Sample records for arteriosclerosis

  1. Arteriosclerosis Detection (United States)


    The Veterans Administration Hospital used computer image-processing techniques to detect arteriosclerosis. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center engineers to enhance spacecraft pictures, this device replaced the previous testing for this disease which was extremely painful and time consuming. With this instrument, computer detected edges are shown along with an estimate of location of pre-arteriosclerosis vessel wall. The difference between the two represents the relative amount of disease in the blood vessel. Instrumentation will be expanded again in 1976 to analyze the coronary arteries and the blood vessels of the retina.

  2. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis]. (United States)

    Matsui, Teruaki


    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  3. [Hypertension and arteriosclerosis]. (United States)

    Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi


    Hypertension is a known risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and causes both atherosclero= sis of medium-large arteries and arteriolosclerosis of the arterioles. Elevated blood pressure causes damage to the endothelium and vascular wall through both mechanical and humoral factors. We and others have shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system at a 'critical period' during the development of hypertension results in a permanent suppression of hypertension in animal models. We have also reported that high-dose renin-angiotensin inhibition results in regression of hypertension, possibly by regression of renal arteriolar hypertrophy. These results suggest that understanding the process of arterial remodeling may play a key role in the development of new strategies for prevention and regression of hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

  4. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo


    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  5. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment]. (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang


    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  6. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu


    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  7. Laser Therapy For Arteriosclerosis: Current Review (United States)

    Dries, David J.; Pollock, Marc E.; Eugene, John


    Shortly after the ruby laser was introduced, in 1959, a study for the use of this ruby laser for the in-vitro dissolution of arteriosclerotic plaque was performed.' With subsequent advances in laser technology and with refined delivery techniques, laser applications to the treatment of arteriosclerosis in the coronary arteries and peripheral vascular system is a reality. This report reviews the disease process, arteriosclerosis, and the ef-forts towards laser treatment of this disease. We conclude with a review of the technical barriers to the routine application of laser energy in arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the progress being made to overcome these obstacles.

  8. Papel de las plaquetas en la arteriosclerosis


    Escolar Albaladejo, Ginés


    DE LA TESIS:El término "arteriosclerosis" debe atribuirse a Lobstein, que lo creó en 1833 para referirse a lo que él denominaba: "un aumento del espesor y la dureza de las paredes arteriales". Etimológicamente, la palabra arteriosclerosis se trata de un nombre compuesto por arteria y "sklerosis" que significa espesamiento con induración. Aunque en el lenguaje clínico corriente, se utilizan muy a menudo los conceptos "arterioesclerosis" o "aterosclerosis" de forma indistinta, no es menos cie...

  9. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C


    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  10. Cerebrovascular arteriopathy (arteriosclerosis) and ischemic childhood stroke. (United States)

    Daniels, S R; Bates, S; Lukin, R R; Benton, C; Third, J; Glueck, C J


    The aim of this report is to describe the intracranial cerebrovascular abnormalities and clinical status of 8 children who had familial lipoprotein disorders and evidence of thromboembolic cerebrovascular disease. Six of the 8 children had low levels of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, two had high triglyceride levels, and all came from kindreds characterized by familial lipoprotein abnormalities and premature cardio- and/or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Vascular occlusion, irregularities of the arterial lumen, beading, tortuosity, and evidence of collateralization were consistently noted. We speculate that cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in pediatric ischemic stroke victims who have familial lipoprotein abnormalities may be related to lipoprotein-mediated endothelial damage and thrombosis formation, or to the failure to restore endothelial cells' integrity following damage. The apparent association of lipoproteins and strokes in children and their families merits further exploration, particularly when assessing cerebral angiograms in pediatric ischemic stroke victims. In children with unexplained ischemic cerebrovascular accidents, the diagnostic possibility of occlusive arteriosclerosis with thrombosis must be entertained.

  11. Donor-specific antibodies accelerate arteriosclerosis after kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Hill, Gary S; Nochy, Dominique; Bruneval, Patrick; Duong van Huyen, J P; Glotz, Denis; Suberbielle, Caroline; Zuber, Julien; Anglicheau, Dany; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Loupy, Alexandre


    In biopsies of renal allografts, arteriosclerosis is often more severe than expected based on the age of the donor, even without a history of rejection vasculitis. To determine whether preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) may contribute to the severity of arteriosclerosis, we examined protocol biopsies from patients with (n=40) or without (n=59) DSA after excluding those with any evidence of vasculitis. Among DSA-positive patients, arteriosclerosis significantly progressed between month 3 and month 12 after transplant (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 1.12 ± 0.10, P=0.014); in contrast, among DSA-negative patients, we did not detect a statistically significant progression during the same timeframe (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.10, P=not significant). Available biopsies at later time points supported a rate of progression of arteriosclerosis in DSA-negative patients that was approximately one third that in DSA-positive patients. Accelerated arteriosclerosis was significantly associated with peritubular capillary leukocytic infiltration, glomerulitis, subclinical antibody-mediated rejection, and interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that donor-specific antibodies dramatically accelerate post-transplant progression of arteriosclerosis.

  12. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

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    Trauner Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases.

  13. Progenitor cells in arteriosclerosis: good or bad guys? (United States)

    Campagnolo, Paola; Wong, Mei Mei; Xu, Qingbo


    Accumulating evidence indicates that the mobilization and recruitment of circulating or tissue-resident progenitor cells that give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can participate in atherosclerosis, neointima hyperplasia after arterial injury, and transplant arteriosclerosis. It is believed that endothelial progenitor cells do exist and can repair and rejuvenate the arteries under physiologic conditions; however, they may also contribute to lesion formation by influencing plaque stability in advanced atherosclerotic plaque under specific pathologic conditions. At the same time, smooth muscle progenitors, despite their capacity to expedite lesion formation during restenosis, may serve to promote atherosclerotic plaque stabilization by producing extracellular matrix proteins. This profound evidence provides support to the hypothesis that both endothelial and smooth muscle progenitors may act as a double-edged sword in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the understanding of the regulatory networks that control endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor differentiation is undoubtedly fundamental both for basic research and for improving current therapeutic avenues for atherosclerosis. We update the progress in progenitor cell study related to the development of arteriosclerosis, focusing specifically on the role of progenitor cells in lesion formation and discuss the controversial issues that regard the origins, frequency, and impact of the progenitors in the disease.

  14. Economics of health and mortality special feature: race, infection, and arteriosclerosis in the past. (United States)

    Costa, Dora L; Helmchen, Lorens A; Wilson, Sven


    We document racial trends in chronic conditions among older men between 1910 and 2004. The 1910 black arteriosclerosis rate was six times higher than the white 2004 rate and more than two times higher than the 2004 black rate. We argue that blacks' greater lifelong burden of infection led to high arteriosclerosis rates in 1910. Infectious disease, especially respiratory infections at older ages and rheumatic fever and syphilis at younger ages, predicted arteriosclerosis in 1910, suggesting that arteriosclerosis has an infectious cause. Additional risk factors for arteriosclerosis were being born in the second relative to the fourth quarter, consistent with studies implying that atherogenesis begins in utero, and a low body mass index, consistent with an infectious disease origin of arteriosclerosis.

  15. Immune-Mediated Vascular Injury and Dysfunction in Transplant Arteriosclerosis

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    Anna evon Rossum


    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage organ failure but this life-saving procedure is limited by immune-mediated rejection of most grafts. Blood vessels within transplanted organs are targeted by the immune system and the resultant vascular damage is a main contributor to acute and chronic graft failure. The vasculature is a unique tissue with specific immunological properties. This review discusses the interactions of the immune system with blood vessels in transplanted organs and how these interactions lead to the development of transplant arteriosclerosis, a leading cause of heart transplant failure.

  16. Is hyperuricemia a risk factor for arteriosclerosis? Uric acid and arteriosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice. (United States)

    Wakuda, Hirokazu; Uchida, Shinya; Ikeda, Masahiko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yamada, Shizuo


    Although hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes increase the risk of arteriosclerosis, it is not clear whether hyperuricemia increases the risk of arteriosclerosis or not. We examined the effects of uric acid and curative drugs for hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Male apoE(-/-) mice (age: 6 weeks) were fed a normal diet (normal diet group) or a uric acid-enriched diet. Mice fed the uric acid-enriched diet were divided into three groups and administered a drinking vehicle (high uric acid diet group), allopurinol (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), or benzbromarone (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 10 weeks. Serum uric acid concentrations were higher in the high uric acid diet group than in the normal diet group, and concentrations in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups were lower than in the high uric acid diet group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the allopurinol group than in the high uric acid diet group. Oxidative stress was lower in the benzbromarone group than in the high uric acid diet group. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were smaller in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups than in the high uric acid diet group. Thus, hyperuricemia may not be an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis; however, the administration of allopurinol and benzbromarone prevented the development of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice fed a uric acid-enriched diet. The anti-atherosclerotic effect was in part due to lower total cholesterol and oxidative stress in the serum. Other possible mechanisms underlying this effect should be investigated.

  17. In vivo prevention of transplant arteriosclerosis by ex vivo-expanded human regulatory T cells. (United States)

    Nadig, Satish N; Wieckiewicz, Joanna; Wu, Douglas C; Warnecke, Gregor; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Shiqiao; Schiopu, Alexandru; Taggart, David P; Wood, Kathryn J


    Transplant arteriosclerosis is the hallmark of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) affecting transplanted organs in the long term. These fibroproliferative lesions lead to neointimal thickening of arteries in all transplanted allografts. Luminal narrowing then leads to graft ischemia and organ demise. To date, there are no known tolerance induction strategies that prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that human regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expanded ex vivo can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Here we show the comparative capacity of T(reg) cells, sorted via two separate strategies, to prevent transplant arteriosclerosis in a clinically relevant chimeric humanized mouse system. We found that the in vivo development of transplant arteriosclerosis in human arteries was prevented by treatment of ex vivo-expanded human T(reg) cells. Additionally, we show that T(reg) cells sorted on the basis of low expression of CD127 provide a more potent therapy to conventional T(reg) cells. Our results demonstrate that human T(reg) cells can inhibit transplant arteriosclerosis by impairing effector function and graft infiltration. We anticipate our findings to serve as a foundation for the clinical development of therapeutics targeting transplant arteriosclerosis in both allograft transplantation and other immune-mediated causes of vasculopathy.

  18. AIP1-mediated stress signaling in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqin; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang


    AIP1 (ASK1-interacting protein-1; encoded by the DAB2IP gene), a signaling scaffolding protein, is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC). While it was initially discovered as an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-interacting protein, AIP1 broadly suppresses inflammatory responses triggered by cytokines and stresses such as TNF, LPS, VEGF, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in EC (therefore, AIP1 is an anti-inflammatory protein). Human genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified DAB2IP gene variants conferring susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Consistently, a global or vascular EC-specific deletion of DAB2IP in mice strongly enhances inflammatory responses and exacerbates atherosclerosis and graft arteriosclerosis progression in mouse models. Mechanisms for AIP1 function and regulation associated with human cardiovascular diseases need further investigations.

  19. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee


    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  20. Interventional therapy experience from the nursing of patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis occlusion syndrome

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    Li-wen ZHU


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the nursing methods of lower limb arteriosclerosis occlusion disease with interventional therapy. Methods: Analyze perioperative nursing for 30 cases of lower limb arteriosclerosis occlusion with stenting and balloon dilatation. Results: 27 cases of patients with stent implantation, 3 cases of balloon dilatation, including 3 cases of late stent patients had bypass surgery, the rest has achieved good nursing effect. Conclusion: Perioperative nursing plays an important role in AOS interventional therapy and early recovery of the patient.

  1. Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts. (United States)

    Eckl, Sebastian; Heim, Christian; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Hoffmann, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M


    Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  2. Histamine receptors expressed in circulating progenitor cells have reciprocal actions in ligation-induced arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Guo, Xin; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki


    Histamine is synthesized as a low-molecular-weight amine from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Recently, we demonstrated that carotid artery-ligated HDC gene-deficient mice (HDC(-/-)) showed less neointimal formation than wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that histamine participates in the process of arteriosclerosis. However, little is known about the roles of histamine-specific receptors (HHRs) in arteriosclerosis. To define the roles of HHRs in arteriosclerosis, we investigated intimal remodeling in ligated carotid arteries of HHR-deficient mice (H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-)). Quantitative analysis showed that H1R(-/-) mice had significantly less arteriosclerogenesis, whereas H2R(-/-) mice had more, as compared with WT mice. Bone marrow transplantation from H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-) to WT mice confirmed the above observation. Furthermore, the increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), adhesion molecules and liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR3), interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), was consistent with the arteriosclerotic phenotype of H2R(-/-) mice. Peripheral progenitor cells in H2R(-/-) mice accelerate ligation-induced arteriosclerosis through their regulation of MCP-1, PDGF, adhesion molecules and LXR-related inflammatory signaling factors. In contrast, peripheral progenitor cells act to suppress arteriosclerosis in H1R(-/-) mice, indicating that HHRs reciprocally regulate inflammation in the ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

  3. Angioscopic assessment of various percutaneous treatments for arteriosclerosis obliterance (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shiraishi, Shohzo; Sato, Takashi; Koga, Nobuhiko


    We have evaluated the angioscopic findings before and after various percutaneous techniques to treat 39 lesions in 32 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). We applied a laser (CL50: SLT, Japan), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and atherectomy -- either singly or in combination, with angioscopic luminal observation (angioscope: PF14L & PF18L Olympus, Japan) recorded before and after the treatments. In the case of a complete obstruction, we employed PTA as the first choice. We used a laser prior to PTA when the PTA guide-wire failed to penetrate the lumen. For eccentric and calcified lesions atherectomy was applied. A sufficient enlargement was obtained initially in 37 of the 39 lesions. The angioscopic observations after treatment revealed carbonization (3/5) and attachment of small thrombi (3/5) after using the laser, intimal rupture (3/8), dissection (2/8), flap formation (2/8), and attachment of small thrombi (4/8) after PTA, and attachment of small thrombi (9/19), flap formation (6/19), and dissection (2/19) after atherectomy. We established the efficacy of angioscopic assessment demonstrating beneficial clinical results. The angioscopic findings suggest that attachment of small thrombi may be responsible for a poor prognosis. Additional angioscopic observations with angiography are recommended for improved understanding of the luminal changes.

  4. Study on the classification algorithm of degree of arteriosclerosis based on fuzzy pattern recognition (United States)

    Ding, Li; Zhou, Runjing; Liu, Guiying


    Pulse wave of human body contains large amount of physiological and pathological information, so the degree of arteriosclerosis classification algorithm is study based on fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper. Taking the human's pulse wave as the research object, we can extract the characteristic of time and frequency domain of pulse signal, and select the parameters with a better clustering effect for arteriosclerosis identification. Moreover, the validity of characteristic parameters is verified by fuzzy ISODATA clustering method (FISOCM). Finally, fuzzy pattern recognition system can quantitatively distinguish the degree of arteriosclerosis with patients. By testing the 50 samples in the built pulse database, the experimental result shows that the algorithm is practical and achieves a good classification recognition result.

  5. Obesidad mórbida y arteriosclerosis subclínica


    Megias Rangil, Isabel Clara


    La disfunción endotelial, el grosor íntima-media (GIM) y la rigidez arterial se consideran hoy día marcadores de arteriosclerosis precoz. La obesidad y el exceso de peso se han asociado a disfunción endotelial, mayor grosor íntima media y peor rigidez arterial, pero no existen datos concretos sobre el efecto de la obesidad mórbida en estos parámetros. Nuestros objetivos fueron estudiar marcadores de arteriosclerosis subclínica como el GIMc, la función endotelial y la rigidez arterial en un...

  6. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis promotes transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing the production of SDF-1α. (United States)

    Li, J; Liu, S; Li, W; Hu, S; Xiong, J; Shu, X; Hu, Q; Zheng, Q; Song, Z


    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of late allograft loss. Medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis is considered to be an important event in transplant arteriosclerosis. However, the precise contribution of medial SMC apoptosis to transplant arteriosclerosis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We transferred wild-type p53 to induce apoptosis of cultured SMCs. We found that apoptosis induces the production of SDF-1α from apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, resulting in increased SDF-1α in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transferred SMCs activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/Erk signaling in a SDF-1α-dependent manner and thereby promoted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration and proliferation. In a rat aorta transplantation model, lentivirus-mediated BclxL transfer selectively inhibits medial SMC apoptosis in aortic allografts, resulting in a remarkable decrease of SDF-1α both in allograft media and in blood plasma, associated with diminished recruitment of CD90(+)CD105(+) double-positive cells and impaired neointimal formation. Systemic administration of rapamycin or PD98059 also attenuated MSC recruitment and neointimal formation in the aortic allografts. These results suggest that medial SMC apoptosis is critical for the development of transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing SDF-1α production and that MSC recruitment represents a major component of vascular remodeling, constituting a relevant target and mechanism for therapeutic interventions.

  7. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis (United States)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.


    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  8. C-peptide promotes lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Vasic, Dusica; Marx, Nikolaus; Sukhova, Galina; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Grüb, Miriam; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel


    Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show elevated serum levels of the proinsulin cleavage product C-peptide and immunohistochemical data from our group revealed C-peptide deposition in early lesions of these individuals. Moreover, in vitro studies suggest that C-peptide could promote atherogenesis. This study examined whether C-peptide promotes vascular inflammation and lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet were treated with C-peptide or control injections for 12 weeks and the effect on lesion size and plaque composition was analysed. C-peptide treatment significantly increased C-peptide blood levels by 4.8-fold without having an effect on glucose or insulin levels, nor on the lipid profile. In these mice, C-peptide deposition in atherosclerotic plaques was significantly increased compared with controls. Moreover, lesions of C-peptide-treated mice contained significantly more macrophages (1.6 ± 0.3% versus 0.7 ± 0.2% positive area; P arteriosclerosis support the hypothesis that C-peptide may have an active role in atherogenesis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance.

  9. Radiographic manifestations of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region

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    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Barghan, Sevin; Kashtwari, Beeba; Nair, Madhu K. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Colleges of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)


    Mönckeberg sclerosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dystrophic calcification within the arterial tunica media of the lower extremities leading to reduced arterial compliance. Medial calcinosis does not obstruct the lumina of the arteries, and therefore does not lead to symptoms or signs of limb or organ ischemia. Mönckeberg sclerosis most commonly occurs in aged and diabetic individuals and in patients on dialysis. Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis is frequently observed in the visceral arteries, and it can occur in the head and neck region as well. This report describes a remarkable case of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region as detected on dental imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in which this condition presented in the facial vasculature. The aim of this report was to define the radiographic characteristics of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in an effort to assist health care providers in diagnosing and managing this condition.

  10. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

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    Morimoto Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1. However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD.

  11. The Inhibitory Effect of Astilbin on the Arteriosclerosis of Murine Thoracic Aorta Transplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping ZHAO; Ping LI; Yunfeng ZHANG; Xianguo WANG; Qilin AO; Sihai GAO


    The inhibitory effect of astilbin on transplant arteriosclerosis in murine model of thoracic aorta transplantation was examined.Model of rat thoracic aorta transplantation was established.Ninety rats were divided into three groups.In isograft group,the thoracic aorta of Brown Norway (BN) rat was anastomosed with the abdominal aorta of another BN rat.In allograft group,the thoracic aorta of BN rat was anastomosed with the abdominal aorta of Lewis rat.In astilbin group,the rats receiving allo-transplantation were given astiibin 5 mg/kg per day for a time of 28 days.The donor thoracic aorta and the recipient abdominal aorta were anastomosed by means of a polyethylene cannula (inner diameter:1.5 mm,length:3 mm length).The grafts were histologically examined for structural changes.The areas of arterial lumen and endatrium were calculated.Our results showed that,in the allograft group,28 days after aliografting,conspicuous proliferation of smooth muscles and infiltration with a great number of inflammatory cells were found in the tunica intima and tunica media.Astilbin significantly inhibited the proliferation of smooth muscles and ameliorated the infiltration of inflammatory cells thereyby prevent against the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.It is concluded that asltilbin can effectively prevent the development of arteriosclerosis in allotrausplant by inhibiting the proliferation of smooth muscles and inhibit the proliferation of smooth muscles in tunica of intima and media and reducing infiltration of the inflammatory cells.

  12. The Non-Invasive Functional Tissue Characterization for Arteriosclerosis by Artery Wall Motion Analysis with Time Series High-Speed Echo Images and Continuous Spygmo-Manometer (United States)


    Abstract- The evaluation method of arteriosclerosis has been established, but most of them are invasive way. In late years, non-invasive diagnostic...method for arteriosclerosis can be done by the diagnosis with high resolution echography. However, even this new diagnostic method can not diagnose...until beginning the morphologic changes of the arteries by stenosis. There is little value even if it could be detected the arteriosclerosis after the

  13. Low zinc levels is associated with increased inflammatory activity but not with atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis or endothelial dysfunction among the very elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C.S. De Paula


    General significance: In the very elderly plasma concentrations or daily intake of zinc is not related to endothelial dysfunction, arteriosclerosis or atherosclerotic burden at coronary or carotid arteries.





    Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga n-3 (AGPICL) son nutrientes esenciales que tienen una función anti-inflamatoria y disminuyen el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Esta tesis examina el efecto de AGPICL n-3 comparado los AG saturados sobre la expresión de los principales efectores moleculares que están involucrados en los procesos aterogénicos previo al desarrollo de la arteriosclerosis como enfermedad. 48 ratones machos C57BL/6 (12 semanas de edad) fueron asignados e...

  15. Correlation Between Arteriosclerosis and Periodontal Condition Assessed by Lactoferrin and α1-Antitrypsin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-o; Sata, Masataka


    Patients with periodontal disease exhibit exacerbated atherosclerosis, aortic stiffness, or vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, in a recent scientific statement, the American Heart Association noted that neither has periodontal disease been proven to cause atherosclerotic vascular disease nor has the treatment of periodontal disease been proven to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between periodontal condition and arteriosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is usually accompanied by systemic arteriosclerosis.We measured levels of gingival crevicular fluid lactoferrin (GCF-Lf) and α1-antitrypsin (GCF-AT) in 72 patients (67 ± 8 years, 56 men) with CAD. Furthermore, we evaluated the maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT) and plaque score of the carotid arteries as well as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, each of which is a parameter for determining arteriosclerosis status. The average level of GCF-Lf was 0.29 ± 0.36 µg/mL and that of GCF-AT was 0.31 ± 0.66 µg/mL, with significant correlation between the two (r = 0.701, P arteriosclerosis parameters (ie, max IMT, plaque score, baPWV, and FMD) and GCF-Lf or GCF-AT.No correlation between the GCF biomarkers and the severity of arteriosclerosis was detected. This result may suggest that worsening of the periodontal condition assessed by GCF biomarkers is not a major potential risk factor for arteriosclerosis.

  16. APOL1 Risk Alleles Are Associated With More Severe Arteriosclerosis in Renal Resistance Vessels With Aging and Hypertension

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    Michael D. Hughson


    Discussion: With the limitation of the small number of subjects contributing to the positive results, the findings imply that APOL1 risk alleles recessively augment small-vessel arteriosclerosis in conjunction with age and hypertension. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was not a significant finding, indicating that in the early stages of arterionephrosclerosis, the primary pathologic influence of APOL1 genotype is vascular rather than glomerular.

  17. Unaltered levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in the absence of the B cell homing chemokine receptor CXCR5. (United States)

    Ensminger, Stephan M; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Ohl, Lars; Spriewald, Bernd M; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Förster, Reinhold


    Chemokine receptors and their ligands are crucial for lymphocyte trafficking under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. The chemokine receptor CXCR5 controls B cell migration and the organization of B cell follicles. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CXCR5 on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched BALB/c (H2(d)) donor aortas were transplanted into C57BL/6-CXCR5(-/-) (H2(b)), C57BL/6-CXCR5(+/-) (H2(b)) or C57BL/6-CXCR5(+/+) (H2(b)) recipients. Grafts were analysed by morphometry and immunofluorescence and intra-graft cytokine mRNA production was analysed by RT-PCR. Transplant arteriosclerosis was evident in CXCR5+/+ and CXCR5+/- mice and only mildly reduced in CXCR5-/- recipients indicating that absence of CXCR5 had no substantial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Analysis of the cellular infiltrate of aortic grafts implanted in CXCR5-/- recipients revealed no differences in the number of T-cells, macrophages and B cells as compared to controls. Intra-graft cytokine production showed no significant changes in Th1 (IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines as well as in TGF-beta and iNOS production. These data suggest that lack of CXCR5 expression by recipient T- and B-cells has little effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  18. Mouse model of alloimmune-induced vascular rejection and transplant arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Enns, Winnie; von Rossum, Anna; Choy, Jonathan


    Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.

  19. On the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis from treating turbid blood%脑动脉硬化症从血浊论治探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩萍; 周永红; 唐明; 郭瑞友


    The thesis explores the mechanism of the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis from treating turbid blood by exploring the correlation between the turbid blood and cerebral arteriosclerosis, it elaborates that turbid blood is the pathological pivot of cerebral arteriosclerosis, therefore, purifying turbid blood is a vital measure in preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis.%从血浊与脑动脉硬化症发病的相关性入手,深入探讨脑动脉硬化症从血浊论治的机理,论述血浊是脑动脉硬化症发病的病理枢纽,而清化血浊法为防治脑动脉硬化症的重要措施。

  20. Feasibility of microvascular head and neck reconstruction in the setting of calcified arteriosclerosis of the vascular pedicle. (United States)

    Lee, Matthew K; Blackwell, Keith E; Kim, Brandon; Nabili, Vishad


    OBJECTIVE To report outcomes in free flap reconstructive surgery in the setting of calcified arteriosclerosis affecting the flap pedicle. DESIGN Retrospective review, including a detailed analysis of medical records, histopathologic findings, and a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A total of 1329 consecutive microvascular free tissue transfers were performed by 2 reconstructive surgeons at a university-affiliated tertiary care medical center from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2011. Clinical notes, operative notes, and pathology reports were systematically reviewed to identify 44 patients (3%) with calcified arteriosclerosis involving the flap vascular pedicle. A comprehensive medical record review was performed for the included patients, detailing patient-related characteristics, flap survival, and incidence of perioperative complications. RESULTS A history of arteriosclerosis was identified preoperatively in 18 patients (41%). Eight patients (18%) were specifically recognized clinically and histologically to have a variant of arteriosclerosis known as Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis. In total, fibula osteocutaneous free flap was performed in 30 patients, radial forearm in 8 patients, rectus abdominus in 3 patients, latissimus dorsi in 2 patients, and parascapular in 1 patient. Perioperative complications occurred in 17 patients (39%), with the most common being pulmonary (14%) and cardiac (9%). Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 137 months, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 21 months. The mean length of hospital stay was 12 days. There was a 0% incidence of total flap failure and a 7% incidence of partial flap necrosis. CONCLUSION Although technically challenging, successful microvascular free flap reconstruction can be achieved despite the presence of vascular calcifications affecting the flap vascular pedicle.

  1. Effect of Ligustrazine Injection on Vascular Endothelial Cell of The Patients with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To study the effect of ligustrazine injection (LI) on vascular endothelial cell of the patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and explore the new pathway of investigating effective vascular protective agents in Chinese medicinal herbs. Methods: Forty-six patients with ASO in the LI group treated by LI were observed, their circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were detected quantitatively before and after treatment. The results were compared with the CEC of 53 cases of healthy persons (control group) in the same period. Results: In the LI group, the immediate cure rate was 45.7% (21 cases), markedly effective rate 36.9% (17 cases) and the effective rate 17.4% (8 cases). The CEC of patients before treatment was 4.39±1.76/0.9μl, which was significantly higher than that of the healthy persons (1.53±0.42/0.9μl). It could be reduced after treatment, along with the improvement of symptoms and signs, to 2.43±0.87/0.9μl, P<0.01. Conclusion: LI in treating ASO not only displays extraordinary effect, but also has good effect in curing the damage of endothelial cells.

  2. Papel de los macrófagos en la patogénesis de la arteriosclerosis

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    Quintana Varón María del Pilar


    Full Text Available La arteriosclerosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria que es responsable del 50% de las muertes del mundo
    occidental por desencadenar complicaciones coronarias graves. Se produce por la acumulación excesiva de
    colesterol proveniente del torrente sanguíneo en la íntima arterial de arterias medias y grandes. Los monocitos circulantes se adhieren al endotelio activado y se diferencian en macrófagos al interior de la íntima
    arterial, donde se desempeñan como recolectores del exceso de colesterol. Desde ahí liberan citoquinas,
    proteasas, especies reactivas de oxigeno y factores de crecimiento que potencian la reacción inflamatoria,
    desempeñando un papel esencial en la patogénesis de la enfermedad. La población creciente de macrófagos
    eventualmente entra en apoptosis y necrosis, haciendo cada vez más grande e inestable la lesión arteriosclerótica, lo que en último momento es el detonante de las complicaciones clínicas graves que pueden terminar en la muerte del paciente.

  3. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Hideo (Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan)); Nomura, Makoto; Yamada, Yoshio; Abe, Hiroshi


    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author).

  4. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model. (United States)

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M


    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  5. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects. (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki


    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  6. Lycopene Ameliorates Transplant Arteriosclerosis in Vascular Allograft Transplantation by Regulating the NO/cGMP Pathways and Rho-Associated Kinases Expression. (United States)

    He, Yunqiang; Xia, Peng; Jin, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Bicheng; Xu, Ziqiang


    Objective. Transplant arteriosclerosis is considered one of the major factors affecting the survival time of grafts after organ transplantation. In this study, we proposed a hypothesis of whether lycopene can protect grafted vessels through regulating key proteins expression involved in arteriosclerosis. Methods. Allogeneic aortic transplantation was performed using Brow-Norway rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. After transplantation, the recipients were divided into two groups: the allograft group and the lycopene group. Negative control rats (isograft group) were also established. Histopathological staining was performed to observe the pathological changes, and the expression levels of Ki-67, caspase-3, Rho-associated kinases, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), and eNOS were assessed. Western blotting analysis and real-time PCR were also performed for quantitative analysis. Results. The histopathological staining showed that vascular stenosis and intimal thickening were not evident after lycopene treatment. The Ki-67, ROCK1, ROCK2, and ICAM-1 expression levels were significantly decreased. However, eNOS expression in grafted arteries and plasma cGMP concentration were increased after lycopene treatment. Conclusions. Lycopene could alleviate vascular arteriosclerosis in allograft transplantation via downregulating Rho-associated kinases and regulating key factor expression through the NO/cGMP pathways, which may provide a potentially effective method for transplant arteriosclerosis in clinical organ transplantation.

  7. Blood pressure in young adults with and without a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease in Europe: the EARS study. [European arteriosclerosis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masana, L.; Farinaro, E.; Henauw, S. de; Nicaud, V.


    Objective : The European Arteriosclerosis Study (EARS) was designed to identify variables which discriminate subjects with a paternal history of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) from controls and to study the distribution of these variables across Europe. In this article we report on the blood

  8. Lycopene Ameliorates Transplant Arteriosclerosis in Vascular Allograft Transplantation by Regulating the NO/cGMP Pathways and Rho-Associated Kinases Expression (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Jin, Hao; Zhang, Yan


    Objective. Transplant arteriosclerosis is considered one of the major factors affecting the survival time of grafts after organ transplantation. In this study, we proposed a hypothesis of whether lycopene can protect grafted vessels through regulating key proteins expression involved in arteriosclerosis. Methods. Allogeneic aortic transplantation was performed using Brow-Norway rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. After transplantation, the recipients were divided into two groups: the allograft group and the lycopene group. Negative control rats (isograft group) were also established. Histopathological staining was performed to observe the pathological changes, and the expression levels of Ki-67, caspase-3, Rho-associated kinases, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), and eNOS were assessed. Western blotting analysis and real-time PCR were also performed for quantitative analysis. Results. The histopathological staining showed that vascular stenosis and intimal thickening were not evident after lycopene treatment. The Ki-67, ROCK1, ROCK2, and ICAM-1 expression levels were significantly decreased. However, eNOS expression in grafted arteries and plasma cGMP concentration were increased after lycopene treatment. Conclusions. Lycopene could alleviate vascular arteriosclerosis in allograft transplantation via downregulating Rho-associated kinases and regulating key factor expression through the NO/cGMP pathways, which may provide a potentially effective method for transplant arteriosclerosis in clinical organ transplantation. PMID:28050227

  9. Lycopene Ameliorates Transplant Arteriosclerosis in Vascular Allograft Transplantation by Regulating the NO/cGMP Pathways and Rho-Associated Kinases Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang He


    Full Text Available Objective. Transplant arteriosclerosis is considered one of the major factors affecting the survival time of grafts after organ transplantation. In this study, we proposed a hypothesis of whether lycopene can protect grafted vessels through regulating key proteins expression involved in arteriosclerosis. Methods. Allogeneic aortic transplantation was performed using Brow-Norway rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. After transplantation, the recipients were divided into two groups: the allograft group and the lycopene group. Negative control rats (isograft group were also established. Histopathological staining was performed to observe the pathological changes, and the expression levels of Ki-67, caspase-3, Rho-associated kinases, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, and eNOS were assessed. Western blotting analysis and real-time PCR were also performed for quantitative analysis. Results. The histopathological staining showed that vascular stenosis and intimal thickening were not evident after lycopene treatment. The Ki-67, ROCK1, ROCK2, and ICAM-1 expression levels were significantly decreased. However, eNOS expression in grafted arteries and plasma cGMP concentration were increased after lycopene treatment. Conclusions. Lycopene could alleviate vascular arteriosclerosis in allograft transplantation via downregulating Rho-associated kinases and regulating key factor expression through the NO/cGMP pathways, which may provide a potentially effective method for transplant arteriosclerosis in clinical organ transplantation.

  10. The Origin of Neointimal Smooth Muscle Cells in Transplant Arteriosclerosis from Recipient Bone-marrow Cells in Rat Aortic Allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zifang; LI Wei; ZHENG Qichang; SHANG Dan; SHU Xiaogang; GUAN Siming


    In order to investigate the origin of neointimal smooth muscle cells in transplant arteriosclerosis in rat aortic allograft, sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation was performed from male Wistar rats to female Wistar rats. Four weeks after transplantation, the aortic transplant model was established by means of micro-surgery in rats. The recipients were divided into 4 groups: female Wistar-female Wistar aortic isografts, female SD-female Wistar aortic allografts, male SD-male Wistar aortic allografts, female SD-chimera Wistar aortic allografts. Eight weeks after transplantation, aortic grafts were removed at autopsy and processed for histological evaluation and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that excessive accumulation of α-SMA-positive smooth muscle cells resulted in significant neointima formation and vascular lumen stricture in rat aortic allografts.Neointima assay revealed that the neointimal area and NIA/MA ratio of transplanted artery were significantly increased in all of aortic allograft groups as compared with those in aortic isograft group (P<0.01). Neointimal smooth muscle cells were harvested from cryostat sections of aortic allograft by microdissection method. The Sry gene-specific PCR was performed, and the result showed that a distinct DNA band of 225 bp emerged in the male-male aortic allograft group and chimera aortic allograft group respectively, but not in the female-female aortic allograft group. It was suggested that recipient bone-marrow cells, as the origin of neointimal smooth muscle cells, contributed to the pathological neointimal hyperplasia of aortic allograft and transplant arteriosclerosis.

  11. Longitudinal left ventricular myocardial dysfunction assessed by 2D colour tissue Doppler imaging in a dog with systemic hypertension and severe arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Nicolle, A P; Carlos Sampedrano, C; Fontaine, J J; Tessier-Vetzel, D; Goumi, V; Pelligand, L; Pouchelon, J-L; Chetboul, V


    A 12-year-old sexually intact male Vendee Griffon Basset was presented for acute pulmonary oedema. Severe systemic systolic arterial hypertension (SAH) was diagnosed (290 mmHg). Despite blood and abdominal ultrasound tests, the underlying cause of the systemic hypertension could not be determined, and primary SAH was therefore suspected. Conventional echocardiography showed eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy with normal fractional shortening. Despite this apparent normal systolic function, 2D colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) identified a marked longitudinal systolic left ventricular myocardial alteration, whereas radial function was still preserved. Three months later, the dog underwent euthanasia because of an acute episode of distal aortic thromboembolism. Necropsy revealed severe aortic and iliac arteriosclerosis. SAH related to arteriosclerosis is a common finding in humans, but has not been previously described in dogs. Moreover, its consequence on longitudinal myocardial function using TDI has never been documented before in this species.

  12. The Association between Polymorphism of CARD8 rs2043211 and Susceptibility to Arteriosclerosis Obliterans in Chinese Han Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang


    Full Text Available Background and aims: Cholesterol crystals have been shown to cause inflammation. As a response to cholesterol crystal accumulation, the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated to produce IL-1β which eventually leads to atherosclerotic lesions. As a part of innate immunity, CARD8 is involved in the modulation of above mentioned inflammatory activities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphism of CARD8 rs2043211 and susceptibility to arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO in Chinese Han male population. Methods: 758 male arteriosclerosis obliterans patients and 793 male controls were genotyped for rs2043211 with the TaqMan allele assays. Fasting blood-glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, urea nitrogen, creatinine, Serum uric acid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, ALT, AST, and IL-1β in the blood were detected for all subjects. Clinical data were recorded to analyze the genotype-phenotype. Independent samples t-test was used to perform the comparisons between two groups. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to measure the strength of relationship in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies between patients and controls. The analysis of variance was used for a genotype-phenotype analysis of the ASO patients. Results: The genotypic and allelic frequencies in the ASO group were significantly different from that in the control group (P = 0.014 by genotype, P = 0.003 by allele. Those carrying the genotype TT had a higher risk for ASO than those carrying the genotype AA (OR = 1.494, 95%CI1.131-1.974, P = 0.005.The difference was also significant after the adjustment for the history of smoking, TC, LDL, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure and BMI(OR = 1.525, 95%CI1.158-2.009, P = 0.003. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the polymorphism of CARD8 rs2043211 is probably associated with the development of ASO in Chinese Han male

  13. Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induces TGF-β Signaling-Dependent Host Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Promote Transplant Arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Li, J; Xiong, J; Yang, B; Zhou, Q; Wu, Y; Luo, H; Zhou, H; Liu, N; Li, Y; Song, Z; Zheng, Q


    Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis is an initial event in transplant arteriosclerosis (TA), resulting in allograft function loss. To elucidate the precise mechanisms of ECs apoptosis leading to neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) accumulation during TA. We induced apoptosis in cultured ECs by overexpressing p53 through lentivirus-mediated transfection. ECs apoptosis induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in both apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, leading to increased TGF-β1 in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transfected ECs further promoted transition of cultured ECs to SM-like cells by activating TGF-β/Smad3, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and MAPK/ERK signaling in a TGF-β-dependent manner. In transgenic rat aorta transplantation models, inhibition of ECs apoptosis in Bcl-xL(+/+) knock-in rat aortic allografts significantly reduced TGF-β1 production both in allograft endothelia and in blood plasma, which in turn decreased accumulation of SM22α+ cells from transgenic recipient ECs originally marked with EGFP knock-in in neointima and alleviated TA. Systemic treatment with SIS3, AP23573, or PD98059 also prevented recipient ECs-originated SM-like cells accumulation and intima hyperplasia in aortic allografts. These data suggest that allograft EC apoptosis induced recipient endothelial-mesenchymal (smooth muscle) transition via TGF-β signaling, resulting in recipient EC-derived SMC accumulation as a major mechanism of vascular remodeling during TA.

  14. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy. (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A


    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  15. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects]. (United States)

    Kucharska, Ewa


    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities.

  16. 中老年健康体检人群眼底动脉硬化与高血压相关性分析%Correlation between classification of retinal arteriosclerosis and classification of hypertension in middle - aged and aged people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱波; 张艳


    目的:了解中老年人群眼底动脉硬化分级与高血压分级的关系.方法:从2010年在华东疗养院进行健康体检的45岁及以上人群中随机抽取1827人的体检资料进行统计分析.结果:检出眼底动脉硬化753人,其中患有高血压者501人,与Ⅰ级眼底动脉硬化患者比较,Ⅱ级眼底动脉硬化患者高血压2、3级比例明显增大(2级:19.8%比31.0%,3级:14.5%比53.2%,P均<0.05).结论:高血压是眼底动脉硬化的危险因素,定期体检是发现和防治眼动脉硬化的关键.%Objective: To study correlation between classification of retinal arteriosclerosis and classification of hypertension in middle-aged and aged people. Methods: Physical examination data of 1827 peoples who were ≥45 years old and underwent physical examination in Huadong Sanatorium in 2010 were randomly selected for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 753 peoples with retinal arteriosclerosis were detected in 1827 peoples, including 501 peoples with hypertension. Compared with patients with retinal arteriosclerosis grade I , ratios of patients with hypertension stage 2 and 3 significantly increased in patients with retinal arteriosclerosis grade 1 (stage 2- 19. 8% vs. 31.0%, stage 3: 14.5% vs. 53.2%, P < 0.05 both). Conclusion: Hypertension is a risk factor for retinal arteriosclerosis. Taking physical examination regularly are keys for detection, prevention and cure of retinal arteriosclerosis.

  17. 复合技术治疗下肢动脉硬化疗效分析%The efficacy of combined procedures for arteriosclerosis obliterations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斐; 刘俊超; 王洛波; 丁语; 李攀峰; 李阳; 王兵


    Objective To explore the treatment of multifocal lower extremity arteriosclerosis oblitera-tions. Methods From March 2014 to September 2014, combined procedures were performed on 30 lower limbs in 30 patients with multifocal lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterations for revascularization. All the patients underwent endovascular , 20 of whom received endarterectomy , 10 received artery emboloctomy , and 8 received profundaplasty. The rates of technical success and clinical success were observed. The patients were followed up for 6-12 months to observe the total patency rate and rate of limb reservation. Results The technical success rate was 100%. The perioperative complication rate was 30% (9/30). 29 limbs gained improvement with differ-ent degree and the clinical success rate was 96.67% (29/30). The ankle-brachial index elevated 0.37 ± 0.19 on average (P < 0.001). Primary patency rate was 90% and 73% at 6 and 12 months, and 12-month limb reserva-tion rate was 97.67%. Conclusions The combined procedures for complex lower extremity arteriosclerosis oblit-erations have a higher short- to mid-term patency rate and limb reservation rate.%目地:探讨多节段下肢动脉硬化的治疗手段及临床疗效。方法:2014年3月至2014年9月,用复合技术对30例(30条患肢)多节段下肢动脉硬化患者行血运重建,30例患者均行血管腔内技术,20例行动脉内膜剥脱术,10例行动脉取栓术,8例加行股深动脉成形术。观察技术成功率,并发症发生率。随访6~12个月,观察整体通畅率和救肢率。结果:技术成功率为100%,围手术期并发症发生率为30%(9/30)。术后29例患者均有不同程度症状改善,临床成功率为96.67%,踝肱指数平均提高了0.37±0.19(P <0.05)。术后6、12个月一期通畅率分别为90%和73%,12个月救肢率为97.67%。结论:复合技术治疗多节段下肢动脉硬化具有较高的短-中期通畅率和救肢率。

  18. Usefulness of preoperative coronary angiography and brain computed tomography in cases of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease undergoing revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Tall; Shibata, Yoshiki [Southern Tohoku Fukushima Hospital (Japan)


    Coronary angiography and brain computed tomography were preoperatively performed to evaluate the clinical condition of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease in 101 patients (mean age, 68.4 years) with revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans. Eighty patients had hypertension, 12 had diabetes, and 26 had hyperlipidemia. Seventy-one patients (70.3%) had coronary stenosis. Significant stenoses in major coronary artery branches were confirmed in 35 patients, including 13 patients with old myocardial infarction. Coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary angioplasty were performed in 2 and 7 patients with critical stenosis, respectively. Of 57 patients, who underwent brain computed tomography, abnormalities were found in 52 patients (91.2%), including cortical infarction in 9, lacunar infarction in 35, and leukoaraiosis in 27 patients. During the follow-up period 13 patients died (including 3 cases of myocardial infarction and 3 cases of stroke). Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 80.4%. The influence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease on early and late mortality after surgical reconstruction for peripheral occlusive vascular disease is significant. Using visual diagnostic techniques, such as coronary angiography and brain computed tomography, long term survivor should be closely observed for multiple arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. (author)

  19. [The use of a synthetic vascular artificial prosthesis or arterial homograft in cases of patients with the arteriosclerosis and terminal insufficiency of kidney cured by the kidney transplantation]. (United States)

    Pupka, Artur; Blocher, Dariusz; Staniszewski, Tomasz; Płonek, Tomasz; Bogdan, Justyna


    Arterial transplantations were practiced in the vascular surgery since the beginning of her formation but without successes in the distant observation. Transplantation of a kidney is a routine conduct in the treatment of the decadent incapacity of a kidney. The dissertation concerns a use of arterial allografts kept using a method of a cold ischaemia in the protective liquid or synthetic vascular dacron artificial limbs or PTFE used as arterial foot-bridges at patients with the atherosclerotic obstruction aortal-pelvic, treated with the kidney transplantation. The arterial transplant is created from the aorta, arteria iliacas common and externa, femoral arteries common and superficial. A tissue material is kept using the method of the cold ischaemia and practical as the aortal foot-bridge-femoral or aortal-two-femoral at classified earlier patients being subjecteds to transfusion. The other way of a transplantation of a kidney at patients with the arteriosclerosis is the realization earlier or one-temporarily the vascular foot-bridge with use of the synthetic artificial limb. It seems that vascular artificial limbs about enlarged resistance on the contagion should be used in such a case. Sonographic examinations with duplex doppler and angiography are performed in all cases. The analysis of such cures can make a creation of the most profitable algorithm of the conduct possible in cases of patients suffering from ischaemia of lower limbs and requiring a transplantation of a kidney because of its incapacity.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 potentiates mesenchymal stem cell-induced IL-10+IFN-γ+CD4+ regulatory T cells to control transplant arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Jui, Hsiang-Yiang; Wu, Kenneth Kun-Yu; Lee, Chii-Ming


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their immunomodulatory functions. We previously demonstrated that bone marrow-derived MSCs effectively control transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) by enhancing IL-10(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which MSCs induce IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) regulatory T type 1 (T(R)1)-like cells. In an MLR system using porcine PBMCs, MSC-induced IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells, which confer resistance to allogeneic proliferation in an IL-10-dependent manner, resemble T(R)1-like cells. Both cyclooxygenase-derived PGE(2) and IDO help to induce T(R)1-like cells by MSCs. MSCs constitutively secrete PGE(2), which is augmented in allogeneic reactions. However, T(R)1-like cells were deficient in PGE(2) and 4-fold less potent than were MSCs in suppressing MLR. PGE(2) mimetic supplements can enhance the immunosuppressive potency of T(R)1-like cells. In a porcine model of allogeneic femoral arterial transplantation, MSC-induced T(R)1-like cells combined with PGE(2), but not either alone, significantly reduced TA at the end of 6 wk (percentage of luminal area stenosis: T(R)1-like cells + PGE(2): 11 ± 10%; PGE(2) alone: 93 ± 8.7%; T(R)1-like cells alone: 88 ± 2.4% versus untreated 94 ± 0.9%, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that PGE(2) helps MSC-induced IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) T(R)1-like cells inhibit TA. PGE(2) combined with MSC-induced T(R)1-like cells represents a new approach for achieving immune tolerance.

  1. Melatonin Attenuates Aortic Endothelial Permeability and Arteriosclerosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of MLCK- and MLCP-Dependent MLC Phosphorylation. (United States)

    Tang, Song-tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-qin; Wang, Chang-jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-qing; Wang, Yuan


    The development of diabetic macrovascular complications is a multifactorial process, and melatonin may possess cardiovascular protective properties. This study was designed to evaluate whether melatonin attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial permeability by suppressing the myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/myosin light-chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) system via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway or by suppressing the myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit phosphorylation (p-MYPT)/p-MLC system in diabetes mellitus (DM). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, high-fat diet, DM, and DM + melatonin groups. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. The DM significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which were attenuated by melatonin therapy to various extents. Importantly, the aortic endothelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was dramatically reversed following treatment with melatonin. Our findings further indicated that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia enhanced the expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which were partly associated with decreased membrane type 1 expression, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and increased p38 expression. However, these changes in protein expression were also significantly reversed by melatonin. Thus, our results are the first to demonstrate that the endothelial hyperpermeability induced by DM is associated with increased expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which can be attenuated by melatonin at least partly through the ERK/p38 signaling pathway.

  2. Study of Pathogenesis and Psychological Factors of Heart Disease of Coro nary Arteriosclerosis%冠状动脉硬化性心脏病的发病机理与心理因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Coronary arteriosclerosis is the most common cause of de ath.The author reviewed many articles concerning the etiological risk factorts of this disease ,and based on the author's own experiences and view points,and then summarized t he pathogenesis and etiological risk factors of the diseases as follows:①life e vents;②charactors of personality-type A of behaviour;③negative mood;④Diet;⑤B ad addictions.Well treatment of these factors is effective orientations and meth ods for prevention of coronary arteriosclerosis.%冠心病为死亡原因最高的疾病,探究其发病机理为预防此病的要旨。 作者复习了有关 此病的文献,加上作者自己对它的经验体会,加以阐述。其发病机理与危险因素有下列诸点 :①生活事件;②A型行为类型;③负性情绪;④饮食因素;⑤不良嗜好。根据这些因素采 取积极措施,为预防此病的主要方向。

  3. Clinical research of artery detector combined with aggregative indicator for arteriosclerosis%应用动脉检测仪联合综合指标对动脉硬化的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:通过使用动脉硬化检测仪这一无创方法了解血管疾病,及早干预并治疗,可降低心脑血管疾病的突发事件几率。方法通过对40岁以上高危人群以体检筛查的方式,应用联合检测指标共同分析、诊断血管疾病。从而有针对性的起到早期干预、早期治疗的目的。结果动脉硬化在40岁以上人群中发病率较高,超过50%的人均有不同程度周围血管硬化。引起动脉硬化的病因中高危因素依次是高血压、高脂血症、抽烟。结论这种检测方法简便、快捷、针对性强,可提高人民群众生活质量,对心脑血管疾病起到防患于未然的作用,对临床意义大重大。%Objective To understand vascular disease by using arteriosclerosis detector, and to provide early intervention treatment in order to reduce incidence of emergency in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Methods Physical screening method was applied for high-risk group older than 40-year-old, and aggregative indicator was used for combined analysis and diagnosis of vascular disease, so as to achieve the aim of early prevention and treatment.Results Incidence of arteriosclerosis was high in people over 40-year-old, and more than 50% of those had various degree of peripheral vascular sclerosis. High-risk factors in causing arteriosclerosis were successively hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and smoking.Conclusion This detection method is easy, quick and position-relevant, and it can improve people’s life quality, and provide protective effect for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It has important clinical value.

