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Sample records for arteriosclerosis

  1. Arteriosclerosis Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Veterans Administration Hospital used computer image-processing techniques to detect arteriosclerosis. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center engineers to enhance spacecraft pictures, this device replaced the previous testing for this disease which was extremely painful and time consuming. With this instrument, computer detected edges are shown along with an estimate of location of pre-arteriosclerosis vessel wall. The difference between the two represents the relative amount of disease in the blood vessel. Instrumentation will be expanded again in 1976 to analyze the coronary arteries and the blood vessels of the retina.

  2. Cerebral Arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain can cause a hemorrhagic stroke. Both types of stroke can be fatal. Cerebral arteriosclerosis is also related to a condition known as vascular dementia, in which small, symptom-free strokes cause cumulative damage and death to neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. Personality changes in ...

  3. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  4. [Hypertension and arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a known risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and causes both atherosclero= sis of medium-large arteries and arteriolosclerosis of the arterioles. Elevated blood pressure causes damage to the endothelium and vascular wall through both mechanical and humoral factors. We and others have shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system at a 'critical period' during the development of hypertension results in a permanent suppression of hypertension in animal models. We have also reported that high-dose renin-angiotensin inhibition results in regression of hypertension, possibly by regression of renal arteriolar hypertrophy. These results suggest that understanding the process of arterial remodeling may play a key role in the development of new strategies for prevention and regression of hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

  5. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...

  6. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  7. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  8. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  9. Rosiglitazone attenuates transplant arteriosclerosis after allogeneic aorta transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuta, Geanina; Rienstra, Heleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Boer, Mark Walther; Roks, Anton J. M.; Klatter, Flip A.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Background. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of chronic transplant dysfunction and is characterized by occlusive neointima formation in intragraft arteries. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and adequate therapy is not avai

  10. Laser Therapy For Arteriosclerosis: Current Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David J.; Pollock, Marc E.; Eugene, John

    1987-03-01

    Shortly after the ruby laser was introduced, in 1959, a study for the use of this ruby laser for the in-vitro dissolution of arteriosclerotic plaque was performed.' With subsequent advances in laser technology and with refined delivery techniques, laser applications to the treatment of arteriosclerosis in the coronary arteries and peripheral vascular system is a reality. This report reviews the disease process, arteriosclerosis, and the ef-forts towards laser treatment of this disease. We conclude with a review of the technical barriers to the routine application of laser energy in arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and the progress being made to overcome these obstacles.

  11. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  12. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees. PMID:26549394

  13. Cerebrovascular arteriopathy (arteriosclerosis) and ischemic childhood stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, S R; Bates, S; Lukin, R R; Benton, C; Third, J; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the intracranial cerebrovascular abnormalities and clinical status of 8 children who had familial lipoprotein disorders and evidence of thromboembolic cerebrovascular disease. Six of the 8 children had low levels of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, two had high triglyceride levels, and all came from kindreds characterized by familial lipoprotein abnormalities and premature cardio- and/or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Vascular occlusion, irregularities of the arterial lumen, beading, tortuosity, and evidence of collateralization were consistently noted. We speculate that cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in pediatric ischemic stroke victims who have familial lipoprotein abnormalities may be related to lipoprotein-mediated endothelial damage and thrombosis formation, or to the failure to restore endothelial cells' integrity following damage. The apparent association of lipoproteins and strokes in children and their families merits further exploration, particularly when assessing cerebral angiograms in pediatric ischemic stroke victims. In children with unexplained ischemic cerebrovascular accidents, the diagnostic possibility of occlusive arteriosclerosis with thrombosis must be entertained.

  14. Donor-specific antibodies accelerate arteriosclerosis after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary S; Nochy, Dominique; Bruneval, Patrick; Duong van Huyen, J P; Glotz, Denis; Suberbielle, Caroline; Zuber, Julien; Anglicheau, Dany; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Loupy, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    In biopsies of renal allografts, arteriosclerosis is often more severe than expected based on the age of the donor, even without a history of rejection vasculitis. To determine whether preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) may contribute to the severity of arteriosclerosis, we examined protocol biopsies from patients with (n=40) or without (n=59) DSA after excluding those with any evidence of vasculitis. Among DSA-positive patients, arteriosclerosis significantly progressed between month 3 and month 12 after transplant (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 1.12 ± 0.10, P=0.014); in contrast, among DSA-negative patients, we did not detect a statistically significant progression during the same timeframe (mean Banff cv score 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.10, P=not significant). Available biopsies at later time points supported a rate of progression of arteriosclerosis in DSA-negative patients that was approximately one third that in DSA-positive patients. Accelerated arteriosclerosis was significantly associated with peritubular capillary leukocytic infiltration, glomerulitis, subclinical antibody-mediated rejection, and interstitial inflammation. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that donor-specific antibodies dramatically accelerate post-transplant progression of arteriosclerosis.

  15. [Pathophysiology and diagnosis for arteriosclerosis obliterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hisao; Konisi, Keiko

    2002-08-01

    Patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, or peripheral arterial disease have been conventionally diagnosed and treated from only the viewpoint of peripheral arterial circulation. These concepts may have improved the quality of life for patients, but could not contribute the prognosis of life, because peripheral arterial disease is associated with an increased risk of the coronary disease and cerebrovascular disease. Intermittent claudication, the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease, results from flow-reducing lesions in the arteries of the lower extremity that cause exercise-induced muscle ischemia. In order to evaluate intermittent claudication, many kinds of noninvasive diagnostic studies, including ABPI (ankle brachial pressure index) and the measurement of claudication distance, et al have been proposed. We have used the recovery time of the ischemic reaction at foot sole, plethysmography, thermography, laser doppler flowmetry, or NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) after walking test, rather than ABPI. These examinations will be superior to ABPI to evaluate effects after ergotherapy or pharmacotherapy for patients with intermittent claudication. Carotid artery sclerosis may be a good marker of systemic atherosclerosis. By our assessment of risk factors, the progression of atherosclerotic change in carotid artery was strongly correlated with two risk factors, such as smoking and systolic blood pressure. In the cholesterol analysis, Lp (a) was only high risk factor for atherosclerotic change of carotid artery. Recent technical advances, adequate evaluation of systemic atherosclerosis, and reduction of risk factors should improve the prognosis of patients with peripheral arterial disease. PMID:12373817

  16. Diagnosis of arteriosclerosis using noninvasive imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate usefulness of X-ray CT, MRI, 2D-echo, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detecting arteriosclerotic changes. Plain and enhanced CT scans were performed on 413 subjects to evaluate aortic sclerosis. CT revealed aortic wall calcification, atheromatous projection of the intima, and thickened aortic walls. These findings appeared frequently with increasing age, and the ratio of atherosclerotic changes to the circumference of the aorta increased in the patients with cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. In 179 patients, plain CT and coronary angiography were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for estimating coronary stenosis by CT-detected coronary calcification were 79%, 78%, and 89% respectively. MRI also revealed atherosclerotic changes. In 408 subjects MRI was performed using a spin-echo method. Although atheromatous intimal changes were found in 4.8% of normal subjects, these findings were demonstrated in 46% of the patients with diabetes, in 32% of patients with hypertension, and in 20% of patients with ischemic heart disease. 2D-echo was useful in detecting atheromatous intimal changes in the carotid artery. DSA was also useful for detecting stenosis of the peripheral arteries of median size. In conclusion, these imaging methods can play an important role in diagnosing arteriosclerosis. (author)

  17. Diagnosis of arteriosclerosis using noninvasive imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Takasu, Junichiro; Sakakibara, Makoto; Morooka, Nobuhiro; Inagaki, Yoshiaki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate usefulness of X-ray CT, MRI, 2D-echo, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detecting arteriosclerotic changes. Plain and enhanced CT scans were performed on 413 subjects to evaluate aortic sclerosis. CT revealed aortic wall calcification, atheromatous projection of the intima, and thickened aortic walls. These findings appeared frequently with increasing age, and the ratio of atherosclerotic changes to the circumference of the aorta increased in the patients with cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. In 179 patients, plain CT and coronary angiography were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for estimating coronary stenosis by CT-detected coronary calcification were 79%, 78%, and 89% respectively. MRI also revealed atherosclerotic changes. In 408 subjects MRI was performed using a spin-echo method. Although atheromatous intimal changes were found in 4.8% of normal subjects, these findings were demonstrated in 46% of the patients with diabetes, in 32% of patients with hypertension, and in 20% of patients with ischemic heart disease. 2D-echo was useful in detecting atheromatous intimal changes in the carotid artery. DSA was also useful for detecting stenosis of the peripheral arteries of median size. In conclusion, these imaging methods can play an important role in diagnosing arteriosclerosis. (author).

  18. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trauner Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases.

  19. Influence of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis on cerebral oxygenation during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is assumed that cerebral oxygenation during exercise is influenced by both cardiopulmonary function and cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis, the latter factor has not been fully clarified. In the present study the relationship between the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis and cerebral oxygenation during exercise was investigated. A total of 109 patients (69 patients with coronary artery disease, 40 patients with hypertensive heart disease) (61.7±9.7 years) performed a symptom-limited exercise test with respiratory gas measurements (CPX). From the respiratory gas analysis, peak O2 uptake (VO2), the slope of the increase in VO2 to the increase in work rate (ΔVO2/ΔWR), and the slope of the increase in ventilation to the increase in CO2 output (VE/VCO2 slope) were calculated. Oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) at the forehead was monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. The brain ischemic score was counted based upon fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of magnetic resonance imaging and expressed from 0 to 4. When compared with patients with a lower ischemic score (2Hb during exercise (-1.08±2.7 vs 0.77±4.1 μmol/L, p=0.011). Of brain ischemic score, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak VO2, ΔVO2/ΔWR, and the VE/VCO2 slope, ΔVO2/ΔWR was found to be the sole independent index determining cerebral O2Hb during exercise. The CPX parameters were also significantly related to the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis. Although cerebral oxygenation during exercise is mainly related to cardiopulmonary function, the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis partly influences cerebral oxygenation in patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  20. Progenitor cells in arteriosclerosis: good or bad guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Paola; Wong, Mei Mei; Xu, Qingbo

    2011-08-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the mobilization and recruitment of circulating or tissue-resident progenitor cells that give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can participate in atherosclerosis, neointima hyperplasia after arterial injury, and transplant arteriosclerosis. It is believed that endothelial progenitor cells do exist and can repair and rejuvenate the arteries under physiologic conditions; however, they may also contribute to lesion formation by influencing plaque stability in advanced atherosclerotic plaque under specific pathologic conditions. At the same time, smooth muscle progenitors, despite their capacity to expedite lesion formation during restenosis, may serve to promote atherosclerotic plaque stabilization by producing extracellular matrix proteins. This profound evidence provides support to the hypothesis that both endothelial and smooth muscle progenitors may act as a double-edged sword in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the understanding of the regulatory networks that control endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor differentiation is undoubtedly fundamental both for basic research and for improving current therapeutic avenues for atherosclerosis. We update the progress in progenitor cell study related to the development of arteriosclerosis, focusing specifically on the role of progenitor cells in lesion formation and discuss the controversial issues that regard the origins, frequency, and impact of the progenitors in the disease.

  1. Economics of health and mortality special feature: race, infection, and arteriosclerosis in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dora L; Helmchen, Lorens A; Wilson, Sven

    2007-08-14

    We document racial trends in chronic conditions among older men between 1910 and 2004. The 1910 black arteriosclerosis rate was six times higher than the white 2004 rate and more than two times higher than the 2004 black rate. We argue that blacks' greater lifelong burden of infection led to high arteriosclerosis rates in 1910. Infectious disease, especially respiratory infections at older ages and rheumatic fever and syphilis at younger ages, predicted arteriosclerosis in 1910, suggesting that arteriosclerosis has an infectious cause. Additional risk factors for arteriosclerosis were being born in the second relative to the fourth quarter, consistent with studies implying that atherogenesis begins in utero, and a low body mass index, consistent with an infectious disease origin of arteriosclerosis.

