHO leadership, and revised as new findings emerge. For acute, uncomplicated disease, per os dosing of artesunate or artemether for three days is recommended, but only in combination with other antimalarial drugs like mefloquine. For severe falciparum malaria, intravenous administration is the preferred route, yet current formulations for intravenous dosing are not optimal and should be an area for future development emphasis. Clearly intramuscular administration of artemether has proven effective for severe disease, yet dosing regimens shouldn't be designed with ultimate parasitological cure as the aim and the problem of bioavailability of the sesame oil formulations must be examined further. Once the life-saving reduction in parasitemia and pathophysiological sequelae have been achieved, the patient can be given oral medication to affect radical cure. Much more data will be required to define the role of per rectum dosing for the treatment of severe malaria, yet this approach holds great promise as a life-saving intervention in rural areas where this disease has it most dramatic impact.

  11. The interaction of x-rays and antimalarials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoghegan, D.S.; Skinner-Adams, T.; Davis, T.M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The radiation sensitivity of malaria parasites has three potential clinical applications, namely i) to prevent the transmission of malaria by blood transfusion, ii) as adjunctive therapy when a radioactive isotope is complexed to a conventional antimalarial drug, and iii) to attenuate the pathogenicity of specific parasite stages as part of the development of a vaccine. In the first two applications, detailed information relating to parasite radiosensitivity and the interaction of ionising radiation with antimalarials is of vital importance because dosimetry must allow for the exposure of normal cells. Malaria parasite cultures (Plasmodium falciparum) were exposed to a logarithmic series of concentrations of antimalarial agents and irradiated using a Siemens Stabilipan orthovoltage radiotherapy unit. The irradiation was performed at room temperature and ambient oxygen concentration. Control samples were also irradiated. The DNA synthesis in each culture was measured 48 hours post irradiation by using a 3 H-hypoxanthine incorporation assay. The antimalarials studied are: artesunate, quinine, retinol and chloroquine. The radiosensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum is not dependent on the strain of parasite with the dose required to inhibit 50% of DNA synthesis (ID 50 ) equal to 24.7 ± 3.0 Gy. This applies equally for the drug resistant and drug sensitive strains studied. Because the measured radiosensitivity is dependent on the sera oxygen concentration, the reported value for the ID 50 may not apply in hypoxic situations. The interaction of ionising radiation with the antimalarials shows synergy with retinol and choloquine, additivity with quinine and slight antagonism with artesunate. Radionuclide therapy may emerge as a novel treatment for malaria. If this does occur, then, although all strains appear to be equally radiosensitive, care must be taken when combining ionising radiation with existing antimalarials for the treatment of malaria. Copyright

  12. Preliminary studies on the antiplasmodial potential of aqueous and methanol extracts ofeucalyptus camadulensis leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru, Y. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs like chloroquine and the problem of recrudescence of malaria after treatment with artemisinin suggest the need for new antimalaria agents. This project was designed to explore the antiplasmodial potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extracts. Methods: The antiplasmodial potential of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camadulensis (leaf were evaluated in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with plasmodium berghei (NK65, a rodent malaria parasite. The level of parasitemia, life span, variation in weight and percentage packed cell volume (% PCV of infected and treated mice were used to assess the efficacy of extracts. Treatment with the extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight commenced 72 hours post infection for the test groups, while a standard antimalarial drug, Artesunate, at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control group was left untreated. Results: Animals treated with the methanol extract showed a significant decrease in parasitaemia (p < 0.05, and survived for 29 days compared with those treated with the aqueous extract which survived for 19 days with a higher level of parasitemia. However, the control group treated with Artesunate showed a significantly lower parasitaemia (p < 0.05 and survived for 34 days when compared with the groups treated with methanol and aqueous extracts. The level of parasitemia, decrease in weight and %PCV in all the treated groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05 compared with the infected but untreated group (negative control which survived for only 7 days. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the leaves of E. camadulensis has an antimalarial potential that could be exploited for the benefit of mankind.