  4. 膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症的介入治疗%Treatment and Research of Arteriosclerosis Obliterians for Infrapopliteal Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 张志伟; 吴继东; 刘宏; 赵京; 李新宇


    Objective:To investigate the approaches , nodi, therapies of complications and prognosis of endovascular treatment for patients with infrapopliteal arteries arteriosclerosis obliterians ( ASO) .Methods:We conducted endovascular treatment for 72 patients ( 84 limbs ) between January 2008 and December 2012 and punctured femoral artery antegrade or retrograde , made lower extremity artery angiography , then used guide wire and catheter getting through the artery stenosis or occlusion .If failed, subintimal angioplasty was tried .Balloon was introduced with guiding wire to dilatating the vascular .After expansion , artery angiography was made to e-valuate if there existed residual stenosis , when residual stenosis was greater than 30%, tried again .If arterial dissection occurred , drug-coated stent was implanted .Results:84 limbs underwent endovascular treatment and 82 achieved angiographic success with 97.6%clinical success rate .16 cases with intermittent claudication in-creased claudicating distance of 500 m (50-2 500 m), resting pain of 43 cases lightened or disappeared , toe ulcer of 8 cases healed with dressing change after 3 months, 1 toe ulcer case autologous saphenous vein bypass because of in-stent thrombosis.3 cases with toe gangrene took operations and the wound healed in 3 months.1 case with anterior half foot gangrene took below -knee amputation .Conclusions:Endovascular treatment is a safe and effective method for infrapopliteal arteries ASO , and which can be repeated , achieve a high clinical success rate with a low complication rate and a high limb salvage rate .%目的:探讨膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症腔内治疗的方法、难点、并发症处理以及预后。方法:2008年1月至2011年12月,采用介入方法治疗膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症72例(84条肢体)。采取股总动脉顺行或逆行穿刺,下肢动脉造影,以导丝配合导管通过动脉狭窄段,或开通动脉闭塞段;开通失败者,尝试内膜下

  5. 股腘动脉TASCⅡ C、D型病变的旁路转流与腔内治疗%Interventional therapy vs arterial bypass surgery for TASC Ⅱ C and D lesions of femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 孙思翘; 程志华; 孙喜伟; 王中英; 张阳; 赵文光; 王琦


    目的 总结泛大西洋协作组织(TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus,TASC Ⅱ)C、D型股腘动脉闭塞性病变腔内介入治疗及旁路转流手术的治疗经验.方法 回顾性分析2009年1月至2013年12月经腔内介入治疗或旁路转流手术的TASCⅡ C、D型股腘动脉闭塞性病变患者的临床资料,随访146例(167条肢体),腔内介入治疗68例(73条),旁路转流手术78例(94条),分析2组患者一般资料、围手术期情况及远期通畅率、保肢率等.结果 2组保肢率(97.3%和97.9%)差异无统计学意义(x2=0.066,P>0.05);转流组术后36个月一期通畅率(71.7%)优于腔内组(42.1%)(x2=5.070,P<0.05);转流组12、24、36个月二期通畅率为94.2%、89.6%、85.1%,优于腔内组的83.1%、72.2%、57.9%,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为4.823、5.103、5.476,P值均<0.05).转流组再狭窄、闭塞以吻合口内膜增生为主,腔内组以支架内内膜增生居多(x2=10.041,P<0.05).结论 对于TASC ⅡC、D型病变,旁路转流手术仍是首选.%Objective To summarize the treatment experience of interventional therapy in comparison with arterial bypass surgery for TASC Ⅱ C and D lesions of femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterance.Methods This is a retrospective study on 146 cases (167 limbs) receiving interventional therapy or arterial bypass surgery for TASC Ⅱ C and D lesions of femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterance from January 2009 to December 2013.Results The limb salvage rates of the two groups were 97.3% and 97.9%,respectively (x2 =0.066,P >0.05).For bypass surgery group,the primary patency rate of 36-month post-operation was 71.7% which was higher than the rate of interventional therapy group (x2 =5.070,P < 0.05);the secondary patency rates of 12-,24-,36-month post-operation were 94.2%,89.6%,85.1%,which were higher than the rates of interventional therapy group (x2 =4.823,5.103 and 5.476,P < 0.05).The main reasons for

  6. Evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for treatment of infrapopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans%经皮腔内血管成形术治疗膝下动脉粥样硬化闭塞症的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉超; 黄英; 李维敏; 陆信武; 黄新天; 陆民; 蒋米尔


    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty ( PTA )on the treatment of infrapopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans( ASOs ). Methods From Jan. 2007 to Jun. 2011, clinical data of patients with infrapopliteal ASO undergoing PTA at our department were retrospectively reviewed. Results Infrapopliteal PTA was performed on 138 lower limbs for 138 patients( mean age,77. 31 ±7. 52 year - old ). The mean diameter of balloon catheters used for infrapopliteal arteries was 2. 8 mm( 2 mm ~4 mm ), with the mean length of 110. 6 mm( 40 mm ~ 170 mm ). There were no severe complications occurring intraoperatively or postoperatively. Early results showed that all patients had significant improvement in ischemic symptoms( 100% ), and no patients had limb loss. During a mean follow -up of 24. 1 months( 4 ~ 58 months ), the rate of improvement in ischemic symptoms for treated limbs was 78. 4% and the limb salvage rate was 93. 9% at 2 years. Conclusion Minimal invasive PTA for the treatment of infrapopliteal ASO is safe and effective for improving ischemic symptoms of lower limbs and limb salvage.%目的 评价经皮腔内血管成形术(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,PTA)治疗膝下动脉粥样硬化闭塞症(arteriosclerosis obliterans,ASO)的疗效.方法 回顾性研究2007年1月至2011年6月我科收治的累及膝下动脉ASO并行PTA治疗的患者的临床资料.结果 138例患者,平均年龄(77.31±7.52)岁,治疗膝下动脉所用球囊平均直径 2.8mm(2~4mm),平均长度110.6mm(40~170mm),术中及术后无严重并发症.术后早期治疗肢体临床症状明显改善率为100%,无截肢患者.平均随访24.1个月(4~58个月),治疗肢体术后2年临床症状明显改善率78.4%,救肢率93.9%.结论 PTA治疗膝下动脉ASO可有效改善临床缺血症状并提高救肢率.

  7. Applications of TCD assay in detection on cerebral arteriosclerosis of hypertensive patients%经颅多普勒超声在高血压患者脑动脉硬化检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 研究健康体检中高血压患者脑动脉硬化经颅多普勒(TCD)检测的应用.方法 回顾性分析2010年7月~2011年7月在开封市第一人民医院体检科进行健康体检中高血压患者1 055例TCD检测结果及相关临床资料(年龄、性别、临床诊断、遗传病史等),研究TCD改变与临床的关系,为血压增高者的脑血管功能学评价提供客观血流动力学资料.结果 进行TCD检查的1 055例被检者中,脑动脉硬化频谱改变518例;颈内动脉系统单支或多支血管收缩期血流速度增高703例,其中,涡流及湍流54例;收缩期血流速度减低16例;椎基底动脉系统收缩期血流速度增高599例、减低8例.由统计学分析可知,除在男70~90岁组、女60~组外,余病例组动脉硬化检出率均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义.在去除年龄因素的作用后,可认为男、女高血压患病均与动脉硬化有关(CMH x 男2=52.384,x 女2=13.747,均P<0.001);另ORMH 男=2.861,ORMH 女=1.718,说明男性高血压患者发生脑动脉硬化的优势比为2.861、女性高血压患者发生脑动脉硬化的优势比为1.718.TCD检测异常率高于被检者对相关疾病的知晓率.结论 TCD检测可较灵敏地反映高血压时脑血管的血流动力学改变,在高血压患者脑动脉硬化的血管功能学评价及指导临床治疗中具有重要意义.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the applications of TCD detection in physical examination of cerebral arteriosclerosis of hypertensive patients. METHODS We reviewed and analyzed the 1 055 samples of hypertension patients in Health Examination Department of Kaifeng First People's Hospital with their TCD inspected results and clinical data including of age, gender, clinical diagnosis and genetic disease from July 2010 to July 2011. Then we investigated the relationship between changes of TCD and clinical phenomenons to provide objective hemodynamic data of cerebral vascular functional

  8. 血管介入治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症20例分析研究%Clinical Analysis of 20 Cases of Arteriosclerosis Occlusive Disease of Lower Extremity Treated with Vascular Interventional Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解海霞; 金荣


    Objective To analyze 20 cases of endovascular treatment of lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans patients. Methods Hospital from May 2014 to May 2015 using endovascular treatment of lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans 20 patients during 28 limbs, simple to use, compared with 16 interventional treatment of limb limbs intervention combined surgery is 12 limbs. Results 29 limbs were successfully carried out interventional and surgical treatment, after treatment of symptoms, ankle-brachial index was 0.52 ± 0.16, than preoperative index 0.32 ± 0.11 compared to the significantly improved <0.05.1 strip is used for treatment failure amputation, amputation was 0.36%. Treatment of one case of death within 30 days, the mortality rate was 5%. 20 patients were followed up for 1~72 months, an average of 36 months. Two cases of bypass graft thrombosis, 1 underwent surgical embolectomy, while applying artificial arteries anastomosis ball expanding stent, one case of knee amputation, one case is given conservative treatment. Two cases of iliac and femoral popliteal artery stent a secondary lower limb ischemia, 2 cases of stent occlusion, stenosis, compared with one case, two cases to be balloon-expandable stent secondary, one case of bypass surgery, the patient's symptoms after the adoption of the above treatment They were able to relieve lower extremity symptoms without recurrence. Conclusion The endovascular treatment of lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans significant effect, can substantially improve the symptoms of patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, so that the patient lower limb blood supply recovery, while reducing the incidence of cerebral infarction and amputation rate and mortality.%目的:分析20例血管介入治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者治疗效果。方法选择我院2014年5月~2015年5月运用血管介入治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者20例,其间28条肢体,单纯运用介入治疗肢体则为16条肢体,

  9. Efficacy of profound femoral artery revascularization on TASC type D arteriosclerosis obliterans%股深动脉优势供血治疗TASC D型动脉硬化下肢缺血的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田轩; 刘建龙; 贾伟; 蒋鹏; 程志远; 张蕴鑫; 田晨阳


    目的:探讨髂动脉通畅的泛大西洋协作组织共识(TASC) D型动脉硬化下肢缺血的治疗方式,比较股浅动脉支架植入术与股深动脉成形术的疗效。方法回顾性地分析2007年1月至2010年12月北京积水潭医院血管外科收治的32例TASC D型下肢缺血患者临床资料,随机分为股浅动脉治疗组(行股浅动脉球囊扩张+支架植入术)16例和股深动脉治疗组16例,并进行对照分析。通过对比手术前后踝肱指数(ABI)、手术后3年截肢率及症状改善情况评价两种方法的疗效。结果两组患者术后ABI均明显高于术前(P<0.05);且股浅动脉治疗组术后ABI高于股深动脉治疗组(P<0.05)。两组3年后跛行距离<200米和行截肢手术患者比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论髂动脉通畅的TASC D型动脉硬化下肢缺血患者,无论腔内股浅动脉支架植入术还是股深动脉成形术均可改善患者症状,增加肢体血供;股浅动脉支架植入对患者近期远端肢体血供改善优于股深动脉成形术。%ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of revascularization of profoundfemoral arteryversus superficial femoral artery on TASC type D arteriosclerosis obliterans.MethodsClinical data of45 cases of TASC type D arteriosclerosis obliteransadmitted in our hospital from January 2007 to December 2010 were collected andretrospectively analyzed.Sixteen patients received endovascular balloon dilation combined with stent implantation into superficial femoral artery, and another 16 patients underwentsimilarrevascularizationbut into profoundfemoral artery. The efficacy variables including ankle-brachialindex(ABI), amputation rate in 3 yearsafter surgery, and the relief of symptoms were used to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 approachesinthe32cases.ResultsRevascularizationresulted in significant increases in ABI in the 2 groups (P0.05).ConclusionForthe patients with

  10. 下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症介入治疗的回顾性分析%Interventional Revascularization of the Lower Limbs Arteriosclerosis Obliterans:A Retrospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正阳; 鲁海涛; 朱悦琦; 谭华桥; 赵俊功


    目的 回顾性分析下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症(arteriosclerosis obliterans,ASO)介入治疗的临床疗效和通畅率.方法 从2009年10月到2011年7月,32例(39条下肢)下肢ASO患者在上海交通大学附属第六人民医院行介入治疗.回顾性分析32例ASO患者的血管造影图像,根据病变长度和程度分级.对手术成功患者随访,随访期3 ~16个月,平均随访期(8.7±1.9)个月.随访期内每3个月进行一次下肢MRA或CTA检查,并搜集相关临床资料.结果 技术成功率93%,踝肱指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)从术前的0.47±0.11提高至术后的0.68±0.02,在随访期末20例取得了稳定疗效,总的通畅率为77%,保肢率为97%.结论 介入治疗ASO安全可行,取得了良好的临床效果及通畅率,其长期疗效尚需进一步观察.%Objective To retrospectively evaluated the clinical efficacy of interventional revascularization for lower limbs arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Methods From Oct 2009 to July 2011, 32 patients (39 limbs) with lower limbs ASO performed interventional revascularization in our center. Angiography was retrospectively analyzed, and every lesion categorized and classified according to its length and severity. The mean follow up period was 3 - 162 months, mean 8.7 ± 1.9 months. Lower limb magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed every 3 months during follow-up. The clinical data were collected. Results 93% technical success rate was obtained. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) improved from 0. 47 ±0. 11 to 0. 68 ± 0. 02. At the end of follow up, 20 patients maintained a stable outcome, gained a 77% patency rate and 97% limb salvage rate. Conclusion Interventional revascularization is safe and feasible in the treatment of lower limbs ASO. With encouraging clinical outcome and patency rate, further research is warranted to evaluate long-term outcome.

  11. 彩色多普勒超声诊断急性脑梗死患者颈动脉硬化病变价值的探讨%Color Doppler ultrasound of carotid arteriosclerosis with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 蓝春勇; 钟维章; 张步林


    Objective To evaluate the application of color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) on the carotid arteriosclerosis with acute cerebral infarction. Methods Thirty cases of carotid arteriosclerosis with acute cerebral infarction were investigated using CDU,and the ultrasound findings were compared with those of digital subtraction arteriography (DSA) which served as the diagnosis gold standard method. Kappa test was performed between the results of CDU and DSA. Results The sensitivity,specificity and accuracy of B-mode and color image in the diagnosis of above the moderate degree carotid artery stenosis and occlusion were 95.5 %, 94.7 % and 95.0 %, respectively. And CDU for above the moderate degree of stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 77.3%, 97.4% and 90.0%,respectively. Kappa test showed the agreement between CDU and DSA for the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis was good, CDU morphologic mensurate Kappa = 0. 787, CDU hemodynamics mensurate Kappa = 0.669. Conclusion The agreement between CDU and DSA in the evalution of carotid artery stenosis is good. For the most of moderate and serious degrees of stenosis,CDU is a substitution for DSA. Additionally, the therapeutic regimen could be decided on the basis of the findings of CDU for 70%-99% degree of stenosis.%目的 评价彩色多普勒超声(colorDoppler ultrasound,CDU)在诊断急性脑梗死患者颈动脉硬化病变的价值.方法 应用CDu对30倒急性脑梗死患者颅外段颈动脉血管检测.每例患者均同时行数字减影血管造影(DSA)检查,并将2种检查方法的结果进行一致性检验(Kappa检验).结果 以DSA检查结果为金标准,得出了二维彩色超声诊断颈动脉中重度以上狭窄及闭塞的敏感度、特异度及准确度分别为95.5%、94.7%、95.0%,CDU频谱诊断中重度以上狭窄及闭塞的敏感度、特异度及准确度分别为77.3%、97.4%、90.0%.一致性检验(Kappa检验)结果表明CDU和DSA2种方法的检查结果的一致性良

  12. MiR-142-3p attenuates the migration of CD4⁺ T cells through regulating actin cytoskeleton via RAC1 and ROCK2 in arteriosclerosis obliterans. (United States)

    Liu, Jiawei; Li, Wen; Wang, Siwen; Wu, Yidan; Li, Zilun; Wang, Wenjian; Liu, Ruiming; Ou, Jingsong; Zhang, Chunxiang; Wang, Shenming


    The migration of CD4+ T cells plays an important role in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in CD4+ T cell migration are still unclear. The current study is aimed to determine the expression change of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO and investigate its role in CD4+ T cell migration as well the potential mechanisms involved. We identified by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization that the expression of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells was significantly down-regulated in patients with ASO. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), a common inflammatory chemokine under the ASO condition, was able to down-regulate the expression of miR-142-3p in cultured CD4+ T cells. Up-regulation of miR-142-3p by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer had a strong inhibitory effect on CD4+ T cell migration both in cultured human cells in vitro and in mouse aortas and spleens in vivo. RAC1 and ROCK2 were identified to be the direct target genes in human CD4+ T cells, which are further confirmed by dual luciferase assay. MiR-142-3p had strong regulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton as shown by the actin staining in CD4+ T cells. The results suggest that the expression of miR-142-3p is down-regulated in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO. The down-regulation of miR-142-3p could increase the migration of CD4+ T cells to the vascular walls by regulation of actin cytoskeleton via its target genes, RAC1 and ROCK2.

  13. MiR-142-3p attenuates the migration of CD4⁺ T cells through regulating actin cytoskeleton via RAC1 and ROCK2 in arteriosclerosis obliterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Liu

    Full Text Available The migration of CD4+ T cells plays an important role in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in CD4+ T cell migration are still unclear. The current study is aimed to determine the expression change of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO and investigate its role in CD4+ T cell migration as well the potential mechanisms involved. We identified by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization that the expression of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells was significantly down-regulated in patients with ASO. Chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12, a common inflammatory chemokine under the ASO condition, was able to down-regulate the expression of miR-142-3p in cultured CD4+ T cells. Up-regulation of miR-142-3p by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer had a strong inhibitory effect on CD4+ T cell migration both in cultured human cells in vitro and in mouse aortas and spleens in vivo. RAC1 and ROCK2 were identified to be the direct target genes in human CD4+ T cells, which are further confirmed by dual luciferase assay. MiR-142-3p had strong regulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton as shown by the actin staining in CD4+ T cells. The results suggest that the expression of miR-142-3p is down-regulated in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO. The down-regulation of miR-142-3p could increase the migration of CD4+ T cells to the vascular walls by regulation of actin cytoskeleton via its target genes, RAC1 and ROCK2.

  14. Fundus Camera in the Application of the High Blood Pressure and Arteriosclerosis Sex Retinopathy%眼底照相在高血压及动脉硬化性视网膜病变中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:通过眼底血管的检查,探讨高血压病所导致高血压性视网膜病变的各种原因。方法全部患者均系统进行眼部检查,对有高血压动脉硬化性视网膜病变的患者,在全身情况允许下进行荧光眼底血管造影检查。结果106例212只患眼中高血压患者都有不同程度的眼底视网膜病变。结论通过对高血压患者眼底检查,可为高血压患者留下非常直观的资料,对高血压病的诊断治疗及预后提供重要的临床参考价值。%Objective: through checking the retinal blood vessels and explore the hypertension caused by various reasons for the hypertensive retinopathy. Methods: al patients carries on the eye test system, for patients with high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis sex retinopathy, under general situation al ows for fluorescence fundus angiography. Results:106 cases with 106 eyes hypertension patients have dif erent degree of fundus retinopathy. Conclusion:through to hypertension patients with fundus examination, can leave very intuitive information for patients with high blood pressure, for the diagnosis and treatment and prognosis of hypertension provide important clinical reference value.

  15. 308例老年高血压病患者动脉硬化检测结果分析%Analysis of Examination Results of Arteriosclerosis of 308 High Blood-pressure Senior Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雯; 曾小茹; 莫发敏


    目的:了解老年高血压病患者动脉硬化情况。方法:随机抽取到本院门诊就诊或住院的老年高血压病患者308例进行动脉硬化检测,测定其肱踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)及踝臂指数(ABI),将检测结果与同期到本院进行健康体检的100例老年健康人群进行比较分析。结果:(1)老年高血压病患者的baPWV显著高于健康对照组,ABI明显低于健康对照组。(2)高血压病患者随着血压分级的升高, baPWV依序升高,ABI依序降低。(3)并发冠心病或脑卒中的高血压病患者,baPWV显著高于无并发症者,ABI明显低于无并发症者。(4) baPWV重度异常组,同型半胱胺酸、高脂血症、并发冠心病或脑卒中、糖尿病、吸烟等危险因素明显高于baPWV轻度或中度异常组。结论:高血压是引起动脉硬化及动脉粥样硬化的独立危险因素;高血压病患者随着血压分级升高,动脉硬化程度加重;baPWV和ABI是冠心病或脑卒中的独立预测因子;高血压病患者危险因子越多,动脉硬化程度越重。%Objective:To understand the detail situation of arteriosclerosis with senior high blood-pressure patients.Method:308 cases of senior high blood-pressure patients were randomly selected from outpatients or hospitalized patients. Brachial ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV)and anklearm index(ABI)were performed in all patients. The baPWV and ABI differences were compared between senior high blood-pressure patients and elderly healthy person,which were randomly selected from the physical examination branch physical exam in the same time.Result:(1)The baPWV values of senior high blood-pressure patients were significantly higher than that of the healthy group,while the ABI values of seniorhigh blood-pressure patients were obviously lower.(2)With the grade of blood pressure moving higher,The baPWV value of high blood-pressure patients went higher,while the ABI value

  16. Efficacy of erigeron breviscapus combined with alprostadil in treating senile diabetic arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremities: A clinical analysis of 25 cases%灯盏细辛联合前列地尔治疗老年糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症25例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of erigeron breviscapus combined with alprostadil in treating senile diabetic arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities. Methods Fifty patients with senile diabetes complicated with arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received lamps asarum injection combined with alprostadil. The control group (n = 25) received alprostadil treatment. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. Results The total efficacy rate of the treatment group was 96% , and the control group was 76% . The two groups had statistical difference (P<0. 05). The treatment group was significantly better than the control group. Conclusion Erigeron breviscapus combined with alprostadil in treatment of elderly patients with diabetic arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities has better curative effect.%目的 针对灯盏细辛注射液联合前列地尔治疗老年糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的疗效观察.方法 50例老年糖尿病合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者随机分为2组,治疗组采用灯盏细辛注射液联合前列地尔,对照组25例采用前列地尔治疗,疗程2周.结果 治疗组总有效率96%,对照组总有效率76%,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05),治疗组明显优于对照组.结论 灯盏细辛联合前列地尔治疗老年糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症有较好的疗效.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase -1 gene therapy ameliorates transplant arteriosclerosis and the underlying mechanisms%血红素氧合酶-1基因治疗减缓移植物血管病及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 宫念樵


    目的 观察血红素氧合酶-1(HO-1)基因治疗减缓同种移植物血管病的效果,探讨其机制.方法 以BN-Lewis大鼠血管移植为对象,依据基因治疗方案分为4组:同系对照组、空白对照组、载体对照组、腺病毒介导的HO-1( AdHO-1)组.移植后2个月,观察各组移植物纤维化和内膜增生,检测T细胞(CD3+)、B细胞(CD45RA)和巨噬细胞(CD68+)浸润数量,逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)和Western blot检测移植物HO-1基因和蛋白的表达,酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)法检测受体血清白细胞介素(IL)-10的浓度.结果 同系对照组无移植物血管病表现,空白对照组和载体对照组大量纤维沉积,AdHO-1组纤维沉积轻微.血管内膜/(内膜+中膜)百分比4组分别为7.6%、81.4%、85.9%、15.9%.每400倍视野浸润细胞数4组分别为T细胞(9.2±1.6、92.3±11.6、89.6±17.8、39.3±10.1)、B细胞(3.6±1.1、72.6±11.8、66.6±10.9、30.6±9.9)、巨噬细胞(7.5±1.2、78.5 ±21.7、72.5 ±19.8、34.5±18.7).血清IL-10浓度4组分别为(50.2±20.1)、(40.2±11.1)、(38.6±19.3)、(481.2 ±69.1)ng/L.AdHO-1组与空白对照组和载体对照组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).AdHO-1基因治疗增高了移植血管HO-1基因和蛋白的表达.结论 AdHO-1基因治疗减缓同种移植物血管病,移植物纤维化和内膜增生明显减轻.AdHO-1基因治疗下调了T细胞、B细胞和巨噬细胞在移植物中的浸润,增加了HO-1和IL-10的表达,IL-10-HO-1通路的活化可能是移植血管得到保护的重要原因.%Objective To observe the effect of adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (AdHO-1) gene therapy on allograft transplant arteriosclerosis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.Methods Aorta transplants in BN-Lewis rats were used and divided into four groups:isograft group,control group,vector control group,and AdHO-1 group.The allograft fibrosis and neointimal proliferation were observed two months post transplant

  18. Changes of arteriosclerosis index level in women with pregnancy induced hypertension%妊娠期高血压疾病患者动脉硬化指数水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To examine serum total cholesterol (TC ) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL - C ) level in woman with Pregnancy induced hypertension ( PIH ) , arteriosclerosis index (AI) = (TC - HDL - C)/HDL - C,and elucidate the effect of it on the development of the disease. Methods Serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL - C) level were measured in 50 normal pregnant women (control group) ,50 pregnant women with gestational hypertension ( GH group) and 30 pregnant woman with Pre - Eclampsia( Pre - Eclampsia group). The Pre - Eclampsia group was further divided into the following subgroup: mild, and severe Pre - Eclampsia group. We used indirect - precipitation and enzymic method to measure serum total cholesterol ( TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL - C ) level. Results The AI levels were found significant higher in gestational Hypertension group than that in control group, The AI levels were higher in all Pre - Eclampsia subgroups than that in control, and higher than gestational Hypertension group, Result is statistically significant (P < 0. 05). Conclusions This study has demonstrated that AI levels are elevated in pregnant woman with PIH and associated with severity of the disease.%目的 检测妊娠期高血压患者及子痫前期(包括轻度和重度)患者血清中胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平,运用公式动脉硬化指数[AI=(TC - HDL - C)/HDL - C]以探讨妊娠期高血压疾病发病中动脉硬化指数水平变化.方法 应用酶法及间接沉淀法检测50例妊娠期高血压患者(妊高组)、30例子痫前期患者及50例正常妊娠妇女(对照组)血清中胆固醇(TC)及高密度脂蛋白胆固醇( HDL - C)水平.结果 妊高组血清中动脉硬化指数水平高于对照组,子痫前期组血清中动脉硬化指数水平明显高于妊高组及对照组,且有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 动脉硬化指数水平与妊娠高血压疾病密切

  19. 真腔内技术治疗股腘动脉硬化闭塞症55例%True lumen technique in the application of endovascular treatment for femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小滨; 李晓强; 孟庆友; 钱爱民; 桑宏飞; 戎建杰; 朱礼炜; 雷锋锐


    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of the application of true lumen technology in endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremity.Methods From April 2009 to April 2013, 60 limbs in 55 patients of femoropopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans received endovascular treatment using the true lumen technique.The average length of occlusion artery before operation was(13 ±3)cm, and the average ABI(ankle brachial index)was 0.47 ± 0.06.With the help of Roadmap, the vertical artery catheter and small diameter guide wire were usually applied during the operation,and we used the "rotation" technique to make sure guide wire goes through the occlusive segment in the true lumen.After the accomplishment of the guide wire, we performed angioplasty and atherectomy.Patients were followed up regularly by ultrasound or CTA.Results The technical success rate was 91.7%.We performed PTA in 9 cases, PTA and stent placement in 41 cases and 5 cases received endovascular atherectomy.The average number of stent placed during operation was 1.6 ± 0.6 and average length of stent was(8.2 ± 1.4)cm.The average ABI 3 days after operation was 0.73 ±0.10 (P <0.01).13 cases developed complications and amputation was done in 1 case.48 legs in 46 patients were followed up for the average period of (24 ± 11) months.The average ABI of 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after operation were 0.72 ±0.15, 0.67 ±0.13 and 0.63 ±0.19 respectively.The primary patency rate, assistant patency rate and secondary patency rate in 12 months and 24 months were 73.0%, 81.1%, 89.2% and 63.6%, 68.2% , 72.7% respectively.Conclusions The high successful rate and satisfactory early result could be obtained through the application of true lumen technology in the endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal atherosclerosis obliterans.%目的 总结真腔内通过闭塞段技术治疗下肢股腘动脉硬化闭塞症的临床疗效.方法 2009年3月至2013

  20. 中老年人体测量学指标与动脉硬化指标的关系%Correlation between anthropometric parameters and arteriosclerosis biomarker in the middle-aged and the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘严; 齐丽彤; 马为; 杨颖; 孟磊; 张宝娓; 霍勇


    目的:探讨中老年人人体测量学指标与动脉硬化指标之间的相关性。方法:选择北京市石景山区接受横断面调查的中老年居民1626人,年龄45~90岁,平均年龄(61.60±10.22)岁,分为健康组、高血压组和糖尿病组。由专人测量受试者身高、体重、腰围(waist circumference,WC)等指标,计算出腰身指数(waist to height ratio,WHtR)和体质量指数(body mass index,BMI)。采用无创检测设备分别测量反射波增强指数(augmentation index,AI)、踝脉搏波传导速度(brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity,baPWV)、踝臂指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)、颈动脉内-中膜厚度( intercellular membrane thickness ,IMT)等动脉硬化指标,分析各项指标间的相关性。结果:中心型肥胖者(男性WC>85 cm、女性WC>80 cm或WHtR>0.5)和肥胖者(BMI>28 kg/m2)百分比在高血压组和糖尿病组之间差别不显著(P>0.05),但均显著高于健康组(P<0.01)。 BMI与中心型肥胖测量指标WC和WHtR呈中度正相关(r分别为0.710和0.716)。在健康组,人体测量学指标(WC和WHtR)与baPWV、IMT和ABI呈正相关,与AI75呈负相关;BMI与IMT呈正相关,与AI75呈负相关,与baPWV和ABI不相关。糖尿病组BMI与baPWV呈负相关;高血压组BMI与baPWV、AI75呈负相关,WC与AI75呈负相关。 baPWV与人体测量学指标的一元线性回归分析结果显示,baPWV与WHtR回归直线方程为y=0.949+1.379x(R2=0.046,P<0.001),baPWV与WC回归直线方程为y=1.133+0.006x(R2=0.027,P<0.001);baPWV与BMI不具有线性相关关系(P=0.62)。结论:WHtR和WC预测动脉硬化优于BMI,中心型肥胖的人体测量学指标可作为心血管风险的预测因子。%Objective:To investigate the correlation between anthropometric indices and arteriosclerosis detection indicators in the

  1. 重组人脑利钠肽对动脉硬化大鼠血管内皮功能的影响%The effects of Brain Natriuretic Peptide on the function of rats arteriosclerosis model vascular endothelial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琳; 张静; 袁天阳; 李扬雪; 徐艳玲; 戴琎


    目的 探讨rhBNP对动脉粥样硬化(AS)大鼠模型血管内皮功能的影响.方法 40只健康wistar大鼠,随机分为对照组、模型组、处理组各8只.处理组分别给予硝酸酯类、阿魏酸钠、重组人脑利钠肽皮下注射.采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)方法测定各组大鼠处理前后血清中血栓素B2(TXB2)和6-酮前列腺素F1a(6-Keto-PGF1a)的含量,并且光镜下观察各组处理前后大鼠的主动脉内膜细胞的变化.结果 1)处理组药物治疗后,血清中TXB2均下降、6-Keto-PGF1a均升高,与治疗前比较有统计学差异(P0.05);3)光镜的观察结果提示:模型组血管管腔内有附壁斑块;平滑肌细胞排列紊乱;处理组内膜较光滑,局部有MC粘附,偶可见EC缺失,但好于模型组,各处理组之间未见明显差别.结论 rhBNP通过保护血管内皮功能具有抗动脉粥样硬化的作用.%Objective The effects of Brain Natriuretic Pcptidc on the function of rats arteriosclerosis model vascular endothelial. Methods 40 healthy wistar rats, divided into five groups at random, eight rats in contorl group, eight in model group,each of the treatment group of nitratcs(Hua rcn xin shu),Sodium Fcrulatc(Haisi) ., rhBNP (xinhuosu) model group were eight rats. Adopt enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption (ELISA) methods to determine each rat treatment and scrum blood TXB2 and 6-Kcto-PGFla content,and light-microscopy each rat before and after processing the aortic lining cells changes. Results a. The treatment group scrum TXB2 and 6-Kcto-PGFla levels obviously different than bcforc(P 0. 05). c. Optical microscope observations, the control group vascular lumen, no calcium sediment, big plaques can be seen. Smooth muscle cells is boom and ectoblast is conjunction tissue, arranging disorganized. The treatment group is smoother,local macrophagc adhesion,visible EC missing,but better than model group,and the treatment group showed no significant difference between. Conclusion rhBNP can not

  2. Safety evaluation during rotational manipulation of the cervical spine in the patients with arteriosclerosis by sonography on the vertebral arteries%椎动脉超声对动脉硬化患者颈椎旋转手法治疗的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕红林; 王靖; 张纯武; 吴春雷; 朱旻宇; 赵亮; 吕超


    目的:通过对伴有动脉硬化中老年患者进行模拟旋颈状态下颈椎椎动脉超声检查,权衡手法的好处和潜在的风险,为临床医师对颈椎采取手法治疗前提供参考.方法:对208例动脉硬化患者进行彩色多普勒超声检查,观察椎动脉的狭窄程度以及血流充盈程度,血流频谱形态等.测量血流参数[收缩期峰值血流速度 (VMAX)、舒张末期流速(VMIN)、平均血流速度(VTAMX)]、反映血管舒缩和阻力状况的阻力指数(RI)、反映血管顺应性和血管弹性的搏动指数(PI).结果:超声显示在旋颈状态下VA血流变细,血管迂曲及局部受压狭窄;伴有动脉粥样硬化者,可见血管内膜粗糙,管壁增厚,回声增强,有动脉粥样硬化小斑块形成及管腔狭窄,椎骨段VA走形迂曲,VA平均内径<3 mm.在过屈位旋颈后血流减少甚至部分患者彩色血流中断而不显像.在正常仰卧位时所测得的血流参数与对照组相比差异无统计学意义,经左右旋颈45°后,检测所得两组血流动力学参数与对照组相比开始出现差异,当过屈位旋颈45°后,两组血流动力学参数呈现显著性差异.结论:彩色多谱勒超声可以观察椎动脉形态的变化并对血流进行定量测定,其检查操作便捷,敏感性高,可以作为颈椎手法前筛查潜在VA损伤的动脉硬化患者的方法之一.%Objective :To weight the pros and cons before rotatory manipulation of the cervical spine in the patients with arteriosclerosis. Methods :208 cases with arteriosclerosis underwent sonography to explore the course and stenosis of the vertebral arteries. The VMAX,VMIN, VTMAX and RI were also measured. Results: The results showed the decreased blood stream and local compression of the VA during the rotatory manipulation of the cervical spine. In cases with arteriosclerosis, coarse inner membrane, thickening of the arterial wall and increased echogenicity were found. The blood stream decreased or even

  3. 前列地尔联合益气活血化痰通络汤治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床观察%Clinical observation of alprostadil combined with Yiqi Huoxue Huatan Tongluo Decoction in treating arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚伟强; 徐小平


    目的:观察前列地尔联合益气活血化痰通络汤治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床疗效。方法将60例下肢动脉硬化闭塞症门诊及住院患者按照随机数字表法随机分为治疗组与对照组,每组各30例,将口服肠溶阿司匹林的实验组设为对照组,静脉输注前列地尔,治疗组则是在对照组的基础上加用化痰通络汤,疗程为4周。观察2组患者观察患者的临床症状、血管功能[踝肱指数( ankle-brachial index,ABI)]、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( low density lipoprotein-cholesterol,LDL-C)、血清总胆固醇( total cholesterol, TC),血液流变学指标包括全血粘度、纤维原蛋白、肝肾功能及不良反应。结果治疗组总有效率为93.33%优于对照组的73.33%( P<0.05),治疗组踝肱指数( ABI)改善优于对照组,治疗组TC、LDL-C、高切全血粘度、低切全血粘度、纤维原蛋白改善均优于对照组(均P<0.05)。结论活血化痰通络方联合前列地尔治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症疗效优于单纯前列地尔治疗。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of alprostadil combined with Yiqi Huoxue Huatan Tongluo Decoction in treating arteriosclerosis obliterans.Methods 60 cases of lower extremity arteriosclerosis occlusion disease outpatient and hospitalized patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group according to the random number table method, each group were 30, the oral administration of enteric coated aspirin experimental group is set to control group intravenous injection of alprostadil treatment for 4 weeks, the treatment group was treated with Huatan Tongluo Decoction on the basis of the control group.The clinical symptoms, blood vessel function (ABI),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol( TC) were observed in the two groups of patients, and blood rheology indexes included whole blood viscosity, fibrinogen

  4. 腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症所致间歇性跛行的临床诊治%Clinical treatment of the intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东馗; 吴义生; 庞小建; 李立军


    Objective To explore the principle of diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans. Method Eighteen cases of patients with intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans, using MRI and MRA, to determine the main reason due to of disease, to take the treatment for the cause. Results The patients were followed up for 7 to 24 months, average (16.0 ± 4.7) months. Assessed according to the modified MacNab criteria of clinical efficacy, excellent in 7 cases, good in 8 cases, general in 3 cases,satisfactory rate was 83.3%(15/18). Intermittent claudication were improved with all patients, walking distance of more than 1000 meters, relief rate was 100%. Postoperative ankle brachial score(0.90±0.54 ) was obviously increased compared with preoperative average(0.58±0.36), there was significant statistical difference(P<0.01). All cases were not amputee due to circulation disturbance. Conclusion The diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans,it is necessary to collect a history of serious and careful investigation,combined with imaging, can accurately determine the responsibility of lesions, target to give the appropriate treatment, can get a good effect%目的 探讨腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症所致间歇性跛行的诊治原则.方法 对18例患有腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症的患者,利用MRI和MRA检查判定所致患者疾病的主要病因,采取针对病因的适宜治疗.结果 本组病例全部获得随访,随访时间7~24(16.0±4.7)个月.按改良MacNab标准评定临床疗效,优7例,良8例,可3例,优良率为83.3%(15/18).全部病例间歇性跛行明显改善,行走距离超过1000m,改善率100%.术后踝肱指数(ABI)0.90±0.54,较术前(0.58±0.36)明显增

  5. Study on Feasibility of Primary in Situ Vein Graft Arterialization Method in Treatment of Vasculitis and Arteriosclerosis Obliterans%大隐静脉原位动脉化修复脉管炎及动脉硬化闭塞症的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡培强; 张广平; 李伟; 杨海澔; 邵玉凯


    Objective To explore the clinical application feasibility of primary in situ vein graft arterialization method in treatment of vasculitis and arteriosclerosis obliterans. Methods 56 cases of patients with vasculitis(61 affected limbs) and 60 cases of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (81 affected limbs) treated with venous valve removal or destruction and pri-mary in situ vein graft arterialization therapy in the department of orthopaedics from June 2011 to December 2014 were col-lected, and the walking, ischemic state of the affected limbs, pains, skin and other conditions of the postoperative patients were observed. Results The ischemic state of the affected limbs after operation of 142 cases was obviously improved, the se-vere rest pain of 26 cases was obviously relieved, the venous pulse of all patients was good, acra circulation was obviously improved, skin temperature was elevated compared with that before, the color of the affected limb endings after operation of 67 cases was from violaceous color to dark red, and the skin temperature returned to normal, after 6-month to 24-month of follow-up, the ischemia symptoms of the affected limbs totally disappeared, toe gangrenosum desquamated, stump was to-tally cured and ankle great saphenous vein touched pulse. Conclusion The effect of venous valve removal or destruction and primary in situ vein graft arterialization method in treatment of vasculitis and arteriosclerosis obliterans is good, which is worth promotion.%目的:探索原位一期静脉动脉化方式治疗脉管炎及动脉硬化闭塞症的临床应用可行性。方法方便收集2011年6月—2014年12月该院采用静脉瓣膜切除或破坏、原位一期静脉动脉化治疗的56例(61条患肢)脉管炎患者及60例(81条患肢)动脉硬化闭塞症,观察术后患者行走和患肢缺血状态、疼痛、皮肤等情况。结果142条患肢术后患肢缺血症状明显改善,26例剧烈静息痛明显缓

  6. Absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries: a mystery to be solved? Ausência de arteriosclerose na porção intramiocárdica das artérias coronárias: um mistério a ser resolvido?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Luiz Ramalli Jr


    Full Text Available Several studies show that portions of intramyocardial coronary arteries are spared of arteriosclerosis, involving morphological, embryological, biochemical and pathophysiological aspects. Endothelial function is significantly affected in the segment of transition, as estimated by the vasoactive response to Ach. These findings suggest that myocardial bridge can provide protection against arteriosclerosis by counteracting the negative effects of endothelial dysfunction. The intramyocardial portion's protection phenomenon deserves further scientific research on all research fronts. Improved morphological, biomechanical and especially physiological and embryological knowledge may be the key to a future window of opportunity for chronic arterial disease therapy and prevention. In addition, this review discusses possible therapeutic approaches for symptomatic coronary ischemia caused by myocardial bridgesDiversos estudos demonstram que as porções intramiocárdicas das artérias coronárias são poupadas da arteriosclerose, envolvendo aspectos morfológicos, embriológicos, biomecânicos e aspectos fisiopatológicos. A função endotelial é significativamente afetada no segmento de transição, tal como estimado pela resposta vasoativa para acetilcolina (Ach. Esses achados sugerem que ponte miocárdica pode fornecer proteção contra a arteriosclerose, por contrariar os efeitos negativos da disfunção endotelial. O fenômeno dessa proteção da porção intramiocárdica merece maior investigação científica em todas as frentes de pesquisa. Maiores conhecimentos sobre os aspectos morfológicos, biomecânicos e, principalmente, fisiológicos e embriológicos podem ser a chave para uma futura janela de oportunidades de terapia e prevenção da doença arterial crônica. Nessa revisão, discutem-se, também, possíveis abordagens terapêuticas para fenômenos coronarianos isquêmicos causados por pontes miocárdicas

  7. The effect observation of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease%瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀抗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To observe The effect of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease.Methods:65 cases of elderly patients with lower extremity arterial disease were divided into two groups.The experimental group selected rosuvastatin treatment,and the control group selected simvastatin treatment.Results:After treatment,the experimental group of TC,TG,HDL-C,LDL-C,hs-CRP were significant improved;after treatment,the lower extremity arterial intima-media thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening strength ratings are[1(1,1)],and the differences were statistically significant with the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Rosuvastatin and simvastatin play a role in the treatment of elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease,but rosuvastatin effect is ideal.Its lipid levels and endometrial thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening intensity scores improve significantly.%目的:观察瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀治疗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病的临床效果。方法:收治老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病患者65例,分两组,试验组选择瑞舒伐他汀治疗,对照组选择辛伐他汀治疗。结果:试验组治疗后 TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C、hs-CRP均出现明显的改善趋势,其治疗后下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分均为[1(1,1)],与对照组治疗后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀在老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病治疗中均能发挥一定的作用,但瑞舒伐他汀效果较为理想,其血脂水平与下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分改善明显。

  8. Treatment of acute arterial ischemia in lower extremity elderly patients with arteriosclerosis stenosis by surgery combined with endovascular%手术联合腔内治疗合并动脉硬化的急性下肢动脉缺血23例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢辉俊; 赵翼; 胡亚立; 刘辉


    目的:探讨手术联合腔内的方法治疗合并动脉硬化狭窄的急性下肢动脉缺血高龄患者的技术要点及疗效.方法:回励性分析2008年9月-2010年9月收治的23例(26肢)合并动脉硬化的下肢动脉缺血高龄患者DSA下行腔内联合手术治疗的临床资料和治疗效果.结果:26条肢体(23例)经双腔Fogarty导管取栓、动脉内膜剥脱术,并行相应球囊扩张加支架置入术,或辅助人工血管旁路手术或/和自体静脉补片成形术,救治成功20例(87.0%),截肢1例(4.3%),死亡2例(8.7%).结论:伴有全身动脉粥样硬化的大多数动脉缺血高龄患者,手术联合腔内的个体化治疗方案,有助于提高重建下肢动脉供血的救治率.%Objectives To explore the clinical results and technical outlines of individualism surgery combined with endovascular in treating acute arterial ischemia in lower extremity elderly patients with arteriosclerosis stenosis. Methods: Datas of 23 acute arterial ischemia in lower extremity elderly patients with arteosclerosis stenosis receiving DSA or C-arm machine comprehensive therapy under monitoring from September 2008 to September 2010 were analyzed. Result: The extremities were saved successfully through active measures. 23 limbs in 21 cases were salvaged after underwent embolectomy by using Thru-lumen embolectomy catheters , endartere -ctomy, balloon expansion and stent implantation,or/and bypass graft surgery and autologous vein patch an-gioplasty. 21 patients were cured(87.0%). One patient was amputated(4.3%). One patient died of multiple organ failure, and the other died of unknown factor (8.7%). Conclusions; Combination surgery and endovascular therapy individualistically achieves a high success rate in treating acute arterial ischemia in lower extremity elderly patients with arteriosclerosis stenosis. Final outcome depends on the right operation and proper management of complications.

  9. Clinical observations on aerodynamic wave plus Alprostadil for the treatment of diabetes lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans%空气动力波联合前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红梅; 胡清; 曾玉琴; 汪晓芬; 王娜娜; 龚丽; 李雪锋


    目的:观察空气动力波联合前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉硬化症的临床疗效,并探讨其治疗机制。方法将符合纳入标准的54例患者随机分为2组,治疗组30例采用空气动力波联合前列地尔治疗,对照组28例仅采用前列地尔治疗,治疗2个疗程后评定2组临床疗效,并观察治疗前后下肢动脉血管内径、血流量及踝肱指数的变化情况。结果治疗2个疗程后,治疗组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组下肢血管内径、血流量、踝肱指数改善程度均优于对照组(P均<0.05)。结论空气动力波联合前列地尔治疗糖尿病下肢动脉硬化症安全有效,其疗效优于单一前列地尔治疗。%Objective It is to observe the clinical efficacy of aerodynamic wave plus Alprostadil on diabetic lower limb ar -teriosclerosis obliterans ,and to explore its mechanism .Methods 54 patients with diabetic lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans were randomly allocated to treatment groups of 34 cases and control groups of 20 cases, the treatment group were treated with Aerodynamic wave plus Alprostadil , the control group were treated with Alprostadil only .After two treatment courses , the clin-ical curative effects of both groups were assessed , and the changes of blood vessel diameter of lower extremity artery , blood flow and ankle brachial index ( ABI) before and after treatment were observed .Results After two treatment courses , the cura-tive effect of treatment group was better than that of control group (P<0.05), and the improvements of blood vessel diameter of lower extremity artery, blood flow and ABI were also better than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Aerody-namic wave plus Alprostadil is effective and safe in the treatment for diabetic lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans .Its effect is superior to that of treatment with Alprostadil only .

  10. Therapeutic effects of Lipo-prostaglandin E1 injection on coronary heart disase complicated wripheral arteriosclerosis obliteration%前列地尔脂微球载体注射液治疗冠心病并闭塞性周围动脉粥样硬化的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩; 查滨; 温亮; 杨庆辉; 陈延军


    Objective: To investigate efficacy and safety of intravenous injection of Lipo - prostaglandin El (Lipo-PGE1) treating coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated peripheral arteriosclerosis obliteration (PAO). Methods : A total of 49 CHD patients with PAO were divided into routine treatment group (n = 22) and Lipo-PGE1 group (received Lipo-PGEl intravenous injection 10 μg/d based on routine treatment for 14d). At the beginning and 14d after treatment, all patients underwent 6-min walking test (6MWT). Bruce treadmill exercise test for examining METs, echocardiography and ankle/brachial index (ABI) etc were measured. Results; Compared with routine treatment group after treatment, there were significant increase in 6MWT [ (324.8 ± 65.5) m vs. (358.2 ± 76. 7) m], METs[ (3.5±0.9) vs. (4.3±1.3)] and ABI [ (0.901 ±0. 02) vs. (1.079 ±0.05)], and significant decrease in homocystine (Hey) level [ (16. 8+ 1. 91) μnol/L vs. (10. 7± 0. 55) μmol/L] in Lipo- PGE1 group, P<0. 05 all. No patients exited because of severe adverse reactions. Conclusions: Lipo-PGEl intravenous injection based on routine treatment can improve ankle/brachial index, exercise tolerance and Hey levels in CHD patients complicated peripheral arteriosclerosis obliteration, and it possesses good tolerance and safety.%目的:观察静脉注射前列地尔脂微球载体( Lipo- PGEI)注射液治疗冠心病合并闭塞性周围动脉粥样硬化(PAO)的有效性和安全性.方法:入选49例冠心病合并PAO患者,分为常规治疗组(22例)和前列地尔治疗组(27例,在常规治疗基础上给予Lipo-PGE110μg/d,静脉注射,连用14d),分别于治疗开始及14 d时进行6 min步行距离试验(6MWT)、Bruce运动平板试验[测代谢当量(MET)]、超声心动图、踝/肱指效(ABI)及血清标记物检查.结果:与常规治疗组治疗后比较,前列地尔组6MWT[ (324.8±65.5)m比(358.2±76.7)m]、METs[ (3.5±0.9)比(4.3±1.3)]、ABI[(0.901±0.02)比(1.079±0.05)]明显增

  11. Preliminary assessment based on Delphi method on the arteriosclerosis obliterans syndrome differentiation basis importance%基于德尔菲法对下肢动脉硬化闭塞症辨证依据重要性评估探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡帆; 庞鹤; 高颖


    Objective: Through the Delphi expert consultation method, assess the importance of syndrome differentiation basis in arteriosclerosis obliterans, contribute the foundation for the standardization research of syndrome. Methods: sent questionnaires to 30 national experts, through analyzing the result of descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Kendall weighting coefficients, investgated and assessed the importance of syndrome differentiation basis about the local symptoms, systemic symptoms, tongue manifestation and pulse condition in arteriosclerosis obliteration. Results: local symptoms got the highest score in expert concentration degree, coordination degree and weight coefficient, which should be as the main syndrome in syndrome differentiation, the contribution of tongue manifestation was second. Pulse and systemic symptoms got the lowest scores in expert concentration, coordination degree and the weight coefficient, so how to grasp and application those symptoms in actual clinical syndrome differentiation should still need further study. Conclusion: This study displayed that the experts authority degree, concentration degree were both pretty good, but the experts didn't get the uniform conclusion about the importance of locaf symptoms, systemic symptoms, tongue manifestation and pulse in syndrome differentiation, we should continue summarizing and research in future clinical work.%目的:通过德尔菲专家咨询法,探讨下肢动脉硬化闭塞症辨证依据的重要性,为证候规范化研究打下基础.方法:向全国30名专家发出调查问卷,通过描述统计、Kendall系数分析、权重系数计算,对局部症状、全身其他症状、舌象、脉象作为下肢动脉硬化闭塞症辨证依据的重要性进行分析研究.结果:局部症状作为专家集中程度最大、协调程度最大、权重系数最大的一组指标在辨证中应作为主证,舌象的贡献度次之.脉象和全身症状专家集中程度小,协调程度小,

  12. 血管腔内介入联合负压闭式引流术治疗糖尿病足合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症%Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and vacuum sealing drainage for patients with diabetic foot and arteriosclerosis obliteration of the lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜国忠; 李蕾; 刘巍立; 赵健飞; 魏福庆; 鹿凯


    Objective To study the clinical efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and vacuum sealing drainage technique on patients with diabetic foot and arteriosclerosis obliteration of the lower extremity.Methods Sixty-four patients were divided into two groups.Group A (32 patients) were treated by traditional methods,while 32 patients in Group B treated by vacuum sealing drainage technique in addition to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.Results One week after surgery,ABI in group A was 0.53 ±0.17 vs 0.85 ±0.27 in group B,P =0.00.Ulcer healing rate increased from 31.25% in group A to 81.25% in group B,P <0.01.The amputation rate decreased from 56.25% in group A to 18.75% in group B,P =0.00.Claudication distance extended and ulcer recurrence rate in group A was 40%,while in group B it was 0,P =0.00.Conclusion The combination of PTA and vacuum sealing drainage significantly improves the prognosis of patients with diabetic foot and arteriosclerosis obliteration of the lower extremity.%目的 探讨血管腔内介入联合负压闭式引流术治疗糖尿病足合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者的临床疗效.方法 糖尿病足合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者64例,传统治疗组(A组)32例,血管腔内介入联合负压闭式引流术治疗组(B组)32例,对结果采用x2检验、t检验检测2组的踝肱指数以及与溃疡愈合相关的指标,并观察肉芽组织生长情况.结果 A组踝肱指数治疗后(0.53 ±0.17)比治疗前(0.42±0.19)升高,B组踝肱指数治疗后(0.85±0.27)比治疗前(0.36±0.15)也升高,B组优于A组,差异有统计学意义.与A组比较,B组肉芽组织生长良好,溃疡愈合天数明显缩短[A组:(68±22)d;B组:(36±15)d],愈合率显著提高(A组:31.25%;B组:81.25%),截肢率降低(A组:56.25%;B组:18.75%),1年后跛行距离延长[A组:(333±125) m;B组:(611±213)m],溃疡复发率降低(A组:40%;B组:0).结论 血管腔内介入联合负压闭式引流治疗能显著

  13. 下肢动脉硬化闭塞症误诊为腰椎间盘突出症25例原因分析%Analysis of Lower Limb Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Misdiagnosed as Lumbar Disc Herniation in 25 Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖传军; 原标; 张望德


    目的 分析下肢动脉硬化闭塞症(arteriosclerosis obliterers,ASO)误诊为腰椎间盘突出症的原因及防范措施.方法 对2008年8月—2013年10月收治的25例误诊为腰椎间盘突出症的下肢ASO的病例资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组表现为下肢疼痛15例,下肢麻木6例,下肢发凉4例;查体均发现足背、胫后动脉搏动消失.外院均诊断为腰椎间盘突出症,后经踝肱指数测定,结合下肢动脉彩色多普勒超声、计算机断层X线血管造影及磁共振血管造影确诊为下肢ASO.18例行经皮血管球囊扩张术及支架置入术,3例行杂交手术,2例行人工血管转流术,余2例仅予药物保守治疗,随访1年症状体征均明显缓解.结论 临床医师应提高对下肢ASO的认识,认真详细询问病史及查体,重视临床资料的综合分析,以提高本病诊治水平.