  2. Immune-Mediated Vascular Injury and Dysfunction in Transplant Arteriosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna evon Rossum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage organ failure but this life-saving procedure is limited by immune-mediated rejection of most grafts. Blood vessels within transplanted organs are targeted by the immune system and the resultant vascular damage is a main contributor to acute and chronic graft failure. The vasculature is a unique tissue with specific immunological properties. This review discusses the interactions of the immune system with blood vessels in transplanted organs and how these interactions lead to the development of transplant arteriosclerosis, a leading cause of heart transplant failure.

  3. Is hyperuricemia a risk factor for arteriosclerosis? Uric acid and arteriosclerosis in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakuda, Hirokazu; Uchida, Shinya; Ikeda, Masahiko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    Although hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes increase the risk of arteriosclerosis, it is not clear whether hyperuricemia increases the risk of arteriosclerosis or not. We examined the effects of uric acid and curative drugs for hyperuricemia on atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Male apoE(-/-) mice (age: 6 weeks) were fed a normal diet (normal diet group) or a uric acid-enriched diet. Mice fed the uric acid-enriched diet were divided into three groups and administered a drinking vehicle (high uric acid diet group), allopurinol (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), or benzbromarone (20 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 10 weeks. Serum uric acid concentrations were higher in the high uric acid diet group than in the normal diet group, and concentrations in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups were lower than in the high uric acid diet group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the allopurinol group than in the high uric acid diet group. Oxidative stress was lower in the benzbromarone group than in the high uric acid diet group. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were smaller in the allopurinol and benzbromarone groups than in the high uric acid diet group. Thus, hyperuricemia may not be an independent risk factor for arteriosclerosis; however, the administration of allopurinol and benzbromarone prevented the development of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice fed a uric acid-enriched diet. The anti-atherosclerotic effect was in part due to lower total cholesterol and oxidative stress in the serum. Other possible mechanisms underlying this effect should be investigated.

  4. In vivo prevention of transplant arteriosclerosis by ex vivo-expanded human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Satish N; Wieckiewicz, Joanna; Wu, Douglas C; Warnecke, Gregor; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Shiqiao; Schiopu, Alexandru; Taggart, David P; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-07-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is the hallmark of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) affecting transplanted organs in the long term. These fibroproliferative lesions lead to neointimal thickening of arteries in all transplanted allografts. Luminal narrowing then leads to graft ischemia and organ demise. To date, there are no known tolerance induction strategies that prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that human regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expanded ex vivo can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Here we show the comparative capacity of T(reg) cells, sorted via two separate strategies, to prevent transplant arteriosclerosis in a clinically relevant chimeric humanized mouse system. We found that the in vivo development of transplant arteriosclerosis in human arteries was prevented by treatment of ex vivo-expanded human T(reg) cells. Additionally, we show that T(reg) cells sorted on the basis of low expression of CD127 provide a more potent therapy to conventional T(reg) cells. Our results demonstrate that human T(reg) cells can inhibit transplant arteriosclerosis by impairing effector function and graft infiltration. We anticipate our findings to serve as a foundation for the clinical development of therapeutics targeting transplant arteriosclerosis in both allograft transplantation and other immune-mediated causes of vasculopathy.

  5. AIP1-mediated stress signaling in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqin; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang

    2015-05-01

    AIP1 (ASK1-interacting protein-1; encoded by the DAB2IP gene), a signaling scaffolding protein, is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC). While it was initially discovered as an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-interacting protein, AIP1 broadly suppresses inflammatory responses triggered by cytokines and stresses such as TNF, LPS, VEGF, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in EC (therefore, AIP1 is an anti-inflammatory protein). Human genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified DAB2IP gene variants conferring susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Consistently, a global or vascular EC-specific deletion of DAB2IP in mice strongly enhances inflammatory responses and exacerbates atherosclerosis and graft arteriosclerosis progression in mouse models. Mechanisms for AIP1 function and regulation associated with human cardiovascular diseases need further investigations.

  6. Recipient origin of neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells in cardiac allografts with transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van den Hurk, BMH; Klatter, FA; Popa, ER; Nieuwenhuis, P; Rozing, J

    2000-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is today's most important post-heart transplantation problem after the first perioperative year. Histologically, coronary artery disease is characterized by transplant arteriosclerosis. The current view on this vasculopathy is that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cel

  7. Histamine receptors expressed in circulating progenitor cells have reciprocal actions in ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Wang, Ke-Yong; Tanimoto, Akihide; Guo, Xin; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2013-09-01

    Histamine is synthesized as a low-molecular-weight amine from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Recently, we demonstrated that carotid artery-ligated HDC gene-deficient mice (HDC(-/-)) showed less neointimal formation than wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that histamine participates in the process of arteriosclerosis. However, little is known about the roles of histamine-specific receptors (HHRs) in arteriosclerosis. To define the roles of HHRs in arteriosclerosis, we investigated intimal remodeling in ligated carotid arteries of HHR-deficient mice (H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-)). Quantitative analysis showed that H1R(-/-) mice had significantly less arteriosclerogenesis, whereas H2R(-/-) mice had more, as compared with WT mice. Bone marrow transplantation from H1R(-/-) or H2R(-/-) to WT mice confirmed the above observation. Furthermore, the increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), adhesion molecules and liver X receptor (LXR)-related inflammatory signaling factors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR3), interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R), was consistent with the arteriosclerotic phenotype of H2R(-/-) mice. Peripheral progenitor cells in H2R(-/-) mice accelerate ligation-induced arteriosclerosis through their regulation of MCP-1, PDGF, adhesion molecules and LXR-related inflammatory signaling factors. In contrast, peripheral progenitor cells act to suppress arteriosclerosis in H1R(-/-) mice, indicating that HHRs reciprocally regulate inflammation in the ligation-induced arteriosclerosis.

  8. Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, Sebastian; Heim, Christian; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Hoffmann, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2010-09-01

    Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  9. Angioscopic assessment of various percutaneous treatments for arteriosclerosis obliterance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shiraishi, Shohzo; Sato, Takashi; Koga, Nobuhiko

    1993-06-01

    We have evaluated the angioscopic findings before and after various percutaneous techniques to treat 39 lesions in 32 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). We applied a laser (CL50: SLT, Japan), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and atherectomy -- either singly or in combination, with angioscopic luminal observation (angioscope: PF14L & PF18L Olympus, Japan) recorded before and after the treatments. In the case of a complete obstruction, we employed PTA as the first choice. We used a laser prior to PTA when the PTA guide-wire failed to penetrate the lumen. For eccentric and calcified lesions atherectomy was applied. A sufficient enlargement was obtained initially in 37 of the 39 lesions. The angioscopic observations after treatment revealed carbonization (3/5) and attachment of small thrombi (3/5) after using the laser, intimal rupture (3/8), dissection (2/8), flap formation (2/8), and attachment of small thrombi (4/8) after PTA, and attachment of small thrombi (9/19), flap formation (6/19), and dissection (2/19) after atherectomy. We established the efficacy of angioscopic assessment demonstrating beneficial clinical results. The angioscopic findings suggest that attachment of small thrombi may be responsible for a poor prognosis. Additional angioscopic observations with angiography are recommended for improved understanding of the luminal changes.

  10. Study on the classification algorithm of degree of arteriosclerosis based on fuzzy pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Zhou, Runjing; Liu, Guiying

    2010-08-01

    Pulse wave of human body contains large amount of physiological and pathological information, so the degree of arteriosclerosis classification algorithm is study based on fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper. Taking the human's pulse wave as the research object, we can extract the characteristic of time and frequency domain of pulse signal, and select the parameters with a better clustering effect for arteriosclerosis identification. Moreover, the validity of characteristic parameters is verified by fuzzy ISODATA clustering method (FISOCM). Finally, fuzzy pattern recognition system can quantitatively distinguish the degree of arteriosclerosis with patients. By testing the 50 samples in the built pulse database, the experimental result shows that the algorithm is practical and achieves a good classification recognition result.

  11. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis promotes transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing the production of SDF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Liu, S; Li, W; Hu, S; Xiong, J; Shu, X; Hu, Q; Zheng, Q; Song, Z

    2012-08-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of late allograft loss. Medial smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis is considered to be an important event in transplant arteriosclerosis. However, the precise contribution of medial SMC apoptosis to transplant arteriosclerosis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We transferred wild-type p53 to induce apoptosis of cultured SMCs. We found that apoptosis induces the production of SDF-1α from apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, resulting in increased SDF-1α in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transferred SMCs activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/Erk signaling in a SDF-1α-dependent manner and thereby promoted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration and proliferation. In a rat aorta transplantation model, lentivirus-mediated BclxL transfer selectively inhibits medial SMC apoptosis in aortic allografts, resulting in a remarkable decrease of SDF-1α both in allograft media and in blood plasma, associated with diminished recruitment of CD90(+)CD105(+) double-positive cells and impaired neointimal formation. Systemic administration of rapamycin or PD98059 also attenuated MSC recruitment and neointimal formation in the aortic allografts. These results suggest that medial SMC apoptosis is critical for the development of transplant arteriosclerosis through inducing SDF-1α production and that MSC recruitment represents a major component of vascular remodeling, constituting a relevant target and mechanism for therapeutic interventions.

  12. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  13. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed ...

  14. Coronary arterial Disease associated with arteriosclerosis in lower extremity: Angiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed both peripheral and coronary angiographies in 52 patients with an arteriosclerosis in lower extremities. The severity of arteriosclerotic narrowing of the coronary and peripheral arteries were compared on angiographies. An angiographic vascular score(AVS, 0-5) reflecting the number and the degree of stenosis in 12 lower extremity arteries and three major coronary arteries was assigned to each angiogram and the sun of scores in the lower extremity arteries was compared with the incidence of significant coronary artery disease (more than grade 3) and coronary score. Relation of incidence and severity of vascular stenosis and risk factors (diabetes metallitus, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia) was also analyzed. Thirty-four of 52 patients (65%) had an angiographically significant coronary artery disease. Thirteen of these 34 patients (38%) had no clinical symptom and sign of the ischemic heart disease. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and severity of coronary artery disease between high (more than 30) and low AVS group in lower extremity (p>0.14). All patients had at least one risk factor and 49 of 52 patients (94%) had multiple risk factors. Coronary angiography was normal in there patients with only one risk factors, and angiographically significant coronary artery disease existed in nine of 16 cases (56.3%) with two risk factors. 13 of 17 case (76.5%) with three risk factors, and 12 of 16 cases (75.0%) with all four risk factors. There were no significant correlations between individual risk factors and incidence, severity of arteriosclerosis in coronary and lower extremity arteries. In conclusion, angiographic evaluation of the coronary artery disease in patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis is necessary because of the high chance of coronary artery disease and difficulty in the prediction of coronary artery disease with a severity of the peripheral arteriosclerosis, presence of various risk

  15. The relationship between C-reactive protein and subclinical carotid arteriosclerosis in military pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Jovelić Aleksandra; Rađen Slavica; Hajduković Zoran; Čanji Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. Inflammation plays a key role in the physiopathology of arteriosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus in apparently healthy men, but relationship between them is not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to assess the cross-sectional relationship between CRP and cardiovascular risk factors with common carotid artery intima-media thickness in military pil...

  16. C-peptide promotes lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Dusica; Marx, Nikolaus; Sukhova, Galina; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Grüb, Miriam; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show elevated serum levels of the proinsulin cleavage product C-peptide and immunohistochemical data from our group revealed C-peptide deposition in early lesions of these individuals. Moreover, in vitro studies suggest that C-peptide could promote atherogenesis. This study examined whether C-peptide promotes vascular inflammation and lesion development in a mouse model of arteriosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice on a high fat diet were treated with C-peptide or control injections for 12 weeks and the effect on lesion size and plaque composition was analysed. C-peptide treatment significantly increased C-peptide blood levels by 4.8-fold without having an effect on glucose or insulin levels, nor on the lipid profile. In these mice, C-peptide deposition in atherosclerotic plaques was significantly increased compared with controls. Moreover, lesions of C-peptide-treated mice contained significantly more macrophages (1.6 ± 0.3% versus 0.7 ± 0.2% positive area; P arteriosclerosis support the hypothesis that C-peptide may have an active role in atherogenesis in patients with diabetes and insulin resistance.