  13. The microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA): another colorimetric method of testing Plasmodium falciparum chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaes, L; Lazaro, J E; Gay, F; Thellier, M; Danis, M

    1999-01-01

    Malarial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which uses 3-acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme in a reaction leading to the formation of pyruvate from L-lactate, may be used to study the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to a drug in vitro. Several methods to determine the activity of this enzyme are available. One, the colorimetric method of Makler and colleagues, was modified slightly, by using sodium-2,3-bis-[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5 - carboxanilide (XTT) and following the reaction by measuring the optical density at 450 nm. Using two, culture-adapted strains of P. falciparum, this LDH assay was compared with the unmodified Makler's assay and with the isotopic microtest based on the incorporation of tritium-labelled hypoxanthine. Fresh, clinical P. falciparum isolates were also tested in the presence of several drugs, including chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, halofantrine, atovaquone and qinghaosu derivatives. The results of the three assays were correlated for all the drugs tested except atovaquone. The two enzymatic assays are non-radioactive, rapid, reliable, inexpensive to perform and semi-automatic. However, they do require an initial parasitaemia of 2% with a haematocrit of 1.8%.

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of the antimalarial agent artemisinin and some of its derivatives - a DFT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, Sanchaita; Hussain, Iftikar; Hazarika, Kalyan K; Sarmah, Pubalee; Deka, Ramesh Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Artemisinin form the most important class of antimalarial agents currently available, and is a unique sesquiterpene peroxide occurring as a constituent of Artemisia annua. Artemisinin is effectively used in the treatment of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and because of its rapid clearance of cerebral malaria, many clinically useful semisynthetic drugs for severe and complicated malaria have been developed. However, one of the major disadvantages of using artemisinins is their poor solubility either in oil or water and therefore, in order to overcome this difficulty many derivatives of artemisinin were prepared. A comparative study on the chemical reactivity of artemisinin and some of its derivatives is performed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT based global and local reactivity descriptors, such as hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index, Fukui function, and local philicity calculated at the optimized geometries are used to investigate the usefulness of these descriptors for understanding the reactive nature and reactive sites of the molecules. Multiple regression analysis is applied to build up a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model based on the DFT based descriptors against the chloroquine-resistant, mefloquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum W-2 clone.

  15. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Amazon basin of Peru Eficácia da sulfadoxina-pirimetamina e mefloquina no tratamento de malária não-complicada por Plasmodium falciparum na bacia amazônica peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Magill

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo antimalarial drug efficacy studies of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at an isolated site in the Amazon basin of Peru bordering Brazil and Colombia showed >50% RII/RIII resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but no evidence of resistance to mefloquine.Testes in vivo foram realizados para avaliar resistência a drogas antimalária, em pessoas com malária não complicada, causada por Plasmodium falciparum, numa região isolada da Bacia Amazônica, na fronteira com o Brasil e a Colômbia. Os testes mostraram resistência >50% RII/RIII a sulfadoxina-pirimetamina, mas não evidenciaram resistência a mefloquina.

  16. Introducing New Antimalarial Analogues of Chloroquine and Amodiaquine: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rafiee Parhizgar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ and amodiaquine (AQ, have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the other hand, AQ is an effective antimalarial drug which its usage has been restricted due to hepatic and hematological toxicities. The significance of the quinoline ring at quinoline-based antimalarial drugs has prompted research centers and pharmaceutical companies to focus on the design and synthesis of new analogues of these drugs, especially CQ and AQ analogues. Accordingly, various derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo against the resistant strains of the malaria parasite to solve the problem of drug resistance. Also, the pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds have been evaluated to augment their efficacy and diminish their toxicity. Some of these analogues are currently in clinical and preclinical development. Consequently, the recent researches showed yet 4-aminoquinoline scaffold is active moiety in new compounds with antiplasmodial activity. Hence, the aim of this review article is to introduce of the novel synthetic analogues of CQ and AQ, which may constitute the next generation of antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold.