  14. Clinical observation of femoral artery pressure perfusion of Shuxuetong injection on the treatment of phase Ⅱlower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans%疏血通注射液股动脉加压灌注治疗Ⅱ期下肢动脉硬化闭塞症60例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜淑凤; 艾发元; 苗志勃; 王丽娟; 贾岩


    目的 观察疏血通注射液股动脉加压灌注对Ⅱ期下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的影响.方法 将120例Ⅱ期下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者随机分为2组,治疗组60例采用疏血通注射液股动脉加压灌注治疗,对照组60例采用疏血通注射液静脉滴注治疗.2组均20d为1个疗程,共治疗1个疗程.观察2组治疗前后血液流变学指标及纤维蛋白原定量变化情况,检测患肢治疗前后血流束宽度及血流频谱峰值,统计临床疗效,评价安全性.结果 治疗组总有效率95.0%,对照组总有效率83.3%,2组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组疗效优于对照组.2组治疗后血液流变学指标、纤维蛋白原定量、血流束宽度及血流频谱峰值与本组治疗前比较均明显改善(P<0.05,P<0.01),且治疗组全血黏度(低切)及血浆黏度,股浅动脉、足背动脉、胫后动脉的血流束宽度及股浅动脉、腘动脉、胫前动脉的血流频谱峰值改善均优于对照组(P<0.05).2组均无明显不良反应.结论 采用股动脉加压灌注疏血通注射液治疗Ⅱ期下肢动脉硬化闭塞症安全、有效,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To the effect of femoral artery pressure perfusion of Shuxuetong injection on the treatment of phase II lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans. Methods 120 patients with phase II lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterate were randomly divided into two groups. 60 cases in treatment group were treated by femoral artery pressure perfusion of Shuxuetong injection. 60 cases in control group were treated by intravenous infusion of Shuxuetong injection. The therapeutic course was 20 days in two groups. The changes of hemorheology index and fibrinogen before and after treatment were observed in the two groups. Flow beam width and peak flow spectrum before and after treatment were detected. Results The total effective rate in treatment group (95.0% ) was superior to that in control group (83.3% , P<0

  15. Effects of hirudo capsules on platelet activation and blood rheology in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis%水蛭对脑动脉硬化症患者血小板活化及血液流变学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻绍云; 陈秋月; 张丹红


    activation and blood rheology in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis. Methods 122 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were randomly divided into two groups by the random number table:observation group(61 cases)and control group (61 cases). The two groups received conventional treatment such as antihypertensive and hypoglycemic drugs,and 100 mg of aspirin once a day. In the observation group,additionally hirudo capsules 0.75 g,3 times a day were given. The therapeutic course in both groups was 2 months. Prior to the start of treatment and on the next day after the end of treatment,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)clinical syndrome integral,platelet membrane glycoproteins caspase 1 (PAC-1),platelet adhesion molecule P selection(CD62P)positive rate,and blood rheology indexes were detected,in addition to the adverse reactions . Results Before treatment,there were no statistical significant differences between the two groups in terms of TCM clinical syndrome integral such as headache,dizziness,head fullness,multiple somnolence amnesia,lip dark purple,sublingual veins purple in color,PAC-1,CD62P positive rate,hemorheology indexes(all P>0.05). After treatment,TCM clinical syndrome integral PAC-1,CD62P,low shear viscosity,high shear viscosity,plasma viscosity and the hematocrit of two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment, the improvement in observation group being more remarkable〔headache:0.75±0.69 vs. 1.23±0.92,dizziness:0.96±0.78 vs. 1.54±1.24,head fullness:0.65±0.59 vs. 1.48±1.17,multiple somnolence amnesia:0.77±0.72 vs. 1.69±1.14,lip dark purple:0.83±0.81 vs. 1.32±0.79,sublingual veins purple:0.84±0.67 vs. 1.20±0.74, PAC-1:(10.31±4.57)%vs.(15.13±6.27)%,CD62P:(11.39±5.24)%vs.(16.40±7.91)%,low shear viscosity (mPa�s):7.52±3.37 vs. 8.97±3.50,high shear viscosity(mPa�s):4.35±1.12 vs. 5.58±1.19,plasma viscosity (mPa�s):1.54±0.35 vs. 1.88±0.42,hematocrit(HCT):0.43±0.09 vs. 0.49±0.10〕. In the patients' follow-up, there

  16. 髂外-腘动脉人工血管交叉转流术治疗髂股动脉硬化闭塞症%External iliac-popliteal artery artificial graft cross bypass for the treatment of arterial occlusion in lilac-femoral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰; 马韬


    Objective To study the curative effectiveness of external iliac-popliteal artery artificial graft cross bypass in treating extensive arterial occlusion in unilateral lilac-femoral arteriosclerosis. Methods From Sep. 1999 to Oct. 2007, 39 elder patients were diagnosed as having extensive arterial occlusion in unilateral lilac-femoral arteriosclerosis by color Doppler ultrasonography, CTA or DSA. 25 patients (61.5%) had resting pain, 14 had ulcers or gangrenes in the toes. The average ankle-brachial index was 0. 19. Contralateral external iliac-popliteal artery artificial graft cross bypass surgeries were performed on 22 patients from left to right, the other 17 were from right to left. Results There were no perioperative death or amputation. The ankle-brachial index increased from 0 ~ 0. 41 ( preoperative ) to 0. 85 ~ 1.02(postoperative) ; the claudication distance increased from 15 ~ 60 m (preoperative) to 350 ~ 500 m or more than 500 m [ postoperatively at the speed of (100 ~ 120) m/min] ; The postoperative color Doppler uhrasonography showed the average velocity of the popliteal artery was 45 cm/s. In the anterior tibial artery or the posterior tibial artery, little blood flow was showed in preoperative color Doppler ultrasonography examination, the postoperative average blood flow velocity was 41 cm/s. 35 patients (89. 7% ) were followed up for an average of 3.4 years, with an accumulative patency rate of 85.7%. Four patients had amputation, the limb salvage rate is 88.6%. Conclusion External iliac-popliteal artery artificial graft cross bypass is effective in treating unilateral lilac-femoral arterial occlusion, particularly for aged patients with vital organ incompetence.%目的 探讨髂外动脉-腘动脉人工血管移植交义转流术治疗单侧髂股动脉硬化广泛性闭塞的疗效.方法 1999年9月至2007年10月39例患者经血管彩超、CT血管造影(CTA)或数字减影血管造影(DSA)检查,证实单侧髂股动脉

  17. [Arteriosclerosis obliterans. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors]. (United States)

    Orea, A; Valdés, R; Niebla, L; Rivas, R; Camacho, B


    We compare the effects of two of the main angiotensin convertase enzyme inhibitors, captopril and enalapril, aiming to evaluate their effects in the arterial circulation performance, micro-circulation, and changes in regional blood flow, assuming their property of lowering the angiotensin II blood levels, a very strong peripheral vasoconstrictor. We studied 22 patients: all of them with hypertension and/or skin ulcerations, dropping out those who had venous. They were evaluated periodically, clinically and with photoelectric plethysmography of lower extremities. To interpret the traces we designed an ideogram which gathered the plethysmographic behavior before and after the treatment. Nearly 80% showed considerable improvement in pain, functional capacity and plethysmographic traces patterns. healing of the ulcerations was achieved in all case. We propose some hypothesis to explain the good effect that we have observed.

  18. Tissue-intrinsic dysfunction of circadian clock confers transplant arteriosclerosis. (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Anea, Ciprian B; Yao, Lin; Chen, Feng; Patel, Vijay; Merloiu, Ana; Pati, Paramita; Caldwell, R William; Fulton, David J; Rudic, R Daniel


    The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain is the circadian center, relaying rhythmic environmental and behavioral information to peripheral tissues to control circadian physiology. As such, central clock dysfunction can alter systemic homeostasis to consequently impair peripheral physiology in a manner that is secondary to circadian malfunction. To determine the impact of circadian clock function in organ transplantation and dissect the influence of intrinsic tissue clocks versus extrinsic clocks, we implemented a blood vessel grafting approach to surgically assemble a chimeric mouse that was part wild-type (WT) and part circadian clock mutant. Arterial isografts from donor WT mice that had been anastamosed to common carotid arteries of recipient WT mice (WT:WT) exhibited no pathology in this syngeneic transplant strategy. Similarly, when WT grafts were anastamosed to mice with disrupted circadian clocks, the structural features of the WT grafts immersed in the milieu of circadian malfunction were normal and absent of lesions, comparable to WT:WT grafts. In contrast, aortic grafts from Bmal1 knockout (KO) or Period-2,3 double-KO mice transplanted into littermate control WT mice developed robust arteriosclerotic disease. These lesions observed in donor grafts of Bmal1-KO were associated with up-regulation in T-cell receptors, macrophages, and infiltrating cells in the vascular grafts, but were independent of hemodynamics and B and T cell-mediated immunity. These data demonstrate the significance of intrinsic tissue clocks as an autonomous influence in experimental models of arteriosclerotic disease, which may have implications with regard to the influence of circadian clock function in organ transplantation.

  19. [Ozone therapy in the advanced stages of arteriosclerosis obliterans]. (United States)

    Romero Valdés, A; Menéndez Cepero, S; Gómez Moraleda, M; Ley Pozo, J


    Fifteen patients with atherosclerosis obliterans at the lower limbs, no candidates to revascularizing surgery were submitted to ozone therapy. An improvement statistically significant was noticed in the treatment groups since amputation ratio decreased (26.7%) and the need of pain's surgery procedures (13.3%) in comparison with the control group (46.7 and 26.7% respectively). Ozone therapy is considered as a good way in the management of the atherosclerosis with obliteration in late period.

  20. [Arteriosclerosis obliterans and ozone therapy. Its administration by different routes]. (United States)

    Romero Valdés, A; Blanco González, R; Menéndez Cepero, S; Gómez Moraleda, M; Ley Pozo, J


    We report 72 non-diabetic patients with obliterant atherosclerosis, stadium II, (intermittent claudication). The medium age of these patients was 62 +/- 4.5 years old. They were randomly included into four groups. Three were treated with Ozone: one of them by endovenous way, other intramuscular way, and the last one by rectal way; meanwhile, in the fourth group the patients were submitted to conventional medical treatment (control group). In the three ozone-groups there weren't differences when they were compared between then. But there was a significant improvement in comparison with the control group. The claudication distance in the treadmill increased to the 2.5 km/hour. Ankle/arm pressure rates hadn't significant differences, this corroborates the ozone action on the microcirculation. The least uncomfortable, the more harmless and the more economic way was the rectal way.

  1. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  2. Study on the relationship of serum sP-selectin and hs-CRP with carotid arteriosclerosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke%急性缺血性卒中患者血清可溶性P-选择素、hs-CRP水平与颈动脉粥样硬化关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋菊; 刘振伟; 万琦


    Objective It is tO investigate the assOciatiOn between levels Of serum sP -selectin,hs -CRP and extracranial carOtid arteriOsclerOsis in patients with acute ischemic strOke. Methods 120 inpatients with acute ischemic strOke attacking within 72 hOurs were selected and the serum sP-selectin,hs-CRP were measured by ELISA. A cOlOr DOppler ultrasOund sys-tem was used tO detect the plaque Of carOtid artery. Results The serum cOncentratiOns Of sP-selectin were different when the intima-media thickness Of ECCA,the nature Of plaque and the level Of carOtid artery stenOsis were different(P 0. 05). Conclusion The severer ex-tracranial carOtid atherOsclerOsis is the higher the serum cOncentratiOns Of sP -selectin are in acute ischemic strOke patients. There is a pOsitive relatiOnship between serum sP-selectin and carOtid atherOsclerOsis,and the activity is mOre sensitive than Hs-CRP in the detectiOn Of carOtid atherOsclerOsis.%目的:研究急性缺血性卒中患者血清可溶性 P-选择素( sP-selectin)、高敏 C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)水平与颈动脉粥样硬化程度的关系。方法选择发病72 h 内急性脑梗死患者120例,采用ELISA法测定患者血清sP-selectin及hs-CRP浓度,并应用颈动脉超声对斑块特点进行分析。结果不同颈总动脉内-中膜厚度、不同颈动脉斑块性质、不同颈动脉狭窄程度时,sP-selectin水平存在显著性差异( P<0.05);随着颈总动脉内-中膜厚度越厚,颈动脉斑块稳定性越差,颈动脉狭窄程度越重,sP -selectin 水平越高,而 hs -CRP 差异不显著。结论急性缺血性卒中患者sP-selectin水平随着颅外段颈动脉粥样硬化程度加重而升高,sP-selectin与动脉粥样硬化呈正相关;且较 hs-CRP更好地反映了颈动脉粥样硬化的程度。

  3. 反义细胞外信号调节激酶-2基因治疗移植物动脉血管病内膜病变%The effect of adenovirus-mediated anti-extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 gene therapy on intimal change in transplant arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 宫念樵


    目的 观察移植物动脉血管病(TA)的内膜病变机制和反义细胞外信号调节激酶2基因腺病毒载体(Adanti-ERK2)基因治疗的效果.方法 建立Brown-Norway(BN)-Lewis移植物动脉血管病模型,分为同系组、Control组、LacZ组和Adanti-ERK2组(给予5×109 pfu Adanti-ERK2基因治疗),每组各6例.术后60 d检测各组内膜病变和血管腔内膜/(内膜+中膜)比,α-肌动蛋白(α-actin)和血小板源性生长因子-BB(PDGF-BB)染色检测移植动脉平滑肌细胞(VSMCs)增殖和分泌功能,评估移植动脉新生毛细血管情况并检测移植动脉中环氧化酶-2(COX-2)的表达.结果 术后60 d同系组内膜无异常,Control组和LacZ组典型内膜增殖改变,Adanti-ERK2组内膜病变较轻;内膜/(内膜+中膜)比各组分别为7.6%、81.4%、85.9%、15.9%;α-actin阳性细胞(内膜平滑肌细胞)每视野计数各组分别为0、71.3±9.2、76.4±11.3、34.8±5.3;PDGF-BB阳性细胞每视野计数各组分别为0.9±0.5、28.4±3.4、29.1±3.2、8.6±1.7;移植动脉中膜和内膜新生毛细血管检测各组分别无、丰富、丰富、少量;COX-2新生血管阳性细胞计数各组分别为0、36.3±8.3、40.9±9.2、10.4±3.9.Adanti-ERK2组与其他组别间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 内膜增生,血管腔缩窄,PDGF-BB诱导内膜平滑肌细胞募集分化并激发血管新生是TA重要病理生理环节,AdantiERK2基因治疗可有效干预各发病环节,达到治疗效果.%Objective To explore the mechanisms of intimal injury underlying transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) and to clarify the treatment effect of adenovirus-mediated anti-extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (Adanti-ERK2) gene therapy on TA. Methods The Brown-Norway (BN)-Lewis TA model was employed. According to different gene therapy, the recipients were divided into isograft group, control group, LacZ group, which were used as control, and Adanti-ERK2 group (5 × 109 pfu Adanti-ERK2 was transferred

  4. Arteriosclerosis and the promise of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors in stroke Arteriosclerosis y nuevas perspectivas de los inhibidores del receptor GPIIb/IIIa en stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ischemic mechanisms in patients with brain and heart attacks have been studied for more than 150 years. Antiplatelets agents did show benefit in secondary prevention. Aspirin is the most common antiaggregant in clinical use today. However, the benefit produced by the "best" antiplatelet regimen in stroke prevention is lower than 40%. The adherence of circulating platelets to the subendothelium is mediated by glycoprotein (GP residing on the cell's surface. GPIIb/IIIa is the most important platelet membrane receptor that mediates the process of platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation. Thus, new drugs that block the GPIIb/IIIa receptor have recently emerged. Clinical trials using these agents have shown effectiveness in acute coronary syndromes. However, the absence of studies in cerebrovascular disease and the potential hemorrhagic complications questioned their use in stroke prevention. We review the clinical trials using the new GPIIb/IIIa agents in myocardial ischemia, and consider the potential implications for cerebrovascular disease.Los mecanismos de isquemia en infarto de miocardio y enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV han sido estudiados por mas de 150 años. Drogas antiplaquetarias mostraron un beneficio en la prevención secundaria. La aspirina es el mas común de los antiagregantes usados en la practica clínica. No obstante, el beneficio producido, aun con el "mejor" tratamiento antiagregante, en la prevención de ECV es inferior al 40%. La adhesión plaquetaria es un proceso mediado por glicoproteinas (GP de la membrana celular. GPIIb/IIIa es un receptor de membrana plaquetaria que interviene en el proceso de agregación plaquetaria y formación del trombo. Estudios clínicos con nuevos agentes que bloquean a este receptor mostraron ser efectivos en los síndromes coronarios agudos. No obstante, la falta de estudios en ECV y las potenciales complicaciones hemorrágicas, limitan su uso en la prevención de stroke. Revisamos los mecanismos de trombogenésis y los estudios clínicos con los nuevos agentes GPIIb/IIIa, considerando sus implicancias en ECV.

  5. Origin of vascular smooth muscle cells and the role of circulating stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J


    To date, clinical solid-organ transplantation has not achieved its goals as a long-term treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Development of so-called chronic transplant dysfunction (CTD) is now recognized as the predominant cause of allograft loss long term (after the first postopera

  6. Impact of arteriosclerosis on the functioning of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolić Radojica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous clinical studies have shown that the incidence of artheriosclerosis is higher in patients with progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of artheriosclerosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis and its influence on survival and functioning of vascular access. Methods. The study was organized as one-year prospective study. All the patients had arteriovenous fistulas native as a vascular access. The study analyzed demographic, biochemical, clinical and Doppler echomorphological characteristics of the patients in order to make an evidence of artheriosclerotic incidences as compared to functioning arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Results. The examined patients were of the mean age 55.7±12.68 years. Of them, 53.8% were males and 46.2% females. Functioning arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis were found in 56.8% of the examined patients. Concentration of hemoglobin was a significant parameter of functioning fistula (group with complications - 89±14.034 vs. group with no complications - 96.6±17.71; p = 0.0489. An amount of urea removed (URR was a statistically more significant parameter among the patients without fistula complications: (group with complications - 58.67±7.92% vs. group with no complications - 62.80±7.53%; p = 0.037. A Cox regressive analysis of an index of Doppler parameters of the carotid arteries found no statistical significance between the examined groups. There was a positive correlation between artheriosclerosis and the age, as well as the time on dialysis. In multiple regression, where intima media is a dependent and the age and time on dialysis independent variables, the regressive model was statistically significant (F = 8.22, p = 0.001. Both independent variables had statistically significant inclinations, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Anemia and the level of urea elimination, as a statistically significant indicator of hemodialysis adequacy, were in correlation with the risk for fistula complications. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries is a significant non-invasive method for detecting artheriosclerosis. Intima- media thickness of the carotid arteries was an important marker of artheriosclerosis correlating significantly with the age and time on dialysis, but not with the traditional risk factors.

  7. Minimal distal pressure rise after reconstructive arterial surgery in patients with multiple obstructive arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P


    fifteen had ischemic ulcers. The preoperative median pressure index (per cent of arm systolic pressure) was 10% on the 1st toe. At the 10th postoperative day the median toe pressure rose to 25%. A further rise took place at the one month control to 30% which was unchanged throughout the study. All...... patients with a persistent postoperative toe pressure above 20% of arm systolic pressure were ultimately relieved from rest pain and chronic ulcers....

  8. Relationship between non-dipper hypertension and arteriosclerosis in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the influence of non-dipper blood pressure rhythm on peripheral atherosclerosis in elderly hypertensive patients.Methods The 199 elderly hypertensive patients with 24-hour average systolic blood pressure<140 mmH g were selected.Body mass index(BMI),glycosylated hemoglobin,blood lipids,uric acid,creatinine,Brachial ankle pulse wave velocity(ba PWV),ankle arm index(ABI)and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were tested and calculated.The elderly patients were divided into dipper hypertensive group(n=95),and non-dipper hypertensive

  9. Overexpression of ABCG1 protein attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerotic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ungerer


    Full Text Available The ABCG1 protein is centrally involved in reverse cholesterol transport from the vessel wall. Investigation of the effects of ABCG1 overexpression or knockdown in vivo has produced controversial results and strongly depended on the gene intervention model in which it was studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of local overexpression of human ABCG1 in a novel model of vessel wall-directed adenoviral gene transfer in atherosclerotic rabbits. We conducted local, vascular-specific gene transfer by adenoviral delivery of human ABCG1 (Ad-ABCG1-GFP in cholesterol-fed atherosclerotic rabbits in vivo. Endothelial overexpression of ABCG1 markedly reduced atheroprogression (plaque size and almost blunted vascular inflammation, as shown by markedly reduced macrophage and smooth muscle cell invasion into the vascular wall. Also endothelial function, as determined by vascular ultrasound in vivo, was improved in rabbits after gene transfer with Ad-ABCG1-GFP. Therefore, both earlier and later stages of atherosclerosis were improved in this model of somatic gene transfer into the vessel wall. In contrast to results in transgenic mice, overexpression of ABCG1 by somatic gene transfer to the atherosclerotic vessel wall results in a significant improvement of plaque morphology and composition, and of vascular function in vivo.

  10. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris


    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  11. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of Biomedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)


    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  12. [Smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, connected with arteriosclerosis among youth]. (United States)

    Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Cybulska, Idalia


    The World Health Organization (WHO) conference on a "second wave" epidemic of cardiovascular diseases connected with arterial sclerosis (AS) foresee that in 2020 cardiovascular diseases will most likely be the leading cause of death in the world. The development of AS begins in youth and progresses with age. It's intensity depends on the risk factors involved, such as: smoking, hypertension, obesity and fat and sugar disorder in a body. Many of these risk factors, manifesting themselves as diseases in adults, can be found during adolescence. The aim of this study was to establish the spread of smoking and other risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, like: hereditary and increasing incidence hypertension and body mass index (BMI), among youth of upper gymnasium school in Podkarpacie. The research was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008, using 193 volunteer students from upper and lower gymnasium schools, aged between 16-20 years. Our research methods included: diagnostic questionnaire, measurement of blood pressure (BP) through the use of sphygmomanometer, as well as anthropometric measurements including high, weight and body mass estimation. BP was established by obtaining an average between two measurements taken under normal conditions. The results were statistically analyzed, in with the in dependent test chi-Parson square, the level of changes a = 0.05--was used. The research showed that 23.31% of respondents smoke, that's 64.44% girls, and 35.56% boys. 12.41% of the girls and 15.09% of boys smoke on regular basis. And 8.57% girls and 15.09% boys smoke from time to time. More than half of young smokers (51.10%) smoked for longer than 2 years, and the initiations of smoking starts at the age of 15 (26.67%) and the age of 16 (26.67%). 10 and more cigarettes a day smoke 26.67% of boys and 13.79% girls. 75.74% of respondents agree that they are victims of passive smoking. Through 17.61% of respondents (mostly boys 64.70%) we found increasing incidence of hypertension, and 82.35% were related to systolic BP. In the group of people with higher BP systolic hypertension demonstrated itself in 35.72% of positive cases, while diastolic hypertension related to 16.66% of the population and was present mainly among adolescence girls. Most of respondents with higher systolic (75.00%) and diastolic (83.00%) BP were found to be present in those with an obesity problem (50.00%, 10.00%) than in those with correct BMI (12.91%, 5.81%).Hereditary risk factors of AS, from father side, was found among 33.67% of respondents, and mother side, through 23.31% of respondents. Through respondents parents we found quite often: hypertension (fathers 18.65%, mothers 10.36%) and overweight and obesity (fathers 15.03%, mothers 13.99%) also through fathers we found hiperlipidemia (14.51%). Through mothers only, we found cases of diabetes (2.07%) but we didn't find heart stroke cases, which were found through fathers only (2.07%). Among respondents, 43.52% cases, we found one of risk factor of AS and more than half of respondents (56.48%) we found co -existence of 2 and more factors, including: 30.57%--2, 19.18%--3, 5.70%--4, 1.03%--5 risk factors. Through all respondents we found the existence of at least one of the risk factor of AS and through more than half of them, co-existence of two and more risk factors. Hereditary (33.67%--father side, 23.31%--mother side) and smoking (23.31%) were the common risk factors of AS in youth. An increase of hypertension and an increase incidence of BMI were present in (17.61%, 12.43%) respondents.

  13. Direct measured systolic pressure gradients across the aorto-iliac segment in multiple-level-obstruction arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H


    to the angiographic findings. A consistent pressure gradient was found in the various types of arterial occlusions. In patients with occlusion of both the aorta and the iliac arteries, the systolic pressure drop was about 60% (range, 50-78%, SD 9%). The various types of iliac artery occlusions resulted in quite...... uniform systolic pressure drops of about 50% (range 35-68%, SD 9%). In contrast, the systolic pressure drop along different types of iliac stenoses showed a wide variation, ranging from a minimal drop to about 60%. The degree of stenosis on the angiogram was correlated significantly with the pressure drop...

  14. Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS) (United States)


    Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebral Arteriosclerosis; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Ischemia; Atherosclerosis

  15. A Rare Complication of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Report of a Case (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsubara, Yutaka; Inoue, Kentaro; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okadome, Jun; Maehara, Yoshihiko


    We herein report a case of a rare complication of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Computed tomography showed stenosis and calcification of bilateral iliac arteries and a saccular aneurysm of the terminal aorta. Paraplegia occurred soon after balloon angioplasty of iliac arteries and EVAR. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage was not performed because the patient was on dual antiplatelet drugs. The patient was treated with intravenous methylpredonisolone and naloxone; however, this did not improve his paraplegia. SCI after EVAR is extremely rare and unpredictable complication, however, physicians should be aware of SCI after EVAR in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:27738476

  16. Intima-Media Thickness in the Carotid and Femoral Arteries for Detection of Arteriosclerosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Individuals (United States)

    Godoi, Emmanuelle Tenório Albuquerque Madruga; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Godoi, Jocelene Tenório Albuquerque Madruga; de Oliveira, Dinaldo Cavalcanti; Costa, Gabriela Farias Araujo Sousa; dos Santos Junior, Gerson Gomes; Leite, Kaliene Maria Estevão; Godoi, Juannicelle Tenório Albuquerque Madruga; de Vasconcelos, Adriana Ferraz


    Background The prevalence of atherosclerosis is higher in HIV-positive people, who also experience it earlier than the general population. Objectives To assess and compare the prevalence of atherosclerosis evaluated by the intima-media thickness of carotid and femoral arteries, and by the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) in HIV patients treated or not treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) and controls. Methods Eighty HIV+ subjects (40 using PIs and 40 not using PIs) and 65 controls were included in the study. Atherosclerosis was diagnosed by (carotid and femoral) ITM measurement and ABPI. Classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and HIV were compared between the groups by statistical tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results An IMT > P75 or the presence of plaque was higher in the HIV+ than in the control group (37.5% vs 19%, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis showed a significant difference (p=0.014) in carotid IMT between HIV+ with PIs (0.71 ± 0.28 mm), without PIs 0.63 ± 0.11 mm and, and controls (0.59 ± 0.11 mm). There was no significant difference in femoral IMT between the groups or in ABPI between HIV+ subjects and controls. However, a significant difference (p=0.015) was found between HIV+ patients not treated with PIs (1.17 [1.08 - 1.23]), and controls 1.08 [1.07 - 1.17]). Conclusion In HIV patients, atherosclerosis is more prevalent and seems to occur earlier with particular characteristics compared with HIV-negative subjects. PMID:28146208

  17. [An assessment of the efficacy of intravenous monotherapy with the preparation solcoseryl in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of the vessels of the lower extremities]. (United States)

    Luk'ianov, Iu V; Shlomin, V V; Sokurenko, G Iu; Didenko, Iu P; Orlov, N N; Kondrat'ev, V M; Batalin, I V


    The authors share their experiences with using Solcoseryl in treatment of 158 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels. This treatment was found to be very effective. A scheme of the treatment is proposed after which the improved quality of life retains during not less than 6 months in 93% of the patients. The accessory maintenance therapy with minimum doses of aspirin and nicotinic acid is enough between the courses of treatment with Solcoseryl.

  18. 糖尿病性下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症的治疗选择%Treatment of diabetes arteriosclerosis obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培义; 李承青



  19. Spinal Cord Infarction (United States)

    ... arteries that supply it. It is caused by arteriosclerosis or a thickening or closing of the major ... infarction is caused by a specific form of arteriosclerosis called atheromatosis, in which a deposit or accumulation ...

  20. Influencia del Polimorfismo Genético en la Apolipoproteína E y C-III sobre la prevalencia de Arteriosclerosis y Demencia en la Enfermedad de Parkinson con y sin Lesiones Vasculares.


    Jiménez Marín, Andrés


    La Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) está causada por un déficit de dopamina en los ganglios basales. Existe una entidad clínica que cursa con los mismos signos y síntomas que la EP cuyo origen es una lesión vascular en los ganglios basales, llamándose a esta entidad Parkinson Vascular (PV). Variso estudios han demostrado que la presencia del alelo E4 de la apolipoproteían E (apo E) comporta un mayor riesgo cardiovascular dado que presenta un peor...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万云乐; 李波; 沈文律; 罗义刚; 李幼平


    目的探索缺血损伤在同品系大鼠腹主动脉移植硬化中的作用.方法将90只大鼠随机分为3组:A组为同品系(Wistar to Wistar)移植缺血小于30分钟组;B组为同品系移植缺血4小时组;C组为异品系(SD to Wistar)移植缺血小于30分钟组.于移植术后15、30及60天切取植入的腹主动脉进行光镜和电镜检查,应用MIAS-300计算机图像分析系统自动测量移植腹主动脉管腔面积、内膜面积和中膜面积.结果 A组术后60天动脉内膜轻度增厚,但B组和C组术后60天均有明显管腔面积缩小和内膜增厚现象,与A组比较差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).病理检查结果表明,B组和C组增生的内膜均由单核/巨噬细胞和平滑肌细胞构成,但前者无中膜层平滑肌坏死及弹力膜断裂现象.结论缺血/再灌注损伤是移植动脉硬化的一个重要因素.

  2. Hybrid procedure on revascularization of arteriosclerosis obliterans on lower extremity%杂交手术在下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症血管重建中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌平; 肖乐; 龚昆梅; 王昆华; 欧阳一鸣


    目的 探讨杂交手术在下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症血管重建中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析本院1998年1月至2009年8月收治血管重建的56例下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症多节段病变患者的临床资料,其中杂交手术32例,外科手术13例,血管腔内治疗11例.探讨3种血管重建方法在多节段病变血管重建的适应证、治疗效果、并发症及围手术期死亡率.结果 随访36例,随访时间2~101个月,平均随访时间53个月,随访率64.29%.杂交手术组远期通畅率明显高于外科手术和腔内治疗组(62.50% vs 30.76% vs 27.27%,ANOVA分析,F=54.17,P<0.05);临床疗效明显优于外科手术和腔内治疗组(有效率分别为56.25%、15.38%、13.64%,ANOVA分析,F=58.46,P<0.05;无效率分别为12.5%、61.54%、54.55%,ANOVA分析,F=54.23,P<0.05).并发症明显低于外科手术组,与腔内治疗组相当(12.5% vs 38.46% vs 18.19%,ANOVA分析,F=52.56,P<0.05).围手术期死亡率杂交手术和腔内治疗组均为0%,外科手术组为7.69%.结论 杂交手术对多节段病变患者更具优势,不仅能减少和降低麻醉及手术风险,而且能获得满意的临床疗效和远期通畅率.

  3. 闭塞性动脉硬化症患者肢端汗出速率、温度变化观察%Observation of sweating rate and temperature variation in arteriosclerosis obliterans patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁南; 张启明; 杨建业; 刘中华


    Objective To investigate the evaluative meaning of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)sweat detector and temperature detector to atheriosclerosis obliterans (ASO).Methods 68 limb plantar of ASO patients and 20 left plantar of healthy subjects were tested by TCM sweat detector and temperature detector to observe the differences of sweating rate and temperature between the two groups.Results ①Sweating rate and temperature of ASO patients' limb plantar showed different graphic morphology from that of healthy control group.The sweating rate of patients was worse than that of healthy subjects in responding to external stimuli.②ASO patients'limb plantar baseline values of the sweating rate and temperature were lower than that of healthy subjects,and the result was statistical significant (P<0.01).Conclusion Data obtained from TCM sweat detector and temperature detector can be used to distinguish ASO patients from healthy people.%目的 研究中医汗出检测仪和体表温度检测仪对下肢动脉硬化闭塞症(ASO)的评价意义.方法 选取68例ASO患者和20例健康人,应用中医汗出检测仪和体表温度检测仪,分别检测患者患肢足底和健康人左侧足底的汗出速率、温度,比较2组汗出速率和温度的不同.结果 ASO患者肢端汗出速率和温度均表现出不同于健康对照组的图形形态,患者的肢端汗出速率对外界刺激的反应较正常人差;ASO患者的肢端汗出速率和温度的基线值均低于健康对照组,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 中医汗出检测仪和体表温度检测仪所测数据可用于区分ASO患者与健康人群.

  4. Observation of Curative Effect on Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Treated by Deng zhan Huasu Injection and Cerebrolysin%灯盏花素注射液合脑活素治疗脑动脉硬化症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. 不同糖调节受损状态对早期动脉粥样硬化的影响%Association between different impaired glucose regulation and the early-stage arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 梁军; 窦连军; 龚莹; 腾飞


    目的:探讨糖尿病前期不同血糖水平对颈-股动脉脉搏波传导速度(carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity,c-f PWV)的影响.方法:对5 098例非糖尿病者的空腹血糖、口服葡萄糖耐量试验2小时血糖 (2-hour oral glucose tolerance test,2h OGTT)、糖化血红蛋白(hemoglobin A1c,HbA1c)和c-f PWV水平进行分析.结果:空腹血糖受损(impaired fasting glucose,IFG)组、糖耐量受损 (impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)组和高HbA1c组与糖耐量正常组的c-f PWV差异分别为0.97 m/s、1.08 m/s 和 0.92 m/s,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).高HbA1c合并IFG、高HbA1c合并IGT的c-f PWV明显高于单纯高HbA1c(P=0.036,P=0.03).IFG合并高HbA1c、IGT合并高HbA1c的c-f PWV明显高于单纯IFG 和单纯IGT (P=0.02,P=0.04).结论:c-f PWV水平与糖尿病前期相关联,并独立于其他代谢因素.IFG合并高HbA1c、IGT合并高HbA1c对c-f PWV水平的影响呈叠加效应,提示糖尿病前期不同糖调节受损状态均可引起血管弹性的改变,导致早期动脉粥样硬化发生.%Objective: To explore the associations of glucose exposure and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity ( c-f PWV ) in prediabetes adults. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test ( 2h OGTT ), hemoglobin Alc( HbAlc ) and c-f PWV were analysed in 5 098 non-diabetes subjects. Results: We found that the differences in c-f PWV between individuals with impaired fasting glucose ( IFG ), impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ), high HbAlc and those without these abnormalities were 0. 97 m/s, 1. 08 m/s and 0. 92 m/s ( P <0. 01 ). In addition, our data indicated that individuals of both high HbAlc and IFG or IGT had significantly higher levels of c-f PWV compared with those who only had high HbAl c ( P = 0. 036 and 0. 03 , respectively ); or those only had IFG ( P - 0. 02 ); or only had IGT ( P = 0.04 ). Conclusion: c-f PWV was associated with prediabetes, independent of metabolic risk factors. We found that individuals of both high HbAlc and IFG or IGT had additive effects on c-f PWV, and all these alterations may contribute to development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  6. The relationship of vitamin D and arteriosclerosis in elder population:a review of the recent advances%维生素 D 与老年动脉粥样硬化的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明浩; 寿涓; 邱凌; 曲毅; 祝墡珠


    Vitamin D not only plays a major role in the human body calcium and phosphorus metabolism and bone calcification, but also closely relates to non-calcium and phosphorus metabolism diseases. The relationship of vitamin D deficiency and atherosclerosis is an increasing attention in the international medical community. Atherosclerosis in patients with vitamin D deficiency is very common, more and more studies began to place emphasis on whether there is a relationship between vitamin D and vitamin D receptor and atherosclerosis. This review aimed to describe the relationship of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease and related mechanism of vitamin D to participate in atherosclerosis.%维生素 D 在人体钙磷代谢和骨质钙化中有着重要作用,同时,其对非钙磷代谢的一类其他疾病亦有密切关系。其中,维生素 D 缺乏与动脉粥样硬化关系日益受到国际上的重视。临床资料显示动脉粥样硬化患者普遍存在维生素 D 水平低下,越来越多的研究开始关注维生素 D 和维生素 D 受体与动脉粥样硬化之间的关系。液相色谱串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定血浆25-羟维生素 D浓度不仅比常用的酶免法精确度高,而且可以同时检测维生素 D2和维生素 D3的浓度,为探讨维生素 D 与动脉硬化进展的关系和临床指导维生素 D 补充治疗提供有力依据。此文旨在对探讨维生素 D水平与心血管疾病的关系以及维生素 D 参与动脉粥样硬化机制研究作一综述。

  7. 慢性间歇性缺氧对高脂饮食导致的动脉粥样硬化的影响%The effect of high-adiposed diet on arteriosclerosis mold caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣耀; 杨宇; 罗荧荃



  8. Color Doppler Ultrasound of the Carotid Arteriosclerosis with Acute Cerebral Infarction%彩色多普勒超声检测急性脑梗死患者颈动脉硬化病变的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 蓝春勇; 钟维章; 张步林


    目的 评价彩色多普勒超声(color Doppler ultrasound,CDU)在急性脑梗死患者颈动脉硬化病变中的价值.方法 应用CDU对30例急性脑梗死患者颅外段颈动脉血管检测,每例患者均同时行DSA检查,并将2种检查方法的结果进行一致性检验(Kappa检验).结果 以DSA检查结果为金标准,CDU诊断颈动脉狭窄及闭塞的敏感性、特异性及准确性分别为87.6%、94.85%、 92%.诊断中重度狭窄以上的敏感性、特异性及准确性分别95.6%,95.8%,95.8%.一致性检验结果表明CDU和DSA 2种方法的检查结果的一致性良好(Kappa值=0.742).结论 在评估狭窄程度方面,CDU与DSA一致性好,对于大多数中、重度以上的狭窄,CDU可以取代有创性DSA,甚至仅凭超声检查结果就能对70%~99%狭窄病例的诊断治疗方案进行选择.

  9. 动脉硬化闭塞症(ASO)血管内皮细胞损伤的研究进展%Researching progress on Blood Vessel Endothelium Trauma of Arteriosclerosis Obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅奎; 李令根


    @@动脉硬化闭塞症(Atherosclerosis obliterans简称:ASO)多见于40岁以上的中老年人,男性多于女性,比例约为8:1。由于动脉内膜粥样改变,而导致管腔狭窄、闭塞,发生肢体血液循环障碍,甚至出现溃疡或坏疽,是全身性动脉硬化在肢体的局部表现,为常见的慢性肢体动脉闭塞性疾病。本文重点介绍各种损伤血管内皮细胞因素在ASO形成中的作用。 1 血浆脂蛋白(lipoprotein简称:Lp)对血管内皮细胞的损伤 动脉粥样硬化发生机理与血浆脂质代谢失调密……

  10. SAVVY球囊行PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症%Treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterations of outflow tract of lower extremity artery by PTA with SAVVY balloon catheter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋天鹏; 周石; 李兴; 宋杰; 向贤宏


    目的 观察SAVVY球囊治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症的近期疗效.方法 回顺性分析2008年9月~2009年12月间采用SAVVY球囊行下肢动脉流出道血管PTA的15例共22条患肢,其中男12例,女3例,年龄26~88岁.糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症11例(18支),非糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症4例(4支),AB10.1~0.3有9条,0.3以上13条.球囊直径选择2~4mm,长度10cm.术后低分子肝素皮下注射7d并长期口服阿司匹林或氯吡格雷.监测术后7d及1个月后ABI变化情况,随访半年后复查超声,或根据症状复发情况及时复查血管造影.结果 手术技术成功率90.9%(20/22).4例伴皮肤溃疡或足趾坏疽的肢体最终单侧截肢,其中1例为感染性病变致血管闭塞病例治疗失败,扩张狭窄段后造影管腔末显示开通,再次扩张仍无效;另1例为非糖尿病动脉硬化闭塞症高龄患者多节段狭窄,扩张后管腔狭窄无变化.术中末出现与球囊结构相关的并发症.术后7dABI在14条血管中升高超过0.5,3条超过0.3,3条超过0.1.随访时间平均7.2个月,有5例复发不同程度静息痛.术后7dABI平均为0.74,1个月平均为0.66.结论 使用SAVVY长球囊行PTA治疗膝下动脉缺血性病变安全、有效,短期疗效肯定.

  11. 糖尿病性下肢血管病变腔内治疗的策略与技术%Strategy and Technique on Endovascular Intervention for Diabetic Lower Extremity Arteriosclerosis Obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洪斌; 王志鸿; 贾荣娟



  12. Discussion of relationship between arteriosclerosis obliteration and aorta abdominalis calcification%动脉硬化性闭塞症中医分型与腹主动脉钙化关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云翔; 张洁; 赵峰; 陈林河; 谭中建



  13. Treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterations on outflow tract of lower extremity artery by PTA with Deep balloon catheters%Deep球囊PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 蒋米尔; 肖红; 潘金强


    目的 探讨Deep球囊经皮腔内血管成形术(PTA)微创治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症的疗效.方法 Deep球囊PTA治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症26条肢体,观察其即时成功率,多普勒超声随访已治疗处再闭塞率,对治疗前后的踝/肱指数(ABI)、趾端皮肤温度(TTS)以及流出道动脉造影显影分数(OTVC)采用方差分析进行比较.结果 全组经Deep球囊PTA微创治疗的即时成功率为100%.与治疗前比较,治疗后第1个月ABI具有显著差异(P<0.05),第6个月ABI无显著差异(P>0.05),但TTS有显著差异(P<0.05),第6个月下肢动脉流出道已闭塞的12条肢体的OTVC有显著差异(P<0.05).下肢动脉流出道已治疗处1、3和6个月的再闭塞率分别为3.85%、38.46%和46.15%.结论 采用Deep球囊PTA微创治疗下肢动脉流出道硬化闭塞症可促进动脉侧支血管生成,改善血供,提高TTS.

  14. 老年动脉硬化闭塞症常见中医证候的计量诊断研究%The Quantitative Diagnosis of Common Chinese Medicine Syndromes in Senile Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊卫红; 赵晖; 陈家旭; 胡立胜; 张葆现; 章新根


    Objective To research the quantitative diagnosis of three common Chinese medicine syndromes in arteriosclerotic obliteration (ASO) through establishing the differential diagnosis table for syndrome index measurement. Methods The syn-dromes information of 179 ASO patients was collected by epidemiological cross-sectional surveys. The differential diagnosis ta-ble for ASO syndrome index measurement was established with sum of index and the diagnostic threshold was determined. The sum of index was used to do the quantitative differential diagnosis on the basis of the diagnostic threshold. The efficiency of the differential diagnosis table for ASO syndrome index measurement was evaluated through backward-looking and forward-looking test. Results The diagnostic threshold of syndrome of cold congealing in the vessels and networks, syndrome of blood stasis in the vessels and networks and syndrome of stasis heat in the vessels and networks was 426, 404 and 406 respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of three syndromes were all above 90%, the diagnosing coincident rate were all above 97% and the misdiagnosing rate and missed diagnosing rate were all below 6%. Conclusion The differential diagnosis table for ASO syn-drome index measurement, sum of index and the critical value of sum of index is effective and functional for quantitative diagno-sis of Chinese medicine syndromes.%目的 通过建立动脉硬化闭塞症(ASO)证候指数计量鉴别诊断表,对ASO 3个常见中医证候进行计量诊断研究.方法 采用流行病学横断面调查方法,收集179例ASO患者证候资料,用指数和法建立ASO证候指数计量鉴别诊断表,确定ASO证候的诊断临界值,在诊断临界值的基础上运用指数和法做定量鉴别诊断,并通过回代性检验和前瞻性检验对ASO证候指数计量鉴别诊断表的诊断效能进行评价.结果 脉络寒凝证的诊断临界值为426;脉络血瘀证的诊断临界值为404,脉络瘀热证的诊断临界值为406.回代性和前瞻性检验的诊断效能评价中,3个证候的灵敏度、特异度均在90%以上,诊断符合率均在97%以上,误诊率、漏诊率均在6%以下.结论 ASO证候指数计量鉴别诊断表及指数和、指数和临界值法对其中医证候计量诊断具有良好的诊断效能与临床实用价值.

  15. The ASSURE ROT Registry: Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Following Rotablation for Complex Coronary Lesions (United States)


    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  16. A Clinical and Histological Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Amputation (United States)


    Ischemia; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Peripheral Vascular Disease; Vascular Disease; Arterial Occlusive Disease; Arteriosclerosis; Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Disease; Pathologic Processes; Orthopedic Procedures; Amputation

  17. Neurological Complications Comparing Endoscopically vs. Open Harvest of the Radial Artery (United States)


    Complications Due to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  18. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans (United States)


    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  19. Chronic Stress Impairs Collateral Blood Flow Recovery in Aged Mice (United States)


    severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues. Arteriosclerosis , Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31(8), 1748–1756. 25. Meier, P., Gloekler, activating neuropeptide Y and its Y1 receptors. Arteriosclerosis , Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25(10), 2075–2080. 28. Najafi, A. H., Aghili, N

  20. 下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者股动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞极化表型与自噬信号相关性的研究%Correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文娜; 郭胜男; 王俊岩; 贾连群; 李大勇; 田英


    本文探讨了下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者股动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞自噬与极化的相互联系.取下肢动脉硬化闭塞症截肢患者的股动脉标本,分别行HE (hematoxylin and eosin)、油红O和免疫荧光染色,观察动脉粥样硬化斑块形态、斑块内巨噬细胞表型及自噬体表达;采用实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术检测动脉组织巨噬细胞M1与M2型标记物的mRNA表达水平;采用Western blot方法检测巨噬细胞极化信号通路及自噬蛋白表达水平.结果显示,动脉标本染色可见明显脂质沉积和大量泡沫细胞及炎性细胞浸润,纤维斑块以M1型巨噬细胞为主,粥样斑块M1与M2表型同时高表达,其中M2型巨噬细胞升高尤为显著,且粥样斑块自噬水平明显高于纤维斑块.纤维斑块组织肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、单核细胞趋化因子1(MCP-1)、诱导性—氧化氮合成酶(iNOS)、白细胞介素6 (IL-6)、白细胞介素12 (IL-12) mRNA表达水平均明显高于粥样斑块组织(P<0.01或0.05),而精氨酸酶1 (Arg-1)、转化生长因子β(TGF-β)、CD163及白细胞介素10 (IL-10)表达水平明显低于粥样斑块组织(P<0.01).纤维斑块组织p-STAT1及NF-κB表达水平显著升高(P<0.01),而粥样斑块组织p-STAT6表达显著升高(P<0.01),粥样斑块组织自噬体蛋白LC3-Ⅱ表达水平明显高于纤维斑块组织(P<0.01).研究提示早期动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞通过p-STAT1/NF-κB通路诱导向M1型极化,表达适度的自噬水平;而晚期斑块中巨噬细胞则通过激活p-STAT6通路诱导向M2型极化的过渡,M2型巨噬细胞较M1型具有更高的自噬水平.