  17. Radiographic manifestations of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Barghan, Sevin; Kashtwari, Beeba; Nair, Madhu K. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Colleges of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Mönckeberg sclerosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dystrophic calcification within the arterial tunica media of the lower extremities leading to reduced arterial compliance. Medial calcinosis does not obstruct the lumina of the arteries, and therefore does not lead to symptoms or signs of limb or organ ischemia. Mönckeberg sclerosis most commonly occurs in aged and diabetic individuals and in patients on dialysis. Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis is frequently observed in the visceral arteries, and it can occur in the head and neck region as well. This report describes a remarkable case of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region as detected on dental imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in which this condition presented in the facial vasculature. The aim of this report was to define the radiographic characteristics of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in an effort to assist health care providers in diagnosing and managing this condition.

  18. Low zinc levels is associated with increased inflammatory activity but not with atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis or endothelial dysfunction among the very elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C.S. De Paula

    2014-12-01

    General significance: In the very elderly plasma concentrations or daily intake of zinc is not related to endothelial dysfunction, arteriosclerosis or atherosclerotic burden at coronary or carotid arteries.

  19. Correlation Between Arteriosclerosis and Periodontal Condition Assessed by Lactoferrin and α1-Antitrypsin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-o; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Patients with periodontal disease exhibit exacerbated atherosclerosis, aortic stiffness, or vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, in a recent scientific statement, the American Heart Association noted that neither has periodontal disease been proven to cause atherosclerotic vascular disease nor has the treatment of periodontal disease been proven to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between periodontal condition and arteriosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is usually accompanied by systemic arteriosclerosis.We measured levels of gingival crevicular fluid lactoferrin (GCF-Lf) and α1-antitrypsin (GCF-AT) in 72 patients (67 ± 8 years, 56 men) with CAD. Furthermore, we evaluated the maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT) and plaque score of the carotid arteries as well as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, each of which is a parameter for determining arteriosclerosis status. The average level of GCF-Lf was 0.29 ± 0.36 µg/mL and that of GCF-AT was 0.31 ± 0.66 µg/mL, with significant correlation between the two (r = 0.701, P arteriosclerosis parameters (ie, max IMT, plaque score, baPWV, and FMD) and GCF-Lf or GCF-AT.No correlation between the GCF biomarkers and the severity of arteriosclerosis was detected. This result may suggest that worsening of the periodontal condition assessed by GCF biomarkers is not a major potential risk factor for arteriosclerosis.

  20. [Correction of dyslipidemia in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans as a method for improving the results of endovascular angioplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V A; Seitmykhamedov, M D; Dibirov, A D; Dubovik, S G; Sergeeva, N A; Prokubovskiĭ, V I

    1992-01-01

    The authors analyse the results of endovascular angioplasty of the pelvic and lower limb arteries in 147 patients of various age suffering from arteriosclerosis obliterans. It was found that the results of endovascular angioplasty depended on the state of the lipid balance. The necessity for correcting the shifts in the lipid metabolism is shown. The article evaluates the results of dyslipidemia correction by dietotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and operation for partial ilio-shunting in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans of the pelvic and lower limb arteries. The efficacy of the listed methods of treatment are analysed according to the severity of dyslipidemia. PMID:1457133

  1. Preliminary clinical application of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficiency and security of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in treating arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity. Methods: Seven patients with lower extremity ischemia were treated with SilverHawk directional atherectomy. The lesions length varied from 1.8 to 14.5 cm. Clinical symptoms (Fontaine classification) included 4 cases of grade Ⅱ b, I case of grade Ⅲ, 2 cases of grade Ⅳ. The ABI varied from 0.28 to 0.65. Patency was evaluated with color duplex sonography or CTA besides clinical examination during follow-up. Results: Seven occlusive lesions were recanalizated successfully. The technical success (residual stenosis < 30%) rate was 100%. Clinical symptoms were obviously improved or disappeared. The ABI varied from 0.82 to 1.18 (P=0.002), and Fontaine classification included 6 cases of Ⅰ; 1 case of Ⅱ a. Patency rate was 100% and the ABI varied from 0.75 to 1.14 (P=0.938). Fontaine classifications keep consistent 1-6 months after operation. Conclusion: SilverHawk directional atherectomy was a safe and effective way for treatment of lower arteriosclerosis obliteran. (authors)

  2. Unaltered levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in the absence of the B cell homing chemokine receptor CXCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Stephan M; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Ohl, Lars; Spriewald, Bernd M; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Förster, Reinhold

    2009-03-01

    Chemokine receptors and their ligands are crucial for lymphocyte trafficking under both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. The chemokine receptor CXCR5 controls B cell migration and the organization of B cell follicles. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CXCR5 on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched BALB/c (H2(d)) donor aortas were transplanted into C57BL/6-CXCR5(-/-) (H2(b)), C57BL/6-CXCR5(+/-) (H2(b)) or C57BL/6-CXCR5(+/+) (H2(b)) recipients. Grafts were analysed by morphometry and immunofluorescence and intra-graft cytokine mRNA production was analysed by RT-PCR. Transplant arteriosclerosis was evident in CXCR5+/+ and CXCR5+/- mice and only mildly reduced in CXCR5-/- recipients indicating that absence of CXCR5 had no substantial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Analysis of the cellular infiltrate of aortic grafts implanted in CXCR5-/- recipients revealed no differences in the number of T-cells, macrophages and B cells as compared to controls. Intra-graft cytokine production showed no significant changes in Th1 (IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines as well as in TGF-beta and iNOS production. These data suggest that lack of CXCR5 expression by recipient T- and B-cells has little effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  3. Mouse model of alloimmune-induced vascular rejection and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Winnie; von Rossum, Anna; Choy, Jonathan

    2015-05-17

    Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.

  4. Quantitative detection of cerebral arteriosclerosis by means of the Doppler ultrasonic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M

    1986-01-01

    A correlation between the continuity of the cerebral blood flow pattern and the cerebral vascular resistance (namely, cerebral arteriosclerosis) was investigated by the Doppler ultrasonic technique. The following facts were observed. Examination of the brachial blood flow pattern in circulatory stress, i.e., hand-grasping, brachial-binding, cold- and warm-stimulating tests revealed that the more the peripheral vascular resistance was increased, the more was the discontinuity of brachial blood flow pattern increased. Investigation of the continuity of the cerebral blood flow pattern (internal carotid artery) in 18 young healthy persons and 46 elderly patients with cerebral vascular diseases revealed a continuous pattern in all of the young persons, while the discontinuous pattern was frequently observed in the elderly patients. These findings suggest that the cerebral vascular resistance is more increased in the elderly patients than in the young persons. The cerebral blood flow pattern was classified into the following three types according to the continuity of the cerebral blood flow pattern: continuous, intermediate and discontinuous type, and the relation to the Continuous Index (CI), which was devised as an objective parameter of the continuity, was examined. The following CI figures were obtained: 110-200% in the young persons; in the elderly patients: continuous type, 120-185%; intermediate type, 85-135%; discontinuous type, 50-85%. From the above findings it is postulated that the Doppler ultrasonic technique is useful for the quantitative detection of cerebral arteriosclerosis, i.e., anticipation of cerebral vascular accidents, and for the discrimination between arteriosclerotic dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:3525327

  5. On the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis from treating turbid blood%脑动脉硬化症从血浊论治探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩萍; 周永红; 唐明; 郭瑞友

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores the mechanism of the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis from treating turbid blood by exploring the correlation between the turbid blood and cerebral arteriosclerosis, it elaborates that turbid blood is the pathological pivot of cerebral arteriosclerosis, therefore, purifying turbid blood is a vital measure in preventing and treating cerebral arteriosclerosis.%从血浊与脑动脉硬化症发病的相关性入手,深入探讨脑动脉硬化症从血浊论治的机理,论述血浊是脑动脉硬化症发病的病理枢纽,而清化血浊法为防治脑动脉硬化症的重要措施。

  6. Feasibility of microvascular head and neck reconstruction in the setting of calcified arteriosclerosis of the vascular pedicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew K; Blackwell, Keith E; Kim, Brandon; Nabili, Vishad

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To report outcomes in free flap reconstructive surgery in the setting of calcified arteriosclerosis affecting the flap pedicle. DESIGN Retrospective review, including a detailed analysis of medical records, histopathologic findings, and a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS A total of 1329 consecutive microvascular free tissue transfers were performed by 2 reconstructive surgeons at a university-affiliated tertiary care medical center from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2011. Clinical notes, operative notes, and pathology reports were systematically reviewed to identify 44 patients (3%) with calcified arteriosclerosis involving the flap vascular pedicle. A comprehensive medical record review was performed for the included patients, detailing patient-related characteristics, flap survival, and incidence of perioperative complications. RESULTS A history of arteriosclerosis was identified preoperatively in 18 patients (41%). Eight patients (18%) were specifically recognized clinically and histologically to have a variant of arteriosclerosis known as Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis. In total, fibula osteocutaneous free flap was performed in 30 patients, radial forearm in 8 patients, rectus abdominus in 3 patients, latissimus dorsi in 2 patients, and parascapular in 1 patient. Perioperative complications occurred in 17 patients (39%), with the most common being pulmonary (14%) and cardiac (9%). Patient follow-up ranged from 3 to 137 months, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 21 months. The mean length of hospital stay was 12 days. There was a 0% incidence of total flap failure and a 7% incidence of partial flap necrosis. CONCLUSION Although technically challenging, successful microvascular free flap reconstruction can be achieved despite the presence of vascular calcifications affecting the flap vascular pedicle.

  7. The relationship between C-reactive protein and subclinical carotid arteriosclerosis in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovelić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation plays a key role in the physiopathology of arteriosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP and common carotid artery intima-media thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus in apparently healthy men, but relationship between them is not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to assess the cross-sectional relationship between CRP and cardiovascular risk factors with common carotid artery intima-media thickness in military pilots as representatives of healthy men. Methods. We studied 161 military pilots (age 38 ± 6 years free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Traditional and metabolic risk factors were determined. Plasma CRP was measured by immunonephelometry. The common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasonography in the posterior wall of both common carotid arteries. Results. A total of 66.5% subjects had common carotid artery intima-media thickness > 0.9 mm (p < 0.01. The mean CRP plasma concentration was significantly higher in the subjects with common carotid artery intima- media thickness > 0.9 mm than in those with common carotid artery intima-media thickness ≤ 0.9 mm. In a simple regression analysis age adjusted CRP was associated with common carotid artery intima-media thickness (β = 0.285, p < 0.01, and only high density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with common carotid artery intima-media thickness. The association between CRP and common carotid artery intima-media thickness remained highly significant after controlling for body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin and smoking (p < 0.01. Controlling for glucose, triglycerides to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio resulted in some reduction in the strength of the association, but including waist

  8. Establishing baseline criteria of cardio-ankle vascular index as a new indicator of arteriosclerosis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namekata Tsukasa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI has been developed to represent the extent of arteriosclerosis throughout the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery independent of blood pressure. To practically use CAVI as a diagnostic tool for determining the extent of arteriosclerosis, our study objectives were (1 to establish the baseline CAVI scores by age and gender among cardiovascular disease (CVD risk-free persons, (2 to compare CAVI scores between genders to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in men is greater than in women, and (3 to compare CAVI scores between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group in order to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in the CVD high-risk group is greater than in the CVD risk-free group. Methods Study subjects were 32,627 urban residents 20-74 years of age who participated in CVD screening in Japan during 2004-2006. A new device (model VaSera VS-1000 was used to measure CAVI scores. At the time of screening, CVD high-risk persons were defined as those having any clinical abnormalities of CVD, and CVD risk-free persons were defined as those without any clinical abnormalities of CVD. Age-specific average CAVI scores were compared between genders and between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group. Student's t-test using two independent samples was applied to a comparison of means between two groups. Results Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group linearly increased in both genders as their age increased. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly greater among men than among women. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly smaller than those in the CVD high-risk group in both genders after 40 years of age. Conclusions The baseline CAVI scores from the CVD risk-free group are useful for future studies as

  9. Papel de los macrófagos en la patogénesis de la arteriosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Varón María del Pilar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La arteriosclerosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria que es responsable del 50% de las muertes del mundo
    occidental por desencadenar complicaciones coronarias graves. Se produce por la acumulación excesiva de
    colesterol proveniente del torrente sanguíneo en la íntima arterial de arterias medias y grandes. Los monocitos circulantes se adhieren al endotelio activado y se diferencian en macrófagos al interior de la íntima
    arterial, donde se desempeñan como recolectores del exceso de colesterol. Desde ahí liberan citoquinas,
    proteasas, especies reactivas de oxigeno y factores de crecimiento que potencian la reacción inflamatoria,
    desempeñando un papel esencial en la patogénesis de la enfermedad. La población creciente de macrófagos
    eventualmente entra en apoptosis y necrosis, haciendo cada vez más grande e inestable la lesión arteriosclerótica, lo que en último momento es el detonante de las complicaciones clínicas graves que pueden terminar en la muerte del paciente.