  17. Introducing New Antimalarial Analogues of Chloroquine and Amodiaquine: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgar, Arezoo Rafiee; Tahghighi, Azar

    2017-03-01

    Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ), have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the other hand, AQ is an effective antimalarial drug which its usage has been restricted due to hepatic and hematological toxicities. The significance of the quinoline ring at quinoline-based antimalarial drugs has prompted research centers and pharmaceutical companies to focus on the design and synthesis of new analogues of these drugs, especially CQ and AQ analogues. Accordingly, various derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo against the resistant strains of the malaria parasite to solve the problem of drug resistance. Also, the pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds have been evaluated to augment their efficacy and diminish their toxicity. Some of these analogues are currently in clinical and preclinical development. Consequently, the recent researches showed yet 4-aminoquinoline scaffold is active moiety in new compounds with antiplasmodial activity. Hence, the aim of this review article is to introduce of the novel synthetic analogues of CQ and AQ, which may constitute the next generation of antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold.

  18. FET-PET-based reirradiation and chloroquine in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. First tolerability and feasibility results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilger, Angelika; Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca L.; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele; Milanovic, Dusan; Meyer, Philipp T.; Weber, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) remains an unsolved clinical problem. Reirradiation (re-RT) can be used to treat some patients with rGBM, but as a monotherapy it has only limited efficacy. Chloroquine (CQ) is an anti-malaria and immunomodulatory drug that may inhibit autophagy and increase the radiosensitivity of GBM. Between January 2012 and August 2013, we treated five patients with histologically confirmed rGBM with re-RT and 250 mg CQ daily. Treatment was very well tolerated; no CQ-related toxicity was observed. At the first follow-up 2 months after finishing re-RT, two patients achieved partial response (PR), one patient stable disease (SD), and one patient progressive disease (PD). One patient with reirradiated surgical cavity did not show any sign of PD. In this case series, we observed encouraging responses to CQ and re-RT. We plan to conduct a CQ dose escalation study combined with re-RT. (orig.) [de

  19. Microsatellite polymorphism within pfcrt provides evidence of continuing evolution of chloroquine-resistant alleles in Papua New Guinea

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    Sharma Yagya D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in the pfcrt gene underlies Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance (CQR, as sensitive strains consistently carry lysine (K, while CQR strains carry threonine (T at the codon 76. Previous studies have shown that microsatellite (MS haplotype variation can be used to study the evolution of CQR polymorphism and to characterize intra- and inter-population dispersal of CQR in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods Here, following identification of new polymorphic MS in introns 2 and 3 within the pfcrt gene (msint2 and msint3, respectively, locus-by-locus and haplotype heterozygosity (H analyses were performed to determine the distribution of this intronic polymorphism among pfcrt chloroquine-sensitive and CQR alleles. Results For MS flanking the pfcrt CQR allele, H ranged from 0.07 (B5M77, -18 kb to 0.094 (9B12, +2 kb suggesting that CQ selection pressure was responsible for strong homogenisation of this gene locus. In a survey of 206 pfcrt-SVMNT allele-containing field samples from malaria-endemic regions of PNG, H for msint2 was 0.201. This observation suggests that pfcrt msint2 exhibits a higher level of diversity than what is expected from the analyses of pfcrt flanking MS. Further analyses showed that one of the three haplotypes present in the early 1980's samples has become the predominant haplotype (frequency = 0.901 in CQR parasite populations collected after 1995 from three PNG sites, when CQR had spread throughout malaria-endemic regions of PNG. Apparent localized diversification of pfcrt haplotypes at each site was also observed among samples collected after 1995, where minor CQR-associated haplotypes were found to be unique to each site. Conclusion In this study, a higher level of diversity at MS loci within the pfcrt gene was observed when compared with the level of diversity at pfcrt flanking MS. While pfcrt (K76T and its immediate flanking region indicate homogenisation in PNG CQR parasite populations

  20. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.