  1. Effect and impact of alendronate on arteriosclerosis in postmenopausal patients with diabetic osteoporosis%阿仑膦酸钠治疗绝经后糖尿病性骨质疏松的疗效及对动脉硬化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丹军; 王征; 任洪丽; 孙秀娟; 周菁荣


    Objective To investigate the effect of alendronate sodium in treatment of postmenopausal diabetic osteo-porosis( DOP) and effect on atherosclerosis( AS) .Methods 86 cases of postmenopausal DOP patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 43 cases in each group.All patients were given Caltrate D oral based on quantified diet, exercise therapy and blood sugar control, the treatment group was treated with Allen alendronate 70 mg/week for 6 months.Bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers and area of plaque and intima-media thickness (IMT) changes between the 2 groups were observed.Results After treatment, BMD and bone turnover markers were significantly improved in the treatment group ( P 0.05).After the treatment, the treatment group’ s carotid plaque area reduced obviously, IMT was obviously thinning ( t =2.64, 4.61, P 0.05).Plaque area were negative correlated with lumbar L2~4 BMD ( r =-0.578, P <0.05), IMT was negatively correlated with Wards triangle and Troch BMD (r =-0.591, -0.541, P <0.05).Conclusion Postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of postmenopausal diabetic osteoprosis, Allen phosphonic acid sodium in treatment of postmenopausal DOP is safe and effective, can significantly increase the bone density, decrease bone conversion level, and has a certain role in the prevention and treatment of atheroscle-rosis.%目的:探讨阿仑膦酸钠治疗绝经后糖尿病性骨质疏松(DOP)患者的疗效及其对动脉硬化(AS)的影响。方法将绝经后DOP患者86例随机分为治疗组和对照组各43例。所有患者均在量化饮食、运动治疗及控制血糖的基础上给予钙尔奇D口服,治疗组加用阿仑膦酸钠70 mg/周,连服6个月。观察2组患者骨密度( BMD)、骨转换指标及斑块面积和内膜中层厚度( IMT)的变化。结果治疗后治疗组各部位BMD及骨转换指标均较治疗前显著改善( P <0.05),且L2~4、股骨颈、Wards三角的BMD及甲状旁腺素(PTH)、I型胶原羧基端肽β特殊序列(β-CTX)改善均显著优于对照组( t =3.91、2.62、3.70、2.68、3.17, P <0.05);而对照组各指标均无明显改善( P >0.05)。治疗后,治疗组颈动脉斑块面积明显减小、IMT明显变薄( t =2.64、4.61, P <0.05),且治疗组均优于对照组( t =3.01、2.79, P <0.05);而对照组无显著改善( P >0.05)。斑块面积与腰椎L2~4的BMD呈负相关( r =-0.578, P <0.05),IMT与Wards三角、Troch的BMD呈负相关( r =-0.591、-0.541, P <0.05)。结论绝经后2型糖尿病患者是糖尿病性骨质疏松的高危人群,阿仑膦酸钠治疗绝经后DOP安全有效,可明显增加骨密度,降低骨转化水平,且对AS具有一定防治作用。

  2. Impact of different lipid lowering scheme on the liver and kidney function and endothelial function in arteriosclerosis rats model%不同调脂方案对动脉硬化大鼠肝肾功能及血管内皮功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳玲; 张静; 周琳


    Objective To investigate vascular endothelial function,liver function and renal function of mixed hyperlipidemia rats treated by different ways including high doses of simvastatin and small doses of simvastatin combined with ezetimibe.Methods Forty-two healthy Wistar 6-month-old male rats were randomly divided into five groups,including normal control group (n =8),hyperlipidemia control group (n =10),low dose of simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8),high dose of simvastatin [20 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8),simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] combined with ezetimibe [5 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8).Levels of total cholesterol (TC),lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),triglycerides (TG),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),serum creatinine (Scr),urea nitrogen (BUN),uric acid,urine protein,urine creatinine (Ucr),serum creatinine clearance rate (Ccr),C-reactive protein (CRP),soluble thrombomodulin regulatory proteins (sTM) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and urinary protein were tested in all groups.Renal index was also calculated.Results ① Compared with hyperlipidemia control group,levels of TC,IDL-C,TG,ALT,AST,BUN,uric acid,urine protein,CRP,sTM and sICAM-1 in all the therapeutic groups were significantly lower (P <0.01).But HDL-C and Ccr levels were significantly higher.Renal function were improved and levels of sTM and slCAM-1 were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in high dose of simvastatin [20 mg/(kg· d)] group.Liver function were improved and limpid-lowering were better in simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] combined with ezetimibe [5 mg/(kg · d)] group.②Small size of glomerular and mesangial cell proliferation relief were seen in the therapeutic groups with light microscope.And high dose of simvastatin group had better results.Conclusions ①Compared with simvastatin combined with ezetimibe group,high dose of simvastatin treatment has lower levels of BUN,uric acid,urine protein,sTM and sICAM-1,can reduce renal index,increase Ccr and HDL-C levels,improve glomerular morphology and improve renal function and vascular endothelial function.②Compared with high-dose simvastatin group,small doses of simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment can significantly reduce TC,LDL-C and CRP levels,don't affect serum transaminase levels,and reduce lipid effectively but not increase damage of liver function.%目的 探讨单用较大剂量辛伐他汀与小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布对动脉硬化大鼠血管内皮功能及肝肾功能的影响.方法 将42只健康6月龄Wistar雄性大鼠完全随机分为正常对照组(n=8)、高脂对照组((n=10)、辛伐他汀低剂量组[10 mg/(kg·d),n=8]、辛伐他汀高剂量组[20 mg/(kg·d),n=8)]和辛伐他汀[10 mg/(kg·d)]联合依折麦布[5 mg/(kg·d)]组(n=8),给予相应剂量的辛伐他汀及依折麦布灌胃.分别于实验第8周末眼静脉丛采血及第12周末心脏采血后测定各组大鼠TC、LDL-C、HDL-C、TG、ALT、AST、血清肌酐(Scr)、BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、尿肌酐(Ucr)、血清肌酐清除率(Ccr)、C反应蛋白(CRP)、可溶性血栓调节蛋白(sTM)和可溶性细胞间黏附因子1(sICAM-1)水平及尿蛋白浓度,并计算肾指数.结果 ①辛伐他汀低剂量组、高剂量组,辛伐他汀联合依折麦布组较高脂对照组TC、LDL-C、TG、ALT、AST、BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、CRP、sTM、sICAM-1水平明显降低(P<0.01),HDL-C及Ccr水平升高,其中辛伐他汀高剂量组肾功能明显改善[实验12周末血Scr:(2.00±0.47) ml/min比(0.55±0.12) ml/min,BUN:(5.25±0.50) mmol/L比(7.82±0.25) mmol/L,尿酸:(81±17) μmol/L比(142±13) μmol/L,尿蛋白:(1.98±0.18) g/L比(2.89±0.32) g/L]、sTM、sICAM-1水平明显降低[实验12周末sTM:(165±26) g/L比(279±30) g/L,sICAM-1:(20.1±3.2)g/L比(48.1±6.4)g/L],辛伐他汀联合依折麦布组血脂及肝功能明显改善.②光镜下:各处理组肾小球体积小,系膜细胞增生减轻,且均以辛伐他汀高剂量组改善明显.结论 ①单用较大剂量辛伐他汀与小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布相比,能更好降低BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、sTM和sICAM-1水平,降低肾指数,提高Ccr和HDL-C水平,改善肾小球形态,从而起到改善肾功能及血管内皮功能的作用.②小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布较单用大剂量辛伐他汀更能显著降低TC、LDL-C和CRP水平,且不增加血清转氨酶水平,有效降脂的同时不增加肝功能损害.

  3. Influencia de la dieta y la terapia con atorvastatina sobre la progresión-regresión de la arteriosclerosis en troncos supra-aórticos y correlación con lesiones hepáticas en un modelo experimental en pollos.


    Sánchez Polo, Mª Teresa


    This study evaluates the impact of high plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels on supra-aortic trunk structure, the effects of diet ± atorvastatin on progression-regression of atherosclerosis and its correlation with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). One-hundred chickens were divided into five groups: A: Standard diet (SD) for 6 months; B: Hyperlipidemic diet (HD) for 6 months; C: HD for three months and SD during the next 3 months; D: HD for 3 months and SD and oral atorvastatin...

  4. Receiver operating characteristic study on color Doppler ultrasound and three-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography in arteriosclerosis obliterans below knee%彩色多普勒超声与三维动态增强MRA诊断膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞受试者操作特征曲线分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强沁晨; 杜湘珂; 李建国


    目的 使用受试者操作特征(ROC)曲线分析评价彩色多普勒超声(CDU)与三维动态增强磁共振血管造影(3D DCE-MRA)对膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞的诊断价值.方法 41例小腿动脉硬化性闭塞患者,其中男性34例,女性7例:年龄48~83岁,平均年龄69.10岁.经CDU及3D DCE-MRA检查,与数字减影血管造影检查(DSA)和或手术相对照.结果 3D DCB-MRA诊断膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞、重度狭窄的Az值分别为0.7646、0.7745;CDU诊断膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞、重度狭窄的Az值分别为0.9526、0.905 3.从ROC曲线可见膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞的准确度CDU诊断优于3D DCE-MRA.结论 对于膝以下动脉硬化性闭塞的患者,CDU是简便易行且准确的检合方法,优于3D DCE-MRA.

  5. 益气通脉方合外洗方治疗早期糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床观察%Clinical Observation on Treatment of Arteriosclerotic Obliteration of Lower Extremity Arteriosclerosis in Early Diabetes by the Formulas of Promoting Blood Circulation and Replenishing Qi as well as External Douche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  6. 六虫胶囊治疗动脉硬化性闭塞症脉络血瘀证临床疗效观察%Clinical effect of Liuchong Capsules in treating stagnation of blood syndrome in patients with arteriosclerosis obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石杏柳; 杨建坤; 王立敏



  7. Ultrasound ablation combined with balloon angioplasty for treatment of diabetic patients with arteriosclerosis obliteration of lower extremity and diabetic foot%超声血栓消融及小球囊介入方法治疗糖尿病下肢动脉闭塞硬化症及足坏疽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴石白; 袁群; 史国珍; 童奥; 赵娜; 肖黎; 张妲; 王良宸; 唐红



  8. Comparative study on the treatment effects of three arteriovenous reversal approaches for arteriosclerosis obliteration of lower limbs%3种动静脉转流术治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 吕伟明; 刘奕山; 林勇杰; 陈国锐


    目的 : 探讨不同动静脉转流术术式治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症 (ASO) 的疗效.方法 : 17例 ASO患者随机分为 3组,分别施行分期动静脉转流术 (分期转流组,6例 )、一期动静脉转流术 (一期转流组,6例 ) 及一期动静脉转流并水压破坏深静脉瓣膜术 (一期并水压组,5例 ),比较各组术后 14日和术后 6个月动脉血在深静脉中的逆行距离.结果 : 术后 14日和 6个月分期转流组动脉血在深静脉中的逆行距离为 (7.5± 1.4) cm和 (10.8± 1.0) cm; 一期转流组为 (10.5± 1.3) cm和 (19.6± 5.2) cm; 一期转流并水压组为 (28.4± 1.1) cm和 (37.4± 1.7) cm. 结果显示一期并水压组术后 14日及 6个月动脉血在深静脉中的逆行距离均比另两组长.结论 : 一期动静脉转流并水压破坏深静脉瓣膜术能使动脉血在术后短时间内更迅速地向患肢末端灌注,是一种治疗下肢动脉广泛性闭塞的较有效的手术方法.

  9. Constrasting Study of Vascular Tension Factors between Diabetic Arterial Occlusion and Arteriosclerosis Obliterance%糖尿病肢体动脉闭塞症与闭塞性动脉硬化症血管张力因素改变的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏楠; 秦红松; 刘政; 任晋蒙; 许永楷



  10. Analysis on curative effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in treatment of patients with arteriosclerosis obliteration of lower extremity%经皮血管腔内血管成形术治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者的疗效及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凡; 蔡进中; 王露平; 窦永充; 陈旭东



  11. Tissue Characterization on Common Carotid Artery using AR Model (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    This study uses one image with a echocardiography and detects arteriosclerosis on the common carotid artery by tissue characterization. The conventional methods are measurement of thickness on the vessel wall or stiffness on the common carotid artery. However, they need frames of several beats and great calculation times. But, we detect the arteriosclerosis with only one image. Our method estimate the grade of arteriosclerosis by AR model parameters fitted to the texture on the lumen-intima wall. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J


    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  13. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections. (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.


    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  14. How wounds heal (United States)

    ... chronic wounds. Poor blood flow due to clogged arteries ( arteriosclerosis ) or conditions such as varicose veins. Obesity increases the risk of infection after surgery. Being overweight can also put tension on stitches, which can make them break open. ...

  15. Cystatin-C as a predictor for major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Tayeh


    Conclusions: CYS-C could be a useful marker for diagnosing coronary arteriosclerosis. An elevated CYS-C in patients with ACS is an independent predictor of MACE either in-hospital or during follow-up.

  16. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) : genomic sequencing and relevance to hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, S.G.; Lievers, K.J.A.; Boers, G.H.; Verhoef, P.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.


    Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia is caused by altered functioning of enzymes of its metabolism due to either inherited or acquired factors. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) serves, next to methionine synthase, a

  17. Ankyloserende spondylitis er associeret med øget kardiovaskulær morbiditet og mortalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Lindhardsen, Jesper


    Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the axial skeleton. The disease is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Structural changes in the heart, and arteriosclerosis secondary to inflammation may be of importance. The role of traditional...

  18. Vacuum-compression therapy for ischemic disease of the extremities:experience with 40 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To study the clinical effects of vacuum-compression therapy for ischemic disease of the extremities. Methods A total of 40 cases of peripheral arterial disorders,including 23 thromboangiitis obliterans (31 limbs) and 17 arteriosclerosis obliterans (23 limbs),were treated by a self-made vacuum-compression therapeutic apparatus. Results The effective rate in thromboangiitis obliterans and arteriosclerosis obliterans groups was 96.77% and 92.23%,respectively. The cuffs on the apparatus were improved ...

  19. Investigation of Hematologic and Pathologic Response to Decompression. (United States)


    133, 1 958. 314. Stemerman , M.D . and Ross , R. Experimental arteriosclerosis : I . Fibrin plaque formatio n in primates , an electron microscop ic...exhibits marked subperiostea]. new bone i formation . The epiphyseal plate contains areas of necrosis and obliteration . 1 Section of proximal femur...1961 23. Harker , L. A., Ross , R ., Slichter , S. J., ScOtt , R. C. Homocystine induced arteriosclerosis . Am . Soc . d in. Inves., Atlantic City

  20. Tortuous Common Carotid Artery: A Report of Four Cases Observed in Cadaveric Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Iwanaga


    Full Text Available A tortuous common carotid artery poses a high risk of injury during tracheotomy. Preoperative diagnosis is therefore important to avoid serious complications. We found four cases of tortuous common carotid artery during an anatomical dissection course for students. The first case was a 91-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 2 was a 78-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 3 was an 86-year-old woman who died from bladder cancer and who also had a right tortuous common carotid artery without arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was an 89-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries and a tortuous brachiocephalic artery with severe arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was also examined using computed tomography to evaluate the arteriosclerosis. Computed tomography revealed severe calcification of the vascular wall, which was confirmed in the aortic arch and origins of its branches. In all four cases, the tortuosity was located below the level of the thyroid gland. Based on prior study results indicating that fusion between the carotid sheath and visceral fascia was often evident at the level of the thyroid gland, we speculated that the major region in which tortuosity occurs is at the same level or inferior to the level of the thyroid gland.

  1. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats]. (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna


    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  2. Water Flow through Xylem: An Investigation of a Fluid Dynamics Principle Applied to Plants (United States)

    Rice, Stanley A.; McArthur, John


    A study was conducted to prove that a large blood or xylem vessel could conduct 256 times more fluid than a vessel or a pipe that is four times smaller. The result of this study proved that if arteriosclerosis causes an artery to loose half its effective diameter, the blood flow would be reduced by fifteen-sixteenths.

  3. Doppler-ultralydundersøgelse af underekstremitetsarteriosklerose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, P; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H H;


    Arteriography, which requires resources and is not entirely without risk, has hitherto been a prerequisite for reconstructive surgery in cases of symptom-producing arteriosclerosis in the lower limbs. As an alternative, indirect Doppler ultrasonic examination has been employed but does not appear...

  4. The Benefits of Health Maintenance. (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H.


    The article focuses on the merits of a comprehensive, medically-oriented health maintenance/risk assessment program, and suggests that such conditions as heart disease, cancer, and arteriosclerosis can be prevented or postponed through proper nutrition, weight control, exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. (Author/CB)

  5. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle (United States)

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.


    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  6. Ischemic pain in the extremities and Raynaud's phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devulder, J.; Suijlekom, H. van; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Diwan, S.; Mekhail, N.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.


    Two important groups of disorders result from an insufficient blood supply to the extremities: critical vascular disease and the Raynaud's phenomenon. The latter can be subdivided into a primary and a secondary type. Critical ischemic disease is often caused by arteriosclerosis due to hypertension o

  7. [Long-term evaluation of spinal cord electric stimulation in peripheral vascular disease]. (United States)

    Duato Jané, A; Lorente Navarro, C; Azcona Elizalde, J M; Revilla Martín, J M; Marsal Machín, T; Buisán Bardají, J M


    We reported an study about the Electric Medullar Stimulation on Peripheral Vascular Pathology, in cases of critical Ischaemia of lower limbs. Short-time and longtime results are exposed. Arteriopathies included into the study were: arteriosclerosis, "mixed arteriopathy and TAO". Examination was made by Doppler-Ultrasonography.

  8. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  9. Nature and origin of the neointima in whole vessel wall organ culture of the human saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gittenberger - Groot, A.C. de; Munsteren, J.C. van; Huysmans, H.A.; Bockel, J.H. van; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Poelmann, R.E.


    Intimal proliferation is a characteristic feature of arteriosclerosis. Whole vessel wall organ culture systems have been developed to study the early stages of neointima formation. We have cultured a large number of explants of human saphenous vein specimens for several weeks, and have identified th

  10. A Space-Time Finite Element Approach to the Numerical Simulation of Vascular Fluid-Solid Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijm, E.J.; Van Brummelen, E.H.


    Numerical studies of cardiovascular diseases like arteriosclerosis have gained increasing attention the last decade. The modeling of blood, blood vessel and their coupling, shows to be a challenging problem. In this thesis a two-dimensional model has been constructed and its behaviour has been inves

  11. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;


    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  12. Genetic and bibliographic information: MNDA [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen human atherosclerosis (MeSH) Card...iovascular Diseases (C14) > Vascular Diseases (C14.907) > Arterial Occlusive Diseases (C14.907.137) > Arteriosclerosis... (C14.907.137.126) > Atherosclerosis (C14.907.137.126.307) 05A0467425 ...

  13. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Majumder


    Conclusions: From our current study it can be reasonably said that NAFLD may be an independent risk factor for developing arteriosclerosis. This hypothesis should be verified with larger studies in different population groups. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(10.000: 4359-4364

  14. Relativity analysis of arterosclerotic cerebral infarction of senile patients and secondary epilepsy%老年动脉硬化性脑梗死与继发性癫痫相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 马艳


    @@Background: Acute cerebral vascular secondary epilepsy isn't uncommon in clinic.It can happen at any time of epilepsy,even as first- onset or main clinical manifestation.Main cause of stroke of senile patients is arteriosclerosis,which is main cause of old stage epilepsy. Objective:To analyze relativity of arterosclerotic cerebral infarction of senile patients and secondary epilepsy.

  15. Aortic thrombus formation during a Seldinger aortography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiermayer, H.


    Acute aortic thrombosis is a rarely described complication of angiography with the technique of arterial catheterization. In the presented case record, a sudden therapy-resistant rise in blood pressure was accompanied by paraplegia of the lower limbs. The activation of the coagulation system caused by the heterogeneous material brought into the aorta, combined with severe arteriosclerosis, is discussed as a possible cause.

  16. Is pancreatic polypeptide response to food ingestion a reliable index of vagal function in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholt, M B; Arlien-Soeborg, P; Hilsted, L


    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients is based on cardiovascular reflex tests. Since cardiac function may be affected by arteriosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus, alternative tests reflecting vagal nerve function, in other organ systems, are needed...

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease]. (United States)

    Sliz, Monika; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria


    Scientific studies confirm correlation between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, diseases of the respiratory system, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, premature birth and low birth weight. The interaction between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus is described, based on the literature.

  18. Characteristic analysis of secondary epileptic attack of senile arteriosclerotic cerebral infarction%老年人动脉硬化性脑梗死继发癫痫发作的特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹绪政; 兰杰; 徐建民; 邱朝晖


    Senile cerebral apoplexy is mainly caused by arteriosclerosis, which is also an important reason to epileptic attack. We analyzed clinical data of 1 383 in patient cerebral infarction cases from 211th Hospital of PLA from January 1996 to October 2001 in which there were 79 secondary epileptic attack of senile arteriosclerotic cerebral infarction.Results were shown followed.

  19. Shock in the Nonhuman Primate. Volume 2. Abstracts of the Published Literature, 1974-1977 (United States)


    necrosis and formation of large multivesicular bodies and fat droplets occurred in parenchymal cells. The space of Disse was frequently obliterated by...compensating for the cardiovascular insult. In some patients, however, such as the elderly person who may have antecedent heart disease, arteriosclerosis or

  20. Late Effects of Total-Body Roentgen Irradiation. Longevity and Incidence of Nephrosclerosis as Influenced by Partial-Body Shielding (United States)


    postirradiation with complete obliteration oi the capillary developed this lesion (table III). Nephrosclero- tufts (3). sis was nearly absent during the 17.5...the human species. We have not ob- these organs are not yet complete. Possiblyserved significant arteriosclerosis of large irradiation of the kidneys

  1. Transgenetic Animal Model in Studying Blood Fat Metabolism%血脂类代谢研究中的转基因动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢笑丛; 王有为


    Transgenic animal model for diseases established to show diversified disease through the expression or excessiveexpression of gene. The lipid metabolizing is very a complex physiological process in human. During the gene-relating lipid metabolizing, it includes the factors of causing arteriosclerosis formed and the factors of reducing arteriosclerosis attack. This paper described the transgenic animal model and its characters of gene of aplipoprotein (Apo) such as ApoE,ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, receptor gene sweeping receptor SR-A, SR-B and SR-CD, gene of lipid metabolizing enzyme,gene of transprotein such as CETP, LPL etc. Those transgenic animal models play an important role in studying disease mechanism, drug screening, gene treatment and in producing the protein as drug using.

  2. Application of a four-channel vibrometer system for detection of arterial stiffness (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Waz, Adam; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Dirckx, Joris; Abramski, Krzysztof


    Cardiovascular diseases (CD) are the most important cause of death in the world and their prevalence is only rising. A significant aspect in the etiology of CD is the stiffening of the large arteries (arteriosclerosis) and plaque formation (atherosclerosis) in the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck. As shown by increasing evidence, both conditions can be detected by assessing pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the CCA, and several approaches allow local detection of PWV, including ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In previous studies, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) was introduced as an approach to assess arterial stiffness. In the present work, a new, compact four-channel LDV system is used for PWV detection in four phantom arteries mimicking real life CCA conditions. The high sensitivity of the LDV system allowed PWV to be assessed, and even local changes in phantom architecture could be detected. This method has potential for cardiovascular screening, as it allows arteriosclerosis assessment and plaque detection.

  3. Border detection on Common Carotid Artery using Gauss-Markov Estimation (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility, high accuracy and high-speed. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy and high-speed detection method by Gauss-Markov estimation. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border. And, about high-speed, it realized by calculating matrix only one time.

  4. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  5. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Cactus grandiflorus (L.) Britton and Rose


    Rajat Rashmi; Divya Mishra


    Background: Cactus grandiflorus (L.) Britton and Rose, Family: Cactaceae is an evergreen shrub with creeping aerial roots, used in Homoeopathy for atheromatous arteries, angina pectoris, and constriction of heart muscles, endocarditis, and heart weakness due to arteriosclerosis. Flowering stems are used in the preparation of medicine. Objective: The pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies are carried out to facilitate identification of correct species and standardized raw materials. Materia...

  6. Puncture-ejection of own egg by Least Bell's Vireo and potential implications for anti-parasitism defense (United States)

    Sharp, Bryan L.; Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.


    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  7. Metastatic, papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in a black-footed ferret (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Davidson, J.P.; Novilla, M.N.; Huang, J.C.M.


    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  8. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik


    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower...... suggest that cholesterol matrix formation may play a pathogenic role in atherosclerotic inflammation, and they indicate a mechanism by which bacteria and/or bacterial products may play a role in processes leading to arteriosclerosis....

  9. 皮质下动脉硬化性脑病CT与临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹苏予; 高广义


    @@ 皮质下动脉硬化性脑病(subcortex arteriosclerosis encephalopathy,SAE),又称Binswanger病,是血管性痴呆的一种特殊类型.本文结合我院诊治的47例SAE的CT表现和临床特征,就其病因、病理、诊断和智能障碍等相关因素进行初步分析.

  10. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning


    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  11. Host-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells Accumulate in Cardiac Allografts: Role of Inflammation and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1


    Piotr Religa; Grudzinska, Monika K; Krzysztof Bojakowski; Joanna Soin; Jerzy Nozynski; Michal Zakliczynski; Zbigniew Gaciong; Marian Zembala; Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér


    Transplant arteriosclerosis is characterized by inflammation and intimal thickening caused by accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) both from donor and recipient. We assessed the relationship between clinical factors and the presence of host-derived SMCs in 124 myocardial biopsies from 26 consecutive patients who received hearts from opposite-sex donors. Clinical and demographic information was obtained from the patients' medical records. Host-derived SMCs accounted for 3.35+/-2.3% of ce...

  12. Clinical Observation on Acupuncture Treatment of Cerebrovascular Dementia- A Report of 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Cerebrovascular dementia is a common disease in the middle-aged and old people. Its incidence makes up about 10-20% of all kinds of dementia. It is mainly caused by general degeneration of the brain function resulted from cerebral arteriosclerosis and cerebral infarction. The author has treated 32 cases of cerebrovascular dementia with acupuncture in the recent years with satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  13. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C


    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  14. Late Failing Heart Allografts: Pathology of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy and Association With Antibody-Mediated Rejection. (United States)

    Loupy, A; Toquet, C; Rouvier, P; Beuscart, T; Bories, M C; Varnous, S; Guillemain, R; Pattier, S; Suberbielle, C; Leprince, P; Lefaucheur, C; Jouven, X; Bruneval, P; Duong Van Huyen, J P


    In heart transplantation, there is a lack of robust evidence of the specific causes of late allograft failure. We hypothesized that a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts may be associated with antibody-mediated injury and immune-mediated coronary arteriosclerosis. We included all patients undergoing a retransplantation for late terminal heart allograft failure in three referral centers. We performed an integrative strategy of heart allograft phenotyping by assessing the heart vascular tree including histopathology and immunohistochemistry together with circulating donor-specific antibodies. The main analysis included 40 explanted heart allografts patients and 402 endomyocardial biopsies performed before allograft loss. Overall, antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 19 (47.5%) failing heart allografts including 16 patients (40%) in whom unrecognized previous episodes of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection occurred 4.5 ± 3.5 years before allograft loss. Explanted allografts with evidence of antibody-mediated rejection demonstrated higher endothelitis and microvascular inflammation scores (0.89 ± 0.26 and 2.25 ± 0.28, respectively) compared with explanted allografts without antibody-mediated rejection (0.42 ± 0.11 and 0.36 ± 0.09, p = 0.046 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Antibody-mediated injury was observed in 62.1% of failing allografts with pure coronary arteriosclerosis and mixed (arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis) pattern, while it was not observed in patients with pure coronary atherosclerosis (p = 0.0076). We demonstrate that antibody-mediated rejection is operating in a substantial fraction of failing heart allografts and is associated with severe coronary arteriosclerosis. Unrecognized subclinical antibody-mediated rejection episodes may be observed years before allograft failure.

  15. Homocysteine and atheromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Homocysteine (Hcy) was first linked with atherosclerosis over more than 30 years ago. McCully reported autopsy evidence of extensive arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in two children with elevated plasma Hcy concentrations and homocystinuria in 1969. On the basis of this clinical observation, he put forward the Hcy theory of arteriosclerosis. Subsequent investigations HHcy have confirmed the association between and premature atherosclerosis of the coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular beds.

  16. Relationship between vascular endothelial function and pulse wave velocity in prehypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the association between vascular endothelial function and arteriosclerosis in prehypertensive,hypertensive and healthy subjects.Methods 810 consecutive subjects were divided into three groups:hypertension group,prehypertension group and control group.Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(ba PWV)and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation(FMD)were used to evaluate the artery vascular stiffness and endothelial function respectively.Results Prehypertension

  17. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Skrining Fitokimia Serta Isolasi Steroid/Triterpenoid Dari Ekstrak Etanol Pucuk Labu Siam (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.)




    One of the Cucurbitaceou plans is chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.). used to treat kidney stone disease, arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure that contains saponin, flavonoid, polyphenol, and steroid/triterpenoid. Simplex characterization and chemical content contained in chayote shoots are not listed in the book Materia Medika Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the simplex characterization, phytochemical screening for compounds that contained in chayote shoots and is...

  18. Calcificación vascular asociada a inflamación : influencia de la vitamina D


    Guerrero Pavón, Fátima


    Arteriosclerosis y aterosclerosis son procesos comunes en los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). De hecho, la calcificación vascular (CV) representa un importante factor de riesgo que contribuye a la alta tasa de mortalidad cardiovascular asociada a la ERC. En pacientes urémicos, la CV está causada, en parte, por alteraciones en el metabolismo mineral estrechamente relacionadas con el control del hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPT2º). Los pacientes con ERC muestr...

  19. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency


    Pérez-Sieira, S.; M. López(Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain); Nogueiras, R.; Tovar, S.


    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. Howeve...

  20. Not at random location of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic aorta and their prognostic significance in relation to the risk of cardiovascular events. (United States)

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Głowacki, Jan; Poloński, Lech


    Thoracic aortic calcium deposits are frequently detected on tomography of the chest, and in other imaging modalities. Numerous studies indicated the correlation of hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress in relation to distribution aortic calcifications. This publication discusses similarities and differences of two distinct pathomechanisms of arterial calcifications: intimal associated with atherosclerosis and medial knows as Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis. This review also analyzes the frequent coexistence of aortic calcification and coronary artery disease in terms of risk of cardiovascular events.

  1. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography (United States)

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi


    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  2. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Osamura


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA. Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A, in the tissue (MBR-T, and in the vessels (MBR-V were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  3. Use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants for cardiovascular disease: current standards and best practices. (United States)

    Faxon, David P


    Thrombosis superimposed on arteriosclerosis is the principal cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with arteriosclerosis. The use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants in the treatment of arteriosclerosis is well established, based on many large randomized trials. Aspirin is indicated for primary prevention in patients at increased risk of developing symptomatic atherosclerotic vascular disease. For patients with known vascular disease, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin is a well-established treatment. For high-risk patients such as those with acute coronary syndromes (ACS; unstable angina, myocardial infarction), dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is indicated, based on results of the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) trial. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa agents are powerful inhibitors of platelet function and are also effective in ACS, but the benefit is confined to high-risk patients. Anticoagulation with heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin (eg, enoxaparin) is also effective, with an approximately 50% reduction in cardiovascular events. These agents are also indicated for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (at least 6 months) is recommended for patients receiving drug-eluting stents. The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is thus well established in treating atherothrombosis, but aggressive therapy is associated with an increased bleeding risk. Newer agents may provide improved efficacy with a lower risk of bleeding.

  4. Association between poor glycemic control, impaired sleep quality, and increased arterial thickening in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yoda

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients.Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory.The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1 without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT.HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period (β=-0.280, p=0.033, but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001. In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038, but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023 emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT.In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening.

  5. Non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography in renal transplantation and renal donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte


    examination of living kidney donors. We compared CTA to an extensive MRI protocol without the use of contrast agents, including NCMRA, and to observations from living donor nephrectomy, which served as the reference standard. We concluded that an optimised MRI protocol without contrast agents could...... be substituted for CTA for preoperative vessel assessment in living kidney donors.......Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in cases of severe renal disease. The majority of candidates for kidney transplantation have arteriosclerosis to some extent; thus, preoperative imaging of the vessels is needed. Different imaging modalities are available and are used...

  6. Observation on Efficiency of Jiangtang (降糖) Capsule in Treating Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Arteriosclerosis is a major common vascular disorder of diabetes mellitus (DM), and as the life-span of DM patients prolonged, the incidence increased, arteriosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases have become the principal causes of death of DM. Therefore, improving the disturbance of glucose and lipid metabolism, and preventing chronic complication are the key links in the treatment of DM. The authors used Jiangtang capsule (降糖胶囊, JTC) in treating DM type 2. While treating hypoglycemia, promising effect in improving lipid metabolism disturbance is also obtained. It is reported as follows.

  7. Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiu-Ying; LIU Da-He; ZHOU Jing; JIN Yong-Juan


    @@ The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in awide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation arepresented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in theareas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particularblood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmannmethod is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.

  8. Cuantificación de interleuquina 6 de tejidos periodontales


    Rodríguez Gacharná, María Clemencia; López Páez, Consuelo


    Según el estudio de Morbilidad de Ministerio de Salud del año 1980 la enfermedad periodontal afecta en un 94 % la población colombiana y un 5% padece de las manifestaciones severas que pueden comprometer la vida del paciente afectando los sistemas como el cardiovascular, participando en la génesis del infarto del miocardio, arteriosclerosis, afectando el sistema respiratorio con episodios de neumonía, eventualmente ocasionando partos pretermino y nacimientos de bebés con bajo peso al nacer ...

  9. Peroxidación lipídica y factores de riesgo cardovascular


    Plana Gil, Núria


    INTRODUCCIÓN: La lesión más incipiente que ha sido descrita en la patogénesis de la arteriosclerosis es la estría grasa. En este proceso los monocitos y los macrófagos juegan un papel muy importante. Los macrófagos no poseen receptores para las LDL negativas, sin embargo son capaces de reconocer las LDL modificadas a través del receptor scraveger. Ello provocará la entrada masiva de ésteres de colesterol en el interior de la célula, al no estar sujeta a ningún sistema de control, originando l...

  10. Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head Occurred after Stent Placement of Femoral Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Shimatani


    Full Text Available We present a case of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH that occurred after stent angiography of femoral artery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO of left inferior limb in a 76-year-old woman. No case of late collapse of femoral head as a complication of endovascular procedure such as stent placement has been previously documented. We considered that ONFH occurred after detaining stent at a junction of left deep femoral artery for the treatment of the ischemia of left lateral and medial femoral circumflex artery.

  11. Associations between cardiac pathology and clinical, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier


    of fibrosis was associated with shorter survival time (P=0.002), and the papillary muscle fibrosis score tended to correlate with proximal isovelocity surface area radius (P=0.03). Data from this study lend support to the hypothesis that naturally occurring canine CHF is affected by several factors...... such as MMVD, myocardial atrophy and fibrosis, and by arteriosclerosis. Further, more extensive research will be required to establish cause-effect relationships between these cardiac lesions and the pathophysiology of CHF in dogs....

  12. Ultrasonic Imaging of Hemodynamic Force in Carotid Blood Flow (United States)

    Nitta, N.; Homma, K.

    Hemodynamic forces including blood pressure and shear stress affect vulnerable plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and biochemical activation of endothelium such as NO production. In this study, a method for estimating and imaging shear stress and pressure gradient distributions in blood vessel as the hemodynamic force based on viscosity estimation is presented. Feasibility of this method was investigated by applying to human carotid blood flow. Estimated results of shear stress and pressure gradient distributions coincide with the ideal distributions obtained by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment.

  13. Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method (United States)

    Kang, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Da-He; Zhou, Jing; Jin, Yong-Juan


    The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation are presented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in the areas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particular blood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmann method is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.

  14. Health, wartime stress, and unit cohesion: evidence from Union Army veterans. (United States)

    Costa, Dora L; Kahn, Matthew E


    We find that Union Army veterans of the American Civil War who faced greater wartime stress (as measured by higher battlefield mortality rates) experienced higher mortality rates at older ages, but that men who were from more cohesive companies were statistically significantly less likely to be affected by wartime stress. Our results hold for overall mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke, and new diagnoses of arteriosclerosis. Our findings represent one of the first long-run health follow-ups of the interaction between stress and social networks in a human population in which both stress and social networks are arguably exogenous.

  15. Síntesis de pirido[2,3-d]pirimidin-7(8H)-onas 2-arilamino sustituidas y derivados



    Les Cinases de Proteïna (PKs) estan implicades en processos fonamentals de la regulació del cicle cel•lular. L’acumulació d’anomalies als mecanismes de control i el comportament disfuncional que se’n deriva han estat detectats a cèl•lules de diferents teixits afectades per càncer, desordres immunològics, endocrins, nerviosos, neurodegenaratius, cardiovasculars, malalties infeccioses, diabetis, Alzheimer, asma, restenosi, arteriosclerosi, leucèmia, artritis, etc. Però d’entre totes les PKs, le...

  16. Estudio de la oxidación lipoproteica y marcadores de inflamación en pacientes con artritis reumatoide


    Paredes González-Albo, Sílvia


    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad inflamatoria cr_nica que se ha asociado a un incremento de enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). La causa de este elevado riesgo de ECV no se conoce, se ha sugerido que la actividad inflamatoria de la AR pudiera dar lugar a una aterog_nesis acelerada. La arteriosclerosis es la causa subyacente de la ECV y se caracteriza por una acumulaci_n de lipoprote_nas apo B, matriz extracelul...

  17. Productos naturales que adelgazan... ¿una buena alternativa?


    Alberto, Cecilia; Mallo, Andrea C.; Nitiu, Daniela S.


    La obesidad y otras enfermedades relacionadas como la arteriosclerosis y afecciones cardiovasculares, por una parte y la bulimia y anorexia, por otra, son temas de candente actualidad, tanto desde el punto de vista científico como social. El término adelgazar se define en la bibliografía médica como la pérdida de peso por causas naturales con eliminación, primero de agua y luego de grasa. En el pasado el concepto de salud era sinónimo de gordura; hoy en días se considera la obesidad como una ...

  18. Dr. Zhang's Experience in Massotherapy for Treatment of Vertebral-Artery-Type Cervical Spondylopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利民; 张涛


    @@ Thirty cases of vertebral-artery-type cervical spondylopathy were treated by Dr. Zhang Tao's technique. The cure rate was 50%, and the total effective rate was 100%.The vertebral-artery-type cervical spondylopathy is a commonly-seen condition in the aged people, often accompanied with arteriosclerosis. Based on the techniques performed by Dr. Du Ziming (the late famous TCM physician of our hospital), Dr. Zhang Tao has developed a set of therapeutic techniques for this condition. From June 1997 to April 1998, the author had treated 30 cases of the disease, with satisfactory results reported in the following.

  19. ¿Es la enfermedad periodontal un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares? (I: Etiopatogenia y ensayos clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro Lara

    Full Text Available El objetivo de los dos siguientes artículos es analizar los estudios existentes en la literatura sobre la asociación entre la enfermedad periodontal (EP y las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV con el fin de responder, desde la evidencia, a la pregunta de si la EP puede considerarse un factor que aumente la probabilidad de aparición de arteriosclerosis. La conclusión a la que se llega es que la EP podría ser un factor de riesgo para la ECV pero que aún se necesita más estudios experimentales para llegar a una evidencia causal.

  20. Insuficiencia arterial periférica en adultos jóvenes


    Félix Patiño, José; Covelli, Víctor Hugo


    La insuficiencia arterial periférica, que en un altísimo porcentaje de casos es secundaria a procesos  degenerativos especialmente arteriosclerosis, es tal vez uno de los hallazgos clínicos más frecuentes en la población adulta de edad avanzada. Sus efectos, que van desde la simple molestia de la isquemia leve en los casos benignos, hasta la necrosis y gangrena de los casos severos, resultan en incapacidad y serias alteraciones funcionales. Bien conocida es la relación que existe entre esta c...

  1. A case study of technology transfer: Cardiology (United States)

    Schafer, G.


    Research advancements in cardiology instrumentation and techniques are summarized. Emphasis is placed upon the following techniques: (1) development of electrodes which show good skin compatibility and wearer comfort; (2) contourography - a real time display system for showing the results of EKGs; (3) detection of arteriosclerosis by digital computer processing of X-ray photos; (4) automated, noninvasive systems for blood pressure measurement; (5) ultrasonoscope - a noninvasive device for use in diagnosis of aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve disease; and (6) rechargable cardiac pacemakers. The formation of a biomedical applications team which is an interdisciplinary team to bridge the gap between the developers and users of technology is described.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Calmarza Calmarza


    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha consolidado la teoría oxidativa de la arteriosclerosis. En este proceso se produce el atrapamiento de ldl oxidadas en la íntima arterial.La medida de ldl oxidadas en el laboratorio es difícil, considerándose en la actualidad la medida de isoprostanos la técnica de elección para la valoración del estrés oxidativo.

  3. Unaltered mRNA expression of calcitonin-like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins in human arteries in stroke and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Karen; János, Tajti; Tibor, Hortobágyi;


    -dependent change in total RNA and level of mRNA for p-actin or GAPDH could be detected in vessels removed from 1 and 5 days post mortem. The expression of beta-actin appears lower in coronary artery than in pulmonary artery and middle cerebral artery with no significant difference for GAPDH; both worked well......-R and RAMPs in arteries from patients with hemorrhagic stroke, arteriosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction when compared to patients without these diagnoses. Thus the mRNA expression seems to be unaltered in these disorders....

  4. Biofuncionalización de superficies de CoCr con nano-patterning



    En este trabajo se estudia la modificación y caracterización superficial de una aleación de CoCr con aplicación para stens cardiovasculares. Un stent es un dispositivo que se introduce en las arterias coronarias para solucionar problemas como la estenosis o la arteriosclerosis, enfermedades que producen una obstrucción del vaso sanguíneo debido a la acumulación de placa en las paredes. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la mayor causa de mortalidad en los países desarrollados. Durante l...

  5. Biomarcadores de la inflamación en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Efecto del control glucémico y del fenotipo de las LDL


    Vinagre Torres, Irene


    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen las complicaciones más prevalentes en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y son las que se asocian con mayor morbi-mortalidad. Los mecanismos responsables del desarrollo acelerado de arteriosclerosis en los pacientes con DM2 no se conocen con precisión, pero tanto la dislipemia aterogénica y la inflamación de bajo grado características de esta población, están implicados. La información sobre la relación del grado de control glucémico...

  6. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier;


    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pkidney (p...-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...

  7. Marcadores de inflamación e insulinorresistencia en la hiperlipemia familiar combinada


    Carratalá Calvo, Arturo


    La hiperlipemia familiar combinada (HFC) es un modelo genético de dislipemia mixta con resistencia a la insulina (RI) y elevado riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica por el desarrollo precoz de arteriosclerosis. La RI es independiente del grado de obesidad y del fenotipo lipoproteico. Constituye, además, factor de riesgo cardiovascular en estos pacientes. Actualmente existe una gran evidencia de que en el desarrollo y progresión de la aterosclerosis subyacen mecanismos inmunológicos e inflamator...

  8. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati


    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  9. Laser Biostimulation Of Wound Healing In Arteriopatic Patients (United States)

    Tallarida, G.; Baldoni, F.; Raimondi, G.; Massaro, M.; Peruzzi, G.; Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Scudieri, F.


    Low-power laser irradiation has been employed in the attempt to accelerate the wound-healing of ischemic cutaneous ulcerations with threatening or manifest gangrene due to arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower limbs. Irradiation was performed by using a low-power He-Ne gas laser of 6328 Å wavelength and was concentrated at the peripheral zone of the lesions. The preliminary results of the study indicate that laser stimulation might be new approach in the conservative menagement of the ischemic ulcers in patients with severe peripheral obstructive arteriopaties not suited for arterial reconstruction.

  10. Measure and analyze the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity of 125 plots%飞行员肢体动脉硬化与吸烟关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单清; 王惠贤


    Objective : To explore the situation and related factors of the arteriosclerosis between the smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots. By means:125 pilots were randomly selected and divided into two groups: smoking group and non - smoking group. Measure the brachial - ankle pulse wave velocity of each pilot by Arteriosclerosis Checking Instrument , record the height , weight , systolic pressure , diastolic pressure , pulse pressure , driving plane period and smoking period of each pilot of the groups and compare the data of Bapwv of different ages between smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots. Results : There was little difference in Bapwv between the smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots with ages younger than 30 and 30 to 39( P >0. 05 ). The Bapwv of the smoking pilots who are over 40 years old are obvious higher than those same age non - smoking pilots( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The brachial - ankle arteriosclerosis situation of the smoking pilots can be diagnosed correspondingly early. And we may prevent , interpose and doctor the arteriosclerosis of the smoking pilots to keep their flight safe.%目的:探讨飞行员肢体动脉硬化程度与吸烟关系.方法:随机选择125名飞行员分为吸烟组和非吸烟组,应用动脉硬化测定仪测定臂踝脉搏波传导速度,同时确定飞行员身高、体重、收缩压、舒张压、脉压、飞行时间等.对比各年龄段吸烟组与非吸烟组飞行员臂踝脉搏波传导速度.结果:30岁以下和30 ~39岁飞行员吸烟组臂踝脉搏波传导速度与非吸烟组无明显差异(P>0.05);40岁以上飞行员吸烟组臂踝脉搏波传导速度较非吸烟组显著升高(P<0.05).结论:通过对臂踝脉搏波传导速度的测定可以相对早期发现飞行员中特别是吸烟飞行员中动脉硬化程度,做到早预防、早干预,确保飞行安全.

  11. Cervical Spondylopathy Involving the Vertebral Arteries Treated by Body-Acupuncture Combined with Scalp-Acupuncture in 72 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保民; 柴富明; 高洪明


    @@ Among various types of cervical spondylopathy, the one involving the vertebral arteries is frequently encountered in the middle-aged and the old people. It is often accompanied with arteriosclerosis and high blood viscosity, and clinically it is difficult to be treated. From March 1996 to December 2000, the authors hadtreated 72 cases of cervical spondylopathy of this type and achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects shown by clinical symptoms and indicated by the trans-cranial Doppler ultrasonic examination (TCD). This is reported as follows.

  12. Dieta, estilos de vida y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes europeos


    Bel Serrat, Silvia; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Krogh, Vittorio; Mouratidou, Theodora


    La infancia y la adolescencia no sólo se caracterizan por ser periodos de crecimiento rápido y maduración, sino también porque se adquiere el comportamiento alimentario para toda la vida. También se ha observado que las primeras manifestaciones de arteriosclerosis se dan de forma temprana durante la infancia y que, además, están relacionadas con la dieta y otros estilos de vida como la actividad física y los comportamientos sedentarios, entre otros factores. Por todo ello, es de gran importan...

  13. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H


    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...... arteriosclerosis of the legs in non-diabetic patients is generally considered a benign disease from the standpoint of limb survival, the critical level of TPI (systolic toe blood pressure/systolic arm blood pressure) was found to be 0.07 as a TPI below this value was associated with an overall 82% risk...

  14. Caracterización de la actividad sexual en adultos mayores del policlínico Gustavo Aldereguía


    Imilse Olivet López; Ángel Becerra Pérez; Norma Ávila Hernández


    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para caracterizar la sexualidad en adultos mayores pertenecientes al área de salud del policlínico “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. De un universo de 151 adultos mayores se escogió una muestra de 111, se excluyeron los que poseían arteriosclerosis y demencia senil o que por razones invalidantes no mantuvieran relaciones sexuales, tales como: ancianos en e...

  15. Impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, M.; Kruger, R.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm


    Objective: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. Design and method: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049......SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (24hDBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode echocardiography, carotid plaques (CP) by carotid ultra sound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). To establish best model for association of LVMI, CP, PWV and UACR we used multiple linear regression analysis starting...... associated to hypertrophy, arteriosclerosis and microvascular damage in healthy subjects....

  16. Vasectomy. (United States)

    Weiske, W H


    Vasectomy is regarded as the safest method now available for male fertility control. Almost 100 million men worldwide have relied on vasectomy for family planning. This review discusses all currently relevant operative techniques, including no-scalpel vasectomy, complications, possible long-term effects on the testis and epididymis, and diseases for which associations with vasectomy have been suggested, such as arteriosclerosis, autoimmune diseases and cancer of the prostate and testis. Other topics of discussion include the timing of post-operative semen analysis, patient noncompliance concerning post-operative controls, persistent cryptozoospermia and transient reappearance of spermatozoa after vasectomy, vasectomy failure and legal aspects.

  17. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B


    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  18. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang


    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  19. Arteria poplitea afklemningssyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, Peter; Meyer, Joan N; Schroeder, T V


    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) should be suspected in young persons without predisposing factors to arteriosclerosis, who present with unilateral claudication in the calf and foot. This entity results from a developmental abnormal relation between the popliteal artery and the medial...... head of the gastrocnemius muscle. PAES is mostly found in young sportsmen or young soldiers with well-developed muscles. The onset of the symptoms is often sudden, occurring during an episode of intense lower extremity activity. The diagnosis is best established by a thorough clinical examination...

  20. Bilateral brachial pull-through technique for stenting in a patient with stenosis of the vertebral artery origin: technical case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaka, N.; Nishiguchi, M.; Takayama, K.; Nishiura, T. [National Hospital Organization Iwakuni Clinical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi (Japan); Tamiya, T. [Kagawa University of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Kida-gun, Kagawa (Japan)


    Stenting for stenosis of the proximal vertebral artery (VA) is commonly performed via a femoral approach. However, iliofemoral occlusive disease such as arteriosclerosis obliterans sometimes prevents safe transfemoral access. In certain situations where both femoral access and ipsilateral brachial access are difficult because of a concomitant vascular diseases or particular anatomic setting, a contralateral brachial approach using the brachiobrachial pull-through technique may allow efficient and accurate stenting. A case of VA origin symptomatic stenosis successfully treated with stenting using the new pull-through technique from the contralateral brachial artery to the brachial artery on the affected side is described. (orig.)