  10. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  11. Relevance of Plasma Obestatin and Early Arteriosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-ying Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlation between obestatin and metabolic parameters and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We collected 103 patients aged from 60 to 83 years (69.26 ± 5.83 years form January, 2007 to May, 2009. All patients were divided into normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and T2DM according to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. We found that higher levels of fasting insulin (Fins, fasting blood glucose, 2 h OGTT glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, and C-reactive protein (CRP, as well as lower obestatin level and higher intima-media thickness level (IMT, existed in T2DM group compared with NGT group and IGT group (P<0.01. Also, obestatin level was independently associated with HOMA-IR and CRP, while IMT level was independently associated with HOMA-IR, triglyceride, Fins, and obestatin (P<0.01, based on stepwise multiple regression analysis. Therefore, we deduced that the low level of plasma obestatin might be related to early arteriosclerosis in patients with T2DM via increasing IMT level, and elevated plasma obestatin levels might protect T2DM patients against carotid atherosclerosis to some extent.

  12. Clinical study of the relationship between arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the relationship between arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and cerebral infarction (CI), brain CT was performed and the risk factors for atherosclerosis were assessed. Thirty-five male and 5 female patients with intermittent claudication and/or leg ulceration were angiographically diagnosed as having ASO. According to CT findings, these patients were divided into three groups [no low-density areas (NLDA), hemorrhage, and infarction (CI)]. CI was subdivided as lacunar, cortical, and watershed infarction. Thirteen patients were in the NLDA group and 26 in the CI group (17 lacunar, 3 cortical and 6 mixed infarcts), indicating a CI incidence of 65%. Comparing the risk factors of the CI group with those of the NLDA group, hypertension (53.8%), diabetes (34.6%), and cigarette smoking (69.2%) was often seen in the CI group, although hypercholesterolemia (53.8%) and ischemic heart disease (42.3%) was the same in both groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking had the strongest effect on the occurrence of CI in ASO patients. Furthermore, the number of combined risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, hypercholesterolemia) had a significant positive correlation with cortical infarction. As to the chronological relationship between the onset of ASO and CI, CI was present in 14 of 27 ASO patients on CT when the ischemic leg symptoms appeared, while symptomatic cortical infarction preceded ASO in 5 patients. CI patients increased gradually over a decade to 26 out of 40, among whom 16 patients with lacunae had silent infarcts. These findings suggested that ASO is frequently associated with CI, not only due to atherosclerosis of the main trunks of the cerebral vessels, but also due to arteriolosclerosis of the perforating arteries. (author)

  13. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  14. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  15. Prevention and nursing care of the complications occurred in interventional therapy for arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the prevention and nursing care of the perioperative complications occurred in interventional therapy for arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity. Methods: During the period of July 2006 to June 2009, interventional treatment for the arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity was performed in 380 cases. The clinical data and complications were reviewed and analyzed, and the prevention and nursing care of the complications were summarized. Results: Complications occurred in 41 cases. During the surgery, vascular rupture or arterial dissection occurred in 5 cases, hypoglycemia reaction in 3 cases and elevation of blood pressure in 2 cases. The complications,which occurred after the treatment,included acute arterial thrombosis (n=3), deep vein thrombosis (n=2), bleeding of different tissues or organs (n=17), acute myocardial infarction (n=2), pseudoaneurysm (n=2), excessive lower limb perfusion syndrome (n=4) and compression sores (n=1). Conclusion: Detailed information of medical history, careful observation of clinical condition, intensive care of patient, adequate preparation of medical materials, seriously handing over the duty to the next shift and taking one's turn on duty, etc. are all the effective measures to prevent and to reduce the occurrence of complications. (authors)

  16. The Origin of Neointimal Smooth Muscle Cells in Transplant Arteriosclerosis from Recipient Bone-marrow Cells in Rat Aortic Allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zifang; LI Wei; ZHENG Qichang; SHANG Dan; SHU Xiaogang; GUAN Siming

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the origin of neointimal smooth muscle cells in transplant arteriosclerosis in rat aortic allograft, sex-mismatched bone marrow transplantation was performed from male Wistar rats to female Wistar rats. Four weeks after transplantation, the aortic transplant model was established by means of micro-surgery in rats. The recipients were divided into 4 groups: female Wistar-female Wistar aortic isografts, female SD-female Wistar aortic allografts, male SD-male Wistar aortic allografts, female SD-chimera Wistar aortic allografts. Eight weeks after transplantation, aortic grafts were removed at autopsy and processed for histological evaluation and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that excessive accumulation of α-SMA-positive smooth muscle cells resulted in significant neointima formation and vascular lumen stricture in rat aortic allografts.Neointima assay revealed that the neointimal area and NIA/MA ratio of transplanted artery were significantly increased in all of aortic allograft groups as compared with those in aortic isograft group (P<0.01). Neointimal smooth muscle cells were harvested from cryostat sections of aortic allograft by microdissection method. The Sry gene-specific PCR was performed, and the result showed that a distinct DNA band of 225 bp emerged in the male-male aortic allograft group and chimera aortic allograft group respectively, but not in the female-female aortic allograft group. It was suggested that recipient bone-marrow cells, as the origin of neointimal smooth muscle cells, contributed to the pathological neointimal hyperplasia of aortic allograft and transplant arteriosclerosis.

  17. Longitudinal left ventricular myocardial dysfunction assessed by 2D colour tissue Doppler imaging in a dog with systemic hypertension and severe arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, A P; Carlos Sampedrano, C; Fontaine, J J; Tessier-Vetzel, D; Goumi, V; Pelligand, L; Pouchelon, J-L; Chetboul, V

    2005-03-01

    A 12-year-old sexually intact male Vendee Griffon Basset was presented for acute pulmonary oedema. Severe systemic systolic arterial hypertension (SAH) was diagnosed (290 mmHg). Despite blood and abdominal ultrasound tests, the underlying cause of the systemic hypertension could not be determined, and primary SAH was therefore suspected. Conventional echocardiography showed eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy with normal fractional shortening. Despite this apparent normal systolic function, 2D colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) identified a marked longitudinal systolic left ventricular myocardial alteration, whereas radial function was still preserved. Three months later, the dog underwent euthanasia because of an acute episode of distal aortic thromboembolism. Necropsy revealed severe aortic and iliac arteriosclerosis. SAH related to arteriosclerosis is a common finding in humans, but has not been previously described in dogs. Moreover, its consequence on longitudinal myocardial function using TDI has never been documented before in this species.

  18. Endothelial Cell Apoptosis Induces TGF-β Signaling-Dependent Host Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Promote Transplant Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xiong, J; Yang, B; Zhou, Q; Wu, Y; Luo, H; Zhou, H; Liu, N; Li, Y; Song, Z; Zheng, Q

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis is an initial event in transplant arteriosclerosis (TA), resulting in allograft function loss. To elucidate the precise mechanisms of ECs apoptosis leading to neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) accumulation during TA. We induced apoptosis in cultured ECs by overexpressing p53 through lentivirus-mediated transfection. ECs apoptosis induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in both apoptotic and neighboring viable cells, leading to increased TGF-β1 in the culture media. Conditioned media from Ltv-p53-transfected ECs further promoted transition of cultured ECs to SM-like cells by activating TGF-β/Smad3, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and MAPK/ERK signaling in a TGF-β-dependent manner. In transgenic rat aorta transplantation models, inhibition of ECs apoptosis in Bcl-xL(+/+) knock-in rat aortic allografts significantly reduced TGF-β1 production both in allograft endothelia and in blood plasma, which in turn decreased accumulation of SM22α+ cells from transgenic recipient ECs originally marked with EGFP knock-in in neointima and alleviated TA. Systemic treatment with SIS3, AP23573, or PD98059 also prevented recipient ECs-originated SM-like cells accumulation and intima hyperplasia in aortic allografts. These data suggest that allograft EC apoptosis induced recipient endothelial-mesenchymal (smooth muscle) transition via TGF-β signaling, resulting in recipient EC-derived SMC accumulation as a major mechanism of vascular remodeling during TA.

  19. Absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries: a mystery to be solved? Ausência de arteriosclerose na porção intramiocárdica das artérias coronárias: um mistério a ser resolvido?

    OpenAIRE

    Edvaldo Luiz Ramalli Jr; Leonardo Henrique Braga; Patricia Martinez Evora; Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli Albuquerque; Andrea Carla Celotto; André Lupp Mota; Paulo Roberto Barbosa Evora

    2011-01-01

    Several studies show that portions of intramyocardial coronary arteries are spared of arteriosclerosis, involving morphological, embryological, biochemical and pathophysiological aspects. Endothelial function is significantly affected in the segment of transition, as estimated by the vasoactive response to Ach. These findings suggest that myocardial bridge can provide protection against arteriosclerosis by counteracting the negative effects of endothelial dysfunction. The intramyocardial port...

  20. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities.

  1. Arteriosclerosis: facts and fancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C; Fishbein, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Arterial vascular diseases comprise the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Every physician learns about the pathology of these diseases in medical school. All pathologists evaluate arterial disease in surgical pathology and/or autopsy specimens. All clinicians encounter patients with clinical manifestations of these diseases. With such a common and clinically-important group of entities one would think there would be a general understanding of the "known" information that exists. That is, physicians and scientists should be able to separate what is fact and what is fancy. This review article is intended to generate thought in this regard.

  2. A randomized, open-label, multicentre study to evaluate plasma atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and arteriosclerosis obliterans when treated with Probucol and Cilostazol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Ma; Xiao-Hui Guo; Xin-Hua Xiao; Li-Xin Guo; Xiao-Feng Lv; Quan-Min Li; Yan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the plasma atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and arteriosclerosis obliteran (ASO) when treated with Probucol plus Cilostazol in combination and individually. Methods In this open-label study, patients aged 40-75 years were randomized to receive conventional therapy alone, or with Cilostazol 100 mg bid, or with Probucol 250 mg bid, or with both in combination. Endpoints included changes in plasma biomarker and safety at 12 weeks. Results Of the 200 randomized patients, 165 for per-protocol and 160 for the safety (QTc intervals) were set, respectively. Probucol significantly reduced total cholesterol (P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), (P = 0.01), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001) compared with conventional therapy. Cilostazol was effective in increasing HDL-C (P = 0.002) and reducing triglycerides levels (P < 0.01) compared with conventional therapy. A trend towards significance was observed for the difference between conventional therapy alone and Probucol plus Cilostazol group for the change in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL, P = 0.065). No significant effects on the majority of the remaining biomarkers were found across the treatment groups. Conclusions We have confirmed that Ox-LDL could be a possible plasma atherosclerotic biomarker among the evaluated biomarkers, which reflected the synergetic effect of Cilostazol plus Probucol in patients with T2DM and ASO shown previously in preclinical studies.