  1. Alteraciones metabólicas de la Hiperlipemia Familiar Combinada y su asociación con la obesidad abdominal y la inflamación de bajo grado


    Díaz Ruiz, María


    La HFC es un síndrome dislipémico descrito por Goldstein et al en 1973 identificado al estudiar a jóvenes supervivientes de un infarto agudo de miocardio y a sus familias. Observaron en ellos diferentes fenotipos metabólicos y lipoproteicos, con presencia de elevaciones de los niveles de colesterol total y/o triglicéridos, junto con elevación de lipoproteínas VLDL, de LDL, o de ambas lipoproteínas. La HFC presenta el desarrollo de arteriosclerosis como la manifestación clínica responsable de...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit firm adhesion, crawling, spreading and transmigration across aortic endothelial cells: effects of chemokines and shear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Chamberlain

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and may be useful in the therapy of diseases such as arteriosclerosis. MSCs have some ability to traffic into inflamed tissues, however to exploit this therapeutically their migratory mechanisms need to be elucidated. This study examines the interaction of murine MSCs (mMSCs with, and their migration across, murine aortic endothelial cells (MAECs, and the effects of chemokines and shear stress. The interaction of mMSCs with MAECs was examined under physiological flow conditions. mMSCs showed lack of interaction with MAECs under continuous flow. However, when the flow was stopped (for 10 min and then started, mMSCs adhered and crawled on the endothelial surface, extending fine microvillous processes (filopodia. They then spread extending pseudopodia in multiple directions. CXCL9 significantly enhanced the percentage of mMSCs adhering, crawling and spreading and shear forces markedly stimulated crawling and spreading. CXCL9, CXCL16, CCL20 and CCL25 significantly enhanced transendothelial migration across MAECs. The transmigrated mMSCs had down-regulated receptors CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR6 and CCR9. This study furthers the knowledge of MSC transendothelial migration and the effects of chemokines and shear stress which is of relevance to inflammatory diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  3. Lower extremity vasculitis in giant cell arteritis: important differential diagnosis in patients with lower limb claudication. (United States)

    Sigl, Martin; Hsu, Eric; Scheffel, Hans; Haneder, Stefan; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Amendt, Klaus


    Most patients with peripheral arterial disease suffer from arteriosclerosis, the prevalence of which increases with age. In some of these patients, however, the ischemic symptoms are not caused by stenotic arteriosclerosis, but by large vessel giant cell arteritis (LV-GCA), a disease also predominantly affecting patients of the older generation. Identifying large vessel vasculitis is a challenge for all physicians caring for patients with peripheral artery disease. The results of invasive treatment such as bypass surgery and angioplasty of inflammatory vascular lesions differ fundamentally from those of patients with atherosclerosis. Duplex ultrasound is a widely available diagnostic method for examining patients with lower limb claudication and pathological ankle-/toe- brachial index or pulse volume recording with or without exercise. Knowledge of characteristic sonographic findings suspicious about large vessel vasculitis is essential for a differential diagnosis of vasculitis versus atherosclerosis. In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, further imaging techniques, e.g. contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or a combination of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) can provide information on further vessel involvement and inflammatory activity. The present study focuses on diagnostic imaging of LV-GCA in patients presenting with claudication, illustrated by a series of cases.

  4. Soft Tissue Mineralization in Captive 2-Toed Sloths. (United States)

    Han, S; Garner, M M


    Soft tissue mineralization was diagnosed in 19 captive 2-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylusandCholoepus hoffmanni) ranging from 2 months to 41 years of age. Gross mineralization was evident at necropsy in 6 of 19 sloths and was prominent in the aorta and arteries. Histologically, 11 sloths had arterial mineralization, including mural osseous and chondroid metaplasia and smooth muscle hyperplasia consistent with arteriosclerosis. Visceral mineralization most commonly involved the gastric mucosa (17 sloths), kidneys (17 sloths), and lungs (8 sloths). Eleven sloths ranging in age from 5 to 41 years old had moderate to severe renal disease, which may be an important underlying cause of soft tissue mineralization in adult sloths. However, 5 sloths (juveniles and adults) had severe soft tissue mineralization with histologically normal kidneys or only mild interstitial inflammation or fibrosis, suggesting other causes of calcium and phosphorus imbalance. Degenerative cardiac disease was a common finding in 10 sloths with vascular mineralization and varied from mild to severe with fibrosis and acute noninflammatory myocardial necrosis. Although the prevalence of cardiac disease in adult sloths has not been documented, disease may be exacerbated by hypertension from degenerative arteriosclerosis as noted in this study group. Although renal disease likely contributed substantially to mineralization of tissues in most sloths in this study, nutritional causes of soft tissue mineralization-such as imbalances in dietary vitamin D or calcium and phosphorus-may be an important contributing factor.

  5. Hyperuricemia and carotid artery dilatation among young adults without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Krishnan


    Full Text Available It is not known if hyperuricemia is associated with early vascular changes signifying arteriosclerosis. We performed a cross sectional study of 163 young adults without metabolic syndrome in Allegheny County, PA, USA. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure two metrics of early arteriosclerosis: carotid artery dimensions and aortic pulse wave velocity. Individuals in the highest quartiles of serum uric acid (>6.2 mg/dL for men and >4.6 for women were more likely to be of younger age, and to possess greater measures of adiposity and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Higher serum uric acid concentration was associated with larger luminal and adventitial diameters as well as changes in diameters between the phases of the cardiac cycle (P<0.001 but not with carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, or pressure strain modulus. In multivariable linear regression models where the effects of age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, current alcohol use, body mass index and smoking status were accounted for, the highest quartile of serum uric acid was associated with greater luminal and adventitial diameters and change in luminal diameter between the phases of cardiac cycle (P<0.05, but not with pulse wave velocity, pressure strain modulus or carotid intima media thickness. We can conclude that hyperuricemia is associated with larger carotid artery diameters signifying an early adaptive response to vascular stress. This has implications on the observed link between hyperuricemia and hypertension.

  6. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Inami


    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

  7. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  8. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  9. 超重和肥胖与动脉僵硬度的相关性研究%Association between overweight, obesity and arterial stiffness in community residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晖明; 李森; 许浩


    Objective To evaluate the relationship between overweight,obesity and arterial stiffness in community residents.Methods A total of 4585 community-dwelling adults in Jiangsu province,China were surveyed with the method of stratified and cluster sampling from 2007 to 2009.Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI) and arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).Statistical analysis of arteriosclerosis included multivariate logistic regression testing among which BMI was viewed as continuous variable( 1 kg/m2 increasing to BMI)and categorical variables (underweight,normal,overweight and obesity) respectively.Odds ratio,population attributable risk percent and the optimal cut-off points for BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve.Results ( 1 ) After age control,BMI of male or female were positively correlated with baPWV (r =0.213,P <0.01; r =0.186,P <0.01).baPWV and prevalence of arteriosclerosis were significantly higher in obese residents compared with normal body weight group ( all P < 0.01 ).(2)As a continuous variable,the odds ratio value of BMI on predicting arteriosclerosis was 1.146 (95%CI:1.117 - 1.175,P < 0.01 ) after adjusting of age,gender and hypertension.As categorical variables,the odds ratio value of BMI was 0.369(95% CI:0.141 -0.962,P <0.05) for underweight group,1.576 (95% CI:1.333 - 1.863 ) for overweight group and 2.087 ( 95% CI:1.615 - 2.698 ) for obesity group (all P <0.01 ).(3) The population attributable arteriosclerosis risk was 19.1% and 11.6%in overweight and obesity groups,respectively.The area under the ROC curve was 0.661 (95% CI:0.645 -0.678,P < 0.01 ) and the optimal cut-off point for BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis was 24.25 kg/m2.Conclusions Overweight and obese residents faced higher risk for arteriosclerosis than normal population.Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for

  10. Ophthalmic Examination Outcome of Disabled Persons in Shanghai%上海市残疾人眼科检查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 宗莲; 刘斐霞; 张悠然; 康琦; 唐瑞瑞; 白燕; 吕军; 陈刚


    目的:了解上海市残疾人的眼科检查情况,为残疾人眼病预防、治疗及健康指导提供依据。方法通过上海市残疾人联合会的“康复综合信息平台”,收集2011年1月—2014年8月上海市阳光康复中心和2013年1月—2014年6月上海市康复职业培训中心的残疾人眼科健康体检数据75336份(上海市阳光康复中心45084份,上海市康复职业培训中心30252份)。主要收集内容包括残疾人的基本人口学情况、残疾特征及眼科体检结果。比较并分析不同性别、年龄、疾病特征残疾人的眼科异常结果检出情况。结果共检出眼科异常结果145种,检出率排在前3位的分别为眼底动脉硬化(37.37%,28153/75336)、屈光不正(16.47%,12406/75336)、白内障(15.77%,11879/75336)。(1)不同性别残疾人的眼底动脉硬化、屈光不正、白内障、胬肉、玻璃体混浊、黄斑变性、视网膜病变、眼底病变检出率比较,差异有统计学意义(P 0.05)。(2)不同年龄残疾人的眼底动脉硬化、屈光不正、白内障、胬肉、玻璃体混浊、失明、黄斑变性、视网膜病变、斜视、眼底病变检出率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P 0. 05). (2)There were significant differences in the detection rate of fundus arteriosclerosis, ametroia ametropia,cataract,pterygium,vitreous opacity, blindness, macular degeneration, retinopathy, strabismus and fundus lesions among the disabled with different ages(P < 0. 05). (3)There were significant differences in the detection rate of fundus arteriosclerosis,ametropia,cataract,pterygium,vitreous opacity,blindness,macular degeneration,retinopathy, strabismus and fundus lesions among the disabled with different disability types( P < 0. 05). (4) There were significant differences in the detection rate of fundus arteriosclerosis,ametropia,cataract,pterygium,macular degeneration and strabismus among the disabled with

  11. 高龄老年人脉压差、血脂、血糖关系分析%Analysis of the Correlation between Pulse Pressure,Blood Lipid,Blood Sugar in the Elderly People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翊; 刘芳


    Objective:Removed the age factor, to probe into the correlation between blood pressure,blood lipid,blood sugar and arteriosclerosis in the elderly people. Methods:Analyzed the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and Diabetes mellitus,Hypertension in 279 examination of the elderly. analyzed the changes of blood glucose,blood lipid at the different levels of Pulse Pressure. In order to know the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and blood glucose,blood lipid, blood pressure. Results:There was a correlation between arteriosclerosis and arterial compliance in the elderly people and hyperglycemia,the disorder of lipid metabolism and high systolic blood pressure. Conclusions:Strengthened the blood glucose management and the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, strengthened the control of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension, these measures had a positive effect on prevention and treatment of senile arteriosclerosis.%目的:探讨老年动脉硬化除去年龄因素以外与血压、血糖、血脂的关系。方法:体检的老年人279例,分析脉压、平均动脉压与糖尿病、高血压病的关系及不同脉压水平下血糖、血脂的变化,进一步了解脉压、平均动脉压与血糖、血脂、血压之间的关系。结果:高龄老年人动脉硬化、血管顺应性减低与血糖增高、血脂代谢紊乱、收缩压增高有关。结论:加强糖尿病患者的血糖管理及血脂紊乱的治疗、加强高血压病患者血压控制对老年动脉硬化的防治有积极作用。

  12. 视网膜动脉硬化与颈动脉内膜中层厚度相关性的分析%Analysis of retinal artery atherosclerosis and carotid artery intima-media thickness correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨其热; 佟艳秋(通讯作者); 赵全良


    With the improvement of living standards of our people and changes in diet , atherosclerosis tends to increase , which is char-acterized by intimal involvement began , more performance for the eye retina arteriosclerosis .This paper analyzes the relationship and relat-ed factors between retinal arteriosclerosis with IMT .The results show that a growing number of retinal artery atherosclerosis with carotid in -timal thickening , IMT and retinal arteriosclerosis is a mutual influence , mutual causal relationship in diabetics .Carotid stenosis , especial-ly the internal carotid artery stenosis can directly affect the retinal blood supply .Therefore , early diagnosis helps to evaluate the situation whole body atherosclerosis .For coronary heart disease , hypertension , cerebrovascular accident and CRAO patients and high -risk groups play a good warning , delaying disease progression .%随着我国人民生活水平的提高和饮食习惯的改变,动脉硬化呈增高趋势,其特点是受累病变的内膜开始,眼部多表现为视网膜动脉硬化。本文对视网膜动脉硬化与IMT相关性及相关因素进行观察分析。结果表明,越来越多的视网膜动脉粥样硬化合并颈动脉内膜增厚,糖尿病患者IMT与视网膜动脉硬化是相互影响,互为因果的关系。颈动脉狭窄特别是颈内动脉狭窄可直接影响视网膜血供。因此,早期诊断有助于判定全身动脉硬化情况,对冠心病、高血压、脑血管意外以及CRAO等患者及高危人群起到良好的警示作用,延缓疾病的进展。

  13. 下肢动脉硬化闭塞症药物治疗及评价%The pharmacotherapy and evaluation of lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    下肢动脉硬化闭塞症作为动脉硬化性血管病的一种疾病,其发病率呈明显上升趋势。高血压、血脂异常、糖尿病、吸烟等心血管病危险因素水平的持续上升是导致我国居民动脉硬化闭塞性疾病发病率上升的主要原因。故防治动脉硬化闭塞性疾病应以控制危险因素为切入点,药物治疗具有关键性作用。应重视临床研究以制定相关指南,以此给予病人规范化的药物治疗包括抗血小板、降脂、控制血糖和血压,以延缓动脉硬化进展,改善下肢缺血症状,确保术后支架或移植物通畅率,降低心脑血管事件的发生,最终提高病人的存活率。%Lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive diseases, as one of atherosclerotic occlusive diseases, the incidence of which has been significantly increased. The continuous rise of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and so on are the main causes of the prevalence of arteriosclerosis occlusive disease in China. Therefore, prevention and treatment of arteriosclerosis occlusive disease should be based on the control of risk factors. Pharmacotherapy has a key role. Surgeons should pay more attention to clinical research in order to formulate the guidelines, based on which patients could receive standardized drug treatment, including anti-platelet, lipid-lowering, regulating blood sugar and blood pressure.The purposes are to delay the progress of arteriosclerosis, to improve the ischemic symptoms of the lower limb, to ensure the stent or graft’s patency rate, to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and ultimately to improve the survival rate of patients.

  14. Respiratory Care Guide on Acute Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma%支气管哮喘急性发作期的呼吸指导与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨支气管哮喘急性发作期的呼吸指导和临床护理方法.方法:对照组所有患者均采用传统护理方法,包括严密观察病情、保持呼吸道畅通、心理护理和健康教育:研究组患者在此基础上,行加强性呼吸指导和呼吸训练护理.结果:研究组患者的护理临床总有效率100%明显高于对照组96.08%,数据经统计学比较具有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:有效的呼吸指导与洲练护理,对于减少临床不良症状、提高呼吸力具有良好的疗效.%Objective: To explore effect of promoting cerebral venous return on brain function and inflammatory factor of patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction for the reference in clinical treatment.Methods: Forty patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction were taken as Observation Group and healthy examined people as Control Group. Observation Group was treated with thrombolysis-based therapy promoting cerebral venous return. Please observe variations in sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CR inflammatory markers of both groups before and after treatmentResults: After therapy promoting cerebral venous return, 28 cases' brain function took a turn for the better and 12 cases not. Logistic regression analysis showed hs-CRP activity wss an independent inflammatory marker of efficacy of clinical prognosis (P<0.05). Con elusion :It improved brain function of patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction and changed the inflammatory factor by promoting cerebral venous return. Hereinto, hs-CRP activity gave a hint at cerebral infarction to a certain degree.

  15. Water hardness in relation to cadium accumulation and microscopic signs of cardiovascular disease in horses. (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Jonsson, L; Sternström, T; Piscator, M; Linnman, L


    The hardness of drinking water (i.e., the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations) has been related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex and to microscopic signs of arteriosclerosis and focal myocardial fibrosis in 50 Swedish horses slaughtered for meat production. A significant negative correlation was found between water hardness and cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex. This indicates that horses living in soft water areas are more inclined to accumulate cadmium from the general environment. Microscopic changes in the aorta and myocardium were approximately 2 times as frequent in horses that drank soft water compared to horses that drank hard water. The differences were, however, not statistically significant. It is concluded that horses are well suited for studies of the "water factor".

  16. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)


    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  17. Occurrence of occlusive intimal changes in an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. (United States)

    Carson, S N; Hunter, G; French, S; Lord, P; Wong, H N


    A case report is presented demonstrating pathologic changes in the neointima that formed when a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft was placed in a 35 year old white male with severe arteriosclerosis. Representative sections of the patient's artery and graft were taken which demonstrated considerable smooth muscle proliferation in both along with full wall healing in the latter. Partial oclusion of the total length of the PTFE graft by a process similar to that occurring in the patient's own arteriosclerotic arteries was found. The consistency and extent of the involvement (> 10 cm in length) would appear to preclude entities such as neointimal fibrous hyperplasia and may point to another consequence of intimal injury and full wall graft healing which may be an undesirable effect of arteriosclerotic metabolism in the human. It is conceivable that full wall graft healing in an arteriosclerotic individual may have untoward events that need to be further investigated as new graft materials are developed.

  18. Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome with severe calcific aortic valve stenosis (United States)

    Hanumanthappa, Natesh B; Madhusudan, Ganigara; Mahimarangaiah, Jayaranganath; Manjunath, Cholenahally N


    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging syndrome that results from mutation in the Laminin A gene. This case report of a 12-year-old girl with HGPS is presented for the rarity of the syndrome and the classical clinical features that were observed in the patient. All patients with this condition should undergo early and periodic evaluation for cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognosis is poor and management is mainly conservative. There is no proven therapy available. Mortality in this uniformly fatal condition is primarily due to myocardial infarction, strokes or congestive cardiac failure between ages 7 and 21 years due to the rapidly progressive arteriosclerosis involving the large vessels. PMID:21976890

  19. Garlic: empiricism or science? (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco


    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev


    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  1. Nitric oxide prevents alveolar senescence and emphysema in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Boe

    Full Text Available Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment induces arteriosclerosis and vascular senescence. Here, we report that the systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by L-NAME causes pulmonary emphysema. L-NAME-treated lungs exhibited both the structural (alveolar tissue destruction and functional (increased compliance and reduced elastance characteristics of emphysema development. Furthermore, we found that L-NAME-induced emphysema could be attenuated through both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Because PAI-1 is an important contributor to the development of senescence both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether L-NAME-induced senescence led to the observed emphysematous changes. We found that L-NAME treatment was associated with molecular and cellular evidence of premature senescence in mice, and that PAI-1 inhibition attenuated these increases. These findings indicate that NO serves to protect and defend lung tissue from physiological aging.

  2. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  3. Application of microwave sensor technology in cardiovascular disease for plaque detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner David


    Full Text Available Arteriosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality. Improved methods for vascular plaque detection allow early diagnose and better therapeutic options. Present diagnostic tools require intense technical expenditure and diminish value of modern screening methods. Our group developed an microwave sensor for on-site detection of plaque formation in arterial vessels. The sensor is an oscillator working around 27 GHz which is coupled to a microstrip stub line. The final flexible polyimid interposer has a length of 38 cm, a width of 1.2 mm and a thickness of 200 μm. Because of its minimal size the interposer completed a catheter with a diameter of 8F ready for further clinical use in cardiology and heart surgery.

  4. C-Peptide and Atherogenesis: C-Peptide as a Mediator of Lesion Development in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Marx


    Full Text Available Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show increased levels of C-peptide and over the last years various groups examined the effect of C-peptide in vascular cells as well as its potential role in lesion development. While some studies demonstrated beneficial effects of C-peptide, for example, by showing an inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, others suggested proatherogenic mechanisms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Among them, C-peptide may facilitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells into early lesions and promote lesion progression by inducing smooth muscle cell proliferation. The following review will summarize the effects of C-peptide in vascular cells and discuss the potential role of C-peptide in atherogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Alois Alzheimer and vascular brain disease: Arteriosclerotic atrophy of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available Alois Alzheimer is best known for his description of neurofibrillary changes in brain neurons of a demented patient, identifying a novel disease, soon named after him by Kraepelin. However, the range of his studies was broad, including vascular brain diseases, published between 1894 and 1902. Alzheimer described the clinical picture of Arteriosclerotic atrophy of the brain, differentiating it from other similar disorders. He stated that autopsy allowed pathological distinction between arteriosclerosis and syphilis, thereby achieving some of his objectives of segregating disorders and separating them from syphilis. His studies contributed greatly to establishing the key information on vascular brain diseases, predating the present state of knowledge on the issue, while providing early descriptions of what would be later regarded as the dimensional presentation of the now called "Vascular cognitive impairment", constituted by a spectrum that includes a stage of "Vascular cognitive impairment not dementia" and another of "Vascular dementia".

  6. Diabetes mellitus in a black-footed ferret (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.


    Diabetes mellitus was tentatively diagnosed in a black-footed ferret with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dehydration, and weight loss. Laboratory findings (marked hyperglycemia (724 mg/100 ml), glycosuria, and ketonuria) and the subsequent favorable response to insulin therapy confirmed the diagnosis. Although lesions were not observed in the pancreas, gross and histologic findings concomitant with diabetes mellitus included arteriosclerosis, with calcification of the aorta and other major vessels; mild necrotizing hepatitis; and mild proliferative glomerulonephritis. A perineal adenocarcinoma, with metastasis to an internal iliac lymph node, was an incidental finding. Special stains demonstrated adequate numbers of beta cell granules in the islets of Langerhans. Thus, the diabetes was apparently due to a lack of release of the synthesized insulin or to diminished effectiveness of the secreted insulin.

  7. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady


    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  8. Laser angioplasty for cardiovascular disease (United States)

    Okada, Masayoshi


    Recently, endovascular interventions such as balloon angioplasty, atherectomy and the stenting method, except for conventional surgery have been clinically employed for the patients with atheromatous plaques of the peripheral- and the coronary arteries, because the number of patients with arteriosclerosis is now increasing in the worldwide. Among these procedures, restenoses after endovascular interventions have been remarkably disclosed in 20-40 % of the patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions. Thus, there are still some problems in keeping long-term patency by means of endovascular techniques such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy (1, 2). For reduction of these problems , laser angioplasty using Argon laser was applied experimentally and clinically. Based on excellent experimental studies, laser was employed for 115 patients with stenotic ,or obstructive lesions occluding more thasn 75 % of the peripheral and the coronary arteries angiographycally.

  9. Estimation of Stiffness Parameter on the Common Carotid Artery (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. Up to the present, several methods to measure stiffness parameter of the carotid artery have been proposed. However, they have analyzed at the only one point of common carotid artery. In this paper, we propose the method of analysis extended over a wide area of common carotid artery. In order to measure stiffness parameter of common carotid artery from echocardiogram, it is required to detect two border curves which are boundaries between vessel wall and blood. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is the detection of border curves, and the second step is the calculation of stiffness parameter using diameter of common carotid artery. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  10. Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear Rate Based on Parameter Optimization (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto


    The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear rate, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear rate estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear rate was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles based on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear rate calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear rate estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear rate calculation.

  11. Estimation of Arterial Stiffness by Time-Frequency Analysis of Pulse Wave (United States)

    Saito, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yuya; Shibayama, Yuka; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furuya, Mio; Asada, Takaaki


    Evaluation of a pulse wave is effective for the early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis because the pulse wave contains the reflected wave that is the age- and stiffness-dependent component. In this study, we attempted to extract the parameter reflecting the component by pulse wave analysis using continuous wavelet transform. The Morlet wavelet was used as the mother wavelet. We then investigated the relationship between the parameter and the reflected wave that was extracted from the pulse wave by our previously reported separation technique. Consequently, the result of wavelet transform of the differentiated pulse waveform changed markedly owing to age and had medium correlation with the peak of the reflected wave (R=0.68).

  12. Development of a Mechanical Scanning-type Intravascular Ultrasound System Using a Miniature Ultrasound Motor (United States)

    Tanabe, Masayuki; Xie, Shangping; Tagawa, Norio; Moriya, Tadashi; Furukawa, Yuji


    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays an important role for the detection of arteriosclerosis, which causes the ischemic heart disease. In mechanical scanning-type IVUS, it is necessary to rotate a transducer or a reflecting mirror. A method that involves rotating the transducer using a torque wire causes image distortion (NURD: non uniform rotation distortion). For a method that involves placing an electromagnetic motor on the tip of an IVUS probe is difficult to miniaturize the probe. Our objectives are to miniaturize the probe (1 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) and to remove NURD. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility of attaining these objectives by constructing a prototype IVUS system, in which an ultrasound motor using a stator in the form of a helical coil (abbreviated as CS-USM: coiled stator-ultrasonic motor) is incorporated, and to clarify problems that need to be solved in constructing the probe.

  13. Ultrasonic Measurement of Fluid Viscosity for Blood Characterization (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro


    Although plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis is affected by not only its strength but also by hemodynamic factors, such as blood pressure and shear stress, in particular, the viscous coefficient which directly controls the magnitude of shear stress might be a risk factor in plaque rupture. Therefore, if the viscous coefficient can be assessed noninvasively, it can be a useful index for prediction of a plaque rupture and assessment of various diseases. In this work, an ultrasonic methodology to estimate the viscous coefficient was investigated by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment as the fundamental investigation for noninvasively assessing the viscous characteristics of blood. These results show that the proposed method is useful for estimating the kinematic viscosity coefficient in the viscous evaluation of blood.

  14. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses (United States)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang


    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  15. Compliant Wall Simulation of a Healthy Carotid Bifurcation (United States)

    Williamson, Shobha; Rayz, Vitaliy; Saloner, David; Berger, Stanley


    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the industrialized world. Together with the genetic causes of this disease, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in the arterial system plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis. In an effort to further understand this disease, an FSI model of the carotid artery is in progress. To construct this model, we begin with compliant arterial wall deformation considered under transient global blood pressure. Vessel walls are composed of collagen fibers, elastin, smooth muscle, and water. Due to its complexity and variation among humans, it is difficult to create an accurate mechanical description of this material. Hence, we begin by way of isotropic properties with the future intent of anisotropic modeling. Using these parameters, a pulsatile 3D model of wall movement for a healthy carotid artery is presented. Supported under a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, NIH Grant HL61823, and PBD, Inc.

  16. Architectural Analyses and Developments of 1 mm Diameter Micro Forceps for Catheter Surgery (United States)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takumi

    Blockage in a blood vessel due to cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis or aneurysms requires minimally invasive placement of a mesh tube or platinum coil stent via a catheter to open the affected area. Stents are positioned using a guide wire via a catheter, but the stent may be dropped on the way to its destination and requires much time in surgery, increasing the burden on the patient. Medical apparatuses are thus desired having a mechanism to grasp artifacts securely in blood vessels. We designed prototype microforceps for use on the end of a catheter for grasping operation in blood vessels and to contribute to medical apparatuses in this field. The microforceps we designed using a minimum number of parts uses metal injection molding (MIM) to realize strong mass production. Microforceps installed in the tip of a catheter. Stress analysis verified its capability to grasp, bend and turn within the confines of a blood vessels model.

  17. Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity using RGB cameras (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Aoki, Yuta; Satoh, Ryota; Hoshi, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi


    Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) using red, green, and blue (RGB) digital color images is proposed. Generally, PWV is used as the index of arteriosclerosis. In our method, changes in blood volume are calculated based on changes in the color information, and is estimated by combining multiple regression analysis (MRA) with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model of the transit of light in human skin. After two pulse waves of human skins were measured using RGB cameras, and the PWV was calculated from the difference of the pulse transit time and the distance between two measurement points. The measured forehead-finger PWV (ffPWV) was on the order of m/s and became faster as the values of vital signs raised. These results demonstrated the feasibility of this method.

  18. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi


    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  19. Regional calcium distribution and ultrasound images of the vessel wall in human carotid arteries (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Uzonyi, I.; Szíki, G. Á.; Magyar, M. T.; Molnár, S.; Ida, Y.; Csiba, L.


    Arterial calcification can take place at two sites in the vessel wall: the intima and the media. Intimal calcification occurs exclusively within atherosclerotic plaques, while medial calcification may develop independently. Extensive calcified plaques in the carotid arteries can be easily detected by B-mode ultrasonic imaging. The calcium content might correlate with the ultrasound reflectance of the vessel wall, and could be a surrogate marker for arteriosclerosis. In this study, segments of human carotid arteries collected at autopsy were examined by ultrasonography in vitro and calcium distributional maps of sections from the same segments were determined by particle induced X-ray emission. Our aim was to make a first step towards investigating the relationship between the calcium distributional maps and the respective ultrasound images.

  20. Modulation of the sis Gene Transcript during Endothelial Cell Differentiation in vitro (United States)

    Jaye, Michael; McConathy, Evelyn; Drohan, William; Tong, Benton; Deuel, Thomas; Maciag, Thomas


    Endothelial cells, which line the interior walls of blood vessels, proliferate at the site of blood vessel injury. Knowledge of the factors that control the proliferation of these cells would help elucidate the role of endothelial cells in wound healing, tumor growth, and arteriosclerosis. In vitro, endothelial cells organize into viable, three-dimensional tubular structures in environments that limit cell proliferation. The process of endothelial cell organization was found to result in decreased levels of the sis messenger RNA transcript and increased levels of the messenger RNA transcript for fibronectin. This situation was reversed on transition from the organized structure to a proliferative monolayer. These results suggest a reciprocity for two biological response modifiers involved in the regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

  1. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.


    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  2. Flexible pulse-wave sensors from oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns (United States)

    Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Tateyama, Hiroshi


    Flexible pulse-wave sensors were fabricated from density-packed oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns prepared on aluminum foils. The nanocolumns were prepared by the rf magnetron sputtering method and were perpendicularly oriented to the aluminum foil surfaces. The sensor structure is laminated, and the structure contributes to avoiding unexpected leakage of an electric charge. The resulting sensor thickness is 50 μm. The sensor is flexible like aluminum foil and can respond to frequencies from 0.1 to over 100 Hz. The sensitivity of the sensor to pressure is proportional to the surface area. The sensor sensitively causes reversible charge signals that correlate with the pulse wave form, which contains significant information on arteriosclerosis and cardiopathy of a man sitting on it.

  3. [Raynaud's phenomenon and other circulatory disorders of the fingers]. (United States)

    Mahler, Felix


    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is defined as attacks of blanking, subsequent cyanosis and rubeosis of fingers due to vasospasms in response to cold or emotional stimuli. Primary RP has no known underlying cause and occurs mainly in young and otherwise healthy women. Secondary RP goes along with various causes such as connective tissue diseases, toxic substances, drugs, physical trauma or organic finger artery occlusions, and occurs at any age and in both genders. Related affections are acrocyanosis and finger artery occlusions either due to arteriosclerosis or vasculitis. Also spontaneous finger hematoma may provoke an episode of RP. Therapeutically strict cold protection and avoidance of possible noxa is recommended besides the treatment of underlying diseases. No standard vasoactive drug has proven ideal for RP due to side effects. In cases with rest pain or ulcerations the same principles are applied as in ischemic diseases with no possibility for revascularization.

  4. Late neurological complications after irradiation of malignant tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Marianne; Bentzen, Søren M.; Overgaard, Jens


    To identify and describe late neurological complications in a Danish testis cancer cohort treated by radiotherapy. Clinical retrospective material of 94 consecutive patients with malignant testicular tumours treated at Aarhus County Hospital from 1964 to 1973. The irradiated dose in the paraaortic...... paresis in the lower limbs and absence of sphincter disturbances or sensory symptoms. High spinal cord dose was related to increased risk of neurological damage. During follow-up19 patients developed another primary cancer in the radiation field; nine patients were diagnosed with severe arteriosclerosis...... field varied from 27 to 55 Gy given 5 or 6 days a week, from the back and front alternately. The biological equivalent dose of the spinal cord was calculated using the linear-quadratic model. Median follow-up was 25 years, range 7 to 33 years. Seven patients were identified with late neurological...

  5. Chronic Kidney Isograft and Allograft Rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严群; 张鹏; 杨传永


    Summary: In this study antigen-independent factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection of organ transplants was examined. Kidney isografts and allografts were transplanted orthotopically into bilaterally nephroectomized rat recipients and studied functionally, morphologically and immunohistologically, at serial intervals up to 52 weeks after transplantation. Allograft recipients developed progressive proteinuria after 12 weeks, with gradual renal failure ultimately leading to death. At the same time, morphological changes, including progressive arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, developed. Immunohistologically, macrophages infiltrated glomeruli during this period and cytokines became unregulated. Our resuits showed that antigen-independent functional and morphological changes occurred in long-term kidney isografts and mimicked those appearing much earlier in allografts that reject chronically.Initial injury and extent of functioning renal mass is suggested to be important factor for such late changes.

  6. Radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amla, T.R.; Chakravarti, R.N.; Lal, K.


    Adult healthy rhesus monkeys were exposed to a course of roentgen irradiation over the chest and back to produce pulmonary changes simulating human radiation pneumonitis. Macroscopic and morphologic changes included dense adhesions, pleural thickening and increased consistency of the lungs. Microscopically the early reaction was characterized by dilatation of pulmonary vessels, microhaemorrhages, collapse of alveoli, permeation of the interstitial tissue with a fibrinous fluid and cells. In the late stage the fibrinous interstitial matrix was replaced by hyaline eosinophilic mass, fragmentation and dissolution of the elastic tissue and thickening of the alveolar walls. The cell population in the interstitial tissue showed decline and at places radiolytic effect. There was peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis and hyalinization and pulmonary arteries revealed marked degree of arteriosclerosis. The present study opens a new field for experimental research on the development of pulmonary hypertension as a post-irradiation complication.

  7. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu


    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  8. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft]. (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G


    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  9. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Osamu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)], E-mail:; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)


    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  10. Stress, acute hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia role of the autonomic nervous system and cytokines. (United States)

    Nonogaki, K; Iguchi, A


    Stress is accompanied by metabolic alterations that could contribute to the etiology of diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanisms by which stress affects glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be resolved. Stress-induced effects on neurotransmission and interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling rapidly produce hyperglycemia by increasing sympathetic outflow. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system can also rapidly stimulate lipolysis and hepatic triglyceride secretion. Furthermore, stress increases serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels by activating neuroendocrine systems. IL-6 and NGF can rapidly increase lipolysis and hepatic triglyceride secretion without inducing hyperglycemia. The sympathetic nervous system does not mediate cytokine-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Thus, the central nervous system plays an important role in regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism via the sympathetic nervous system and cytokines. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:192-197). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Mediastinal radiotherapy and ostial lesion of the left main coronary artery; Radioterapia mediastinica e lesao ostial de tronco de coronaria esquerda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, Edgar Guimaraes; Parente, Giordano Bruno de Oliveira [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail:


    Ischemic cardiac disease is a rare complication and, only recently recognized, of mediastinal irradiation for neoplasms in this region. A case of a 51 years old woman with angina pectoris, rapidly progressive is related, where the angiographic finding was represented by ostial sub occlusive lesion of the left coronary body. The previous story showed the use of radiotherapy for mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma treatment, with close relation to right ventricle, removed by surgery and afterwards treated with irradiation and chemotherapy two years ago. The coronary stenosis induction in these patients can be dependent or not of the focal arteriosclerosis and is mediated, mainly, by intimal thickness due to tissular fibrosis without alteration in the medium layer and with inclination for the ostial portions of the main arteries. The recognition of this condition (thorax radiotherapy), as an isolated and independent factor for the coronary disease, should be considered in the acting plan for prevention, detection and previous therapy.

  12. Endothelial cell–oligodendrocyte interactions in small vessel disease and aging (United States)

    Rajani, Rikesh M.


    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a prevalent, neurological disease that significantly increases the risk of stroke and dementia. The main pathological changes are vascular, in the form of lipohyalinosis and arteriosclerosis, and in the white matter (WM), in the form of WM lesions. Despite this, it is unclear to what extent the key cell types involved–the endothelial cells (ECs) of the vasculature and the oligodendrocytes of the WM–interact. Here, we describe the work that has so far been carried out suggesting an interaction between ECs and oligodendrocytes in SVD. As these interactions have been studied in more detail in other disease states and in development, we explore these systems and discuss the role these mechanisms may play in SVD. PMID:28202749

  13. [Complications in null-diet]. (United States)

    Oster, P; Mordasini, R; Raetzer, H; Schellenberg, B; Schlierf, G


    Total starvation is effective for acute weight reduction in obesity. However, in 200 patients, most of whom also had internal diseases, 8% exhibited sometimes severe complications, i.e. reversible cerebral ischemia in 3 hypertensive patients when the blood pressure was lowered to the normal range by natriuresis of fasting; breakdown of water and electrolyte homeostasis with circulatory collapse, vomiting and vertigo; acute crises of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and porphyria respectively and increase of transaminases up to 200 mu/ml, or cardiac arrhythmias. Relative (?) contraindications for total fasting appear to be clinical sings of arteriosclerosis such as vascular bruits, angina pectoris and intermittent claudication. In case of doubt, the method should only be used in hospital.

  14. A clinico-radiological study on 254 cases of pontine high signals on magnetic resonance imaging in relation to brain stem semiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro


    A total of 254 patients who were proved to have pontine high intensity areas on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analyzed in relation to brain stem semiology. A comparative study on MRI and MR angiography was made between 254 patients with pontine high signals and 276 control cases showing no abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images. Of the 254 patients, 62 had transient subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness. Supratentorial high signals, basilar artery tortuousness and vertebral artery asymmetry on MR angiography were seen more frequently in patients with pontine high signals than in the controls. In conclusion, pontine high signals may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and MR angiography is considered to be a useful screening method. (author).

  15. Isolation of a new flavanone from Daidai fruit and hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts. (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Jun; Chen, Dan; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Qun; Lian, Yun-Fang; Cai, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Hua-Ping; Lin, Yi-Li


    In order to further discover the medicinal value of Daidai fruit, an exploration on the hypolipidemic activity of total flavonoids extracts of Daidai fruit (TFEODF) was conducted in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipemia rats. Results indicated that TFEODF exhibited significant hypolipidemic activity which resulted in the decline of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, arteriosclerosis index and rise of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in hyperlipemia rats. For the purpose of expounding the chemical constituents of TFEODF, a phytochemical investigation of TFEODF was carried out for the first time. Research resulted in the isolation of a new compound together with 17 known compounds. This study lay a foundation for the development of a new hypolipidemic agent of traditional Chinese medicine whose chemical constituents were clarified.

  16. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj


    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...... from Taiwan followed a logarithmic normal distribution, and no difference was found between Blackfoot patients and their healthy family members. However, their overall arsenic levels were higher than the Taiwan average, presumably because of arsenic in their drinking water. Much lower levels were found...

  17. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo associated with arterial occlusive disease: three case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Penteado de Castro Junior

    Full Text Available Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo (SSNHLV has multifactorial causes, of which viral, autoimmune and vascular insufficiency are the most common. The therapeutic management for SSNHLV includes antiviral drugs, corticosteroids, vasodilators, normovolemic hemodilution therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Vertebrobasilar occlusive disease and carotid occlusive disease are seldom related to SSNHLV. Discussions concerning SSNHLV caused by occlusive vascular disease are important and necessary for both neurologists and otolaryngologists, since their therapeutic management and prognosis are very different from other causes of hearing loss and vertigo. Here, we present our experience with three cases managed with interventional treatment and conduct a review and discussion on the relevant literature. We conclude that investigation of vertebrobasilar and carotid occlusive diseases is necessary in patients over 50 years of age who present SSNHLV, mild neurological symptoms and a history of arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure or thrombosis.

  18. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of an endocarditis valvularis in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) with pneumonia. (United States)

    Schroff, Sandra; Schmidt, Volker; Kiefer, Ingmar; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Pees, Michael


    An 11-yr-old Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) was presented with a history of respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography and an endoscopic examination of the left lung were performed and revealed severe pneumonia. Microbiologic examination of a tracheal wash sample and an endoscopy-guided sample from the lung confirmed infection with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Computed tomographic examination demonstrated a hyperattenuated structure within the heart. Echocardiographic examination revealed a hyperechoic mass at the pulmonic valve as well as a dilated truncus pulmonalis. As therapy for pneumonia was ineffective, the snake was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed pneumonia and infective endocarditis of the pulmonic valve caused by septicemia with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV. Focal arteriosclerosis of the pulmonary trunk was also diagnosed. The case presented here demonstrates the possible connection between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in snakes.

  19. 糖尿病肾脏病变临床诊治的症结与展望%Cruces and prospects for clinical diagnosis and therapy of diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 糖尿病肾病(diabetic nephropathy,DN)的发病机制十分复杂,不同类型糖尿病的肾脏病变的遗传易感性、危险因素以及标志物(如尿白蛋白等)的特异性也不完全相同.糖尿病肾脏病变通常是指肾小球基底膜增厚、系膜扩张及进一步发展形成的弥漫性肾小球间与结节性肾小球硬化(Kimmelstiel-Wilson′s glomerulosclerosis),但实际上还应包括肾内血管病变--动脉和小动脉硬化(arteriosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis)及肾小管间质病变(tubulo-interstitial disease).

  20. Quantitative and semi-quantitative histopathological examination of renal biopsies in healthy individuals, and associations with kidney function. (United States)

    Bar, Yael; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Wallin, Maria; Mölne, Johan


    This study assesed the prevalence of histopathological changes in renal biopsies from healthy individuals, and the association with age, sex and smoking. Donor biopsies from 109 subjects were obtained from living kidney donors, and blood and urine samples were collected together with medical history. All biopsies were scored according to the Banff '97 classification with some modifications. The parameters included in this study were tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, arteriolohyalinosis and a sclerosis score. An alternative scoring system for tubular atrophy was examined (using ≤5% rather than kidney donors around 50 years of age with normal kidney function. We propose that a cut-off of ≤5% yields a better definition of grade 0 tubular atrophy compared with the established cut-off of >0%.

  1. Acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following total knee arthroplasty: Report of one case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui He; Liu Yang


    Acute arterial occlusion is a rare complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).The incidence as reported previously is from 0.03% to 0.17%;however,the sequelae can be disastrous because of its potential threat to limb loss.We report a case of acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following TKA occurred 40 min postoperatively.The occlusion site existed at the midpiece of femoral artery is uncommon.Arterial circulation of the lower limb could not be restored by the thrombolysis and thrombectomy treatments performed within 11 h after TKA.In the end,amputation had to be carried out.In the treatment of acute arterial occlusion following TKA with a tourniquet,it is important to fully consider that arteriosclerosis may induce atheromatous plaque disruption,which might be the reason for acute arterial occlusion.

  2. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppressed the differentiation of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. (United States)

    Kamon, Masayoshi; Zhao, Ran; Sakamoto, Kazuichi


    Recently, various physiological effects of the tea polyphenol catechin for alleviating diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia and osteoporosis have been reported. However, the physiological effect of catechin on bone metabolism remains unclear. We examined the physiological effect of EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate], which is the main component of green tea catechin, on osteoblast development using the precursor cell line of osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1, and co-culture of the osteoblasts from mouse newborn calvaria and mouse bone marrow cells. Although EGCG did not affect the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, EGCG inhibited the osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, EGCG did not affect the mineralization of differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells, and reduced osteoclast formation in co-culture. These results suggest that EGCG can effectively suppress bone resorption, and can be used as an effective medicine in the treatment of the symptoms of osteoporosis.

  3. Clinical decision-making for vitamin K-1 and K-2 deficiency and coronary artery calcification with warfarin therapy: are diet, factor Xa inhibitors or both the answer? (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Tzeng, Bing-Hsiean


    Coronary artery calcification is a recognised risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and mortality. Evidence is now strong that Mönckeberg's arteriosclerosis, a form of vascular calcification, can be attributable to vitamin K deficiency, but that vitamin K-2, especially the MK-4 form from foods like cheese can be protective. Warfarin blocks the recycling of hepatic and peripheral vitamin K leading to secondary vitamin K deficiency with adverse effects on vasculature, bone, kidneys, brain and other tissues and systems (inflammatory, immune function and neoplasia at least). There is individual susceptibility to vitamin K deficiency and warfarin sensitivity, partly explicable in terms of genetic polymorphisms, epigenetics, diet and pharmacotherapy. The emergence of extensive coronary calcification in a man with atrial fibrillation treated for a decade with warfarin is described by way of illustration and to raise the present clinical management conundrums. Finally, a putative set of recommendations is provided.

  4. [Diet and atherosclerosis]. (United States)

    Garrido, J A; Garcés, C; de Oya, M


    The relationship between diet and atherosclerosis is due to the diet influence on lipoprotein composition. However, because of the multifactorial basis of the atherosclerosis, diet components have another potential intervention mechanisms in the atherosclerosis process, such as the influence on other cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes) or the influence on the coagulation system and the relationship endothelium-platelets. We will review the effect of diet components on these factors, specially its effects on the haemostasia system, which alteration is responsible for provoking ischemic heart disease. We have to consider that the main objective when treating dyslipidaemias, besides of avoiding acute pancreatitis in cases of strong hypertrigliceridaemia, is to prevent arteriosclerosis development and its clinical manifestations such as ischemic heart disease. Besides, we know that genetic, in addition to provoke familial susceptibility to atherosclerosis, has an essential importance in the response to ambiental factors as diet is.

  5. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture: a rare finding in a healthy man after minimal trauma. (United States)

    Chiu, Michael; Forman, Edward S


    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury; the incidence of simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is extremely rare. Two distinct categories-individuals older than 50 years and between 27 and 54 years-have been described. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is more common in patients older than 50 years and is thought to be the result of tendon weakening due to obesity and arteriosclerosis-induced fibrotic changes, or previous injury.In younger individuals, bilateral simultaneous quadriceps rupture is less frequent and has been associated with anabolic steroid use, but more frequently with underlying comorbid medical conditions such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, endocrine disorder, gout, diabetes and obesity, which predispose the patients to tendon rupture. Our case report is unique because we report the simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma in an otherwise healthy 43-year-old man with no predisposing comorbidity.

  6. Renal histology in two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease. (United States)

    Obara, K; Saito, T; Sato, H; Ogawa, M; Igarashi, Y; Yoshinaga, K


    Two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease (I-GSD) had chronic renal disease with heavy proteinuria. Renal biopsies showed focal glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy or vacuolation, and prominent arteriosclerosis. Marked glomerular hypertrophy was demonstrated histometrically. Oil red O staining in one patient revealed numerous lipid deposits in the glomerular mesangium, tubular epithelial cells and interstitium. Electron microscopy in the other patient revealed diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and lipid droplets within the mesangium. The glomerular hypertrophy, thickening of the GBM, and subsequent sclerosis were similar to those in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These findings may explain the similarities between the natural histories of renal involvement in the two disorders. Particularly, glomerular hypertrophy may be a key step leading to glomerular sclerosis, which is the predominant finding I-GSD. Hyperlipidemia, which is commonly seen in I-GSD, may also accelerate the glomerular sclerosing process.

  7. Arachidonic metabolism and radiation toxicity in cultures of vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldor, A.; Vlodavsky, I.; Fuks, Z.; Matzner, Y.; Rubin, D.B. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel) Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke' s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))


    The authors conclude that the observed changes in eicosanoid production by vascular endothelial cells exposed to ionizing irradiation may be relevant to the pathogenesis of post-radiation injury in small and large blood vessels. Anomalies of PGI{sub 2} production may lead to thrombosis and accelerated arteriosclerosis which are observed in irradiated vessels. The generation of potent cells may greatly facilitate inflammation in irradiated vessels. The model of irradiated cultured endothelial cells may also be useful for the study of various methods and agents aimed at reducing the radiation induced damage to blood vessels. Evaluation of the capacity of cultured endothelial cells to produce eicosanoids may serve as an appropriate index for the metabolic damage induced by radiation. (author).

  8. Simvastatin and oxidative stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne Tofte; Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Nielsen, Torben Kjær;


    in mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II and might thereby reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that simvastatin may reduce oxidative stress in humans in vivo. We conducted a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which subjects were treated with either 40 mg of simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. The endpoints were six biomarkers for oxidative stress, which represent intracellular oxidative stress to nucleic acids, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidants, that were measured in urine...... in parallel with the reduction in plasma cholesterol. In healthy young male volunteers, short-term simvastatin treatment, which considerably reduces cholesterol, does not lead to a clinically relevant reduction in a panel of measures of oxidative stress. Whether simvastatin has effects on oxidative stress...

  9. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity

    CERN Document Server

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin


    This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac d...

  10. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu


    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin. PMID:23679639

  11. Performance of the colorectal cancer screening marker Sept9 is influenced by age, diabetes and arthritis: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Mai-Britt Worm; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Ørntoft, Torben Falck;


    Using a retrospective nested case–control study design, we studied plasma from 150 cancer and 150 controls selected from a well-characterized cohort of 4698 subjects referred for diagnostic colonoscopy due to CRC-related symptoms. The cases and controls were matched on age and gender, and moreover cases......Background Annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is diagnosed in >1.4 million subjects worldwide and incidence is increasing. Much effort has therefore been focused on screening, which has proven to reduce cancer-related mortality. The Sept9 DNA-methylation assay is among the most well studied blood...... sensitivity 73 % (95 % CI, 64–80 %) and specificity 82 % (95 % CI, 75–88 %), respectively. Age >65 was associated with both increased false positive and false negative results (p Arthritis was associated with a higher false negative rate (p = 0.005) whereas Arteriosclerosis was associated...

  12. Performance of the colorectal cancer screening marker Sept9 is influenced by age, diabetes and arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Mai-Britt Worm; Nielsen, Hans J; Ørntoft, Torben F;


    : Using a retrospective nested case-control study design, we studied plasma from 150 cancer and 150 controls selected from a well-characterized cohort of 4698 subjects referred for diagnostic colonoscopy due to CRC-related symptoms. The cases and controls were matched on age and gender, and moreover cases......BACKGROUND: Annually, colorectal cancer (CRC) is diagnosed in >1.4 million subjects worldwide and incidence is increasing. Much effort has therefore been focused on screening, which has proven to reduce cancer-related mortality. The Sept9 DNA-methylation assay is among the most well studied blood...... sensitivity 73 % (95 % CI, 64-80 %) and specificity 82 % (95 % CI, 75-88 %), respectively. Age >65 was associated with both increased false positive and false negative results (p Arthritis was associated with a higher false negative rate (p = 0.005) whereas Arteriosclerosis was associated...

  13. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with severe calcific aortic valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesh B Hanumanthappa


    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a rare premature aging syndrome that results from mutation in the Laminin A gene. This case report of a 12-year-old girl with HGPS is presented for the rarity of the syndrome and the classical clinical features that were observed in the patient. All patients with this condition should undergo early and periodic evaluation for cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognosis is poor and management is mainly conservative. There is no proven therapy available. Mortality in this uniformly fatal condition is primarily due to myocardial infarction, strokes or congestive cardiac failure between ages 7 and 21 years due to the rapidly progressive arteriosclerosis involving the large vessels.

  14. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari


    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  15. Mice aorta loop grafting: A new model which separate vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 窦科峰; 何勇; 孙凯


    Objective: To study the cause and mechanism of transplantation vasculopathy which characterized by accelerated graft arteriosclerosis (AGA), we established a mouse aorta graft model. Methods: A segment of thoracic aortas of B10.A (2R) mice were transplanted to C57BL/10 mice abdominal aorta by end to side anastomoses. The different time point collected grafts were analyzed by morphological, histochemical and electro microscopic methods. Results: Rejection was manifested as a concentric progressive destruction of the smooth muscle cells. In contrast, the endothelial inflammation and subsequent neointimal proliferation characteristic of AGA was localized to the regions of turbulent flow, i.e. the junction of the graft with the recipient aorta. Conclusion: This model separates the processes of rejection and neointimal formation which usually manifested together in the lesion of AGA, elucidate that different mechanisms control vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection.

  16. [The life of Joseph Haydn from a medical point of view (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Franken, F H


    Joseph Haydn (1732 to 1809) had hardly been troubled by any illness of note, apart from a chronic nasal polyp until 1799. During the composition of the oratoria "The Seasons" (1799 to 1801), the signs of cerebral arteriosclerosis with cardiac insufficiency made their appearance. Haydn's creative strength subsequently declined rapidly and he was virtually unable to compose any more after he had finished "The Seasons" until his death in 1809. The plan to compose a third oratoria "The Last Judgement" ended abortively. Haydn himself suffered acutely from the inactivity imposed on him by the illness, as documented by various sources. Hadyn remained fully conscious right up to the time of his death, which presumably resulted from cardiac failure. Haydn's grave was ransacked only a few days after the funeral and his skull was snatched. It has been finally restored to his resting place in Eisenstadt only as recently as 1954 after a protracted and devious journey.