  3. Usefulness of preoperative coronary angiography and brain computed tomography in cases of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease undergoing revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Tall; Shibata, Yoshiki [Southern Tohoku Fukushima Hospital (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Coronary angiography and brain computed tomography were preoperatively performed to evaluate the clinical condition of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease in 101 patients (mean age, 68.4 years) with revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans. Eighty patients had hypertension, 12 had diabetes, and 26 had hyperlipidemia. Seventy-one patients (70.3%) had coronary stenosis. Significant stenoses in major coronary artery branches were confirmed in 35 patients, including 13 patients with old myocardial infarction. Coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary angioplasty were performed in 2 and 7 patients with critical stenosis, respectively. Of 57 patients, who underwent brain computed tomography, abnormalities were found in 52 patients (91.2%), including cortical infarction in 9, lacunar infarction in 35, and leukoaraiosis in 27 patients. During the follow-up period 13 patients died (including 3 cases of myocardial infarction and 3 cases of stroke). Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 80.4%. The influence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease on early and late mortality after surgical reconstruction for peripheral occlusive vascular disease is significant. Using visual diagnostic techniques, such as coronary angiography and brain computed tomography, long term survivor should be closely observed for multiple arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. (author)

  4. Cerebrovascular diseases in patients with arteriosclerotic aortic aneurysm and arteriosclerosis obliterans studied by carotid ultrasonography and by computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in arteriosclerotic aortic aneurysm (AA) and arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and their characteristics, 92 patients with AA and 102 patients with ASO were studied with carotid ultrasonography and brain computed tomography (CT), and were compared with 49 patients with hypertension. The mean ages of the patients were 70 to 72 years old and all were male. Hypertension was common in the AA group; diabetes and cigarette smoking were common in the ASO group. Carotid plaque lesions seen on ultrasonography were significantly more common in the AA (66%) and ASO (85%) groups than in the patients with hypertension (39%). The mean carotid diameter was significantly greater in the AA group than in the other two groups. The mean wall thicknesses in the AA and ASO groups were greater than in the patients with hypertension. Computed tomography showed that low-density areas were also common in the AA group (56%) and ASO (53%) groups than in the patients with hypertension (24%). Most of the low-density areas were thought to be lacunae or dilated perivascular spaces in the subinsula and putamen. Moderately and highly severe periventricular lucencies were also common in the AA group. These findings indicate that carotid changes, seen in AA and ASO, reflected the characteristics of arterial lesions, and that arteriosclerotic lesions were common in patients with AA and ASO. Therefore, cerebrovascular diseases should be taken into account in the management of patients with AA and ASO. (author)

  5. Cerebrovascular diseases in patients with arteriosclerotic aortic aneurysm and arteriosclerosis obliterans studied by carotid ultrasonography and by computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oyama, Tetsuo; Takasaki, Masaru [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in arteriosclerotic aortic aneurysm (AA) and arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and their characteristics, 92 patients with AA and 102 patients with ASO were studied with carotid ultrasonography and brain computed tomography (CT), and were compared with 49 patients with hypertension. The mean ages of the patients were 70 to 72 years old and all were male. Hypertension was common in the AA group; diabetes and cigarette smoking were common in the ASO group. Carotid plaque lesions seen on ultrasonography were significantly more common in the AA (66%) and ASO (85%) groups than in the patients with hypertension (39%). The mean carotid diameter was significantly greater in the AA group than in the other two groups. The mean wall thicknesses in the AA and ASO groups were greater than in the patients with hypertension. Computed tomography showed that low-density areas were also common in the AA group (56%) and ASO (53%) groups than in the patients with hypertension (24%). Most of the low-density areas were thought to be lacunae or dilated perivascular spaces in the subinsula and putamen. Moderately and highly severe periventricular lucencies were also common in the AA group. These findings indicate that carotid changes, seen in AA and ASO, reflected the characteristics of arterial lesions, and that arteriosclerotic lesions were common in patients with AA and ASO. Therefore, cerebrovascular diseases should be taken into account in the management of patients with AA and ASO. (author)

  6. Usefulness of preoperative coronary angiography and brain computed tomography in cases of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease undergoing revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary angiography and brain computed tomography were preoperatively performed to evaluate the clinical condition of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease in 101 patients (mean age, 68.4 years) with revascularization for arteriosclerosis obliterans. Eighty patients had hypertension, 12 had diabetes, and 26 had hyperlipidemia. Seventy-one patients (70.3%) had coronary stenosis. Significant stenoses in major coronary artery branches were confirmed in 35 patients, including 13 patients with old myocardial infarction. Coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary angioplasty were performed in 2 and 7 patients with critical stenosis, respectively. Of 57 patients, who underwent brain computed tomography, abnormalities were found in 52 patients (91.2%), including cortical infarction in 9, lacunar infarction in 35, and leukoaraiosis in 27 patients. During the follow-up period 13 patients died (including 3 cases of myocardial infarction and 3 cases of stroke). Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 80.4%. The influence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease on early and late mortality after surgical reconstruction for peripheral occlusive vascular disease is significant. Using visual diagnostic techniques, such as coronary angiography and brain computed tomography, long term survivor should be closely observed for multiple arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. (author)

  7. Association between Serum Homocyteine and Coronary Arteriosclerosis%血清同型半胱氨酸与冠脉病变的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝应禄; 李燕萍; 杨娴; 钱宝堂; 余海; 谷青

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血清同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hcy)水平与冠脉病变的相关性.方法 收集2010年8月至2011年9月于玉溪市人民医院心内科行冠状动脉造影的患者340例,分为冠心病组包括稳定性心绞痛(stable angina,SA)组、不稳定性心绞痛(unstable angina,UA)组、急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)组及正常对照组,所有入选对象均进行冠脉病变程度积分(Genesine积分)及血清Hcy水平测定.结果 (1)与对照组相比,冠心病组(包括SA、UA及AMI组)血清Hcy水平显著升高(P<0.Ol),与SA组相比,UA组、AMI组血清Hcy水平显著升高(P<0.01),与UA组相比,AMI组血清Hcy水平显著升高(P<0.01); (2)多元逐步线性回归分析及二元Logistic回归分析显示,除外性别、年龄、血糖、血脂等因素,血清Hcy仍与冠脉病变的严重程度相关,与斑块的不稳定性相关; (3) ROC曲线分析显示血清Hcy鉴别斑块不稳定性的敏感性和特异性优于低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)及Genesini积分.结论 血清Hcy与冠脉病变严重程度相关,且随着斑块不稳定性的增加,其水平逐渐增加.%Objective To investigate the association between serum homocyteine ( Hcy) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Methods 340 patients in our hospital who had cronary anginography were divided into 4groups: stable angina (SA) group, unatable angina (UA) group, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group and control group. Gensine score and the level of serum Hey were determinated in all cases. Results (1) Compared with control group, the serum Hey levels were significantly higher in all groups with coronary heart desease (P< 0.01) , increased in -UA group and AMI group than that of SA group (P< 0.01), higher in AMI group than that of UA group (P<0.01). (2) Mutiple stepwise linear regression analysis and Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling the effects of sex, age, blood glucose, blood fat, etal, serum Hey was still

  8. Prostaglandin E2 potentiates mesenchymal stem cell-induced IL-10+IFN-γ+CD4+ regulatory T cells to control transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Lin, Cheng-Hsin; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Jui, Hsiang-Yiang; Wu, Kenneth Kun-Yu; Lee, Chii-Ming

    2013-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their immunomodulatory functions. We previously demonstrated that bone marrow-derived MSCs effectively control transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) by enhancing IL-10(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which MSCs induce IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) regulatory T type 1 (T(R)1)-like cells. In an MLR system using porcine PBMCs, MSC-induced IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) cells, which confer resistance to allogeneic proliferation in an IL-10-dependent manner, resemble T(R)1-like cells. Both cyclooxygenase-derived PGE(2) and IDO help to induce T(R)1-like cells by MSCs. MSCs constitutively secrete PGE(2), which is augmented in allogeneic reactions. However, T(R)1-like cells were deficient in PGE(2) and 4-fold less potent than were MSCs in suppressing MLR. PGE(2) mimetic supplements can enhance the immunosuppressive potency of T(R)1-like cells. In a porcine model of allogeneic femoral arterial transplantation, MSC-induced T(R)1-like cells combined with PGE(2), but not either alone, significantly reduced TA at the end of 6 wk (percentage of luminal area stenosis: T(R)1-like cells + PGE(2): 11 ± 10%; PGE(2) alone: 93 ± 8.7%; T(R)1-like cells alone: 88 ± 2.4% versus untreated 94 ± 0.9%, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that PGE(2) helps MSC-induced IL-10(+)IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) T(R)1-like cells inhibit TA. PGE(2) combined with MSC-induced T(R)1-like cells represents a new approach for achieving immune tolerance.

  9. Melatonin Attenuates Aortic Endothelial Permeability and Arteriosclerosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of MLCK- and MLCP-Dependent MLC Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song-tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-qin; Wang, Chang-jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The development of diabetic macrovascular complications is a multifactorial process, and melatonin may possess cardiovascular protective properties. This study was designed to evaluate whether melatonin attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial permeability by suppressing the myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/myosin light-chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) system via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway or by suppressing the myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit phosphorylation (p-MYPT)/p-MLC system in diabetes mellitus (DM). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, high-fat diet, DM, and DM + melatonin groups. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. The DM significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which were attenuated by melatonin therapy to various extents. Importantly, the aortic endothelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was dramatically reversed following treatment with melatonin. Our findings further indicated that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia enhanced the expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which were partly associated with decreased membrane type 1 expression, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and increased p38 expression. However, these changes in protein expression were also significantly reversed by melatonin. Thus, our results are the first to demonstrate that the endothelial hyperpermeability induced by DM is associated with increased expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which can be attenuated by melatonin at least partly through the ERK/p38 signaling pathway.

  10. Melatonin Attenuates Aortic Endothelial Permeability and Arteriosclerosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of MLCK- and MLCP-Dependent MLC Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Song-tao; Su, Huan; Zhang, Qiu; Tang, Hai-qin; Wang, Chang-jiang; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Hua-qing; Wang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The development of diabetic macrovascular complications is a multifactorial process, and melatonin may possess cardiovascular protective properties. This study was designed to evaluate whether melatonin attenuates arteriosclerosis and endothelial permeability by suppressing the myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK)/myosin light-chain phosphorylation (p-MLC) system via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway or by suppressing the myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit phosphorylation (p-MYPT)/p-MLC system in diabetes mellitus (DM). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, high-fat diet, DM, and DM + melatonin groups. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. The DM significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, which were attenuated by melatonin therapy to various extents. Importantly, the aortic endothelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was dramatically reversed following treatment with melatonin. Our findings further indicated that hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia enhanced the expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which were partly associated with decreased membrane type 1 expression, increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, and increased p38 expression. However, these changes in protein expression were also significantly reversed by melatonin. Thus, our results are the first to demonstrate that the endothelial hyperpermeability induced by DM is associated with increased expressions of MLCK, p-MYPT, and p-MLC, which can be attenuated by melatonin at least partly through the ERK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:25944844

  11. Study of Pathogenesis and Psychological Factors of Heart Disease of Coro nary Arteriosclerosis%冠状动脉硬化性心脏病的发病机理与心理因素的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜力

    2001-01-01

    Coronary arteriosclerosis is the most common cause of de ath.The author reviewed many articles concerning the etiological risk factorts of this disease ,and based on the author's own experiences and view points,and then summarized t he pathogenesis and etiological risk factors of the diseases as follows:①life e vents;②charactors of personality-type A of behaviour;③negative mood;④Diet;⑤B ad addictions.Well treatment of these factors is effective orientations and meth ods for prevention of coronary arteriosclerosis.%冠心病为死亡原因最高的疾病,探究其发病机理为预防此病的要旨。 作者复习了有关 此病的文献,加上作者自己对它的经验体会,加以阐述。其发病机理与危险因素有下列诸点 :①生活事件;②A型行为类型;③负性情绪;④饮食因素;⑤不良嗜好。根据这些因素采 取积极措施,为预防此病的主要方向。