  17. Estrogen signalling in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Kaarniranta, Kai; Machalińska, Anna; Veréb, Zoltán; Salminen, Antero; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu


    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial eye disease that is associated with aging, family history, smoking, obesity, cataract surgery, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and unhealthy diet. Gender has commonly been classified as a weak or inconsistent risk factor for AMD. This disease is characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris, which secondarily lead to damage and death of photoreceptor cells and central visual loss. Pathogenesis of AMD involves constant oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and increased accumulation of lipofuscin and drusen. Estrogen has both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity and it regulates signaling pathways that are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. In this review, we discuss potential cellular signaling targets of estrogen in retinal cells and AMD pathology.

  18. [Amputation and prosthesis attachment of the lower extremities]. (United States)

    Matthes, I; Beirau, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Matthes, G


    Approximately 61,000 amputations are performed in Germany per year. In most cases the lower limbs are affected. The reasons for amputations are arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, severe infections, tumors and complex trauma to the extremities. A decision must be made concerning whether a salvage procedure or amputation is appropriate, specially after trauma. In cases where the need for amputation is clear, the site of amputation needs to be planned in advance with the aim of creating a stump which allows sufficient prosthetic attachment. Adjuvant pain therapy is mandatory, especially in order to avoid subsequent phantom pain. The type of prosthetic restoration is influenced by the grade of mobility and personal requirements of patients. Moreover, aftercare and adjusted rehabilitation are recommended.

  19. [Carotid duplex ultrasonography for neurosurgeons]. (United States)

    Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu


    Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) is one of the most well-known imaging methods for arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. For neurosurgeons, it is very important for the details of carotid plaque to be thoroughly investigated by CDU. Symptomatic carotid plaque is very fragile and easily changes morphologically, and so requires frequent CDU examination. Furthermore, after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), restenosis is evaluated with CDU. CDU facilitates not only morphological imaging in the B mode, but also allows a flow study with color Doppler and duplex imaging. So, CDU can help assess the presence of proximal and intracranial artery lesions in spite of only having a cervical view, and the patency of the extracranial artery to intracranial artery bypass is revealed with CDU, which shows a rich velocity and low pulsatility index (PI) in duplex imaging. For the examiner, it is necessary to ponder on what duplex imaging means in examinations, and to summarize all imaging finding.

  20. 下肢动脉粥样硬化性闭塞症误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁位流; 刘培发; 梁发启


    @@ 下肢动脉粥样硬化性闭塞症(Arteriosclerosis obliterers,ASO)是一种较常见的中老年人疾病.下肢动脉粥样硬化的不断发展或合并继发血栓形成,引起动脉管腔狭窄、闭塞,使肢体出现急性或慢性缺血症状,谓之为动脉粥样硬化性闭塞症(ASO).本病在基层医院常误诊为其它疾病,以致使患者延误治疗,导致肢体丧失甚至危及生命.现将两院2000-01~2002-10确诊为ASO的86例总结分析如下.

  1. 腔内治疗糖尿病合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 王家祥; 王宾; 汪忠镐


    动脉硬化闭塞性疾病的发病率逐年增高。对糖尿病合并下肢动脉硬化闭塞症(diabetes arteriosclerosis obliteration,DASO)的治疗已受关注[1-2]。本文回顾性分析2004年1月至2008年3月间,采用球囊扩张、支架置入及持续血管腔内给药治疗DASO198例患者的资料,探讨其远期疗效及影响因素。

  2. Specific enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in ischemic region by alprostadil--potential therapeutic application in pharmaceutical regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Inoue, Hajime; Aihara, Masaki; Tomioka, Miyuki; Watabe, Yu-ichi


    Alprostadil (lipo-PGE1) is a drug delivery system preparation. This preparation is applied to treat refractory skin ulcers and arteriosclerosis obliterans. We investigated the effects of alprostadil by using the earflap ischemic model. The following results were obtained: 1) Treatment with alprostadil significantly increased the VEGF contents in an ischemic ear; 2) Treatment with alprostadil resulted in strongly expressed VEGF levels only in the ischemic region; 3) Image analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of vessel bypasses and paths after flap creation with alprostadil administration compared to the vehicle-treated ears. The results suggest that it may be possible to apply alprostadil as one device for regenerative medical technology.

  3. Heart wall is thicker on postmortem computed tomography than on antemortem [corrected] computed tomography: the first longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Okuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postmortem changes of the heart wall on postmortem (PM computed tomography (CT in comparison with those on ante mortem CT (AMCT, and in comparison with the pathological findings, obtained in the same patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 57 consecutive patients who had undergone AMCT, PMCT, and pathological autopsy in our tertiary care hospital between April 2009 and December 2010. PMCT was performed within 20 hours after death, followed by pathological autopsy. The cardiac chambers were measured at five sites on both AMCT and PMCT by two board-certified radiologists who were not provided with clinical information. The differences in heart wall thickness between AMCT with and without contrast medium, between AMCT and PMCT, and between PMCT and pathological anatomy were evaluated statistically. Confounding factors of postmortem change such as gender, presence of arteriosclerosis, the organ related to cause of death, age, and elapsed time since death were examined statistically. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed on AMCT in comparison of contrasted and non-contrasted images. The heart wall was significantly thicker on PMCT than on AMCT (p < 0.0001 at all five measurement sites. The heart wall was significantly thicker on PMCT than on pathology specimens when measured in accordance with pathological standard mensuration. However, no significant difference was observed between PMCT measurements and those of pathology specimens at any site when the papillary muscles and epicardial fat were included. No significant association was found between postmortem change in heart wall thickness and gender, presence of arteriosclerosis, the organ related to cause of death, age, or elapsed time since death. CONCLUSION: This is the first longitudinal study to confirm greater thickness of heart wall on postmortem images compared with ante mortem images, in the same patients. Furthermore, the postmortem changes on CT

  4. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  5. Clinical therapeutic effect observation of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment in treating 144 cases of thrombotic occlusive vasculitis and arterial occlusive disease%144例血栓闭塞性脉管炎和动脉硬化闭塞症以中医辨证治疗为主的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德宽; 陈德货


    目的:探讨血栓闭塞性脉管炎(TAO)和动脉硬化闭塞症(ASO)中西结合治疗的临床效果。方法:采用以中医辨证治疗为主,西医治疗为辅的临床治疗理念,总计案例144例,用口服饮片汤药、中药外敷、理疗、择机选用西医药的综合治疗。结果:TAO、ASO的总有效率为93.0%。结论:中药对周围动脉血管具有逆转和修复其病理改变的作用。%Objective: To explore the therapeutic effect of combined TCM and western medicine in treating thrombotic occlusive vasculitis (TAO) and arteriosclerosis occlusive disease (ASO). Methods:144 cases of thrombotic occlusive vasculitis (TAO) and arteriosclerosis occlusive disease (ASO) were treated with TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment combined with western medicine, which was comprehensive treatment of oral administration of herbal decoction, external application of Chinese medicine, physiotherapy and optional using of western medicine. Results: The total effective rate of combined TCM and western medicine was 93.0% in treating TAO and ASO, which indicated that traditional herbal medicine had the function of reversing the peripheral arterial blood vessels and repairing the pathological changes.

  6. Arterial Stiffness in Patients Taking Second-generation Antipsychotics (United States)

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Gökçe, Mustafa; Nacitarhan, Vedat; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Hüseyin Avni; Kardaş, Selçuk; Şahin, Merve Coşgun; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih


    Objective That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine. Mental illness was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Mean age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Framingham risk score (FRS), etc. were determined. Simultaneous electrocardiography and pulse wave were recorded with an electromyography device. The photo-plethysmographic method was used to record the pulse wave. Inclusion criteria included use of SGAs for at least the last six months. Patients with diseases that are known to cause stiffness and the use of typical antipsychotics were excluded. Results Ninety-six subject (56 patients, 40 controls) were included in our study. There were 49 females, 47 males. Patients had schizophrenia (n=17) and BD (n=39). Their treatments were quetiapine (n=15), risperidone (n=13), olanzapine (n=15), and aripiprazole (n=13). Although differences in mean age, gender, and FRS in the patient and control groups were not statistically significant (p=1), PWV was greater in patients in the antipsychotic group (p=0.048). Conclusion This study supported the liability to stiffness in patients with schizophrenia and BD. Using SGAs may contribute to arterial stiffness in these patients. PMID:27776389

  7. Nephroangiosclerosis in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy: is NOTCH3 mutation the common culprit? (United States)

    Guerrot, Dominique; François, Arnaud; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Boulos, Nada; Hanoy, Melanie; Legallicier, Bruno; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Guyant-Marechal, Lucie; Laquerriere, Annie; Freguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Ronco, Pierre; Godin, Michel


    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a systemic arterial disease characterized by impairment of vascular smooth muscle cell structure and function related to NOTCH3 mutations. Pathological findings include pathognomonic granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposition with nonspecific hyalinization within the artery wall in a variety of tissues. The main clinical presentation is iterative strokes in young adults despite the lack of cardiovascular risk factors, leading to early dementia. Although arteriosclerosis and GOM have been found in kidneys from patients with CADASIL, kidney disease has been described only once up to now, in association with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with a medical history of CADASIL and recent mild hypertension. His mother also showed neuropsychiatric symptoms and end-stage renal disease of unknown cause. The patient had a chronic kidney disease defined by means of estimated glomerular filtration rate using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation of 58 mL/min/1.73 m(2) associated with mild proteinuria and intermittent microscopic hematuria. Renal histological analysis showed severe arteriosclerosis and mild interstitial fibrosis. Glomeruli did not show mesangial immunoglobulin A deposition or focal segmental proliferation. Electron microscopic analysis showed typical GOM deposition in the vicinity of altered vascular smooth muscle cells in interlobular and juxtaglomerular arteries. The nephroangiosclerosis-like lesions were unusually severe in contrast to the recent mild hypertension. The presence of GOM strongly suggests that renal lesions were related to the NOTCH3 mutation. Here, we describe the first case of familial occurrence of kidney disease with decreased kidney function in the absence of coexisting nephropathy in patients with CADASIL. We discuss the role of NOTCH3 mutation in the pathogenesis

  8. Late neurological complications after irradiation of malignant tumors of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, Marianne M.; Overgaard, Jens [Danish Cancer Society, Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Bentzen, Soeren M. [Dept. of Human Oncology, Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)


    To identify and describe late neurological complications in a Danish testis cancer cohort treated by radiotherapy. Clinical retrospective material of 94 consecutive patients with malignant testicular tumours treated at Aarhus County Hospital from 1964 to 1973. The irradiated dose in the paraaortic field varied from 27 to 55 Gy given 5 or 6 days a week, from the back and front alternately. The biological equivalent dose of the spinal cord was calculated using the linear-quadratic model. Median follow-up was 25 years, range 7 to 33 years. Seven patients were identified with late neurological complications after irradiation. One developed symptoms 9 months after treatment, but in the six other cases we found a latency period between 10 and 20 years from radiotherapy until the initial neurological symptoms began. The clinical picture in all seven patients was dominated by muscle atrophy, flaccid paresis in the lower limbs and absence of sphincter disturbances or sensory symptoms. High spinal cord dose was related to increased risk of neurological damage. During follow-up 19 patients developed another primary cancer in the radiation field; nine patients were diagnosed with severe arteriosclerosis and 13 patients with long-term gastrointestinal morbidity. Seven patients were identified with late neurological complications, and a clear dose-incidence relationship was shown. The latency period, from irradiation to the initial neurological symptoms began, ranged from 9 months to 20 years with progression of symptoms beyond 25 years. Furthermore many patients in the cohort suffered from solid tumours in the radiation field, severe arteriosclerosis and long-term gastrointestinal morbidity.

  9. The Analysis about Jigh-dangerous Factors of Local Leakage in CT Pressure Enhancement Scan%CT高压增强扫描局部渗漏高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全海英; 郑晓林


    目的 本文旨在探讨CT高压注射增强渗漏的高危因素,以达到预防渗漏、减少对患者的损伤的目的.方法 分析CT增强患者共6136人,按病种(糖尿病、动脉硬化、高血压、恶液质、配合不良和无特殊)进行分组,并规定轻、中、重渗漏程度.计数各组渗漏总数与不同程度渗漏的百分比.按注射速率分组,计数各组不同速度渗漏发生的百分比.对数据进行chisquare检验.结果 恶液质患者肿胀总百分比最高,为15.42%,糖尿病+动脉硬化次之,糖尿病、动脉硬化及高血压肿胀百分比较低,无特殊者肿胀百分比最低,占0.16%,Chi-square值为16.63%,p=0.005< 0.01,数据具有板显著性意义.轻度渗漏中恶液质组肿胀总百分比为12.47%,无特殊者肿胀百分比最低,占0.16%,Chisquare值为14.40%,p=0.013<0.05,数据具有显著性意义.其余数据无统计学意义.注射速度与肿胀发生率无显著性的差异,p均>0.05.结论 本文结果提示CT高压注射存在渗漏的高危因素,重点对高危因素的预防,对在日常工作具有指导作用.%Objective To evaluate the high-gangerous factors about local leakage in CT pressure enhancement scanning, in order to prevent the incident of leakage and injuring patients. Methods Total 6136 patients experienced CT pressure enhancement were analysed that were grouped according to disease such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, cachexia, ill-cooperation and nothing. Light, middle,and severe degrees of leakage were constituted. The percent rates of leakage number in different groups and leakage degrees were counted. Again, grouping according to injective velocity were done and percent rates of leakage in different velocity were counted. The data were tested by chi-square. Results The percent rate of leakage in cachexia was highest( 15.42%), of diabetes adding arteriosclerosis was second, of iabetes and arteriosclerosis were lower, of nothing was lowest(0

  10. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Quercetin from Allium cepa L.var.Agrogatum Don on Serum Lipids Index of Hyperlipidemic Mouse%分蘖葱头槲皮素对高血脂小鼠血脂影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从分蘖葱头中提取制备槲皮素,研究其对高脂饲料喂养昆明小鼠建立高血脂模型的影响.利用试剂盒测定小鼠体重、脏器系数、血清中血清甘油三酯(Triglyceride,TG)、总胆固醇(Total Cholesterol,TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol,LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol,HDL-C)指数,计算动脉硬化指数(Arteriosclerosis Index,AI).结果表明:与高脂阴性对照组相比,连续50 d灌胃分蘖葱头槲皮素能够有效控制高血脂小鼠体重,对主要脏器没有实质性伤害,且可以显著降低高脂血症小鼠的血清TC、TG、LDL-C水平和AI值,明显升高血清HDL-C水平,具有一定的降血脂作用,能调节高脂血症小鼠的血脂水平,防止动脉粥样硬化症(Atherosclerosis,AS)的形成.综上所述,分蘖葱头槲皮苷能够预防和防治动脉粥样硬化症,有效降低高血脂的发病率,可以作为一种降血脂资源进行有效开发.%The anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Allium cepa L.var.Agrogatum Don quercetins (ACDA-Q) in hyperlipidemic mouse induced by high fat diet was studied.The efficacy was determined by rats serum lipids indexes including weights,organ coefficients,triglycerides (TG),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and arteriosclerosis Index (AI).The hyperlipidemic mouse showed significant decrease in TC,TG,LDL-C and AI value and increase HDL-C level by 50 days successive administration with Allium cepa L.var.Agrogatum Don quercetins (ACDA-Q).ACDA-Q also showed controlling of weights and no damage of main organs.The anti-hyperlipidemic effect mediated by ACDA-Q may also be anticipated to have biological significant and prevent atherosclerosis as an anti-hyperlipidemic medicine.

  11. Soporte nutricional en hemodiálisis Nutritional support in haemodialysis

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    A. Ortiz


    Full Text Available La malnutrición es un problema frecuente y grave en diálisis. La prevalencia de malnutrición se ha estimado entre 30 y 70%¹. Si bien la malnutrición no suele enumerarse entre las causas más frecuentes de mortalidad de estos pacientes, contribuye a la mortalidad cardiovascular, a través del síndrome MIA (Malnutrición, inflamación, arteriosclerosis² y a la gravedad de las infecciones. La causa de la malnutrición en diálisis es, con frecuencia, multifactorial. Se ha criticado el empleo del término malnutrición cuando la causa no es una escasa ingesta dietética, con un sentido práctico: si la causa no es una ingesta escasa, el tratamiento no será un incremento en el aporte de nutrientes³. El abordaje terapéutico de la malnutrición en diálisis ha sido revisado recientemente1,4,5. En este sentido, la multi-causalidad requiere abordar el problema desde varios ángulos diferentes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente malnutrido en hemodiálisis, en el cual un deterioro crónico progresivo del estado nutricional es tratado con un abordaje terapéutico múltiple.Malnutrition is a common severe problem in dialysis. The prevalence of malnutrition has been estimated as between 30% and 70%¹. Although malnutrition is not normally listed among the most frequent causes of mortality in these patients, it contributes to cardiovascular mortality through the MIA syndrome (Malnutrition, inflammation and arteriosclerosis² and the severity of infections. The cause of malnutrition in dialysis is frequently due to a multiplicity of factors. The use of the term malnutrition has been criticized when the cause is not scant dietary in-take, for practical reasons: if the cause is not a lack of food intake, the treatment will not be an increase in the provision of nutrients³. The therapeutic approach to malnutrition in dialysis has recently been reviewed1,4,5. In this sense, the multifactorial origin requires the problem to be approached from different

  12. 青年缺血性脑卒中50例临床病因分析%The clinical analysis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth in 50 cases

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    祝善尧; 方克炳; 葛伟; 张业敏


    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics, subtypes, risk factors, and prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth. Methods The clinical data of 50 young patients with cerebral ischemic stroke were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were more males than females in the young patients with cerebral infarction, 79. 5% vs 20. 5%; The type of lacunar infarction is dominant; Hypertension, arteriosclerosis, smoking, obesity and family history were risk factors in these young patients with cerebral infarction and smoking is prominent, 67.5%. Prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is relative good. Conclusion The incidence of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is increasing and the number of male exceeds that of femal; Hypertension,arteriosclerosis, smoking, obesity and family history are risk factors for cerebral ischemic stroke in the young patients; Prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is relative optimistic. More further studies are needed, measures should be actively taken to get rid of these factors in order to reduce the incidence of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth radically.%目的 分析青年缺血性脑卒中临床特点、亚型、危险因素和预后.方法 回顾性地分析50例青年缺血性脑卒中临床病例.结果 男女比例为79.5%∶ 20.5%,亚型以腔隙性脑梗死为主,青年脑梗死与高血压、动脉硬化、吸烟、肥胖及家族史相关,以吸烟为著,占67.5%.青年缺血性脑卒中预后相对比较好.结论 青年缺血性脑卒中发病率正在逐步增长且男性超过女性;高血压、动脉硬化、吸烟、肥胖和家族史是青年缺血性卒中常见的危险因素;青年卒中的预后相对较好.进一步的研究是必须的,应该积极去除这些危险因素从根本上减少青年缺血性脑卒中发病率.

  13. Oxidación de las LDL (lipoproteínas de baja densidad y su relación con la patogénesis de la aterosclerosis

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    Yohani Pérez Guerra


    Full Text Available La arteriosclerosis es el endurecimiento de las arterias, una enfermedad común de los vasos sanguíneos principales que se caracteriza por franjas de grasa a lo largo de las paredes arteriales y depósitos de colesterol y calcio.La aterosclerosis suele transcurrir sin síntomas durante años hasta que ocurre la trombosis, causa fundamental de las enfermedades coronarias, cerebro vasculares y arteriales periféricas, provocando, anginas inestables, infarto del miocardio y muerte súbita. La hipótesis oxidativa de la aterogénesis, propuesta inicialmente por Steinberg en 1989 y el papel de los micronutrientes de la dieta como las vitaminas antioxidantes en prevenir la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL, han constituido un atractivo desafío en las investigaciones actuales por sus implicaciones en la medicina preventiva. En los últimos años la hipótesis de que los antioxidantes que inhiban la oxidación de las LDL puedan reducir la incidencia de eventos coronarios, ha creado nuevas interrogantes, ya que se han realizado estudios aleatorizados contra placebo y se han obtenido resultados a favor y en contra. Además, se han realizado diversos estudios con vitaminas antioxidantes en humanos que han sugerido que estas sustancias pueden reducir la incidencia de arteriosclerosis y sus complicaciones. Sin embargo, los resultados no han sido homogéneos y en algunos ensayos la adición de vitaminas antioxidantes a la dieta no demostró ser beneficiosa en ningún sentido. Los beneficios aportados por el consumo de antioxidantes sobre la reducción del riesgo a padecer enfermedades de diferentes etiologías tales como enfermedades vasculares o cáncer, no se encuentra sustentado con evidencias provenientes de estudios de prevención de eventos. Diferentes argumentos tratan de explicar los resultados negativos obtenidos en estudios que en su totalidad alcanzan mas de 30 000 pacientes. Por otra parte, referencias aisladas y su propio

  14. Renal arterial resistive index is associated with severe histological changes and poor renal outcome during chronic kidney disease

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    Bigé Naïke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing public health problem and end stage renal disease (ESRD represents a large human and economic burden. It is important to identify patients at high risk of ESRD. In order to determine whether renal Doppler resistive index (RI may discriminate those patients, we analyzed whether RI was associated with identified prognosis factors of CKD, in particular histological findings, and with renal outcome. Methods RI was measured in the 48 hours before renal biopsy in 58 CKD patients. Clinical and biological data were collected prospectively at inclusion. Arteriosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis were quantitatively assessed on renal biopsy in a blinded fashion. MDRD eGFR at 18 months was collected for 35 (60% patients. Renal function decline was defined as a decrease in eGFR from baseline of at least 5 mL/min/ 1.73 m2/year or need for chronic renal replacement therapy. Pearson’s correlation, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for analysis of quantitative and qualitative variables respectively. Kaplan Meier analysis was realized to determine renal survival according to RI value using the log-rank test. Multiple logistic regression was performed including variables with p Results Most patients had glomerulonephritis (82%. Median age was 46 years [21–87], eGFR 59 mL/min/ 1.73m2 [5–130], percentage of interstitial fibrosis 10% [0–90], glomerulosclerosis 13% [0–96] and RI 0.63 [0.31-1.00]. RI increased with age (r = 0.435, p = 0.0063, pulse pressure (r = 0.303, p = 0.022, renal atrophy (r = −0.275, p = 0.038 and renal dysfunction (r = −0.402, p = 0.0018. Patients with arterial intima/media ratio ≥ 1 (p = 0.032, interstitial fibrosis > 20% (p = 0.014 and renal function decline (p = 0.0023 had higher RI. Patients with baseline RI ≥ 0.65 had a poorer renal outcome than those with baseline RI Conclusions Our results suggest that RI ≥ 0.65 is associated

  15. [Foods related to the novel 'don quixote de la mancha'. did they follow the healthy nutritional recommendations which are advised nowadays?]. (United States)

    Carbayo Herencia, Julio A


    It is known that Miguel de Cervantes's novel 'Don Quixote de La Mancha' has done and is still doing a great contribution to the universal literature. A book that has reached such category and grows in number of its readers, shows multiple dimensions for its study. One of them is nutrition. One of the aims of this study has been to value and expound, according to their own nutrients, the kinds of food cited in 'The Quixote' and in the times of Cervantes. This has allowed the comparison made between ways of nutrition in La Mancha and in Catalonia, as well as the regions situated at the beginning and end of the itinerary covered by its main characters Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. The evaluation of the nutrients in the middle part of the itinerary, placed mainly in Aragón, has not been considered in this study. Another purpose has been to check if these nutrients followed the current recommendations of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis and other valid agreements at the moment.

  16. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet. (United States)

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna


    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations.


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    Full Text Available Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres, machines constructed at the molecular level (nanomachines may be used to cure the human body of its various ills. This application of nanotechnology to the field of medicine is commonly called as nanomedicine.Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery. Taking inspiration from the biological motors of living cells, chemists are learning how to utilize protein dynamics to power microsize and nanosize machines with catalytic reactions. Nanorobot?s toolkit contains features like medicine cavity containing medicine, probes, knives and chisels to remove blockages and plaque, microwave emitters and ultrasonic signal generators to destroy cancerous cells, two electrodes generating an electric current, heating the cell up until it dies, powerful lasers could burn away harmful material like arterial plaque.To cure skin diseases, a cream containing nanorobots may be used which remove the right amount of dead skin, remove excess oils, add missing oils, apply the right amounts of natural moisturising compounds, and even achieve the elusive goal of ’deep pore cleaning’.other fields of applications are to clean the wounds,to break the kidney stones, to treat gout, for parasite removal, for cancer treatment, treatment of arteriosclerosis.

  18. Simulations of the Microcirculation in the Human Conjunctiva (United States)

    Dow, William; Jacobitz, Frank; Chen, Peter


    The microcirculation in the conjunctiva of a healthy human subject is analyzed using a simulation approach. A comparison between healthy and diseased states may lead to early diagnosis for a variety of vascular related disorders. Previous work suggests that hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus have noticeable very early changes in the microvasculature (Davis and Landau, 1957; Ditzel, 1968; Kunitomo, 1974) and the vessels of the conjunctiva are specifically useful for this research because they can be studied non-invasively. The microcirculation in the conjunctiva has been documented over the course of disease treatments, providing both still images and video footage for information on vessel length, diameter, and connectivity as well as the direction of blood flow. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. The simulations use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider blood rheology as well as passive and active vessel properties.

  19. Breast arterial calcification on mammogram: correlation with carotid arterial atherosclerosis on ultrasonogram

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    Lee, Nam Ju; Suh, Jung Ho [School of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyung [College of Medicine, KonYang Univ., Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate the incidence of breast arterial calcification in Korean women, and to determine its association with systemic diseases and carotid arterial atherosclerosis. One thousand seven hundred and thirteen female subjects who underwent mammography at a health care center between May 1999 and May 2000 were included in this study. Of the total, 172 were found to have breast arterial calcification, and were classified according to age. The coincidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia was examined in both the subject group and the control group selected on the same age basis. To investigate the presence and degree of carotid atherosclerosis, sonographic imaging was performed and the findings were compared between the two groups. The incidence of breast arterial calcification showed statistically significant differences according to age, with a higher incidence in older patients (p<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the incidence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus between groups. Carotid atherosclerosis was subjects more prevalent among subjects than in the control group (p<0.05), though there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of luminal stenosis. The most common pathologic cause of breast arterial calcification is arteriosclerosis. Breast arterial calcification is demonstrated at mammography, along with other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis or coincidental neurologic symptoms. We stress that further evaluation of the carotid artery is necessary.

  20. [Cardiovascular screening for recreational, leisure, vigorous and competitive sport activities over 35 years]. (United States)

    Leischik, R; Littwitz, H; Dworrak, B; Spelsberg, N; Seyfarth, M; Tiroch, K


    Particularly among over 30 years old ambitious hobby- and competitive athletes arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac deaths occur again and again. The spectacular sudden deaths during marathon, football and, just recently, in the trend discipline triathlon seem to support that view. Reports about the "athlete`s heart" and complications in the elderly causes uncertainty among athletes, fitness fans and sports physicians. The question arises, how to avoid complications caused by ambitious sporting activity in the elderly and how to screen hobby- and ambitious athletes between the age of 35 and 75 years. For athletes > 35 years old besides medical history and physical examination basic examinations including resting ECG, echocardiography and exercise ECG/stress echocardiography are mandatory. Further examinations, if clinically necessary, should be spiroergometry, Holter ECG or magnetic resonance tomography and Carotis-Duplex or Cardio-CT for the purpose of arteriosclerosis screening. In suspicious inflammation a further extended laboratory testing may become necessary (incl. viral/bacterial antibodies) or even a multidisciplinary approach (immunological, neurological, dental or orthodontic examination).

  1. Discuss The Clinical And Etiology For 21Cases Ocular Myoparalysis Of Diplopia

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    Xie Xiaoling; Tan Talin; Lin Xixiang


    Objective The author discuss the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of diplopia lacked certain abnormality after routine Laboratory examination and review relative articles to combine the study of the possibility etiology. Methods The clinical analysis date Result According to the clinical presentation and laboratory further provide investigation showed their etiology diagnosis for 21 cases. Ocular type Graves disease are 7 cases, Latent diabets are 8 cases ,Hypertension arteriosclerosis are 2 cases, High urine acid in serum are 2 cases ,rheumatic extrocular myoparalysis in l case and uncertain cause in 1 case. Discussion As to diplopia single extrocular myoparalysis or monoeuropathy for untipical syndrome, after excluded the routine neuropath and Occupation . Etiology diagnosis should consider some matabolism and endocrie disorder such as latent diabet ,Graves disease , high urine acid in serum etc, except for attention usual hypertension and artreiosclerosis diabet . Conclusion To improve the ability to diagnosis and differentiate diplopia, this paper recognised more attention to be paid to study and distinguish the possibility of d iplopia caused by vascular disease, especially by microrangium for some matabolism and endocrie disease.

  2. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics. (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R


    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  3. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Cactus grandiflorus (L. Britton and Rose

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    Rajat Rashmi


    Full Text Available Background: Cactus grandiflorus (L. Britton and Rose, Family: Cactaceae is an evergreen shrub with creeping aerial roots, used in Homoeopathy for atheromatous arteries, angina pectoris, and constriction of heart muscles, endocarditis, and heart weakness due to arteriosclerosis. Flowering stems are used in the preparation of medicine. Objective: The pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies are carried out to facilitate identification of correct species and standardized raw materials. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of stem of authentic samples of Cactus grandiflorus (L. Britton and Rose have been carried out according to Trease and Evans, 1983, and Youngken 1959. To determine physicochemical constants, Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1970, was consulted and preliminary phytochemical properties were studied as per methods described by Trease and Evans, 1983. Results: Stem available in segments of variable length and thickness, roundish structure with 5 or 6 ridges and furrows with aerial roots, isodiametric cavities in cortex containing mucilage; aggregates of acicular and rhomboidal calcium oxalate crystals scattered in parenchymatous region are the key identification characteristic. Thin layer chromatography of chloroform extract of mother tincture reveals five spots with blue and violet colors. Conclusion: The macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, and phytochemical analysis of the authentic raw material were indicative to establish the standards for ensuring quality and purity of the drug.

  4. The role of red blood cell S-nitrosation in nitrite bioactivation and its modulation by leucine and glucose

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    Nadeem Wajih


    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that red blood cells (RBCs reduce nitrite to NO under conditions of low oxygen. Strong support for the ability of red blood cells to promote nitrite bioactivation comes from using platelet activation as a NO-sensitive process. Whereas addition of nitrite to platelet rich plasma in the absence of RBCs has no effect on inhibition of platelet activation, when RBCs are present platelet activation is inhibited by an NO-dependent mechanism that is potentiated under hypoxia. In this paper, we demonstrate that nitrite bioactivation by RBCs is blunted by physiologically-relevant concentrations of nutrients including glucose and the important signaling amino acid leucine. Our mechanistic investigations demonstrate that RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation is largely dependent on nitrosation of RBC surface proteins. These data suggest a new expanded paradigm where RBC mediated nitrite bioactivation not only directs blood flow to areas of low oxygen but also to areas of low nutrients. Our findings could have profound implications for normal physiology as well as pathophysiology in a variety of diseases including diabetes, sickle cell disease, and arteriosclerosis.

  5. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque detection using a multiwavelength handheld photoacoustic imaging system (United States)

    Hirano, Susumu; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi


    Patients affected by diseases caused by arteriosclerosis are increasing. Atherosclerosis, which is becoming an especially difficult health problem, forms plaques from lipids such as cholesterol located in walls of the aorta, cerebral artery, and coronary artery. Because lipid-rich plaques are vulnerable and because arterial rupture causes acute vascular occlusion, early detection is crucially important to prevent plaque growth and rupture. Ultrasound systems can detect plaques but cannot discriminate between vulnerable and equable plaques. To evaluate plaques non-invasively and easily, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging device. Its usefulness was verified in phantom experiments with a bovine aorta in which mimic plaque had been embedded. Photoacoustic images taken at wavelengths that produce high light absorbance by lipids show strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary of the mimic plaque. Results confirmed that our system can evaluate plaque properties by analysis with the photoacoustic spectrum. The effects of surrounding tissues and tissue components on plaque evaluation were investigated using a layered phantom. The mimic plaque located under a 6 mm blood layer was also evaluated. Results of these analyses demonstrate the system's usefulness.

  6. Do the health claims made for Morinda citrifolia (Noni) harmonize with current scientific knowledge and evaluation of its biological effects. (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Patel, Amit Kumar


    Morinda citrifolia, also known as Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry, or Noni, is a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae. A number of major chemical compounds have been identified in the leaves, roots, and fruits of Noni plant. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternative medicine for different kinds for illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle ached and pains, menstrual difficulties, headache, heart diseases, AIDS, gastric ulcer, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Several studies have also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effect of Noni in various cancers. Based on a toxicological assessment, Noni juice was considered as safe. Though a large number of in vitro, and, to a certain extent, in vivo studies demonstrated a range of potentially beneficial effects, clinical data are essentially lacking. To what extent the findings from experimental pharmacological studies are of potential clinical relevance is not clear at present and this question needs to be explored in detail before an recommendations can be made.

  7. Speculative Considerations about Some Cardiology Enigmas. (United States)

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Schmidt, Andre; Arcêncio, Livia; Marin-Neto, José Antonio


    Write a review text or point-of-view that takes into account the interests, if not of all, but of most readers of a scientific journal is an arduous task. The editorial can be grounded in published articles, even in a single article of undeniable importance and, it can also represent a trend of specialty. Therefore, especially for the sake of the reader's motivation, the present text was freely designed to discuss some cardiology enigmas in the context of the heart valve and coronary artery disease (CAD). Concerning the CAD five well-known enigmas will be considered: 1) The absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries; 2) The unique and always confirmed superior evolution of the left internal thoracic artery as a coronary graft; 3) The prophylactic left internal thoracic artery graft in mildly-stenosed coronary lesions, and; 4) The high incidence of perioperative atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with CAD, and; 5) The handling of disease-free saphenous vein graft at the time of reoperation. Concerning the cardiac valve disease these enigmas topics will be discussed: 1) Why some young patients present acute pulmonary edema as the first sign of mitral stenosis, and other patients with significant hemodynamic changes are mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic, and; 2) The enigma of aortic stenosis protection against CAD.

  8. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Mehmet Balin


    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  9. The Epidemiological Boehringer Ingelheim Employee Study—Part I: Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk

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    Kerstin Kempf


    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity-dependent diseases cause economic burden to companies. Large-scale data for working populations are lacking. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI Employee cohort and the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were estimated. Design and Methods. Employees (≥38 years, employed in Ingelheim ≥2 years; n=3151 of BI Pharma GmbH & Co. KG were invited by the medical corporate department to participate in intensive health checkups. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected through 2006–2011 was performed. Results. 90% of eligible subjects participated (n=2849. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 40% and 18% and significantly higher in men and participants ≥50 years. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels and prevalences of cardiometabolic diseases significantly increased with BMI and were higher in overweight and obese participants. Cut-points for increased risk estimated from ROC curves were ≈25 kg/m2 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertriglyceridemia and 26.7–28.0 kg/m2 for the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increased intima media thickness, and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. This is the first large-scale occupational health care cohort from a single company. Cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases accumulate with increasing BMI. Occupational weight reduction programs seem to be reasonable strategies.

  10. Harmful effects of the azathioprine metabolite 6-mercaptopurine in vascular cells: induction of mineralization.

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    Jasmin Prüfer

    Full Text Available Vascular mineralization contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease and in individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen used to treat these patients appears to have an impact on vascular alterations. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP on vascular calcification has not yet been determined. This study investigates the effect of 6-MP on vascular mineralization by the induction of trans-differentiation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. 6-MP not only induces the expression of osteo-chondrocyte-like transcription factors and proteins but also activates alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and produces calcium deposition in in vitro and ex vivo models. These processes are dependent on 6-MP-induced production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular activation of mitogen-activated kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor Cbfa1. Furthermore, the metabolic products of 6-MP, 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methyl-thio-inosine monophosphate have major impacts on cellular calcification. These data provide evidence for a possible harmful effect of the immunosuppressive drug 6-MP in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis.

  11. Heat Killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 Reduces Fibrosis Effects on the Liver and Heart in High Fat Diet-Hamsters via TGF-β Suppression

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    Wei-Jen Ting


    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and NAFLD is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Scholars have suggested that certain probiotics may significantly impact cardiovascular health, particularly certain Lactobacillus species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263 probiotics, which have been shown to reduce obesity and arteriosclerosis in vivo. In the present study, we examined the potential of heat-killed bacteria to attenuate high fat diet (HFD-induced hepatic and cardiac damages and the possible underlying mechanism of the positive effects of heat-killed Lr263 oral supplements. Heat-killed Lr263 treatments (625 and 3125 mg/kg-hamster/day were provided as a daily supplement by oral gavage to HFD-fed hamsters for eight weeks. The results show that heat-killed Lr263 treatments reduce fatty liver syndrome. Moreover, heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 supplementation in HFD hamsters also reduced fibrosis in the liver and heart by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β expression levels. In conclusion, heat-killed Lr263 can reduce lipid metabolic stress in HFD hamsters and decrease the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease.

  12. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

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    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Free 15-F2t-Isoprostane from Plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbe

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    Bertha Rusdi


    Full Text Available 15-F2t-isoprostane is a biomarker in assessment of oxidative stress status that due to its relatively low concentration in biological fluid and also has many isomers, the 15-F2t-isoprostane sample need to be extracted prior to the quantifying processes. Extraction techniques commonly used to extract 15-F2t-isoprostane are solid phase extraction (SPE and immunoaffinity extraction. Improvements to the SPE and immunoaffinity extraction techniques had been conducted, and the recovery results was then compared. The quantification of 15-F2t-isoprostane then was conducted using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Then followed by the examination of the plasma recovery results. Extraction technique which had the highest recovery then was used to quantify 15-F2t-isoprostane from plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA patients. Immunoaffinity extraction technique has a good recovery result. OSA patients have the tendency to have high 15-F2t-isoprostane concentrations in the plasma, therefore have a potential risk to get diseases related to the biological activities of 15-F2t-isoprostane, such as arteriosclerosis.

  14. Genomics in cardiovascular diseases: analysis of the importance of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway

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    Bustamante J


    Full Text Available J Bustamante,1 E Tamayo,2 J Herreros3,41Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario Valdecilla, Santander, 4Biomedical Engineering Institute of Santander, Santander, SpainAbstract: The development of techniques for genomics study makes it possible for us to further our knowledge about the physiopathology of various immunological or infectious diseases. These techniques improve our understanding of the development and evolution of such diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, whilst they help to bring about the design of new therapeutic strategies. We are reviewing the genetic alterations of immunity in said field, and focusing on the signaling pathway of toll-like receptors because not only does this play a decisive role in response to microorganisms, it is also heavily involved in modulating the inflammatory response to tissue damage, a side effect of numerous cardiovascular diseases. These alterations in tissue homeostasis are present under a wide range of circumstances, such as reperfusion ischemia (myocardial infarction phenomena, arteriosclerosis, or valvulopathy.Keywords: genome-wide association study, single-nucleotide polymorphism, innate immune system, ischemic/reperfusion, myocardial infarction

  15. Importância clínica da determinação quantitativa ε qualitativa do fluxo sanguíneo por meio de isótopos

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    O. Wilcke


    Full Text Available Es wird über die bisher entwickelten Methoden zur bestimmung der Hirndurchblutung mit radioaktiven Isotopen berichtet, wobei die quantitativen Untersuchungsmethoden hinsichtlich ihrer klinischen Bedeutung den qualitativen gegenübergestellt werden. Während die quantitativen Methoden eine genaue Bestimmung des cerebralen Blutvolumens und damit der Gesamtdurchblutung des Hirns bzw. bestimmter Hirnareale ermöglichen, bieten die qualitativen Untersuchungsmethoden hinsichtlich der klinisch-diagnostischen Aussagekraft besondere Vorteile. Aus der Bestimmung der Zirkulationszeit des Hirns und dem Verlauf der über beiden Hemisphären registrierten Aktivitätskurven lassen sich differenzial-diagnostische Schlüsse auf das Vorliegen eines Tumors, einer arteriovenösen Missbildung und auch eines cerebralen Gefässprozesses, im Sinne einer Arteriosclerosis cerebri Ziehen. Die Untersuchung, die nur wenige Minuten beansprucht, ist weder mit einer Belastung für den Patients verbunden, noch mit einer nennenswerten Strahlenbelastung. Sie kann auch bei älteren Patienten vorgenommen werden, bei denen eine Angiographie gefahrvoll erscheint.

  16. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to down-regulation of fibronectin and functional changes in RF/6A cells and HUVECs.

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    Jingjing Jiang

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic studies have suggested that high-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1 is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. To date, no functional studies have investigated the biological effect of HTRA1 on vascular endothelial cells, essential vascular components involved in polypoidal vascular abnormalities and arteriosclerosis-like changes. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effect of HTRA1 on the regulation of fibronectin, laminin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and matrix metalloparoteinases 2 (MMP-2 and the role of HTRA1 in choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HTRA1 was used to explore effects of the protease on RF/6A and HUVEC cells in vitro. HTRA1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration and tube formation of RF/6A and HUVEC cells, effects that might contribute to the early stage of PCV pathological lesions. Fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of HTRA1, whereas the expressions of laminin, VEGF and MMP-2 were unaffected by alterations in HTRA1 expression. The decreased biological function of vascular endothelial cells and the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, may be involved in a contributory role for HTRA1 in PCV pathogenesis.

  17. Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images

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    G. Delucta Mary


    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  18. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

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    Christine Susara du Plooy


    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  19. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Involvement in Inflammatory Diseases

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    Yaw Kuang Chuah


    Full Text Available The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, capable of binding a broad repertoire of ligands. RAGE-ligands interaction induces a series of signal transduction cascades and lead to the activation of transcription factor NF-κB as well as increased expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These effects endow RAGE with the role in the signal transduction from pathogen substrates to cell activation during the onset and perpetuation of inflammation. RAGE signaling and downstream pathways have been implicated in a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related pathologic conditions such as arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis. Despite the significant progress in other RAGE studies, the functional importance of the receptor in clinical situations and inflammatory diseases still remains to be fully realized. In this review, we will summarize current understandings and lines of evidence on the molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the aforementioned inflammation-associated conditions.

  20. Persistent release of IL-1s from skin is associated with systemic cardio-vascular disease, emaciation and systemic amyloidosis: the potential of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

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    Keiichi Yamanaka

    Full Text Available The skin is an immune organ that contains innate and acquired immune systems and thus is able to respond to exogenous stimuli producing large amount of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1 and IL-1 family members. The role of the epidermal IL-1 is not limited to initiation of local inflammatory responses, but also to induction of systemic inflammation. However, association of persistent release of IL-1 family members from severe skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, epidermolysis bullosa, atopic dermatitis, blistering diseases and desmoglein-1 deficiency syndrome with diseases in systemic organs have not been so far assessed. Here, we showed the occurrence of severe systemic cardiovascular diseases and metabolic abnormalities including aberrant vascular wall remodeling with aortic stenosis, cardiomegaly, impaired limb and tail circulation, fatty tissue loss and systemic amyloid deposition in multiple organs with liver and kidney dysfunction in mouse models with severe dermatitis caused by persistent release of IL-1s from the skin. These morbid conditions were ameliorated by simultaneous administration of anti-IL-1α and IL-1β antibodies. These findings may explain the morbid association of arteriosclerosis, heart involvement, amyloidosis and cachexia in severe systemic skin diseases and systemic autoinflammatory diseases, and support the value of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type with perforating peritonitis.

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    Noguch H


    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, especially the colonic type. We report a case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type associated with perforating peritonitis after aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery. A 79-year-old woman presented with fever and pain in the right lower abdomen. She had undergone aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery due to arteriosclerosis obliterans 6 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a suspected pool of fluid surrounding the artificial vessel and a mass lesion in the upper end of the fluid collection. These findings suggested localized peritonitis due to appendiceal perforation. Emergency laparotomy showed a pool of pus around the artificial vessel and inflamed appendix, which adhered to the surrounding tissue. The mass was excised in combination with an ileocaecal resection, followed by an ileocolic anastomosis. The histological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix, colonic type. The tumour had infiltrated and obstructed the lumen of the orifice of the appendix, which may have caused perforation of the appendix. She was examined at regular periodic follow-ups and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was noted in the 12-month postoperative period. These findings indicate that, in cases of acute appendicitis, especially with perforation, the possibility of appendiceal adenocarcinoma should be considered.

  2. Neuroprotection by flavonoids

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    Dajas F.


    Full Text Available The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 µM of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine, probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.

  3. Homoeopathy in the management of Dyslipidemia: A short review

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    Rupali D Bhalerao


    Full Text Available The importance of high serum total cholesterol and high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases is well established. Statin is the first-line of treatment for dyslipidemia and there are known side effects of statin therapy. This study reviews the existing information available in Homoeopathy (research and traditional knowledge for managing dyslipidemia. No rigid inclusion has been kept due to scarcity of evidence-based literature. Preclinical and clinical studies (case records to controlled trials are included. A comprehensive search from major biomedical databases including National Medical Library (PubMed, AYUSH PORTAL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was conducted using the search term “dyslipidemia,” “atherosclerosis,” “arteriosclerosis,” “atheroma” along with “Homoeopathy.” In addition, efforts were made to search authoritative texts of authors, such homoeopathic Materia Medica, repertory, etc. Relevant research was categorized by study type and appraised according to study type and design. Four preclinical, three observational studies, and two case records were identified. From literary search, medicines commonly used in Materia Medica and drugs of Indian origin were noted. There are positive leads in managing patients suffering from dyslipidemia. However, more well-designed studies are warranted to generate effectiveness/efficacy of Homoeopathy.

  4. Espasmo hemifacial familiar: relato de dois casos Familial hemifacial spasm: report of two cases

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    Full Text Available Os autores relatam os achados clínicos e angiográficos de dois casos de espasmo hemifacial familiar. Esta é a quinta descrição sobre esse tema na literatura e apresenta mãe e filha com idades de 76 e 51 anos respectivamente, nas quais o lado esquerdo foi o acometido. Exames de angiorressonância realizados nas pacientes revelaram dolicobasilar com origem lateralizada à esquerda para ambos os casos. Também demonstraram artéria cerebelar póstero-inferior muito desenvolvida e irregularidades murais nas artérias vertebrais e basilar sugestivas de arteriosclerose na mãe e vasos intracranianos levemente alongados na filha. Dados de revisão da literatura e sobre a etiologia do espasmo hemifacial são enfocados.The authors report the clinical and angiographical findings of two cases of familial hemifacial spasm. This is the fifth description in the literature and presents mother and daughter at the ages of 76 and 51 respectively, in whom the left side was affected. They underwent exams of angioresonance that showed dolichobasilar with left side origin in both patients. The exams also demonstrated postero-inferior cerebellar artery very developed and irregularities in the walls of the vertebral and basilar arteries suggestive of arteriosclerosis in the mother and slightly elongated intracranial vessels in the daughter. Literature review and etiology data of the hemifacial spasm are focused.

  5. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: Need for early diagnosis

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    Muhammed K


    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestanol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects and premature death from arteriosclerosis. The primary biochemical defect is deficiency of hepatic mitochondrial enzyme sterol-27-hydroxylase which catalyses the hydroxylation of cholestanol (5-alpha dehydro derivative of cholesterol and this deficiency decreases bile acid synthesis. Substantial elevation of serum cholestanol and urinary bile alcohols with low to normal plasma cholesterol concentration establishes the diagnosis. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is exceptionally rare in the Indian population. We are reporting a woman with this rare disorder, who was on antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs for a prolonged period and whose original condition went undiagnosed. She presented with xanthomas on the Achilles tendons and the upper end of tibia. She was mentally subnormal and her serum cholestanol level was raised. Her younger sister too was severely affected by this disorder. Early treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid is known to prevent disease progression.

  6. Development of Antiatherosclerotic Drugs on the basis of Natural Products Using Cell Model Approach

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    Alexander N. Orekhov


    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis including its subclinical form is one of the key medical and social problems. At present, there is no therapy available for widespread use against subclinical atherosclerosis. The use of synthetic drugs for the prevention of arteriosclerosis in its early stages is not sufficient because of the limited indications for severe side effects and high cost of treatment. Obviously, effective antiatherosclerotic drugs based on natural products would be a preferred alternative. Simple cell-based models for testing different natural products have been developed and the ability of natural products to prevent intracellular lipid accumulation in primary cell culture was evaluated. This approach utilizing cell models allowed to test effects of such direct antiatherosclerotic therapy, analyzing the effects mimicking those which can occur “at the level” of arterial wall via the inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition. The data from the carried out clinical trials support a point of view that the identification of antiatherosclerotic activity of natural products might offer a great opportunity for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic disease, reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  7. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research (United States)

    Ng, Thian C.


    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  8. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi


    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  9. Measurement system for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics of arterial bifurcations (United States)

    Suárez-Bagnasco, D.; Balay, G.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R. L.; Negreira, C. A.


    Arterial behaviour in-vivo is influenced, amongst other factors, by the interaction between blood flow and the arterial wall endothelium, and the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall. This interaction plays an important role in pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. To quantify these interactions both from biomechanical and hemodynamical standpoints, a complete characterization and modelling of the arterial wall, blood flow, shear wall and circumferential wall stresses are needed. The development of a new multi-parameter measurement system (distances, pressures, flows, velocity profiles, temperature, viscosity) for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics in arterial bifurcations (specially in carotid bifurcations) is described. This set-up represents an improvement relative to previous set-ups developed by the group FCIEN-FMED and is presently under development. Main subsystems interactions and environment-system interactions were identified and compensated to improve system's performance. Several interesting problems related with signal acquisition using a variety of sensors and some experimental results are shown and briefly discussed. Experimental data allow construction of meshes and parameter estimation of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall, as well as boundary conditions, all suitable to be employed in CFD and FSI numerical simulation.

  10. Interventional CT and MRI: a challenge for safety and cost reduction in the health care system (United States)

    Groenemeyer, Dietrich H.; Seibel, Rainer M.


    For increasing safety in guidance techniques of endoscopes and instruments, fast radiologic imaging should be integrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT) and electron beam tomography (EBT) scanners permit transparency of the operative field; CT and EBT can be combined with fluoroscopy and ultrasound units. MRI avoids x ray exposure, but entails the possibility for 3 D localization. Open access and keyhole imaging allows nearly real time guidance of instruments. Combining minimally invasive techniques using endoscopes and tomographic guidance these technologies improve surgical access and reduce complications. This offers a safe access into the body and leads to the new field of interventional and surgical tomography. Important cost reduction for health care systems is possible, especially in the outpatient treatment of common diseases like disk herniation, back and tumor pain, metastasis, or arteriosclerosis. For realizing a long term cost reduction effect, these techniques have to be integrated in a quality management combining prevention, modern diagnosis, minimal access techniques and, if necessary, hospital stay with maximal access treatments as well as rehabilitation and secondary/tertiary prevention.

  11. Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi


    Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

  12. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Integrated Diagnostic/Therapeutic Catheters (United States)

    Wong, Serena H.; Wygant, Ira O.; Yeh, David T.; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A. Sanli; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.


    In recent years, medical procedures have become increasingly non-invasive. These include endoscopic procedures and intracardiac interventions (e.g., pulmonary vein isolation for treatment of atrial fibrillation and plaque ablation for treatment of arteriosclerosis). However, current tools suffer from poor visualization and difficult coordination of multiple therapeutic and imaging devices. Dual-mode (imaging and therapeutic) ultrasound arrays provide a solution to these challenges. A dual-mode transducer can provide focused, noncontact ultrasound suitable for therapy and can be used to provide high quality real-time images for navigation and monitoring of the procedure. In the last decade, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have become an attractive option for ultrasonic imaging systems due to their fabrication flexibility, improved bandwidth, and integration with electronics. The CMUT's potential in therapeutic applications has also been demonstrated by surface output pressures as high as 1MPa peak to peak and continuous wave (CW) operation. This paper reviews existing interventional CMUT arrays, demonstrates the feasibility of CMUTs for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and presents a design for the next-generation CMUTs for integrated imaging and HIFU endoscopic catheters.

  13. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep (United States)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.


    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  14. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan


    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  15. Molecular Modeling Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Targetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Akula,


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, is the leading cause of illness and death in the India. A number of studies have shown that inflammation of blood vessels is one of the major factors that increase the incidence of heart diseases, including arteriosclerosis (clogging of the arteries, stroke and myocardial infraction or heart attack. Studies have associated obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, with lowgradeinflammation. Furthermore, some findings suggest that drugs commonly prescribed to the lower cholesterol also reduce this inflammation, suggesting an additional beneficial effect of the stains. The recent development of angiotensin 11 (Ang11 receptor antagonists has enabled to improve significantly the tolerability profile of thisgroup of drugs while maintaining a high clinical efficacy. ACE2 is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and in renal tubular epithelium, and it thus may be an import new cardiovascular target. In the present study we modeled the structure of ACE and designed an inhibitor through using ARGUS lab and the validation of the Drug molecule is done basing on QSAR properties and Cache for this protein through CADD.

  16. Progress of OCT and its applications (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Haruna, Masamitsu


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue based on the low-coherence interferometry, where the image resolution is around 10 ım with the imaging depth of 1 to 2 mm. Since its first demonstration, OCT has been developed intensively for clinical diagnoses of ophthalmology and arteriosclerosis. Beside the clinical applications, OCT is used for analysis of physiological functions underneath the human skin surface. Recently, we proposed and demonstrated the dynamic OCT for in vivo observation of physiological functions of small organs underneath the skin surface. In the dynamic OCT, tomographic images are obtained time-sequentially for tracking of the dynamics of eccrin sweat glands and peripheral vessels. In the last three years, the dynamic skin physiology has been analyzed using both time-domain (TD) OCT and swept source (SS) OCT. In this paper, we present progress of OCT as well as the dynamic analysis of mental sweating and pulsation of a small artery in synchronization with the heartbeat using SS-OCT.

  17. Europium tetracycline biosensor for the determination of cholesterol (United States)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Samad, Ricardo Elgul; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.


    Development of cholesterol biosensors is of great importance in clinical analysis because the concentration of cholesterol in blood is a fundamental parameter for the prevention and diagnosis of a number of clinical disorders such as heart disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In general, determination of cholesterol is based on spectrophotometry; but this method involves complicated procedures and the cost is high because expensive enzyme must be used in each assay. We report here the observation, for the first time, of the enhancement of Europium-Tetracycline complex emission in cholesterol solutions. This enhancement was initially observed with the addition of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase, which produces H IIO II, the agent driver of the Europium tetracycline complex, to the solution. However, it was found that the enzyme is not needed to enhance the luminescence. A calibration curve was determined, resulting in an easy-handling immobilization method with a cheap stable material. This method shows that the complex can be used as a sensor to determine cholesterol in biological systems with good selectivity, fast response, miniature size, and reproducible results.

  18. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients (United States)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  19. Monitoring intra-cellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman- and CARS-microscopy (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen


    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in lipid metabolism in vessel wall tissues. Macrophages can take up lipids by various mechanisms. As phagocytes, macrophages are important for the decomposition of lipid plaques within arterial walls that contribute to arteriosclerosis. Of special interest are uptake dynamics and intra-cellular fate of different individual types of lipids as, for example, fatty acids, triglycerides or free and esterified cholesterol. Here we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and follow subsequent storage or degradation patterns. The combination of optical microscopy with Raman spectroscopy allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through the associated spectral information. Relatively long measuring times, due to the weakness of Raman scattering can be overcome by non-linear effects such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). With this contribution we introduce first results to monitor the incorporation of lipid components into individual cells employing Raman and CARS microscopy.

  20. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.


    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  1. Fiber Optic Laser Delivery For Endarterectomy Of Experimental Atheromas (United States)

    Eugene, John; Pollock, Marc E.; McColgan, Stephen J.; Hammer-Wilson, Marie; Berns, Michael W.


    Fiber optic delivery of argon ion laser energy and Nd-YAG laser energy were compared by the performance of open laser endarterectomy in the rabbit arteriosclerosis model. In Group I, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with an argon ion laser (488 nm and 514.5 nm) with the laser beam directed through a 400 pm quartz fiber optic. In Group II, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with a Nd-YAG laser (1.06 pm) with the laser beam directed through a 600 pm quartz fiber optic. Gross and light microscopic examination revealed smooth endarterectomy surfaces with tapered end points in Group I. In Group II, the endarterectomy surfaces were uneven and perforation occurred at 5/6 end points. Although energy could be precisely delivered with each laser by fiber optics, satisfactory results could only be achieved with the argon ion laser because argon ion energy was well absorbed by atheromas. Successful intravascular laser use requires a strong interaction between wavelength and atheroma as well as a precise delivery system.

  2. Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel context-aware image force (United States)

    Sivalingam, Udhayaraj; Wels, Michael; Rempfler, Markus; Grosskopf, Stefan; Suehling, Michael; Menze, Bjoern H.


    In this paper, we present a fully automated approach to coronary vessel segmentation, which involves calcification or soft plaque delineation in addition to accurate lumen delineation, from 3D Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography data. Adequately virtualizing the coronary lumen plays a crucial role for simulating blood ow by means of fluid dynamics while additionally identifying the outer vessel wall in the case of arteriosclerosis is a prerequisite for further plaque compartment analysis. Our method is a hybrid approach complementing Active Contour Model-based segmentation with an external image force that relies on a Random Forest Regression model generated off-line. The regression model provides a strong estimate of the distance to the true vessel surface for every surface candidate point taking into account 3D wavelet-encoded contextual image features, which are aligned with the current surface hypothesis. The associated external image force is integrated in the objective function of the active contour model, such that the overall segmentation approach benefits from the advantages associated with snakes and from the ones associated with machine learning-based regression alike. This yields an integrated approach achieving competitive results on a publicly available benchmark data collection (Rotterdam segmentation challenge).

  3. Near-field infrared imaging of molecular changes in cholesteryl oleate by free electron laser infrared ablation (United States)

    Masaki, Tatsuhiro; Goto, Kazuya; Inouye, Yasushi; Kawata, Satoshi


    We have applied infrared near-field scanning optical microscopy (IR-NSOM) to enable evaluation of detailed molecular changes in cholesteryl oleate, a primary cause of arteriosclerosis. In our IR-NSOM, a wide wavelength range of 2.9-6.7 μm is achieved by use of an optical parametric amplifier and an apertured cantilever. IR irradiation from a free-electron laser (FEL) tuned to a 5.75 μm wavelength induced molecular structural changes and caused cholesteryl oleate to decompose to cholesterol and fatty acids in the FEL irradiated areas. The IR-NSOM images at two different wavelengths, 5.75 and 5.3 μm, with a 2 μm apertured cantilever probe successfully identified areas of molecular change in cholesteryl oleate beyond the diffraction limit of IR microspectroscopy. In-depth molecular structure changes were also evaluated by the IR-NSOM and we demonstrated that the FEL irradiation induced subsurface molecular structure changes throughout cholesteryl oleate in the irradiated areas.

  4. Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows (United States)

    Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.


    It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.

  5. Photocoagulation as treatment of diabetic retinopathy (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Fernandez, L.; de Pedraza, Maria L.; Gamella, C.; Santervas, R.


    Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that is revealed with a lot of alterations due to factors such as an absolute or relative reduction of the insulin. It is usually accompanied by generalized arteriosclerosis and prepares for certain microvasculares pathologies such as retinopathy, nefropathy, and neuropathy. The first effects of diabetes in the retina seem to act on the capillaries. The functional modifications of the retinal circulation appear before the structural ones. These consist of the blood flux damage and the obligation of the hematorretinal barrier with extravasacy as can be proved in the fluorophotometry of the vitreous humor. Nowadays, medical treatments are more effective and only vitrectomy and photocoagulation are used in diabetic retinopathy. For that, the argon laser and the xenon arch are used. The treatment is usually spread panretine, with coagulation in a grid pattern around the eye, avoiding the macula and other vital structures, and treating the neoformed blood vessels. The rate of grave visual loss in the studies carried out with there techniques was 12 in relation to 28 in the non-treated cases. The most important factors of risk found, were the discal neoformed blood vessels and the hemorrhage of the vitreous humor. Adverse effects were found such as the reduction of visual sharpness and the contrition of the visual field, these are greater in patients treated with the xenon arch than in those treated with the argon laser.

  6. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in maté ( Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation (United States)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T. C. F.; Fanaro, G. B.; Souza, M. F. F.; Bastos, D. H. M.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.


    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The maté ( Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrão or tererê, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  7. Pulsed liquid microjet for intravascular injection (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Miller, Jason; Huie, Philip; Marmor, Michael; Blumenkranz, Mark S.


    Occlusions of the retinal veins and arteries are associated with common diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis and usually cause severe and irreversible loss of vision. Treatments for these vascular diseases have been unsatisfactory to date in part because of the difficulty of delivering thrombolytic drugs locally within the eye. In this article we describe a pulsed liquid microjet for minimally invasive intra-vascular drug delivery. The microjet is driven by a vapor bubble following an explosive evaporation of saline, produced by a microsecond-long electric discharge in front of the 25 micrometers electrode inside the micronozzle. Expansion of the transient vapor bubble produces a water jet with a diameter equal to the diameter of the nozzle, and with a velocity and duration that are controlled by the pulse energy. We found that fluid could be injected through the wall of a 60-micrometers -diameter artery in choriallantoic membrane using a 15-micrometers diameter liquid jet traveling at more than 60 m/s. Histological analysis of these arteries showed that the width of the perforation is limited to the diameter of the micronozzle, and the penetration depth of the jet is controlled by the discharge energy. The pulsed liquid microjet offers a promising technique for precise and needle-free intravascular delivery of thrombolytic drugs for localized treatment of retinal vascular occlusions.

  8. Development of catheters for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging (United States)

    Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Wang, Bo; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.


    Coronary atherosclerosis is a complex disease accompanied by the development of plaques in the arterial wall. Since the vulnerability of the plaques depends on their composition, the appropriate treatment of the arteriosclerosis requires a reliable characterization of the plaques' geometry and content. The intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is capable of providing structural details of the plaques as well as some functional information. In turn, more functional information about the same plaques can be obtained from intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) images since the optical properties of the plaque's components differ from that of their environment. The combined IVUS/IVPA imaging is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating the plaques, thus determining their vulnerability. The potential of combined IVUS/IVPA imaging has already been demonstrated in phantoms and ex-vivo experiments. However, for in-vivo or clinical imaging, an integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter is required. In this paper, we introduce two prototypes of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheters for in-vivo imaging based on a commercially available single-element IVUS imaging catheter. The light delivery systems are developed using multimode optical fibers with custom-designed distal tips. Both prototypes were tested and compared using an arterial mimicking phantom. The advantages and limitations of both designs are discussed. Overall, the results of our studies suggest that both designs of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter have a potential for in-vivo IVPA/IVUS imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sohrabi


    Full Text Available Mycotic aneurysm could be divided into three types according to their etiology: septic-embolic, cryptogenic and traumatic type. During the period from 1972 to 1974 two cases of mycotic aneurysms have been seen at the Ohio Valley Medical Center - one following a sub acute bacterial endocarditic and another one was two years following surgery for aortofemoral bypass graft. The clinical course of both patients is discussed. The prognosis of mycotic aneurysm is always fatal without surgical intervention. Mycotic aneurysm is a rare entity which is occasionally reported in the literatures. As far as these case reports go the pathology could be divided into three categories according to their etiology, even though the pathology is essentially the same. 1. The septic-embolic or primary mycotic aneurysm in which the aneurysm is secondary to the sepsis which settles in the wall of the artery and destroys the lamina media and finally developing an aneurysm. This type of mycotic aneurysm is, usually seen in any type of septicemia. 2. The cryptogenic or secondary, mycotic aneurysm in which the sepsis takes place in the pra-existing aneurysm of the arterial wall usually due to arteriosclerosis disease. 3. Traumatic or mixed type mycotic aneurysm in which the sepsis and arterial wall damage takes place at the same time.

  10. Fiber Optic Versus Direct Laser Delivery For Endarterectomy Of Experimental Atheromas (United States)

    Eugene, John; Pollock, Marc E.; McColgan, Stephen J.; Hammer-Wilson, Marie; Berns, Michael W.


    Direct laser energy delivery was compared to fiber optic laser energy delivery by the performance of open laser endarterectomy in the rabbit arteriosclerosis model. In Group I, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with a hand-held CO2 laser (10.6 pm). In Group II, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with an argon ion laser (488 nm and 514.5 nm) with the laser beam directed through a 400 μm quartz fiber optic. Gross and light microscopic examination revealed uneven endarterectomy surfaces and frequent perforations at the end points in Group I. In Group II, the endarterectomy surfaces were even and the end points were fused with a tapered transition. Energy density for Group I was 38 ±5 J/cm2. Energy density for Group II was 110±12 J/cm2. CO2 laser energy was better absorbed by arteriosclerotic rabbit aortas than argon ion laser energy, but it could not be as easily controlled. We conclude that a more precise endarterectomy can be performed with fiber optic delivery of laser energy.

  11. [Anemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. (United States)

    Wahle, M


    One of the most frequent extra-articular organ manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is anemia. As anemia in RA patients may result in severe symptoms and aggravation of other disease manifestations (e.g. arteriosclerosis), the influence on the course of RA is profound. However, the importance of anemia in RA patients is frequently underestimated. The etiology of anemia in RA is complex. Anemia of inflammation (AI) and iron deficiency anemia, alone or in combination are the most frequent forms of anemia in RA. Changes in iron metabolism are the leading causes of anemia in RA patients and mainly induced by the altered synthesis and function of hepcidin and ferroportin. Hepcidin, a peptide produced in the liver and immunocompetent cells, impairs the expression of ferroportin on iron-secreting cells, thus reducing iron bioavailability. The typical changes of iron metabolism and hepcidin synthesis in RA are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, primarily interleukin-6. Hence, the treatment of RA with cytokine antagonists has significant therapeutic implications on anemia in the context of inflammation and impaired iron metabolism.

  12. Failure of perivascular drainage of β-amyloid in cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (United States)

    Hawkes, Cheryl A; Jayakody, Nimeshi; Johnston, David A; Bechmann, Ingo; Carare, Roxana O


    In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulates as insoluble plaques in the brain and deposits in blood vessel walls as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The severity of CAA correlates with the degree of cognitive decline in dementia. The distribution of Aβ in the walls of capillaries and arteries in CAA suggests that Aβ is deposited in the perivascular pathways by which interstitial fluid drains from the brain. Soluble Aβ from the extracellular spaces of gray matter enters the basement membranes of capillaries and drains along the arterial basement membranes that surround smooth muscle cells toward the leptomeningeal arteries. The motive force for perivascular drainage is derived from arterial pulsations combined with the valve effect of proteins present in the arterial basement membranes. Physical and biochemical changes associated with arteriosclerosis, aging and possession of apolipoprotein E4 genotype lead to a failure of perivascular drainage of soluble proteins, including Aβ. Perivascular cells associated with arteries and the lymphocytes recruited in the perivenous spaces contribute to the clearance of Aβ. The failure of perivascular clearance of Aβ may be a major factor in the accumulation of Aβ in CAA and may have significant implications for the design of therapeutics for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohée D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999. We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p -6. The efficiency scores of the method are Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (United States)

    Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Cauchie, Ph; Remacle, Cl; Guillaume, M; Brohée, D; Hubert, JL; Vanhaeverbeek, M


    Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999). We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT) determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p < 10-6. The efficiency scores of the method are <4% in intra-assay and <7% in inter-assay. It allows to achieve the tests on hyperlipaemic samples. This new device has been easily integrated in laboratory routine and allows to achieve several ECLT every day without disturbance of laboratory workflow. Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:11985782

  15. 25. Ischemic pain in the extremities and Raynaud's phenomenon. (United States)

    Devulder, Jacques; van Suijlekom, Hans; van Dongen, Robert; Diwan, Sudhir; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank


    Two important groups of disorders result from an insufficient blood supply to the extremities: critical vascular disease and the Raynaud's phenomenon. The latter can be subdivided into a primary and a secondary type. Critical ischemic disease is often caused by arteriosclerosis due to hypertension or diabetes. Primary Raynaud's is idiopathic and will be diagnosed as such if underlying systemic pathology has been excluded. Secondary Raynaud's is often a manifestation of a systemic disease. It is essential to try to establish a diagnosis as soon as possible in order to influence the evolution of the disease. A sympathetic nerve block can be considered in patients with critical ischemic vascular disease after extensive conservative treatment, preferably in the context of a study (2B±). If this has insufficient effect, spinal cord stimulation can be considered in a selected patient group (2B±). In view of the degree of invasiveness and the costs involved, this treatment should preferably be applied in the context of a study and with the use of transcutaneous pO(2) measurements. In case of primary Raynaud's, life style changes are the first step. Sympathectomy can be considered as a treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon (2C+), but only after multidisciplinary evaluation of the patient and in close consultation with the patient's rheumatologist, vascular surgeon or internist.

  16. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue are activated in lean mice. (United States)

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru


    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism.

  17. Clinical effect of addition of beraprost sodium to pioglitazone treatment on the blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Chen, T; Kusunoki, M; Sato, D; Tsutsui, H; Nakamura, T; Miyata, T; Oshida, Y


    In recent years, the number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance has continued to increase in Japan. Insulin resistance is considered to be closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic diseases, represented by arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Therefore, improvement of insulin resistance is one of the important strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present, α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-related drugs, and thiazolidinediones are among the most important oral hypoglycemic drugs used to improve insulin resistance. In this study, the effect of beraprost sodium, a prostaglandin I2 derivative, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus was investigated. In type 2 diabetic patients with ASO who were under treatment with pioglitazone, additional treatment with beraprost sodium exerted a significant synergistic effect in reducing the serum HbA1c levels as compared to treatment with pioglitazone alone. This result indicates that concomitant administration of pioglitazone and beraprost sodium may be useful in the treatment of diabetes -mellitus.

  18. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

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    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike [University of Muenster, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Minnerup, Jens [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Dannlowski, Udo [University of Muenster, Department of Psychiatry, Muenster (Germany); University of Marburg, Department of Psychiatry, Marburg (Germany)


    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  19. Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Zu Zhu


    Full Text Available We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1 Tetrahydropalmatine (THP and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+-THP and (--THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (--THP and (--stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3 Huperzine A (Hup-A is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4 Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.

  20. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion. (United States)

    McCarty, M F


    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  1. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging? (United States)

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L


    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  2. Cardiovascular disease in haemodialysis: role of the intravascular innate immune system. (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Soveri, Inga; Hilborn, Jöns; Fellström, Bengt; Nilsson, Bo


    Haemodialysis is a life-saving renal replacement modality for end-stage renal disease, but this therapy also represents a major challenge to the intravascular innate immune system, which is comprised of the complement, contact and coagulation systems. Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients on haemodialysis. Biomaterial-induced contact activation of proteins within the plasma cascade systems occurs during haemodialysis and initially leads to local generation of inflammatory mediators on the biomaterial surface. The inflammation is spread by soluble activation products and mediators that are generated during haemodialysis and transported in the extracorporeal circuit back into the patient together with activated leukocytes and platelets. The combined effect is activation of the endothelium of the cardiovascular system, which loses its anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, leading to atherogenesis and arteriosclerosis. This concept suggests that maximum suppression of the intravascular innate immune system is needed to minimize the risk of CVD in patients on haemodialysis. A potential approach to achieve this goal is to treat patients with broad-specificity systemic drugs that target more than one of the intravascular cascade systems. Alternatively, 'stealth' biomaterials that cause minimal cascade system activation could be used in haemodialysis circuits.

  3. Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness. (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana; Luca, Constantin Tudor


    Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy. Oxidative and nitrosative stress play important roles in arterial stiffness elevation in several disorders, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, thalassemia, Kawasaki disease and malignant disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction due to uncoupling of the nitric oxide synthase, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in vascular endothelial cells, associated with inflammation, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Regular physical exercise, caloric restriction, red wine, statins, sartans, metformin, oestradiol, curcumin and combinations of antioxidant vitamins are therapeutic strategies that may decrease arterial stiffness and oxidative stress thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. ROS and RNS represent potential therapeutic targets for preventing progression of arterial stiffness.

  4. 脂联素及脂联素受体与肿瘤关系的研究进展%Progress in understanding the relationship between adiponectin receptors R1&R2 and carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    畅婕; 宋敏


    脂联素是一种由脂肪细胞特异分泌的内源性生物活性分子,与冠心病、糖尿病、高血压及肿瘤等多种疾病密切相关.具有调节糖脂代谢、改善胰岛素抵抗、抗炎、抗动脉粥样硬化及抗肿瘤的作用.近几年关于脂联素与结直肠癌、乳腺癌、子宫内膜癌、食管癌、胃癌、前列腺癌及肾细胞癌等几种恶性肿瘤的关系及其作用机制的研究取得了较大的进展.现就该领域的最新研究成果作一综述.%Adiponectin is a key hormone secreted by adi-pocytes. It is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-arteriosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. Many studies have found that adiponectin is related to coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cancer. Recently, adiponectin receptors Rl and R2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies, such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer and nephrocyte cancer.

  5. [Complications in reconstructive procedures on arteries in the lower extremities]. (United States)

    Radak, D; Rosato, E; Cyba-Altunbay, S


    During a year (1987/88) a study was performed at he Clinic of Thoracal and Vascular Surgery, supervised by Prof. dr J. Vollmar. Analysis of all cases with complications after reconstruction of the lower limbs arteries necessitating reoperation was performed. There were 56 patients in all. They were retrospectively analysed for establishing risk factors, clinical stage (by Fonstine), and time lapse from the surgery to the occurrence of complications. There were 12(21,4%), 23 (41,1%) and 21 (37,5%) of immediate, early and late complications, respectively. The following causes of complications following reconstruction of the lower limbs arteries were recorded: graft trombosis (41,1%), pseudoaneurism of anastomosis (17,8%), progressive arteriosclerosis (12,7%), proximally or distally to the operated segment. The following reoperations were applied: graft prolongation due to distal occlusion (35,7%), desobstruction of the graft and patch plasty (21,2%), partial or total replacement of the graft (17,9%), correction of the supplying vascular tree (7,1%). More than one reoperation were performed in 22 cases (39,2%) and amputation of the limb was necessitated in 4 (7,1%) cases.

  6. Bogalusa Heart Study: a long-term community study of a rural biracial (Black/White) population. (United States)

    Berenson, G S


    The Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term population study with a continued relationship with a community, addresses the problem of capacity building in minority health research. The study was originally funded as a Specialized Center of Research-Arteriosclerosis (SCOR-A) by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). These centers were to conduct research on atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and complications of cardiovascular-renal disease as the major causes of deaths in the United States. From earlier research on atherosclerosis, we became interested in the underlying characteristics in early life that would eventually lead to clinical morbidity and mortality from heart disease. An observation at autopsy showed the degree of atherosclerotic involvement in human aortas, from young to older individuals (Figure 1). For example, at age 40 years, marked individual variability occurred in the severity and involvement with atherosclerotic disease. Some individuals showed very little disease, while almost 70% of the surface was diseased in others. Further studies on arterial wall matrix showed aortas from young individuals varied with the extent of disease and its chemical composition. This background stimulated an interest in studying children for early clinical evidence of major adult heart diseases. The Bogalusa Heart Study was begun in 1972 as an epidemiology study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents; it eventually evolved into observations of young adults. Bogalusa, LA, is a biracial (black/white) rural community 70 miles north of New Orleans, comparable to many other communities in southeastern United States.

  7. Research Process of Hydroxytyrosol%羟基酪醇的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书新; 武宇超


    Hydroxytyrosol is the active ingredient of olive oil, which can inhibit the growth of multiple tumor cells and in-duce apoptosis, and it may become the potential new-type anti-liver cancer drug, in addition, hydroxytyrosol has multi-as-pect pharmacological actions such as anti-thrombosis, regulating blood-lipid, anti-arteriosclerosis, anti-sick microorgan-ism, prevention and cure of macula retinae degeneration, protecting cartilage and anti-osteoporosis, but the preparation technology of hydroxytyrosol is not so mature at home. The paper summarizes its physicochemical property, synthetic method and pharmacological action.%羟基酪醇是橄榄油的活性成分,能抑制多种肿瘤细胞生长,诱导其凋亡,有望成为新型抗肿瘤药物。另外羟基酪醇还有抗血栓、调血脂和抗动脉硬化、抗病原微生物、防治视网膜黄斑变性、保护软骨和抗骨质疏松等多方面的药理作用,但是羟基酪醇的制备工艺在国内还不成熟。该文就其理化性质、合成方法以及药理作用进行综述。

  8. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others


    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  9. Comparison of Three Different Types of Wrist Pulse Signals by Their Physical Meanings and Diagnosis Performance. (United States)

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Peng; Zhang, David


    Increasing interest has been focused on computational pulse diagnosis where sensors are developed to acquire pulse signals, and machine learning techniques are exploited to analyze health conditions based on the acquired pulse signals. By far, a number of sensors have been employed for pulse signal acquisition, which can be grouped into three major categories, i.e., pressure, photoelectric, and ultrasonic sensors. To guide the sensor selection for computational pulse diagnosis, in this paper, we analyze the physical meanings and sensitivities of signals acquired by these three types of sensors. The dependence and complementarity of the different sensors are discussed from both the perspective of cardiovascular fluid dynamics and comparative experiments by evaluating disease classification performance. Experimental results indicate that each sensor is more appropriate for the diagnosis of some specific disease that the changes of physiological factors can be effectively reflected by the sensor, e.g., ultrasonic sensor for diabetes and pressure sensor for arteriosclerosis, and improved diagnosis performance can be obtained by combining three types of signals.

  10. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Stefan [Frankfurt Univ., Sankt Katharinen Hospital Teaching Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology; Nichtweiss, Michael


    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  11. The Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Hypertension. A Call for Anti-Inflammatory Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor H. García


    Full Text Available The most important goal of antihypertensive therapy is to prevent the complications associated with hypertension (stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, etc. For this, secondary targets such as left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, dementia, and other signs of hypertension-induced organ damage help the physician to assess risks and monitor treatment efficacy. New treatment targets may be arising, however. One such target may be endothelial dysfunction. In effect, endothelial dysfunction not only may precede the elevation of blood pressure, but may also pave the way to conditions often associated with hypertension, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, microalbuminuria, congestive heart failure, and tissue hypertrophy. Because inflammation often accompanies endothelial dysfunction, approaches to counteract inflammation are now being evaluated. For this, antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, statins, and beta blockers are all being tested. All of these agents seem to prevent or delay the induction of proinflammatory molecules aside from, and in addition to, their specific effects on blood pressure. The focus of this review is to update some of the animal and human research showing that hypertension sets off an inflammatory state and also to consider some of the anti-inflammatory approaches that may prevent the development of endothelial dysfunction, and the subsequent renal and cardiovascular damage.

  12. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe


    Full Text Available For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life – both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption.

  13. [Regulatory role of mechanical stress response in cellular function: development of new drugs and tissue engineering]. (United States)

    Momose, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Takehisa; Oike, Masahiro; Obara, Kazuo; Laher, Ismail; Sugiura, Seiryo; Ohata, Hisayuki; Nakayama, Koichi


    The investigation of mechanotransduction in the cardiovascular system is essentially important for elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in not only the maintenance of hemodynamic homeostasis but also etiology of cardiovascular diseases including arteriosclerosis. The present review summarizes the latest research performed by six academic groups, and presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society. Technology of cellular biomechanics is also required for research and clinical application of a vascular hybrid tissue responding to pulsatile stress. 1) Vascular tissue engineering: Design of pulsatile stress-responsive scaffold and in vivo vascular wall reconstruction (T. Matsuda); 2) Cellular mechanisms of mechanosensitive calcium transients in vascular endothelium (M. Oike et al.); 3) Cross-talk of stimulation with fluid flow and lysophosphatidic acid in vascular endothelial cells (K. Momose et al.); 4) Mechanotransduction of vascular smooth muscles: Rate-dependent stretch-induced protein phosphorylations and contractile activation (K. Obara et al.); 5) Lipid mediators in vascular myogenic tone (I. Laher et al.); and 6) Caldiomyocyte regulates its mechanical output in response to mechanical load (S. Sugiura et al.).

  14. Ultrasound Molecular Imaging: Moving Towards Clinical Translation (United States)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K.


    Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging. PMID:25851932

  15. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation. (United States)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V; Willmann, Jürgen K


    Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  16. Research progress on cardiovascular protection effect and its mechanisms of genistein%染料木素心血管保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬花(综述); 黄红林(审校)


    Genistein (Gen) is called phytoestrogens with a chemical structure similar to estrogen, which was mainly extracted by the leguminous plants such as soybeans, clover, and dye wood active ingredient. Numerous studied have demonstrated that genistein plays protective effects against arteriosclerosis, myocardial protection, arrhythmia and regulate blood pressure, via regulating lipid, resistance to oxidation and inlfammatory, protecting blood vessels. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the function and mechanisms of genistein in cardiovascular effects.%染料木素(genistein,Gen)是一种化学结构与雌激素相似,主要从大豆、三叶草、染料木等豆科植物中提取出来的活性成分,被称为植物雌激素。大量研究表明Gen可以通过调节脂类代谢、抗氧化、血管保护及抗炎等机制,从而发挥防治动脉粥样硬化(atherosclerosis,AS)、心肌保护、抗心律失常、调节血压等心血管的保护作用。本文就Gen的心血管保护作用机制的研究进展及展望作一综述。

  17. A clinical study of brainstem infarction identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro


    We conducted a clinical study of 155 cases that were confirmed to have brainstem infarctions on MRI (T[sub 1]-weighted image showed a low signal and T[sub 2]-weighted image showed a high signal, measuring in excess of 2 x 2 mm). The majority of the brainstem infarction was located in the pontine base in 132 cases (85.2%). Of these, 19 cases had double lesions including infarctions in the pontine base. Second infarctions frequently occurred in the cerebral peduncle or medical medulla oblongata, unilateral to the pontine infarctions. In addition to 98 symptomatic cases, there were 57 cases of 'asymptomatic' brainstem infarction. They comprised 24 cases accompanying other symptomatic cerebrovascular diseases in the supratentorium and 33 cases of transient subjective complaints such as headache or vertigo-dizziness. Complication by supratentorial infarctions was significantly frequent in cases of brainstem infarction (p<0.001), 122 of 155 cases (78.7%), especially in the pontine base (88.6%); while in the control cases (without brainstem infarction) only 65 of 221 cases (29.4%). These findings are considered to show the widespread progress of arteriosclerosis in brainstem infarction, especially in ones in the pontine base. (author).

  18. Clinical significance of pontine high signals identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro


    Spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to 530 cases in order to investigate the clinical significance of pontine high signals. The subjects comprised 109 cases of pontine infarction with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image and low signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PI group), 145 of pontine high signal with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image but normal signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PH group) and 276 of age-matched control without abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images (AC group). Subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness were more frequent in the PH group than in the PI group. In both PI and groups, periventricular hyperintensity as well as subcortical high signals in the supratentorium were more severe than in the AC group. These degrees were higher in the PI group than in the PH group. In conclusion, PH as well as PI may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and PH is considered to be an early finding of pontine ischemia. (author).

  19. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases]. (United States)

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria


    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.


    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M


    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  1. Roentogenological diagnosis of splenic arterial aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yutaka; Saito, Hiroya; Hiromura, Tadao; Choji, Kiyoshi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Irie, Goro; Kumagai, Midori; Kumagai, Akifumi.


    The purpose of this paper is clarification of noninvasive diagnostic images of pre-ruptured splenicarterial aneurysm. Splenic arterial aneurysm is relatively rare, with only 159 cases reported in Japan previously. But because of improvements in abdominal US, CT and angiography, reports of this rare lisease are expected to increase. An analysis of 169 cases of splenic arterial aneurysm, with the addition of 10 cases of our own, has been carried out and the following conclusions were made. 1) Ultrasonographic findings are round hypoechoic mass with pulsation. The detectability is about 70 % and its detectable limitation of aneurysmal diameter is more than 2 cm. 2) Computed tomographic findings are round or oval low density area between spleen and left kidney. By the contrast emhancement, the lesion is oppacified high as same as aort. Dynamic CT is more useful and its limitation of detectability is more than 5 cm. Ultrasonography is the most useful tool for the detection of pre-ruptured splenic arterial aneurysm, but it is necessary to keep this rare disease in mind during the examination of portal hypertention, chronic pancreatitis, arteriosclerosis and others.

  2. Rho-kinase as a novel therapeutic target in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (United States)

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki


    Rho-kinase has been identified as one of the effectors of the small GTP-binding protein Rho. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated pathway plays an important role in various cellular functions, not only in vascular smooth muscle contraction but also in actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion and motility, cytokinesis, and gene expressions, all of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis. Indeed, animal experiments have demonstrated that Rho-kinase inhibitors effectively suppress coronary artery spasm and that long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase inhibits the development of coronary arteriosclerotic lesions and even causes regression of coronary vascular lesions in vivo. Recent clinical studies also have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of a Rho-kinase inhibitor on coronary artery spasm in patients with vasospastic angina and on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with stable effort angina with adequate safety. It is possible that Rho-kinase is also involved in the pathogenesis of other forms of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, Rho-kinase could be regarded as a novel therapeutic target in treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The Calvin cycle inevitably produces sugar-derived reactive carbonyl methylglyoxal during photosynthesis: a potential cause of plant diabetes. (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Inoue, Hironori; Odawara, Mizue; Shimakawa, Ginga; Miyake, Chikahiro


    Sugar-derived reactive carbonyls (RCs), including methylglyoxal (MG), are aggressive by-products of oxidative stress known to impair the functions of multiple proteins. These advanced glycation end-products accumulate in patients with diabetes mellitus and cause major complications, including arteriosclerosis and cardiac insufficiency. In the glycolytic pathway, the equilibration reactions between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) have recently been shown to generate MG as a by-product. Because plants produce vast amounts of sugars and support the same reaction in the Calvin cycle, we hypothesized that MG also accumulates in chloroplasts. Incubating isolated chloroplasts with excess 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) as the GAP precursor drove the equilibration reaction toward MG production. The rate of oxygen (O2) evolution was used as an index of 3-PGA-mediated photosynthesis. The 3-PGA- and time-dependent accumulation of MG in chloroplasts was confirmed by HPLC. In addition, MG production increased with an increase in light intensity. We also observed a positive linear relationship between the rates of MG production and O2 evolution (R = 0.88; P Calvin cycle and that sugar-derived RC production is inevitable during photosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that MG production is enhanced under high-CO2 conditions in illuminated wheat leaves.

  4. [The adipose tissue as a regulatory center of the metabolism]. (United States)

    Fonseca-Alaniz, Miriam H; Takada, Julie; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Lima, Fabio Bessa


    The recent progress in the research about the metabolic properties of the adipose tissue and the discovery of its ability to produce hormones that are very active in pathophysiologic as well as physiologic processes is rebuilding the concepts about its biology. Its involvement in conditions like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, dislipidemias and chronic and acute inflammatory processes indicate that the understanding of its functional capacities may contribute to improve the prognosis of those diseases whose prevalence increased in a preoccupying manner. Here we review some functional aspects of adipocytes, such as the metabolism, its influence on energy homeostasis, its endocrine ability and the adipogenesis, i.e., the potential of pre-adipocytes present in adipose tissue stroma to differentiate into new adipocytes and regenerate the tissue. In addition, we are including some studies on the relationship between the adipose tissue and the pineal gland, a new and poorly known, although, as will be seen, very promising aspect of adipocyte physiology together with its possible favorable repercussions to the therapy of the obesity related diseases.

  5. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lévigne


    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  6. Structural and Functional Changes With the Aging Kidney. (United States)

    Denic, Aleksandar; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D


    Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as compared to a disease that occurs in some but not all individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitial fibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume, larger medullary volume until middle age, and larger and more numerous kidney cysts. Among carefully screened healthy kidney donors, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines at a rate of 6.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per decade. There is reason to be concerned that the elderly are being misdiagnosed with CKD. Besides this expected kidney function decline, the lowest risk of mortality is at a GFR of ≥75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age kidney functional reserve when they do actually develop CKD, and they are at higher risk for acute kidney injury.

  7. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  8. A haptic sensor-actor-system based on ultrasound elastography and electrorheological fluids for virtual reality applications in medicine. (United States)

    Khaled, W; Ermert, H; Bruhns, O; Boese, H; Baumann, M; Monkman, G J; Egersdoerfer, S; Meier, A; Klein, D; Freimuth, H


    Mechanical properties of biological tissue represent important diagnostic information and are of histological relevance (hard lesions, "nodes" in organs: tumors; calcifications in vessels: arteriosclerosis). The problem is, that such information is usually obtained by digital palpation only, which is limited with respect to sensitivity. It requires intuitive assessment and does not allow quantitative documentation. A suitable sensor is required for quantitative detection of mechanical tissue properties. On the other hand, there is also some need for a realistic mechanical display of those tissue properties. Suitable actuator arrays with high spatial resolution and real-time capabilities are required operating in a haptic sensor actuator system with different applications. The sensor system uses real time ultrasonic elastography whereas the tactile actuator is based on electrorheological fluids. Due to their small size the actuator array elements have to be manufactured by micro-mechanical production methods. In order to supply the actuator elements with individual high voltages a sophisticated switching and control concept have been designed. This haptic system has the potential of inducing real time substantial forces, using a compact lightweight mechanism which can be applied to numerous areas including intraoperative navigation, telemedicine, teaching, space and telecommunication.

  9. Feasibility for the enhancement of an online support system for persons with metabolic syndrome, aimed at applications for ischemic heart disease and heart failure. (United States)

    Tani, Shoko; Narazaki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Michiaki; Haraguchi, Ryo; Kuwata, Shigeki; Inada, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Kazuo


    Previously, we developed of an online support system for persons with metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the possibility of enhancing our system for applications in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). The main causes of IHD are obesity, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, hyperglycemia and other metabolic disorders. These conditions are related to lifestyle issues, such as diet and exercise. Dietary management becomes more difficult as the patient's condition worsens. We primarily focused on behavior changes. To raise the user's awareness of food intake, we improved a number of functions of the developed system: an entry of the user's lifestyle information, a calculation of the total calorie intake and a reference of food model pictures in 80 kcal standard quantities. IHD encompasses many of the causes of HF. Management tools appropriate for HF are few. We describe the main functions of our system and promote self-management as a requirement for IHD and HF. We expect that the framework of our system is applicable to the management of patients with chronic HF.

  10. Radiotherapy as a cause of complete atrioventricular block in Hodgkin's disease: an electrophysiological-pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.I.; Bharati, S.; Glass, J.; Lev, M.


    A 20-year-old man contracted Hodgkin's disease and was treated with mantle radiotherapy. Heart block developed 11 years later. Electrocardiograms revealed predominant atrioventricular (AV) block and occasional AV conduction. Intracardiac electrograms demonstrated that the site of AV block was above the level of the His bundle. A permanent transvenous pacemaker was implanted. Seven months later the patient died of complications from cryptococcal meningitis. Pathological study of the heart revealed marked arteriosclerosis with fibrosis of the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Examination of the conduction system revealed extensive arteriolosclerosis of the sinoatrial node and its approaches. In addition, there was marked fibrosis of the approaches to the AV node, the AV bundle, and both bundle branches. There was no evidence of Hodgkin's disease. This case documents the rare occurrence of AV block due to tissue destruction by radiotherapy. There was a good correlation between block proximal to the His bundle recording site and fibrosis of the approaches to the AV node.

  11. Radiotherapy as a cause of complete atrioventricular block in Hodgkin's disease. An electrophysiological-pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.I.; Bharati, S.; Glass, J.; Lev, M.


    A 20-year-old man contracted Hodgkin's disease and was treated with mantle radiotherapy. Heart block developed 11 years later. Electrocardiograms revealed predominant atrioventricular (AV) block and occasional AV conduction. Intracardiac electrograms demonstrated that the site of AV block was above the level of the His bundle. A permanent transvenous pacemaker was implanted. Seven months later the patient died of complications from cryptococcal meningitis. Pathological study of the heart revealed marked arteriosclerosis with fibrosis of the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Examination of the conduction system revealed extensive arteriolosclerosis of the sinoatrial node and its approaches. In addition, there was marked fibrosis of the approaches to the AV node, the AV bundle, and both bundle branches. There was no evidence of Hodgkin's disease. This case documents the rare occurrence of AV block due to tissue destruction by radiotherapy. There was a good correlation between block proximal to the His bundle recording site and fibrosis of the approaches to the AV node.

  12. Significance of nitric oxide synthases: Lessons from triple nitric oxide synthases null mice. (United States)

    Tsutsui, Masato; Tanimoto, Akihide; Tamura, Masahito; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Otsuji, Yutaka


    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by three distinct NO synthases (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOSs), all of which are expressed in almost all tissues and organs in humans. The regulatory roles of NOSs in vivo have been investigated in pharmacological studies with non-selective NOS inhibitors. However, the specificity of the inhibitors continues to be an issue of debate, and the authentic significance of NOSs is still poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated mice in which all three NOS genes are completely disrupted. The triple NOSs null mice exhibited cardiovascular abnormalities, including hypertension, arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic heart failure, and reduced EDHF responses, with a shorter survival. The triple NOSs null mice also displayed metabolic abnormalities, including metabolic syndrome and high-fat diet-induced severe dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the triple NOSs null mice showed renal abnormalities (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and pathological renal remodeling), lung abnormalities (accelerated pulmonary fibrosis), and bone abnormalities (increased bone mineral density and bone turnover). These results provide evidence that NOSs play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on the significance of NOSs in vivo, based on lessons learned from experiments with our triple mutant model.

  13. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  14. Research Progress in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Combined with Coronary Artery Disease%系统性红斑狼疮合并冠心病的发病机制及治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁晶; 张兴华


    Systemic lupus erythematosus( SLE ) is a autoimmune diseases with higher incidence. Heart disease is an important clinical manifestations of SLE, and coronary artery disease is the most important complication of heart damage of SLE patients. SLE patients have obviously increased risk for coronary artery disease, which might be the result of multiple pathogenic mechanisms including arteriosclerosis,vasculitis or an-ti-phospholipids. Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death of SLE patients. The most effective treatment for those patients is control of risk factors and revascularization.%系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)是一种发病率较高的自身免疫疾病.心脏损害是SLE重要的临床表现之一,SLE可累及心脏的各个部分,而冠状动脉疾病是SLE心脏损害中最重要的一种.患者冠状动脉性心脏病的危险性显著增加,其原因可能是动脉硬化、血管炎性反应或抗磷脂抗体的作用.缺血性心脏病是SLE致死的主要原因,控制危险因素和血运重建是有效的治疗方法.

  15. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands. (United States)

    Weihe, Pál; Joensen, Høgni Debes


    For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life--both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption.

  16. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors. Study of inpatients in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, 1981 - 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Nambu, Shigeru


    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at less than or equal to2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. High prevalence of and potential mechanisms for chronic kidney disease in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas; Mami, Iadh; Schmitt, Caroline; Karim, Zoubida; François, Arnaud; Rabant, Marion; Nochy, Dominique; Gouya, Laurent; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Xu-Dubois, Yichum; Thervet, Eric; Puy, Hervé; Karras, Alexandre


    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic disorder of the synthesis of heme caused by a deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), leading to the overproduction of the porphyrin precursors δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biological characteristics, the renal pathology, and the cellular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP. A total of 415 patients with HMBS deficiency followed up in the French Porphyria Center were enrolled in 2003 in a population-based study. A follow-up study was conducted in 2013, assessing patients for clinical, biological, and histological parameters. In vitro models were used to determine whether porphyrin precursors promote tubular and endothelial cytotoxicity. Chronic kidney disease occurred in up to 59% of the symptomatic AIP patients, with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate of ~1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) annually. Proteinuria was absent in the vast majority of the cases. The renal pathology was a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, associated with a fibrous intimal hyperplasia and focal cortical atrophy. Our experimental data provide evidence that porphyrin precursors promote endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and epithelial phenotypic changes in proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP should be considered in cases of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or focal cortical atrophy with severe proliferative arteriosclerosis.

  18. [Chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome in comparison with other signs belonging to the image of polycystic ovary syndrome]. (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder which concern even 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disorders with chronic anovulation. The most common clinical symptoms observed in PCOS are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients with PCOS often suffer from metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis and other abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. 35 to 60% of women with PCOS are obese and about 50% of them have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis emphasizes the role of inflammatory processes. There are a number of markers of the inflammation process. They are also observed in PCOS and may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women. More than 46% of women with PCOS can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Because of the fact that patients with PCOS are at higher risk group of the earlier development of complications such as diabetes t 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular system diseases, it is important to carry out metabolic disorders diagnosis in every patient with PCOS. It will help to estimate the risk of complications and allow for the implementation of prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases belonging to the image of PCOS.

  19. Caracterización de la actividad sexual en adultos mayores del policlínico Gustavo Aldereguía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imilse Olivet López


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para caracterizar la sexualidad en adultos mayores pertenecientes al área de salud del policlínico “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. De un universo de 151 adultos mayores se escogió una muestra de 111, se excluyeron los que poseían arteriosclerosis y demencia senil o que por razones invalidantes no mantuvieran relaciones sexuales, tales como: ancianos en estado de deterioro físico y mental, voluntad del paciente, alcohólicos o adictos a drogas y los que rebasaban la edad seleccionada. Se utilizaron fuentes primarias para la recolección de la información, la cual fue procesada a través de la estadística descriptiva, utilizando el análisis porcentual. Se obtuvo predominio del sexo masculino en un 60,3%, el 63,9% manifestaron que mantenían relaciones sexuales de forma activa, el 78,3% refirieron conservar el deseo sexual y el 81,9% la atracción hacia su pareja. El 62,2% refirió sentirse satisfecho sexualmente y el 90,9% reconoció que la sexualidad es una temática importante para ellos

  20. 腹型肥胖的中医针灸治疗现状%Acupuncture for Abdominal Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠梅; 胡慧


    当肥胖超过一定限度并出现相关症状时就演变为肥胖症.肥胖症患者中,腹型肥胖患者发生动脉硬化、脑卒中、高血压、冠心病、糖尿病、高脂血症等各种并发症的危险性很高.本研究不仅对腹型肥胖的概念和治疗现状进行了回顾,还从中医角度对腹型肥胖的中医病因病机进行了阐述,并记述了针灸治疗这一祖国医学瑰宝在腹型肥胖治疗领域的现状和展望.%Obesity becomes a symptom when over a certain limit and accompanying correlated symptom. Among the obesity patients, abdominal obesity inclines to suffer arteriosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperiipidemia, and other complications. This text reviews the conception and status of abdominal obesity, and explains the cause and mechanism of abdominal obesity in Chinese medicine. Meanwhile , the actuality and prospect of acupuncture and a branch of Chinese therapy for abdominal obesity are recounted.

  1. [Dyslipidemias: a pending challenge in cardiovascular prevention. Consensus document from CEIPC/SEA Committee]. (United States)

    Royo Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Guijarro Herráiz, Carlos; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; Pedro-Botet Montoya, Juan; Santiago Nocito, Ana de


    In Spain, where cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death, hypercholesterolemia, one of the most prevalent risk factors in adults, is poorly controlled. Dyslipidemia should not be approached in isolation, but in the context of overall cardiovascular risk (CVR). Measurement of CVR facilitates decision making, but should not be the only tool nor should it take the place of clinical judgment, given the limitations of the available calculation methods. This document, prepared by the Interdisciplinary Spanish Committee on Cardiovascular Prevention, at the proposal of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, reviews the cardiovascular prevention activities of the regional health authorities, scientific societies and medical professionals. An initiation of a national strategy on cardiovascular prevention is proposed based on lifestyle modification (healthy diet, physical activity and smoking cessation) through actions in different settings. At the population level, regulation of food advertising, elimination of trans fats and reduction of added sugar are feasible and cost-effective interventions to help control dyslipidemias and reduce CVR. In the health setting, it is proposed to facilitate the application of guidelines, improve training for medical professionals, and include CVR assessment among the quality indicators. Scientific societies should collaborate with the health authorities and contribute to the generation and transmission of knowledge. Finally, it is in the hands of professionals to apply the concept of CVR, promote healthy lifestyles, and make efficient use of available pharmacological treatments.

  2. Monoclonal anti-elastin antibody labelled with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Silva, Claudia R. da; Araujo, Adriano C. de; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia; Porto, Luis Cristovao M.S.; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes; Souza, J.E.Q. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Frier, Malcolm [University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics


    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) is widely employed in nuclear medicine due to its desirable physical, chemical and biological properties. Moreover, it is easily available and normally is inexpensive. A reducing agent is necessary to label cells and molecules with {sup 99m} Tc and stannous chloride (Sn C L{sub 2}) is usually employed. Elastin is the functional protein component of the elastic fiber and it is related with some diseases such as arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema and others. The present study refers to the preparation of the {sup 99m} Tc labeled monoclonal anti-elastin antibody. The monoclonal antibody was incubated with an excess of 2-iminothiolane. The free thiol groups created, were capable of binding with the reduced technetium. Labeling was an exchange reaction with {sup 99m} Tc-glucoheptonate. The labeled preparation was left at 4 deg C for one hour. Then, it was passed through a Sephadex G50 column. Various fractions were collected and counted. A peak corresponding to the radiolabeled antibody was obtained. Stability studies of the labelled anti-elastin were performed at 0,3 6, 24 hours, at both 4 deg C or room temperature. The biodistribution pattern of the {sup 99m} Tc-anti-elastin was studied in healthy male Swiss mice. The immunoreactivity was also determined. An useful labeled-anti-elastin was obtained to future immunoscintigraphic investigations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. [Balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery for evaluating resectability of blood vessel infiltrating cervical metastasis of advanced head and neck cancers--Heidelberg experience]. (United States)

    Dietz, A; von Kummer, R; Adams, H P; Kneip, M; Galito, P; Maier, H


    During the last two years 17 patients of the ENT-Department of the University of Heidelberg suffering from squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck underwent a balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The investigation was performed because of tumorous infiltration of the large cervical vessels. The balloon occlusion of the ICA was accomplished at the Department of Neuroradiology of the University of Heidelberg. While stopping bloodflow in the ICA of one side for 15-20 min, clinical, electrophysiological and Doppler sonographic monitoring was performed, to detect severe cerebral complications. The specific electrophysiological monitoring contained the detection of MSSEP's (median nerve stimulated somatosensorial evoked potentials) and TCMEP's (transcortical motor evoked potentials) during test occlusion. Balloon occlusion was not possible in three patients because of severe arteriosclerosis. Test occlusion had to be discontinued in three patients because of clinical complications (temporary amaurosis, orthostatic complications). Finally, seven patients showed contraindications during test occlusion for permanent occlusion of the ICA. Four patients had a permanent occlusion of the ICA after tumour resection. In two patients the ICA was removed without problems in test occlusion. The third patient underwent a permanent carotid occlusion because of bleeding complications (in spite of poor clinical tolerance of the test occlusion). In the fourth patient, only intraoperative neuromonitoring with MSSEP's was conducted before permanent carotid occlusion. All four patients did not show any neurological deficits after resection of the ICA. Neurophysiological monitoring played an important role in predicting cerebral complications after permanent occlusion of the ICA.