  12. Application of early diagnosis for arteriosclerosis by using cardio-ankle vascular index%心踝血管指数早期筛查动脉硬化的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华青; 叶良平; 刘宁徽; 赵静; 韩卫星

    2012-01-01

    目的 对心踝血管指数(CAVI)早期筛查动脉硬化的有效性、适用性进行探讨,旨在寻求早期发现动脉粥样硬化性疾病的有价值的检测方法.方法 对229例同时行CAVI检测和颈动脉超声检测的体检人群进行分析,并对相关检测结果 进行统计学分析.结果 CAVI增高和颈动脉硬化呈正相关;通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)分析CAVI对动脉硬化的预测价值,结果 显示CAVI预测动脉硬化的ROC曲线下面积为0.774,最佳界值为8.1;将年龄分组后,在40~49岁年龄组CAVI阳性率高于颈动脉超声(P<0.05);在<40岁以及>50岁年龄组,二者阳性率差异无统计学意义.结论 CAVI是一种有效的早期评估动脉粥样硬化的检测指标,适用于在发生动脉硬化的早期或对于危险人群进行筛查;CAVI达8.1以上时就可能已有血管功能改变发生,应予 以足够重视,将有利于早期发现血管病变,预防血管疾病突发事件的发生.%Objective To investigate the suitability and effectiveness of early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis by using cardio-ankle vascular index ( CAVI) , and to find out the valuable methods of early diagnosis for atherosclerosis . Methods 229 cases of health -care examination were recruited in our study. Statistic analysis was taken on relevant results of examination. Results Carotid atherosclerosis was positively correlated with CAVI. To analyze CAVI predictive value of arteriosclerosis through ROC curve , the area under the curve was 0. 774, and the best cut-off value to predict arteriosclerosis was 8. 1 Subjects were separated into different groups according to the age . The positive rates of CAVI were higher than that of carotid ultrasonography in group from 40 to 49 years old ( P < 0. 05 ) The difference between positive rates of CAVI and carotid ultrasonography were no statistic value in groups of younger than 40 years old and older than 50 years old. Conclusion CAVI is an effective

  13. 动脉硬化性闭塞症患者的健康教育效果评价%Evaluation of Health Education on Patients with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱然

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察动脉硬化性闭塞症患者健康教育的效果.方法随机选取符合条件的动脉硬化性闭塞症患者35例,由专职人员进行健康教育,包括饮食、运动、心理等指导.结果动脉硬化性闭塞症患者接受健康教育后,知识知晓率提高了28.58%、健康教育前后经配对秩和检验,差异有统计学意义(Z=-5.716,P<0.01);遵医行为明显改善(Z=-5.333,P<0.01)、自我管理能力有所提高(Z=-2.200,P<0.05),血脂降低(Z= -3.79,P<0.01),3方面差异均有统计学意义.结论通过对动脉硬化性闭塞症患者的健康教育,增加了患者治疗的信心,减轻了症状,增强了保健意识,提高了生活质量.%[Objective]To observe the health education effect on patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans. [Methods] A total of 35 eligible patients with atherosclerotic occlusion were randomly selected who were educated about health knowledge, including diet, ex-ercice and psychological guidance, by full-time staff, [Results] After health education, awareness rate of patients with arteriosclero-sis obliterans increased by 28. 38% which was significant before and after health education by the paired Wilcoxon test (Z = -5. 716,P= 0.001). Compliance Behavior of patients had improved (Z = -5.333, P = 0.001). Self-management of patients had enhanced(Z= -2.200, P=0.028). Serum lipids of patients had reduced (Z= -3.79,P = 0.001). These differences were all significant. [ Conclusion] Health education on patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans increases their confidence in the treatment, relieves symptoms, increases their health awareness and improves their quality of life.

  14. Pharmaceutical Care for One Elderly Patient with Acute Bronchitis Associated with Cerebral Arteriosclerosis%1例老年急性支气管炎并脑动脉硬化患者的药学监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨临床药师参与药物治疗方案的制订与药学监护的方法。方法:介绍临床药师参与1例老年急性支气管炎并脑动脉硬化患者的治疗过程,分析、评价治疗方案,提出药学建议,并进行药学监护。结果:通过药师的介入与参与可使患者的治疗更加顺利,真正做到了对老年急性支气管炎并脑动脉硬化患者的治疗个体化,使患者顺利治愈出院。结论:临床药师的参与可以协助医师制订安全、有效的治疗方案。%OBJECTIVE:To explore the approaches for clinical pharmacist to participate in the formulation of treatment regi-men and carry out pharmaceutical care. METHODS:Clinical pharmacist’involvement in the treatment of one elderly patient with acute bronchitis associated with cerebral arteriosclerosis was introduced with regard to his efforts in analyzing and evaluating thera-peutic regimen,putting forward pharmacy suggestion and providing pharmaceutical care. RESULTS:Pharmacist’s involvement con-tributed to smooth treatment of the patient and effectuated the individualized treatment for the elderly patient with acute bronchitis associated with cerebral arteriosclerosis and the patient was cured and discharged from hospital. CONCLUSIONS:Clinical pharma-cist’s involvement can help clinical physicians in formulating safe and effective treatment regimen.

  15. 超声检查右锁骨下动脉对早期动脉粥样硬化的临床价值%Value of Ultrasound Detection of Right Subclavian Artery in Early Diagno-sis of Arteriosclerosis and Attitude to Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾慧霞; 张建宾; 金蓉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To search the parts of the arteriosclerosis by using high-resolusion Doppler Ultrasonography on 428 patients of more than 40 years with carotid and right subclavian atherosclerosis patch. Methods High-resolusion Doppler Ultrasonography was used to scan carotid artery and the initial right subclavian artery to observe the pathologic structures. Results 1. Elderly patient,age of 40~49,carot-id atherosclerosis patch incidence rate is 22. 9%,which was the lowest rate. Otherwise,the highest one was age≥70,94%. And detectable rate of arteriosclerosis patch was increased by age. 2. Patients in group of age 40~49:the detectable rate of arteriosclerosis patch at initial part of right subclavian artery were lower than the detectable rates of arteriosclerosis patch at bifurcation of common carotid artery(P﹤0. 01). 3. In group of age 50~59,patients who was detected arteriosclerosis patch on both initial part of right subclavian artery and the bifurcation of common carotid artery,the thickness of arteriosclerosis at initial part of right subclavian ar-tery were thicker than the thickness of arteriosclerosis at the bifurcation of common carotid artery(P﹤0. 05). Conclusion The arteriosclerosis firstly occurred in the initial part of right subclavian artery. The thickness of arteriosclerosis patch at initial part of right subclavian artery is thicker than bifurcation of common carotid artery among the patients in group of age 40~59.%目的:通过对428例40岁以上受试者颈动脉及锁骨下动脉动脉粥样硬化性病变(以下简称为病变)的彩色多普勒超声诊断,探讨动脉斑块早期好发部位。方法采用彩色多普勒超声对428例受试者进行双侧颈动脉及右锁骨下动脉起始处进行探测,观察病变的有无、发生部位、发生时间。结果年龄在40~49组病变检出率最低,约为29.9%,而≥70岁组检出率最高约为94.0%,年龄与病变检出率之间存在正相关关系。40~49岁受试

  16. 膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症的介入治疗%Treatment and Research of Arteriosclerosis Obliterians for Infrapopliteal Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 张志伟; 吴继东; 刘宏; 赵京; 李新宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the approaches , nodi, therapies of complications and prognosis of endovascular treatment for patients with infrapopliteal arteries arteriosclerosis obliterians ( ASO) .Methods:We conducted endovascular treatment for 72 patients ( 84 limbs ) between January 2008 and December 2012 and punctured femoral artery antegrade or retrograde , made lower extremity artery angiography , then used guide wire and catheter getting through the artery stenosis or occlusion .If failed, subintimal angioplasty was tried .Balloon was introduced with guiding wire to dilatating the vascular .After expansion , artery angiography was made to e-valuate if there existed residual stenosis , when residual stenosis was greater than 30%, tried again .If arterial dissection occurred , drug-coated stent was implanted .Results:84 limbs underwent endovascular treatment and 82 achieved angiographic success with 97.6%clinical success rate .16 cases with intermittent claudication in-creased claudicating distance of 500 m (50-2 500 m), resting pain of 43 cases lightened or disappeared , toe ulcer of 8 cases healed with dressing change after 3 months, 1 toe ulcer case autologous saphenous vein bypass because of in-stent thrombosis.3 cases with toe gangrene took operations and the wound healed in 3 months.1 case with anterior half foot gangrene took below -knee amputation .Conclusions:Endovascular treatment is a safe and effective method for infrapopliteal arteries ASO , and which can be repeated , achieve a high clinical success rate with a low complication rate and a high limb salvage rate .%目的:探讨膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症腔内治疗的方法、难点、并发症处理以及预后。方法:2008年1月至2011年12月,采用介入方法治疗膝以下动脉硬化闭塞症72例(84条肢体)。采取股总动脉顺行或逆行穿刺,下肢动脉造影,以导丝配合导管通过动脉狭窄段,或开通动脉闭塞段;开通失败者,尝试内膜下

  17. The Clinical Research of Gegen Qinlian Decoction in Treating with Carotid Arteriosclerosis Pa-tientsSleeping Quality%葛根芩连汤对颈动脉硬化患者睡眠质量影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小波; 王宁群; 陈玉静; 吴犀翎; 陈文强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the difference of diazepam and Gegen Qinlian Decoction in treating with carotid ar-teriosclerosis patientsinsomnia.Methods 112 carotid arteriosclerosis patients were divided into two groups.One group was treated with diazepam,and the other group was treated with Gegen Qinlian Decoction.Patients in both groups were treated for 6 weeks.And their sleeping qualities were estimated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI);the side effects were estimated by Treatment emergent symptoms scale (TESS).Results Diazepam could significantly improve patientssleeping quality,sleeping time and total score.And Gegen Qinlian Decoction could significantly improve patientssleeping quality,sleeping time,sleeping effective,sleeping pill,day function and total score.Compared with diazepam,Gegen Qinlian Decoction could significantly im-prove patientssleeping quality,sleeping effective,sleeping pill,day function and total score;and had fewer side effects.Conclu-sion Chinese medicine gave much attention to carotid arteriosclerosis insomnia patientsspecial physiological character,and Chi-nese medicine could adjust personsyin and yang,based on their total body.So,Chinese medicine had a better clinical effective in improving aged insomnia patientssleeping quality.%目的:分别使用葛根芩连汤和安定对颈动脉硬化失眠患者进行治疗,研究两者在改善患者睡眠质量方面的差异。方法将112例颈动脉硬化失眠症患者随机分为2组,治疗组给予葛根芩连汤,对照组给予安定2.5 mg,共治疗6周。采用《匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表》(PSQI)评定睡眠质量;《治疗副反应量表》(TESS)评定药物干预后出现的不良反应。结果安定组患者睡眠质量,入睡时间及 PSQI 总分均有显著改善。葛根芩连汤组患者睡眠质量,入睡时间,睡眠效率,安眠药物,日间功能及总分均较治疗前有极显著改善。与安定组比较,葛

  18. Evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for treatment of infrapopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans%经皮腔内血管成形术治疗膝下动脉粥样硬化闭塞症的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉超; 黄英; 李维敏; 陆信武; 黄新天; 陆民; 蒋米尔

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty ( PTA )on the treatment of infrapopliteal arteriosclerosis obliterans( ASOs ). Methods From Jan. 2007 to Jun. 2011, clinical data of patients with infrapopliteal ASO undergoing PTA at our department were retrospectively reviewed. Results Infrapopliteal PTA was performed on 138 lower limbs for 138 patients( mean age,77. 31 ±7. 52 year - old ). The mean diameter of balloon catheters used for infrapopliteal arteries was 2. 8 mm( 2 mm ~4 mm ), with the mean length of 110. 6 mm( 40 mm ~ 170 mm ). There were no severe complications occurring intraoperatively or postoperatively. Early results showed that all patients had significant improvement in ischemic symptoms( 100% ), and no patients had limb loss. During a mean follow -up of 24. 1 months( 4 ~ 58 months ), the rate of improvement in ischemic symptoms for treated limbs was 78. 4% and the limb salvage rate was 93. 9% at 2 years. Conclusion Minimal invasive PTA for the treatment of infrapopliteal ASO is safe and effective for improving ischemic symptoms of lower limbs and limb salvage.%目的 评价经皮腔内血管成形术(percutaneous transluminal angioplasty,PTA)治疗膝下动脉粥样硬化闭塞症(arteriosclerosis obliterans,ASO)的疗效.方法 回顾性研究2007年1月至2011年6月我科收治的累及膝下动脉ASO并行PTA治疗的患者的临床资料.结果 138例患者,平均年龄(77.31±7.52)岁,治疗膝下动脉所用球囊平均直径 2.8mm(2~4mm),平均长度110.6mm(40~170mm),术中及术后无严重并发症.术后早期治疗肢体临床症状明显改善率为100%,无截肢患者.平均随访24.1个月(4~58个月),治疗肢体术后2年临床症状明显改善率78.4%,救肢率93.9%.结论 PTA治疗膝下动脉ASO可有效改善临床缺血症状并提高救肢率.

  19. Applications of TCD assay in detection on cerebral arteriosclerosis of hypertensive patients%经颅多普勒超声在高血压患者脑动脉硬化检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩莉莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究健康体检中高血压患者脑动脉硬化经颅多普勒(TCD)检测的应用.方法 回顾性分析2010年7月~2011年7月在开封市第一人民医院体检科进行健康体检中高血压患者1 055例TCD检测结果及相关临床资料(年龄、性别、临床诊断、遗传病史等),研究TCD改变与临床的关系,为血压增高者的脑血管功能学评价提供客观血流动力学资料.结果 进行TCD检查的1 055例被检者中,脑动脉硬化频谱改变518例;颈内动脉系统单支或多支血管收缩期血流速度增高703例,其中,涡流及湍流54例;收缩期血流速度减低16例;椎基底动脉系统收缩期血流速度增高599例、减低8例.由统计学分析可知,除在男70~90岁组、女60~组外,余病例组动脉硬化检出率均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义.在去除年龄因素的作用后,可认为男、女高血压患病均与动脉硬化有关(CMH x 男2=52.384,x 女2=13.747,均P<0.001);另ORMH 男=2.861,ORMH 女=1.718,说明男性高血压患者发生脑动脉硬化的优势比为2.861、女性高血压患者发生脑动脉硬化的优势比为1.718.TCD检测异常率高于被检者对相关疾病的知晓率.结论 TCD检测可较灵敏地反映高血压时脑血管的血流动力学改变,在高血压患者脑动脉硬化的血管功能学评价及指导临床治疗中具有重要意义.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the applications of TCD detection in physical examination of cerebral arteriosclerosis of hypertensive patients. METHODS We reviewed and analyzed the 1 055 samples of hypertension patients in Health Examination Department of Kaifeng First People's Hospital with their TCD inspected results and clinical data including of age, gender, clinical diagnosis and genetic disease from July 2010 to July 2011. Then we investigated the relationship between changes of TCD and clinical phenomenons to provide objective hemodynamic data of cerebral vascular functional

  20. 亚高原地区高血压与外周动脉硬化相关性探讨%Correlation between hypertension and peripheral arteriosclerosis in people from sub-plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 李琼; 魏玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨亚高原城镇人群高血压与外周动脉硬化的相关性.方法 随机从2009年10月~2010年4月昆明城镇企事业单位到我院体检的18岁以上人群中,抽取检出血压异常且符合高血压诊断标准的受检者1000名作为高血压组,同时随机抽取673名体检提示血压正常者作为对照组,采用日本科林公司生产的VP-1000全自动测量仪对两组患者作肱踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)及踝臂指数(ABI)测量.结果 高血压组baPWV值明显高于对照组(P<0.01),ABI≤0.9检出率明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 亚高原地区城镇人群高血压与动脉硬化密切相关,选择对动脉僵硬度有影响的降压药物,有效控制血压,同时指导患者进行间断性适量的有氧运动,对预防及延缓高血压靶器官损害及心血管事件的发生,延长患者寿命具有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the correlation between hypertension and peripheral arteriosclerosis in people from sub -plateau towns. Methods Among subjects( above 18 years old )from enterprise or government units in Kunming City receiving physical examination in our hospital from October 2009 to April 2010,1000 ones who met the diagnostic criteria of hypertension were randomly selected and served as hypertension group. Another 673 ones with normal blood pressure were randomly selected as control group. The brachial ankle pulse wave velocity( baPWV )and ankle brachial index( ABI )of all subjects were detected by the Japanese Colin VP -1000 automatic measuring instrument. Results Both baPWV and the detection rate of ABI ^ 0. 9 in the hypertension group were significantly higher than those in the control group( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion There is a close correlation between hypertension and arteriosclerosis in people from the sub - plateau towns. Antihypertensive drugs that can affect the arterial stiffness should be chosen to control peoples blood pressure. Moreover, they should be guided to take

  1. 下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症介入治疗的回顾性分析%Interventional Revascularization of the Lower Limbs Arteriosclerosis Obliterans:A Retrospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正阳; 鲁海涛; 朱悦琦; 谭华桥; 赵俊功

    2012-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症(arteriosclerosis obliterans,ASO)介入治疗的临床疗效和通畅率.方法 从2009年10月到2011年7月,32例(39条下肢)下肢ASO患者在上海交通大学附属第六人民医院行介入治疗.回顾性分析32例ASO患者的血管造影图像,根据病变长度和程度分级.对手术成功患者随访,随访期3 ~16个月,平均随访期(8.7±1.9)个月.随访期内每3个月进行一次下肢MRA或CTA检查,并搜集相关临床资料.结果 技术成功率93%,踝肱指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)从术前的0.47±0.11提高至术后的0.68±0.02,在随访期末20例取得了稳定疗效,总的通畅率为77%,保肢率为97%.结论 介入治疗ASO安全可行,取得了良好的临床效果及通畅率,其长期疗效尚需进一步观察.%Objective To retrospectively evaluated the clinical efficacy of interventional revascularization for lower limbs arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Methods From Oct 2009 to July 2011, 32 patients (39 limbs) with lower limbs ASO performed interventional revascularization in our center. Angiography was retrospectively analyzed, and every lesion categorized and classified according to its length and severity. The mean follow up period was 3 - 162 months, mean 8.7 ± 1.9 months. Lower limb magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed every 3 months during follow-up. The clinical data were collected. Results 93% technical success rate was obtained. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) improved from 0. 47 ±0. 11 to 0. 68 ± 0. 02. At the end of follow up, 20 patients maintained a stable outcome, gained a 77% patency rate and 97% limb salvage rate. Conclusion Interventional revascularization is safe and feasible in the treatment of lower limbs ASO. With encouraging clinical outcome and patency rate, further research is warranted to evaluate long-term outcome.

  2. 杂交手术治疗下肢多节段动脉闭塞32例%Hybrid operation for the treatment of multifocal lesions in arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐波; 刘冰; 王海洋; 单鹏; 王海君; 李海斌; 王青山; 黄任平; 韩鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate hybrid operation for arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower extremity. Methods Clinical data of 35 ischemic limbs in 32 ASO cases receiving hybrid operation from May, 2007 to August, 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The indications, clinical result,complications, perioperative mortality, vascular patency rate and limb salvage rate was evaluated.Results Thirty-five ischemic limbs in 32 cases underwent hybrid operation. Procedures were successful in 94% cases (33/35). The average postoperative ABI significantly increased from 0.49 ±0. 18 to 1.06 ± 0. 17 ( one day after surgery) or 0. 96 ± 0. 16 ( six months after therapy). One patient suffered limb amputation due to surgical failure, one case was complicated with cerebral infarction and the operation was terminated. No patient died in perioperative period. Twenty-six cases (28 ischemia limbs) were followed-up from 2 month to 28 months, the follow-up rate was 87% (26/30). Vascular patency rate in 6 months after operation was 93% (26/28), and limb salvage rate was 96% (27/28). Two cases suffered from below-knee reocclusion 5 -6 months after therapy, and one of these two cases needed a limb amputation.Conclusion Hybrid operation is the therapy of choice for multifocal lesions in arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower extremities with a low risk and higher patency in short term.%目的 探讨杂交手术对下肢多节段动脉闭塞性病变的治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析2007年5月至2009年8月接受杂交手术的32例(35条下肢)多节段动脉闭塞性病变的临床资料,探讨杂交手术的适应证、治疗效果、并发症、围手术期死亡率、血管通畅率及保肢率.结果 33条患肢获得手术成功,成功率为94%(33/35).患者术后次日、术后6个月的踝肱指数(ABI)分别为1.06±0.17与0.96±0.16.与术前(0.49±0.18)相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).2例手术失败中1例因术中并发脑梗死,终止手术;1例膝下

  3. 308例老年高血压病患者动脉硬化检测结果分析%Analysis of Examination Results of Arteriosclerosis of 308 High Blood-pressure Senior Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雯; 曾小茹; 莫发敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解老年高血压病患者动脉硬化情况。方法:随机抽取到本院门诊就诊或住院的老年高血压病患者308例进行动脉硬化检测,测定其肱踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)及踝臂指数(ABI),将检测结果与同期到本院进行健康体检的100例老年健康人群进行比较分析。结果:(1)老年高血压病患者的baPWV显著高于健康对照组,ABI明显低于健康对照组。(2)高血压病患者随着血压分级的升高, baPWV依序升高,ABI依序降低。(3)并发冠心病或脑卒中的高血压病患者,baPWV显著高于无并发症者,ABI明显低于无并发症者。(4) baPWV重度异常组,同型半胱胺酸、高脂血症、并发冠心病或脑卒中、糖尿病、吸烟等危险因素明显高于baPWV轻度或中度异常组。结论:高血压是引起动脉硬化及动脉粥样硬化的独立危险因素;高血压病患者随着血压分级升高,动脉硬化程度加重;baPWV和ABI是冠心病或脑卒中的独立预测因子;高血压病患者危险因子越多,动脉硬化程度越重。%Objective:To understand the detail situation of arteriosclerosis with senior high blood-pressure patients.Method:308 cases of senior high blood-pressure patients were randomly selected from outpatients or hospitalized patients. Brachial ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV)and anklearm index(ABI)were performed in all patients. The baPWV and ABI differences were compared between senior high blood-pressure patients and elderly healthy person,which were randomly selected from the physical examination branch physical exam in the same time.Result:(1)The baPWV values of senior high blood-pressure patients were significantly higher than that of the healthy group,while the ABI values of seniorhigh blood-pressure patients were obviously lower.(2)With the grade of blood pressure moving higher,The baPWV value of high blood-pressure patients went higher,while the ABI value

  4. 彩色多普勒超声在下肢动脉粥样硬化诊断中的应用价值%The application value of Color Doppler ultrasound in diagnose of lower limb Arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2012-01-01

      Objective To explore The application Value of the color Doppler ultrasound in lower limb arteriosclerosis diagnosis Methods From 2009 May to 2012 May in our hospital, color Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis of lower limb atherosclerosis clinical data, analyze the disease diagnosis application value. Results The color Doppler ultrasound can effectively monitor the treatment of lower limb atherosclerosis of lower extremity atherosclerosis, the wall thickness, arterial diameter and other aspects of the effective diagnosis. Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound ( CDu ) has become the current noninvasive diagnosis of lower limb atherosclerosis is the preferred method, it is clearly in the two-dimensional display a vascular lesion of the anatomical changes, and by color Doppler flow imaging, provides a wealth of lower limb blood vessels in hemodynamic information.%  目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声在下肢动脉粥样硬化诊断中的应用价值。方法 总结2009年5月—2012年5月,该院彩色多普勒超声诊断下肢动脉粥样硬化的临床资料,分析并探讨其在本病诊断中的应用价值。结果 彩色多普勒超声能有效监测下肢动脉粥样硬化的治疗,对下肢动脉粥样硬化的壁厚度、动脉内径等方面进行了有效的诊断。结论 彩色多普勒超声(cDU)已成为了目前无创性检查下肢动脉粥样硬化的首选方法,它既清晰地在二维上显示了血管病变的解剖结构改变,又经过彩色多普勒的血流显像,提供了丰富的下肢血管内血流动力学的信息。