  4. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit


    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  5. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology: the effect of fasudil. (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei


    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, plays central roles in the organization of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Due to the discovery of effective inhibitors, such as fasudil and Y27632, the biological roles of ROCK have been extensively explored with particular attention on the cardiovascular system. In many preclinical models of cardiovascular diseases, including vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, ROCK inhibitors have shown a remarkable efficacy in reducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular remodeling, and cardiac remodeling. Moreover, fasudil has been used in the clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. The continuing utilization of available pharmacological inhibitors and the development of more potent or isoform-selective inhibitors in ROCK signaling research and in treating human diseases are escalating. In this review, we discuss the recent molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies with a focus on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular physiology and diseases. We particularly note that emerging evidence suggests that selective targeting ROCK isoform based on the disease pathophysiology may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the disease treatment including cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kolar


    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  7. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kazuaki, E-mail: [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Hideyuki [Laboratory for New Product Development, Kirin Beverage Company Limited, 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8628 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshimasa [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shindo, Kazutoshi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Yajima, Hiroaki [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Aruto [Central Laboratories for Key Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)


    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  8. Bilateral stenosis of carotid siphon in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. (United States)

    Narazaki, Ryo; Makimura, Mika; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Fukamachi, Shigeru; Akiyoshi, Hidetaka; So, Hidenori; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Doisaki, Sayoko; Kojima, Seiji; Ihara, Kenji; Hara, Toshiro; Ohga, Shouichi


    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disease, caused by a de novo mutation of lamin-A gene, LMNA G608G. Accumulation of abnormal lamin-A (progerin) compromises nuclear membrane integrity and results in the accelerated senescence. Affected patients show a typical feature of birdlike face, alopecia, sclerotic skin, loss of subcutaneous fat, and short stature with advancing years. Neonatal scleroderma is the first presentation, although early diagnosis is challenging. The leading cause of death is cardio-/cerebro-vascular accidents associated with atherosclerosis. However, not all findings may recapitulate the aging process. We herein report a 9-year-old Japanese male with HGPS who developed cerebral infarction. The genetic study of peripheral blood-derived DNA determined a heterozygous c.1824C>T mutation, p.G608G. Telomere length of lymphocytes was normal. Bilateral stenosis of carotid siphons was prominent, while systemic arteriosclerosis was unremarkable assessed by the ankle-brachial index, carotid ultrasound imaging and funduscopic study. HGPS patients have marked loss and functional defects in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to the vulnerability to circulatory stress. Symmetrical stenosis of siphons might occur as a distinctive cerebral vasculopathy of HGPS, rather than simple vascular senescence. Peripheral blood study on LMNA G608G and telomere length could screen progerias in infancy for early therapeutic intervention.

  9. [Risk factors and comorbidities for NSAID associated ulcer]. (United States)

    Kusunoki, Masafumi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Sakamoto, Choitsu


    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. To reduce the morbidity associated with NSAID, it will be necessary to establish specific estimates individual drugs and different risk profile. Advanced age has been identified as one of the primary risk factors for adverse GI events in NSAID users. This may be due to the increased use of these drugs by the elderly population or to pathophysiological mechanisms such as age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics or reductions in gastroduodenal defensive mechanisms. Many studies have also identified the following risk factor: sexuality; history of previous GI problems; higher NSAID doses; concomitant anticoagulant use. Corticosteroids, bisphosphonates and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The combined use of these drug and NSAID strongly increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Adverse GI events in NSAID users can be affected by the following comorbidities: rheumatoid arthritis; liver cirrhosis; renal failure; diabetes; arteriosclerosis.

  10. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)]. (United States)

    Omata, Momoyo; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Kakuta, Takatoshi


    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), is sequential pathophysiology that starts in the very early stages of CKD. Three major aspects of CKD-MBD are laboratory abnormalities, bone abnormalities and vascular calcification. In dialysis patients, the prevalence of death due to cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 40% of all-cause mortality. Therefore, arteriosclerosis with vascular calcification may be an important pathophysiological mechanism in the development of cardiovascular disease. Vascular calcification is known to be an important risk factor influencing mortality in CKD patients. A number of studies have suggested a close association between serum FGF23 concentration and the risks of mortality, cardiovascular disease vascular calcification as well as CKD progression. Renal insufficiency leads to decline in klotho level and impaired phosphate excretion. However serum phosphate levels are maintained in the normal range by up regulation of FGF23 and PTH in early CKD stage. Early treatment intervention is necessary to improve the prognosis of the CKD patient.

  11. Ligustrazine attenuates the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells by interrupting extracellular signal-regulated kinase and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. (United States)

    Yu, Lifei; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Kai; Gui, Chun; Huang, Qiaojuan; Wei, Bin


    The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) leads to intimal thickening of the aorta and is, therefore, important in the development of arteriosclerosis. As a result, the use of antiproliferative and antimigratory agents for VSMCs offers promise for the treatment of vascular disorders. Although several studies have demonstrated that ligustrazine may be used to treat heart and blood vessel diseases, the detailed mechanism underlying its actions remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of ligustrazine on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The findings demonstrated that ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation. VSMCs dedifferentiated into a proliferative phenotype under PDGF-BB stimulation, which was effectively reversed by the administration of ligustrazine. In addition, ligustrazine also downregulated the production of nitric oxide and cyclic guanine monophosphate, induced by PDGF-BB. Additionally, ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC migration. Mechanistic investigation indicated that the upregulation of cell cycle-associated proteins and the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by PDGF-BB was suppressed by the administration of ligustrazine. In conclusion, the present study, demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that ligustrazine downregulated PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration partly, at least, through inhibiting the activation of the ERK and P38 MAPK signaling.

  12. Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA. (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Viner, Tabitha; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan


    Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. Vitamin K: novel molecular mechanisms of action and its roles in osteoporosis. (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi


    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is involved in blood coagulation mediated by maintaining the activity of coagulation factors in the liver. Vitamin K also has extrahepatic actions and has been shown to prevent bone fractures in clinical studies. In addition, epidemiological studies suggest that a lack of vitamin K is associated with several geriatric diseases, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, dementia and arteriosclerosis. It has also been shown that vitamin K contributes to the prevention and treatment of some kinds of malignancies. Recently, we discovered a novel role for vitamin K as a ligand of the nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). In addition to its established roles as a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) in mediating post-transcriptional modifications, vitamin K has a different mode of action mediated by transcriptional regulation of SXR/PXR target genes. Analysis of bone tissue from PXR-deficient mice showed that the bone protective effects of vitamin K are partially mediated by SXR/PXR-dependent signaling. The discoveries of a novel mode of vitamin K action have opened up new possibilities that vitamin K might be useful for prevention or treatment of a variety of diseases that affect the geriatric population.

  14. Increased activity of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing enzymes during proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, J.; Thiel, J.; Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E.


    Cultured arterial smooth muscle cells incorporate (/sup 35/S)sulfate into the extracellular chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate containing proteoglycans at a higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than do non-dividing cells. The cell growth-dependent decrease in /sup 35/S incorporation with increasing cell density is accompanied by a decrease in the activity of chondroitin sulfate-synthesizing enzymes. The specific activity of xylosyl transferase, N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase I and chondroitin sulfotransferase declines as the cells proceed from low to high densities. The corresponding correlation coefficients are 0.86, 0.91 and 0.89. The ratio of C-60H/C-40H sulfation of chondroitin shows a cell proliferation-dependent decrease indicating an inverse correlation of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase activity. The observed changes in the expression of enzyme activities are thought to have some implications in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, the initial stages of which are characterized by proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells.

  15. A new screening pathway for identifying asymptomatic patients using dental panoramic radiographs (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi


    To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.

  16. Host-derived smooth muscle cells accumulate in cardiac allografts: role of inflammation and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Religa

    Full Text Available Transplant arteriosclerosis is characterized by inflammation and intimal thickening caused by accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs both from donor and recipient. We assessed the relationship between clinical factors and the presence of host-derived SMCs in 124 myocardial biopsies from 26 consecutive patients who received hearts from opposite-sex donors. Clinical and demographic information was obtained from the patients' medical records. Host-derived SMCs accounted for 3.35+/-2.3% of cells in arterioles (range, 0.08-12.51%. As shown by linear regression analysis, an increased number of SMCs was associated with rejection grade (mean, 1.41+/-1.03, p = 0.034 and the number of leukocytes (19.1+/-12.7 per 20 high-power fields, p = 0.01. The accumulation of host-derived SMCs was associated with an increased number of leukocytes in the allografts. In vitro, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 released from leukocytes was crucial for SMC migration. After heart allotransplantation, mice treated with MCP-1-specific antibodies had significantly fewer host-derived SMCs in the grafts than mice treated with isotypic antibody controls. We conclude that the number of host-derived SMCs in human cardiac allografts is associated with the rejection grade and that MCP-1 may play pivotal role in recruiting host-derived SMCs into cardiac allografts.

  17. Host-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells Accumulate in Cardiac Allografts: Role of Inflammation and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (United States)

    Bojakowski, Krzysztof; Soin, Joanna; Nozynski, Jerzy; Zakliczynski, Michal; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Zembala, Marian; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia


    Transplant arteriosclerosis is characterized by inflammation and intimal thickening caused by accumulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) both from donor and recipient. We assessed the relationship between clinical factors and the presence of host-derived SMCs in 124 myocardial biopsies from 26 consecutive patients who received hearts from opposite-sex donors. Clinical and demographic information was obtained from the patients' medical records. Host-derived SMCs accounted for 3.35±2.3% of cells in arterioles (range, 0.08–12.51%). As shown by linear regression analysis, an increased number of SMCs was associated with rejection grade (mean, 1.41±1.03, p = 0.034) and the number of leukocytes (19.1±12.7 per 20 high-power fields, p = 0.01). The accumulation of host-derived SMCs was associated with an increased number of leukocytes in the allografts. In vitro, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) released from leukocytes was crucial for SMC migration. After heart allotransplantion, mice treated with MCP-1-specific antibodies had significantly fewer host-derived SMCs in the grafts than mice treated with isotypic antibody controls. We conclude that the number of host-derived SMCs in human cardiac allografts is associated with the rejection grade and that MCP-1 may play pivotal role in recruiting host-derived SMCs into cardiac allografts. PMID:19142231

  18. The impact of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies on late kidney allograft failure. (United States)

    Loupy, Alexandre; Hill, Gary S; Jordan, Stanley C


    Despite improvements in outcomes of renal transplantation, kidney allograft loss remains substantial, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Identifying the pathologic pathways responsible for allograft loss, and the attendant development of therapeutic interventions, will be one of the guiding future objectives of transplant medicine. One of the most important advances of the past decade has been the demonstration of the destructive power of anti-HLA alloantibodies and their association with antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Compelling evidence exists to show that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) are largely responsible for the chronic deterioration of allografts, a condition previously attributed to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. The emergence of sensitive techniques to detect DSAs, together with advances in the assessment of graft pathology, have expanded the spectrum of what constitutes ABMR. Today, subtler forms of rejection--such as indolent ABMR, C4d-negative ABMR, and transplant arteriopathy--are seen in which DSAs exert a marked pathological effect. In addition, arteriosclerosis, previously thought to be a bystander lesion related to the vicissitudes of aging, is accelerated in ABMR. Advances in our understanding of the pathological significance of DSAs and ABMR show their primacy in the mediation of chronic allograft destruction. Therapies aimed at B cells, plasma cells and antibodies will be important therapeutic options to improve the length and quality of kidney allograft survival.

  19. Platelet scintigraphy in atherothrombotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))


    Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the measurement of in vivo thrombogenicity is a useful noninvasive technique with a number of applications. From 1982 to 1989, we explored clinical relevance of this method for 576 consecutive patients with atherothrombotic disease. There was a disease-related difference in the percentage of positive platelet accumulation; 85% in patients with Dacron bifurcation graft, 75% in abdominal or thoracic aneurysm, 40% in intra-cardiac thrombi, 33% in arteriosclerosis obliterans and 25% in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Labelled platelets accumulated frequently in the lesion with severe arteriographic abnormality. Aspirin clearly inhibited platelet accumulation on carotid atheroma but the effect of ticlopidine has been less conclusive. Short-term orally active PGI[sub 2] analogue had inhibitory effects on platelet accumulation in carotid atheroma and platelet aggregability, but did not cause significant reduction in plaque size. The results suggest the usefulness of platelet scintigraphy for monitoring the thrombogenicity in various atherothrombotic diseases. It will be necessary, however, to simplify the labelling procedures and to develop a new [sup 99m]Tc-labelled thrombus imaging agent, if thrombus imaging is to be considered for more generall use for patients with atherosclerosis. (author).

  20. Ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2, and heat shock protein 27: potential targets of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response in psoriasis. (United States)

    Besgen, Petra; Trommler, Paul; Vollmer, Sigrid; Prinz, Joerg Christoph


    Psoriasis is an HLA-Cw6-associated T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the skin that is often triggered by streptococcal angina. To identify keratinocyte proteins, which may become psoriatic autoantigens as the result of an immune response against streptococci, rabbits were immunized with heat-killed Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal immunization induced Ab formation against various human keratinocyte proteins. Sera from psoriasis patients reacted against several of these proteins as well. Common serologic reactivities of rabbits and patients included the proteins ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), heat shock protein (hsp)27, and keratin 6. When used for stimulation of blood lymphocytes, ezrin, maspin, PRDX2, and hsp27 induced increased T cell activation in psoriasis patients, which was particularly evident for HLA-Cw6(+) individuals. Ag-specific T cell lines generated with these proteins consisted predominantly of CD8(+) T cells and used TCR beta-chain rearrangements, which were highly homologous to those expanded within the corresponding skin lesion. Several immunodominant epitopes on the different proteins could be defined according to sequence alignments with the whole genome of S. pyogenes. Our data indicate that maspin, ezrin, PRDX2, hsp27, and potentially keratin 6 could act as autoantigens of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response and represent targets of the exaggerated T cell response in psoriasis. Additionally, ezrin and hsp27 might constitute antigenic links between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, or arteriosclerosis, which are clinically associated.

  1. L-carnitine supplementation and adipokines in patients with end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis. (United States)

    Csiky, B; Nyul, Z; Tóth, G; Wittmann, I; Melegh, B; Rauh, M; Rascher, W; Sulyok, E


    Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients frequently encounter carnitine depletion, elevated adipose tissue-derived hormones/cytokines, that may contribute to accelerated arteriosclerosis. 10 non-diabetic HD patients were studied over 28 weeks. In the 12 weeks treatment period 1 g L-carnitine was given iv after each HD session. Measurements of plasma free- and acylcarnitines, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin and ghrelin were performed at baseline, at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 (treatment period) and at weeks 24-28 (post-treatment period). L-carnitine supplementation resulted in progressive increase of free- and acylcarnitine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, resistin, leptin and ghrelin remained at the already elevated baseline values. L-carnitine therapy induced a significant increase in plasma adiponectin from 20.2 ± 12.7 μg/ml (baseline) to 32.7 ± 20.2 μg/ml in week 2 (pcarnitine period. Plasma insulin levels correlated positively with leptin (r = 0.525, pcarnitine status. Plasma levels of adipokines and related hormones are greatly elevated in patients on regular HD. L-carnitine administration further augmented the plasma levels of protective adiponectin, therefore it may have a role in preventing cardiovascular complications of uremia.

  2. [Hypertension and dementia]. (United States)

    Hanon, O


    Prevention and treatment of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. Several epidemiological studies have indicated a significant association between the presence of hypertension and the onset of dementia (vascular or Alzheimer's type) several years later. Cognitive disorder may be related to focal cerebral lesions of vascular origin (infarctus, lacunae) and/or chronic ischemia of the white matter (white matter lesions) related to arteriosclerosis and/or lipohyalinosis of small perforating arteries high blood pressure in mid-life to later cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, disorders of cerebral microcirculation and endothelial dysfunction may be associated to blood brain barrier dysfunction and amyloid plaques formation leading to Alzheimer's process. Few randomized clinical trials have included a cognitive assessment and dementia as outcome in their design. They all raise some major criticisms: cognitive assessment was never the main outcome, too short follow-up to study dementia; incomplete assessment of cognition, lost of follow-up and a small proportion of subjects at risk for dementia at inclusion. However, the results of therapeutic trials (SYST-EUR, PROGRESS) open the way to the prevention of dementia (vascular or Alzheimer's type) or cognitive decline by antihypertensive treatments. A meta-analysis including randomized controlled studies, suggests a significant decrease in the risk of dementia with antihypertensive treatment compared to placebo.

  3. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency. (United States)

    Pérez-Sieira, S; López, M; Nogueiras, R; Tovar, S


    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status.

  4. 动脉硬化闭塞症下肢缺血26例临床分析%Arterilsclerotic Obliterance in Lower Extremities in Twenty-six Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊吉信; 袁庆文; 唐新华; 金梅


    目的:探讨动脉硬化闭塞症(Arteriosclerosis obliterance,ASO)下肢缺血的诊治经验.方法:回顾1996年11月~2001年12月26例ASO病人的诊断和治疗方法,并进行分析.动脉重建术12例次,截肢4例次,药物保守治疗10例.结果:26例病人中死亡2例(7.7%),截肢4例(15.4%),术后随访平均2.6年(3个月~5年).转流术后人造血管发生栓塞3例(25%),通畅率9例(75%),肢体供血明显改善,提高了患者生存质量.结论:早期诊断和早期治疗是提高ASO救肢的关键,动脉重建术仍然是较好的治疗方法.

  5. ¿Es la enfermedad periodontal un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares? (I: Etiopatogenia y ensayos clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro Lara


    Full Text Available El objetivo de los dos siguientes artículos es analizar los estudios existentes en la literatura sobre la asociación entre la enfermedad periodontal (EP y las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV con el fin de responder, desde la evidencia, a la pregunta de si la EP puede considerarse un factor que aumente la probabilidad de aparición de arteriosclerosis. La conclusión a la que se llega es que la EP podría ser un factor de riesgo para la ECV pero que aún se necesita más estudios experimentales para llegar a una evidencia causal.The purpose of the next two papers is to analyze the differents studies in the literature about the association between periodontal disease (PD and cardiovascular disease (CVD with the objetive of answer, from the evidence, the question of if the PD can be a factor which increase the probability of apparition of atherosclerosis. The conclusion of this paper is that the PD may be a risk factor for CVD but yet is necessary more studies to conclude a causal evidence.

  6. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men. (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri


    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  7. 微生物来源的洛伐他汀的研究进展%Research progress on the microbial lovastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 台喜生; 冯佳丽; 李师翁


    洛伐他汀esses作为一种有效的降胆固醇药物,对人体的健康有着非常重要的意义,可以用于治疗高血脂、动脉粥样硬化、高血压、冠心病等"富贵病"。对洛伐他汀的菌种选育、培养基优化、工艺条件优化、提取、测定以及作用等方面研究进展进行了综述。%As an effective cholesterol-lowering drug,lovastatin has very important significance on human health,it can be used to treat high blood lipids,atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis,hypertension,coronary heart disease and other "rich man's disease".The research progress on strain selection,optimization of medium and process conditions,extraction,measurement and function of lovastatin were reviewed.

  8. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease using 3-T MRI and MRA: value of cisternal moyamoya vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Seiko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Yukio [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Fukui University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to propose new magnetic resonance (MR) criteria of diagnosing moyamoya disease (MMD) from cisternal moyamoya vessels (MMVs) on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the existing MR criteria and the proposed MR criteria. Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients with MMD (4 males, 16 females) diagnosed clinically using conventional angiography and 20 controls (13 male and 7 female arteriosclerosis patients). In these participants, 3-T MRI/MRA was evaluated by the existing MR criteria, which use MMVs in the basal ganglia, and the proposed MR criteria, which use cisternal MMVs, and then these two criteria were statistically compared by McNemar's test. Diagnostic accuracy was 62.5% with the existing MR criteria and 97.5% with the proposed MR criteria. The proposed MR criteria was more sensitive (1.00) than the existing MR criteria (0.45), but less specific (0.95) than the existing MR criteria (1.00). The proposed MR criteria using cisternal MMVs showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than the existing MR criteria. We believe that our proposed MR criteria will be beneficial for diagnosing MMD. (orig.)

  9. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

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    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  10. An Update on the Use of Animal Models in Diabetic Nephropathy Research. (United States)

    Betz, Boris; Conway, Bryan R


    In the current review, we discuss limitations and recent advances in animal models of diabetic nephropathy (DN). As in human disease, genetic factors may determine disease severity with the murine FVB and DBA/2J strains being more susceptible to DN than C57BL/6J mice. On the black and tan, brachyuric (BTBR) background, leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice develop many of the pathological features of human DN. Hypertension synergises with hyperglycemia to promote nephropathy in rodents. Moderately hypertensive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS(-/-)) deficient diabetic mice develop hyaline arteriosclerosis and nodular glomerulosclerosis and induction of renin-dependent hypertension in diabetic Cyp1a1mRen2 rats mimics moderately severe human DN. In addition, diabetic eNOS(-/-) mice and Cyp1a1mRen2 rats recapitulate many of the molecular pathways activated in the human diabetic kidney. However, no model exhibits all the features of human DN; therefore, researchers should consider biochemical, pathological, and transcriptomic data in selecting the most appropriate model to study their molecules and pathways of interest.

  11. Femorofemoral grafts for lower limb ischemia caused by intra-aortic balloon pump. (United States)

    Friedell, M L; Alpert, J; Parsonnet, V; Brief, D K; Brener, B J; Goldenkranz, R J; Nozick, J


    From January 1975 to December 1985, 1454 patients had an intra-aortic balloon inserted for cardiac assistance. Eighty balloon-dependent patients had severe limb ischemia and required a femorofemoral graft (FFG) (5% of the total group of patients). Twenty-nine of the 80 patients with grafts (or 36%) left the hospital and 28 were followed up for an average of 40 months to determine late complications associated with the crossover grafts. All grafts remained patent. The 28 patients were classified into five groups according to the degree and type of lower limb ischemia. Group I consisted of 13 asymptomatic patients (46%); group II had four (14%) patients with mild claudication caused by preexisting peripheral arteriosclerosis; group III comprised four patients (14%) without preexisting disease but claudication subsequent to the FFG; group IV had five patients with irreversible ischemic sequelae before grafting ending in amputation, foot drop, or persistent paresthesia; and group V consisted of two patients with graft infection (7%). The perioperative mortality rate of the balloon-dependent patients with an FFG (64%) reflects the gravity of the cardiac condition. Placement of an FFG to relieve limb ischemia in these patients is followed by few immediate or late complications in the survivors and any persistent limb changes were related to the prolonged ischemia present before revascularization. Our data suggest that in balloon-dependent patients with limb-threatening ischemia, aggressive use of the FFG is limb-saving, durable, and allows continuation of balloon support.

  12. Cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s disease

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    Roher AE


    Full Text Available Alex E Roher,1 Josef P Debbins,2 Michael Malek-Ahmadi,3 Kewei Chen,4 James G Pipe,2 Sharmeen Maze,2 Christine Belden,3 Chera L Maarouf,1 Pradeep Thiyyagura,4 Hua Mo,4 Jesse M Hunter,1 Tyler A Kokjohn,1,5 Douglas G Walker,6 Jane C Kruchowsky,6 Marek Belohlavek,7 Marwan N Sabbagh,3 Thomas G Beach81The Longtine Center for Neurodegenerative Biochemistry, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 2Keller Center for Imaging Innovation, Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, 3Cleo Roberts Center for Clinical Research, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 4Computational Image Analysis Program, Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, Phoenix, 5Department of Microbiology, Midwestern University, Glendale, 6Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 7Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, 8Civin Laboratory for Neuropathology, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ, USABackground: Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia is a consequence of heterogeneous and complex interactions of age-related neurodegeneration and vascular-associated pathologies. Evidence has accumulated that there is increased atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis of the intracranial arteries in AD and that this may be additive or synergistic with respect to the generation of hypoxia/ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. The effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies and lifestyle modification in reducing cardiovascular disease has prompted a reconsideration of the roles that cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular function play in the pathogenesis of dementia.Methods: Using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified cerebral blood flow within the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries in a group of individuals with mild to moderate AD (n = 8 and compared the results with those from a group of age-matched nondemented control (NDC subjects (n = 9

  13. Detección de Clamydia pneumoniae en placas ateroscleróticas de pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de revascularización

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    Willmar D. Patiño


    Full Text Available

    Introducción: El reconocimiento de factores de riesgo cardiovascular ha impactado el manejo médico de la arteriosclerosis. Sin embargo, éstos sólo explican entre el 50% al 70% de la distribución mundial. Por lo que investigaciones en búsqueda de nuevos factores de riesgo han dado importancia a los agentes infecciosos en la etiología de la arteriosclerosis y en especial al papel que tiene la Clamydia pneumoniae.

    Objetivos: 1. Detectar la presencia de Clamydia pneumoniae en personas sometidas a procesos de revascularización percutánea o quirúrgico mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. 2. Determinar los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares asociados a la presencia de C. pneumoniae.

    Metodología: Se seleccionarán todos los pacientes que sean sometidos a revascularización percutánea o quirúrgica en las unidades de hemodinamia y cirugía de la Universidad de Antioquia o de la Clínica Medellín, durante doce meses, a partir de agosto de 1999. Las muestras se almacenarán a –800 C hasta su procesamiento.

    Resultados parciales: Hasta el momento se han procesado 27 muestras de las cuales 11 (40.7% son positivas para C. pneumoniae, del total de muestras 13 corresponden a placas de ateroma coronario y de ellas 6 (46% son positivas. Tres muestras de placas carot

  14. Lipid disorders in patients of 15 to 64 years old in a policlinic of Rodas municipality. Trastornos lipídicos en pacientes de 15 a 64 años en un consultorio médico del municipio de Rodas.

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    Iván González Solis


    Full Text Available Background: Since long time ago clinic medicine established the inexorable progress or development of the human arteriosclerosis, a disease expressed through complications as coronary and cerebrovascular ischemia and obliterant arteriosclerosis of inferior limbs, among others. Objectives: To determine lipid disorders in patients of 15 to 64 years of age of a policlinic in an urban health area. Methods: A transversal cut and descriptive study that included 263 patients to whom the cold test and the cholesterol and triglyceride exams were applied. Results and Conclusions: The risk factors that were more associated with the type of hyperlipoproteinemia were alcoholic consumption, poor nutrition, sedentary habit and overweight. The 26.9% presented hyperlipoproteinemia diagnoses, the 63, 4% of them are masculine and the 50, 7% belonged to the age group of 45 to 54 years old, the one who predominated. The hyperlipoproteinemia type found with more percentage was that of IIb, followed by IIa type and IV type. The non transmissible diseases more associated were arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and angina.
    Fundamento: Dentro de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, las de índole vascular encabezan a escala mundial lo registros de morbi-mortalidad de la población adulta. Los trastornos lipídicos aumentan estas afecciones. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de trastornos lipídicos en pacientes de 15 a 64 años, del consultorio 3 del área de salud urbana del municipio de Rodas, Cienfuegos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y de corte transversal, realizado en un universo constituido por 438 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 64 años, del que se obtuvo una muestra representativa de 263 pacientes, mediante la aplicación del método estratificado por sexo y edad, tomándose como grupo de

  15. 针灸对颈动脉粥样硬化患者颈动脉血管和血流的影响%Impacts on carotid arterial vessel and blood flow in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis with acupuncture and moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文来; 王伟志


    Objective To assess the impacts of acupuncture and moxibustion on carotid arterial vascular structure and blood flow parameters for the patients with carotid arteriosclerosis. Methods Sixty-eight cases were randomized into an acupuncture-moxibustion group (35 cases) and a medication group (33 cases). In the acupuncture-moxibustion group. Renying (ST 9), Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. Were selected, moxibustion was applied at Zusanli (ST 36). In the medication group, Enteric-coated aspirin was taken orally. The high-frequency ul-trasonography was applied to detect common carotid artery (CCA), intima-media thickness (IMT), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) before and after treatment for the comparative analysis. Results After treatment, in comparison between acupuncture-moxibustion group and medication group, CCA got bigger [(8. 16 + 0. 80) mm vs (7. 69±O. 61) mm, P<0. 01], IMT became thinner [(1.05±0.09) mm vs (1. 10±0. 09) mm, P<0. 05], PSV and EDV were accelerated (all P<0. 01), and PI and RI were down-regulated (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion Acupuncture and moxibustion provides a good efficacy on the improvement in carotid arteriosclerosis and blood flow in carotid artery, which contributes to the alleviation of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and prevention from the occurrence and development of them.%目的:评估针灸对颈动脉粥样硬化患者颈动脉血管结构及血流参数的影响.方法:68例患者随机分为针灸组(35例)和药物组(33例),针灸组穴取人迎、内关、足三里等,足三里针上加灸;药物组口服阿司匹林肠溶片.于治疗前后应用高频超声检测两组患者颈动脉内径(CCA)、内膜中层厚度(IMT)及收缩期峰值血流速度(PSV)、舒张末期血流速度(EDV)、搏动指数(PI)、阻力指数(RI),并进行对比分析.结果:治疗后针灸组与药物组相比,CCA增加[(8.16±0.80)mmvs(7.69±0.61)mm,P<0

  16. 腹腔镜胆囊切除中转开腹的危险因素分析%Risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the risk factors of laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to open management. Methods Collecting the patients undergoing cholecystectomy in our center,according to conversion to open management or not, we divided the patients in laparoscopic cholecystectomy( LC )group and laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy( LOC ) group. The single factor analysis would be performed with age, gender, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis, previous upper abdominal surgery, body mass index( BMI), gallbladder wall thickness, count of white blood cells, drinking, gallbladder enlargement and impacted stones and serum total bilirubin, then we enrolled those with statistical difference in the binary logistic regression model, and evaluated which was the independent risk factor. Results A total of 260 patients were enrolled. There were statistical differences in age, gender, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, previous upper abdominal surgery, BMI, gallbladder wall thickness, count of white blood cells and serum total bilirubin. After the logistic regression, we found that gender, BMI,gallbladder wall thickness and count of white blood cells could be treated as the independent risk factor. The operation time of LOC was higher than LC[ ( 83.48 ±7.25 )min vs( 42.77 ± 10.37 )min,t = 19. 54,P <0.01 ]. Conclusion LC is a safe and effective management for gallbladder disease but it is technically demanding. Patients with elder age,gender as man,obesity, gallbladder wall thickening and high WBC count prefer to have open cholecystectomy directly.%目的 分析影响腹腔镜胆囊切除中转开腹的相关因素,以进一步指导临床.方法 选取该院近5年行胆囊切除的患者,对其相关指标进行单因素及Logistic回归分析,从而找出相关危险因素或独立危险因素.结果 共260例患者纳入本次研究,经单因素分析显示中转组和非中转组年龄、性别、糖尿病、动脉硬化、上腹部手术史、BMI、胆囊壁厚

  17. [Risk factors for suicide attempts in elderly and old elderly patients]. (United States)

    Polewka, Andrzej; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Groszek, Barbara; Zieba, Andrzej


    The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of suicide attempt in the elderly inhabitants of Kraków. Special attention has been paid to the group of "seniors"--aged 75 years or over. The authors have analyzed all the 136 cases of suicide attempts by individuals aged over 60 years, selected from the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxications by patients hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2002. The group concerned included 45 males and 91 females. A large number of subjects (over a half of the total) ranged in age from 60 to 65 years. The group of seniors comprised 35 individuals (aged 75 years or over), including 7 males and 28 females. On the basis of the data from medical documentation, the subjects were analysed from the point of view of their health condition and in the psycho-social context. In the majority of cases the subjects are pensioners residing in Kraków, often living alone. In the case of 98% of the subjects, it was their first suicide attempt. Pharmaceuticals used for self-poisoning were most frequently psychotropic, or mixed-type drugs. The assessment of the severity of poisoning indicates that in about 20% patients poisoning was severe. 70% of the subjects suffered from depressive, reactive, or situational disorders, affective depression or organic brain disorders, often with dementive signs. A significant number of subjects suffered from hypertension, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, or alimentary tract diseases. In the group of the seniors, the most conspicuous problems included serious somatic diseases (malignant diseases and chronic respiratory system diseases), depression, organic dementia, loneliness, and bad family situation. Taking into consideration the scantiness of research into attempted and completed suicide in the elderly and in the old elderly, the present authors stress the importance of the continuation of the research to prevent suicide in the aforesaid

  18. 甲状腺疾病与脑血管病%Thyroid Diseases and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚鸣; 刘春风


    There are significant correlations between cerebral embolism and thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation in patients with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation increases significantly in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism with serum thyroid-stimula-ting hormone levels < 0. 1 mU/L. Hyperthyroidism may result in cerebral venous thrombosis,moyamoya disease and giant cell arteritis; while hypothyroidism is closely associated with the risk factors of arteriosclerosis, especially hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperhomocysteine-mia. However, this association remains uncertain in subclinical hyperthyroidism.%在甲状腺功能亢进患者中,脑栓塞与甲状腺毒性心房颤动存在显著的相关性;在血清促甲状腺激素水平<0.1 mU/L的亚临床甲状腺功能亢进患者中,毒性心房颤动的发生率亦显著增高.甲状腺功能亢进可能导致脑静脉血栓形成、烟雾病和巨细胞动脉炎;而甲状腺功能减退则与动脉粥样硬化的危险因素,尤其是高血压、高脂血症和高同型半胱氨酸血症有密切关系.但在亚临床甲状腺功能亢进患者中,这种联系尚不明确.

  19. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

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    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  20. Linkage disequilibrium blocks, haplotype structure, and htSNPs of human CYP7A1 gene

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    Wan Yu-Jui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 is the rate limiting enzyme for converting cholesterol into bile acids. Genetic variations in the CYP7A1 gene have been associated with metabolic disorders of cholesterol and bile acids, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, arteriosclerosis, and gallstone disease. Current genetic studies are focused mainly on analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at A-278C in the promoter region of the CYP7A1 gene. Here we report a genetic approach for an extensive analysis on linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks and haplotype structures of the entire CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences in Africans, Caucasians, Asians, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans. Result The LD patterns and haplotype blocks of CYP7A1 gene were defined in Africans, Caucasians, and Asians using genotyping data downloaded from the HapMap database to select a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP. A low cost, microarray-based platform on thin-film biosensor chips was then developed for high-throughput genotyping to study transferability of the HapMap htSNPs to Mexican-American and African-American populations. Comparative LD patterns and haplotype block structure was defined across all test populations. Conclusion A constant genetic structure in CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences was found that may lead to a better design for association studies of genetic variations in CYP7A1 gene with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism.

  1. Should we prescribe blood pressure lowering drugs to every patient with advanced chronic kidney disease? A comment on two recent meta-analyses. (United States)

    Gross, Peter; Schirutschke, Holger; Barnett, Kerstin


    Antihypertensive treatment is an essential, life-prolonging measure in primary hypertension. It prevents apoplexy, myocardial infarction, and hypertensive kidney failure. Chronic kidney failure is associated with hypertension and an accelerated form of arteriosclerosis. Demise from cardiovascular affliction is a leading cause of death in renal patients (chronic renal failure stages II-IV, renal failure requiring dialysis, renal transplantation). What, then, is the role of antihypertensive treatment in such patients, and, specifically, what is achieved by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system modifying agents? Two meta-analyses have recently investigated these issues. An article in The Lancet evaluated eight studies on dialysis patients (n = 1679). It concluded that antihypertensives are beneficial in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, we criticize these conclusions and show that the data are not convincingly in favor of antihypertensive treatment. A meta-analysis in the American Heart Journal assessed the role of antihypertensive agents and RAA system modifying drugs in 45,758 patients (from 25 studies), who were in stages I-III of renal failure, i.e., not (yet) requiring dialysis. The authors claim that angiotensin- -converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) significantly reduced cardiovascular outcomes. However, our analysis of the data is not consistent with their conclusions. It showed that the results were quite mixed, that the authors may have overemphasized the positive results, and that considering all the results, it should be concluded that antihypertensive treatments, including those with ACEI/ARB, may not be superior to placebo (sic!) in renal patients. Rather than doing meta-analyses, larger primary studies are needed to reveal the real role of antihypertensive treatments in renal patients.

  2. Experimental Study of Yishou Tiaozhi Tablet(

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Yi


    [1]XU SY. Screening method on lowering lipid drug and inhibiting arteriosclerosis drug. Pharmacological Experimental Methodology. Beijing: The People's Health Publishing House, 1985∶781-783.[2]LI YL. Assay of alkali hydrolytic decomposition method on serum HYP determination. Clinical Journal of Decimology 1988;6(2)∶69-71.[3]LI ZJ, HAN CS, WANG JX. Practical Radioimmunology. Beijing: The Scientific Technological Archive Publishing House, 1989∶198-221.[4]GAO YC. Effect of Yixing decoction on rats' serum lipid level in hyperlipidemia and its mechanism. Academic Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1990;(5)∶53-56.[5]Manninen V, Tenkanen L. Lipid alteration and decline in the incidence of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. JAMA 1988;260∶641-651.[6]HUANG JG, translated. The atherosclerous lipid marker. Fascicle of Cardiovascular Disease in Journal of Foreign Medicine 1987;14(1)∶4-9.[7]YANG RX. Lp(a) and atherosclerosis. Journal of Progression on Cardiovascular Disease 1994;15(4)∶221-223.[8]Colin J, Schwartz MD. A modern view of atherogenesis. Am J Cardio 1993;71∶9B-14B.[9]LIN XQ. Exploration on relationship between HYP and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia. Journal of Chinese Circulation 1993;8(3)∶160-163.[10].CHEN SH. Hyperlipidemia and platelet high response. Fascicle of Cardiovascular Disease in Journal of Foreign Medicine 1989;16(5)∶257-262.

  3. Associations between white matter hyperintensities and β amyloid on integrity of projection, association, and limbic fiber tracts measured with diffusion tensor MRI.

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    Linda L Chao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between Aβ deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0-0.5 and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET with Pittsburg compound B (PiB and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between Aβ deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix. WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi fiber tracts. Aβ deposition (i.e., PiB positivity was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where Aβ deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ε4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology, and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies

  4. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

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    Malyango Avelin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  5. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

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    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy


    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  6. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

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    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  7. Analysis of disease spectrum of corporate executives after physical examination

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    Li Qing


    Full Text Available Introduction: To find out the disease spectrum of corporate executives and screen the common chronic diseases.Methods: The physical examination data of corporate executives were collected to carry out cross-sectional study.Results: Among 231 subjects, there were one hundred and ninety four males, which made up 85.3%, and thirty seven females, which made up 14.7%. The detection rate of chronic diseases in corporate executive was high. Specifically, the incidence rate of blood viscosity rise was 87.8%; the incidence rate of blood lipid rise was 79.5%; the incidence rate of obesity and overweight was 76.7%; the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori was 55.7%; the prevalence rate of fatty liver was 52.1%; the prevalence rate of kidney stones was 43.5%; the incidence of abnormal pancreatic echo was 52.3%; the incidence rate of abnormal TCD was 66.2%; the detection rate of coarse gallbladder wall was 35.5%. The prevalence rate of bone mineral density reduction was 39.6%; the detection rate of reduction of diastolic function of left ventricle was 37.5%; the incidence rate of raised serum uric acid was 28.6%; the incidence rate of blood glucose going up was 22%; the incidence rate of liver cyst was 19.5%. The prevalence rate of blood LDL rise was 23.9%; the prevalence rate of abnormal thyroid was 21.3%; the incidence rate of arteriosclerosis was 17.5%; the prevalence rate of hypertension was 17.4%.Conclusion: The corporate executives are high risk group of common metabolic diseases and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, screening should be strengthened for them.

  8. Switch-like genes populate cell communication pathways and are enriched for extracellular proteins

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    Tozeren Aydin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have placed gene expression in the context of distribution profiles including housekeeping, graded, and bimodal (switch-like. Single-gene studies have shown bimodal expression results from healthy cell signaling and complex diseases such as cancer, however developing a comprehensive list of human bimodal genes has remained a major challenge due to inherent noise in human microarray data. This study presents a two-component mixture analysis of mouse gene expression data for genes on the Affymetrix MG-U74Av2 array for the detection and annotation of switch-like genes. Two-component normal mixtures were fit to the data to identify bimodal genes and their potential roles in cell signaling and disease progression. Results Seventeen percent of the genes on the MG-U74Av2 array (1519 out of 9091 were identified as bimodal or switch-like. KEGG pathways significantly enriched for bimodal genes included ECM-receptor interaction, cell communication, and focal adhesion. Similarly, the GO biological process "cell adhesion" and cellular component "extracellular matrix" were significantly enriched. Switch-like genes were found to be associated with such diseases as congestive heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, breast neoplasms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I and type II diabetes. In diabetes alone, over two hundred bimodal genes were in a different mode of expression compared to normal tissue. Conclusion This research identified and annotated bimodal or switch-like genes in the mouse genome using a large collection of microarray data. Genes with bimodal expression were enriched within the cell membrane and extracellular environment. Hundreds of bimodal genes demonstrated alternate modes of expression in diabetic muscle, pancreas, liver, heart, and adipose tissue. Bimodal genes comprise a candidate set of biomarkers for a large number of disease states because

  9. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

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    Monika Szpringer


    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  10. The influence of polymorbidity, revascularization, and wound therapy on the healing of arterial ulceration

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    Joerg Tautenhahn


    Full Text Available Joerg Tautenhahn1, Ralf Lobmann2, Brigitte Koenig3, Zuhir Halloul1, Hans Lippert1, Thomas Buerger11Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery; 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; 3Institute for Medical Microbiology, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, GermanyObjective: An ulcer categorized as Fontaine’s stage IV represents a chronic wound, risk factor of arteriosclerosis, and co-morbidities which disturb wound healing. Our objective was to analyze wound healing and to assess potential factors affecting the healing process.Methods: 199 patients were included in this 5-year study. The significance levels were determined by chi-squared and log-rank tests. The calculation of patency rate followed the Kaplan-Meier method.Results: Mean age and co-morbidities did not differ from those in current epidemiological studies. Of the patients with ulcer latency of more than 13 weeks (up to one year, 40% required vascular surgery. Vascular surgery was not possible for 53 patients and they were treated conservatively. The amputation rate in the conservatively treated group was 37%, whereas in the revascularizated group it was only 16%. Ulcers in patients with revascularization healed in 92% of cases after 24 weeks. In contrast, we found a healing rate of only 40% in the conservatively treated group (p < 0.001. Revascularization appeared more often in diabetic patients (n = 110; p < 0.01 and the wound size and number of infections were elevated (p = 0.03. Among those treated conservatively, wound healing was decelerated (p = 0.01/0.02; χ² test.Conclusions: The success of revascularization, presence of diabetes mellitus, and wound treatment proved to be prognostic factors for wound healing in arterial ulcers.Keywords: arterial leg ulcer, wound management, risk factors, revascularization

  11. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos


    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  12. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood (United States)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  13. Complexity analysis of angiogenesis vasculature (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Tyrell, James A.; Tong, Ricky T.; Brown, Edward B.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Roysam, Badrinath


    Tumor vasculature has a high degree of irregularity as compared to normal vasculature. The quantification of the morphometric complexity in tumor images can be useful in diagnosis. Also, it is desirable in several other medical applications to have an automated complexity analysis to aid in diagnosis and prognosis under treatment. e.g. in diabetic retinopathy and in arteriosclerosis. In addition, prior efforts at segmentation of the tumor vasculature using matched filtering, template matching and splines have been hampered by the irregularity of these vessels. We try to solve both problems by introducing a novel technique for vessel detection, followed by a tracing-independent complexity analysis based on a combination of ideas. First, the vessel cross-sectional profile is modeled using a continuous and everywhere differentiable family of super-Gaussian curves. This family generates rectangular profiles that can accurately localize the vessel boundaries in microvasculature images. Second, a robust non-linear regression algorithm based on M-estimators is used to estimate the parameters that optimally characterize the vessel"s shape. A framework for the quantitative analysis of the complexity of the vasculature based on the vessel detection is presented. A set of measures that quantify the complexity are proposed viz. Squared Error, Entropy-based and Minimum Description Length-based Shape Complexities. They are completely automatic and can deal with complexities of the entire vessel unlike existing tortuousity measures which deal only with vessel centerlines. The results are validated using carefully constructed phantom and real image data with ground truth information from an expert observer.

  14. Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis seeds or their water extract on alloxan diabetic rats

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    H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats. Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes (low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

  15. Integration of retinal image sequences (United States)

    Ballerini, Lucia


    In this paper a method for noise reduction in ocular fundus image sequences is described. The eye is the only part of the human body where the capillary network can be observed along with the arterial and venous circulation using a non invasive technique. The study of the retinal vessels is very important both for the study of the local pathology (retinal disease) and for the large amount of information it offers on systematic haemodynamics, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. In this paper a method for image integration of ocular fundus image sequences is described. The procedure can be divided in two step: registration and fusion. First we describe an automatic alignment algorithm for registration of ocular fundus images. In order to enhance vessel structures, we used a spatially oriented bank of filters designed to match the properties of the objects of interest. To evaluate interframe misalignment we adopted a fast cross-correlation algorithm. The performances of the alignment method have been estimated by simulating shifts between image pairs and by using a cross-validation approach. Then we propose a temporal integration technique of image sequences so as to compute enhanced pictures of the overall capillary network. Image registration is combined with image enhancement by fusing subsequent frames of a same region. To evaluate the attainable results, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated before and after integration. Experimental results on synthetic images of vessel-like structures with different kind of Gaussian additive noise as well as on real fundus images are reported.

  16. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Popović-Pejičić Snježana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  17. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

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    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)


    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)


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    Yong-Lim Kim


    Full Text Available The main osmotic agent found in the peritoneal dialysis (PD solution is glucose. It has been of a wide use for great crystalloid osmotic power at a low concentration, simple metabolism, and excellent safety. On the other hand, anywhere between 60 to 80% of the glucose in the PD solution is absorbed - a 100 to 300 mg of daily glucose absorption. Once into the systemic circulation, glucose can be a cause for metabolic complications including obesity. Indeed, the diabetiform change observed in the peritoneal membrane in the long-term PD patients is believed attributable to the high-concentration glucose in the PD solution. The glucose absorbed from peritoneal cavity raises the risk of ‘glucose toxicity’, leading to insulin resistance and beta cell failure. Clinical similarity can be found in postprandial hyperglycemia, which is known to be associated with oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, NF-κb, and inflammation, affecting myocardial blood flow. Moreover, it is a proven independent risk factor of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly of female gender. Though speculative yet, glucose toxicity might explain a higher mortality of PD patients after the first year compared with those on hemodialysis (more so in female, advanced-age patients with diabetes. Also included in the picture are glucose degradation products (GDPs generated along the course of heat sterilization or storage of the PD solution. They have been shown to induce apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells, renal tubular epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, while spurring production of TGF-β and VEGF and facilitating epithelial mesenchymal transition. GDPs provide a stronger reactivity than glucose in the formation of AGEs, a known cause for microvascular complications and arteriosclerosis. Unfortunately, clinical studies using a low-GDP PD solution have provided mixed results on the residual renal function, peritonitis, peritoneal

  19. Protocol for Evaluating the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index to Predict Cardiovascular Events in Japan: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi; Horinaka, Shigeo; Shirai, Kohji; Higaki, Jitsuo; Orimio, Hajime


    Introduction The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was developed in Japan and is a blood pressure-independent index of arterial stiffness from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. In recent years, it has been studied by many researchers worldwide, and it is strongly anticipated that it will play a role as a predictive factor for arteriosclerotic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the benefits of using CAVI as a predictor of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Methods and Design This prospective multicenter study to evaluate the usefulness of the CAVI to predict cardiovascular events in Japan (CAVI-J) is a cohort study with central registration. Participants (n = 3,000) will be scheduled to enroll and data will be collected for up to 5 years from entry of participants into the study. To be eligible to participate in the CAVI-J study, individuals have to be aged between 40 and 74 years and have at least one of the following risk factors for arteriosclerosis: (1) type 2 diabetes mellitus; (2) high-risk hypertension; (3) metabolic syndrome; (4) chronic kidney disease (stage 3), or (5) history of coronary artery disease or noncardiogenic cerebral infarction. The primary endpoints of this study are cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. The secondary endpoints are composite cardiovascular events including all cause death, angina pectoris with revascularization, new incidence of peripheral artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, heart failure requiring hospitalization, and deterioration in renal function. The cutoff for CAVI against the incidence of cardiovascular events will be determined. PMID:28275590

  20. A major pain in the … Back and epigastrium: an unusual case of spontaneous celiac artery dissection

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    Kumkum Sarkar Patel


    Full Text Available A 60-year-old woman with mitral valve prolapse, chronic low back pain, and a 30-pack year smoking history presented for a second admission of poorly controlled mid-back pain 10 days after her first admission. She had concomitant epigastric pain, sharp/burning in quality, radiating to the right side and to the mid-back, not associated with food nor improving with pain medications. She denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dark stools, or blood per rectum. Our purpose was to determine the cause of the patient's epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed epigastric and mid-back tenderness on palpation. Labs were normal except for a hemoglobin drop from 14 to 12.1 g/dL over 2 days. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were normal. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT scan revealed the development of a spontaneous celiac artery dissection as the cause of the epigastric pain. The patient was observed without stenting and subsequent CT angiography 4 days later did not reveal worsening of the dissection. She was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel with outpatient follow-up. Thus far, less than 100 cases of isolated spontaneous celiac artery dissections have been reported. The advent of CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly enabled its detection. Risk factors may include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, smoking, and cystic medial necrosis. There is a 5:1 male to female ratio with an average presenting age of 55. Management of dissections may include surgical repair, endovascular stenting, and selective embolization. Limited dissections can be managed conservatively with anti-platelet and/or anticoagulation agents and strict blood pressure control, as done in our patient.