  5. Subclinical arteriosclerosis screening. The PAP/PEA study. Prevalenza dell'Arteriosclerosi Precoce (Prevalence of Early Arteriosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Geroulakos, G; Laurora, G; Cesarone, M R; de Sanctis, M T; Incandela, L; Barsotti, A; Nicolaides, A N

    1994-04-01

    Noninvasive screening of subclinical atherosclerosis is possible with ultrasonic biopsy (UB) performed with high resolution ultrasound scanning. Five UB classes have been identified, each class corresponding to a different incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) in 4 years and silent coronary ischemia (SCI). In a study including 2230 asymptomatic subjects 3 risk groups were defined. In the low risk group (class I and II; 82.01% of the population sample) the incidence of CVE and SCI was zero. These subjects may be seen again after 3 years. In the moderate risk group (class II and IV; 13.3%) monitoring and early intervention may be needed. In the high risk group (class V; 4.6%) prophylaxis or treatment may be necessary. The screening is effective, simple and may be organised at very low cost--i.e. 30.000 asymptomatic subjects may be scanned at the cost of 100.000 ECU. Each scan, including carotid and femoral bifurcations, may be performed in 15 minutes. In our communities this cost is equivalent to the average cost of a single major stroke or major coronary ischemic event in a working adult aging between 45 and 60. Organization problems and the fragmentation of competences has prevented the evolution of atherosclerosis screening. The problem can be solved organising a network including epidemiologists, angiologists and cardiovascular surgical centres where all phases of atherosclerosis may be studied and detected, progression prevented and complications treated with a global vision of the disease. PMID:8195271

  6. Role of progenitor cells in transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; Onuta, G; Rozing, J

    2005-01-01

    To date, chronic transplant dysfunction (CTD) is recognized as the major cause of transplant loss long term after transplantation. CTD has the remarkable histologic feature that the luminal areas of the intragraft arteries become obliterated as a result of occlusive neointima formation. Neointimal l

  7. Analysis of risk factors related with carotid atherosclerotic arteriosclerosis in a Chinese young and middle-aged population who received health checkup%中青年体检人群颈动脉粥样硬化及相关危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温小恒; 徐腾达; 盖小荣; 孙杰; 莎仁高娃

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between carotid artery atherosclerosis and risk factor in a young and middle-aged population in China who received health checkup.Methods A total of 762 cases of young and middle-aged adult were recruited between April and October in 2013.These subjects had no hypertension,diabetes,coronary heart disease,cerebrovascular disease,and connective tissue disease,etc.Their Blood pressure,serum glucose (Glu),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured and carotid artery ultrasonography was performed.Of the 762 cases,589 were male,173 were female,mean age was (46 ± 9) years.For blood pressure,blood lipids,the t test was performed to detect the difference between arteriosclerosis group and non arteriosclerosis group in different age groups.Logistic regression was performed to reveal the risk factors with carotid arteriosclerosis.Results Of the 762 subjects,205 had carotid artery atherosclerosis; 30.2% (178/589) of them were men and 15.6%(27/173) of them were women,with a significant difference between two groups,(x2=14.522,P=0.000).In the younger than 40 years old group,the diastolic blood pressure has statistical significance between carotid arteriosclerosis and non carotid arteriosclerosis group (t=-2.789,P< 0.05); blood sugar had statistically significant difference between the two groups (t value was-2.256,-2.930,-2.174,respectivly,P<0.05).Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent risk factors for carotid artery arteriosclerosis were age,sex,DBP,and Glu.The regression coefficients were 0.993,0.711,0.047,0.334 seperately.The ROC curve of age was analyzed,the area under the ROC curve was 0.731,cut-off was 51 years old.Conclusions Routine carotid artery ultrasound should be performed for older than 50 healthy middle-aged men,to determine whether arteriosclerosis exists,especially for people with abnormal blood glucose or elevated DBP.%目的 分

  8. 腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症所致间歇性跛行的临床诊治%Clinical treatment of the intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东馗; 吴义生; 庞小建; 李立军

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the principle of diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans. Method Eighteen cases of patients with intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans, using MRI and MRA, to determine the main reason due to of disease, to take the treatment for the cause. Results The patients were followed up for 7 to 24 months, average (16.0 ± 4.7) months. Assessed according to the modified MacNab criteria of clinical efficacy, excellent in 7 cases, good in 8 cases, general in 3 cases,satisfactory rate was 83.3%(15/18). Intermittent claudication were improved with all patients, walking distance of more than 1000 meters, relief rate was 100%. Postoperative ankle brachial score(0.90±0.54 ) was obviously increased compared with preoperative average(0.58±0.36), there was significant statistical difference(P<0.01). All cases were not amputee due to circulation disturbance. Conclusion The diagnosis and treatment of intermittent claudication caused by lumbar spine disease combined lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans,it is necessary to collect a history of serious and careful investigation,combined with imaging, can accurately determine the responsibility of lesions, target to give the appropriate treatment, can get a good effect%目的 探讨腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症所致间歇性跛行的诊治原则.方法 对18例患有腰椎疾病同时合并下肢动脉闭塞症的患者,利用MRI和MRA检查判定所致患者疾病的主要病因,采取针对病因的适宜治疗.结果 本组病例全部获得随访,随访时间7~24(16.0±4.7)个月.按改良MacNab标准评定临床疗效,优7例,良8例,可3例,优良率为83.3%(15/18).全部病例间歇性跛行明显改善,行走距离超过1000m,改善率100%.术后踝肱指数(ABI)0.90±0.54,较术前(0.58±0.36)明显增

  9. Effects of cilostazol on the highsensitive creactive protein, blood lipid and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in elderly patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans%西洛他唑对老年下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者超敏C反应蛋白、血脂及基质金属蛋白酶-9的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永升; 魏梅; 刘会英; 岳媛媛; 王乐; 张慧敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨西洛他唑对老年下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者超敏C反应蛋白(Hs-CRP)、血脂及基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)的影响. 方法 选择老年下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者60例,随机分为基本治疗组和西洛他唑组,同时以30例健康体检人员作为对照组.观察治疗后各组Hs-CRP、血脂及MMP-9的变化. 结果 治疗后基本治疗组血脂变化不明显,西洛他唑组总胆固醇(TC)水平明显下降,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)显著上升.治疗后2组Hs-CRP、MMP-9水平均明显下降,西洛他唑组下降幅度大于基本治疗组. 结论 西洛他唑通过降低炎性因子浓度,调解血脂,降低Hs-CRP、MMP-9等途径改善下肢血管病变患者症状.%Objective To observe the effects of Cilostazol on the highsensitive creactive protein ( Hs-CRP) , blood lipid and matrix metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP-9) in elderly patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans. Methods Sixty aged patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans were randomly assigned to conventional therapy group (group A) and Cilostazol group (group B). Thirty healthy people were selected as the normal group. Hs-CRP, blood lipid and MMP-9 in blood serum were measured be fore and after therapy. Results After therapy the level of blood lipid in blood serum of group A had not a marked change. But the level of high density lipoprotein of group B increased obviously. At the same time the level of Hs-CRP and MMP-9 decreased. The degree of decrease in group B was more significant than that in group A. Conclusions The therapy of Cilostazol can adjust blood lipid metabolism, decrease inflammatory factors and improve symptoms.

  10. The effect observation of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease%瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀抗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe The effect of rosuvastatin and simvastatin on elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease.Methods:65 cases of elderly patients with lower extremity arterial disease were divided into two groups.The experimental group selected rosuvastatin treatment,and the control group selected simvastatin treatment.Results:After treatment,the experimental group of TC,TG,HDL-C,LDL-C,hs-CRP were significant improved;after treatment,the lower extremity arterial intima-media thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening strength ratings are[1(1,1)],and the differences were statistically significant with the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Rosuvastatin and simvastatin play a role in the treatment of elderly patients with lower limb arteriosclerosis disease,but rosuvastatin effect is ideal.Its lipid levels and endometrial thickness,arterial stenosis,plaque,hardening intensity scores improve significantly.%目的:观察瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀治疗老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病的临床效果。方法:收治老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病患者65例,分两组,试验组选择瑞舒伐他汀治疗,对照组选择辛伐他汀治疗。结果:试验组治疗后 TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C、hs-CRP均出现明显的改善趋势,其治疗后下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分均为[1(1,1)],与对照组治疗后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:瑞舒伐他汀与辛伐他汀在老年人下肢动脉硬化疾病治疗中均能发挥一定的作用,但瑞舒伐他汀效果较为理想,其血脂水平与下肢动脉内膜厚度、动脉狭窄、斑块、硬化强度评分改善明显。

  11. Absence of arteriosclerosis in intramyocardial coronary arteries: a mystery to be solved? Ausência de arteriosclerose na porção intramiocárdica das artérias coronárias: um mistério a ser resolvido?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Luiz Ramalli Jr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show that portions of intramyocardial coronary arteries are spared of arteriosclerosis, involving morphological, embryological, biochemical and pathophysiological aspects. Endothelial function is significantly affected in the segment of transition, as estimated by the vasoactive response to Ach. These findings suggest that myocardial bridge can provide protection against arteriosclerosis by counteracting the negative effects of endothelial dysfunction. The intramyocardial portion's protection phenomenon deserves further scientific research on all research fronts. Improved morphological, biomechanical and especially physiological and embryological knowledge may be the key to a future window of opportunity for chronic arterial disease therapy and prevention. In addition, this review discusses possible therapeutic approaches for symptomatic coronary ischemia caused by myocardial bridgesDiversos estudos demonstram que as porções intramiocárdicas das artérias coronárias são poupadas da arteriosclerose, envolvendo aspectos morfológicos, embriológicos, biomecânicos e aspectos fisiopatológicos. A função endotelial é significativamente afetada no segmento de transição, tal como estimado pela resposta vasoativa para acetilcolina (Ach. Esses achados sugerem que ponte miocárdica pode fornecer proteção contra a arteriosclerose, por contrariar os efeitos negativos da disfunção endotelial. O fenômeno dessa proteção da porção intramiocárdica merece maior investigação científica em todas as frentes de pesquisa. Maiores conhecimentos sobre os aspectos morfológicos, biomecânicos e, principalmente, fisiológicos e embriológicos podem ser a chave para uma futura janela de oportunidades de terapia e prevenção da doença arterial crônica. Nessa revisão, discutem-se, também, possíveis abordagens terapêuticas para fenômenos coronarianos isquêmicos causados por pontes miocárdicas

  12. 载脂蛋白E基因多态性与中国人阿尔茨海默病 和颈动脉粥样硬化相关性研究%Association between ApoE gene polymorphism and Alzheimer’s disease and Carotic arteriosclerosis in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静芳; 陈彪; 柏华; 董秀敏; 武剑; 陈保生; 贾建平

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between apoE gene polymorphism and sporadic Alzheimers disease(SAD) and Carotic arteriosclerosis (CAS). ApoE gene distribution was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in 46 SAD, 31 CAS and 50 normal controls. The ApoE 4 allele frequency was increased in both SAD and CAS as compared to controls. While the ApoE 2 allele frequency was much higher in CAS as compared to SAD. The ApoE 4 allele of ApoE gene may be risk factors for both SAD and CAS in Chinese, while the ApoE 2 allele genes may protect CAS individuals from SAD.%为了探讨中国散发性阿尔茨海默病(SAD)及颈动脉粥样硬化(CAS)与ApoE基因多态性的关系,应用聚合酶链式反应——限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术检测46名SAD患者、31名CAS患者及50名正常老年人的ApoE基因多态性分布特征。结果显示SAD组及CAS组ApoE ε4等位基因频率均高于对照组(P<0.05):SAD组为15.2%, CAS组为14.5%, 对照组为3.0%;但CAS组ApoE ε2等位基因频率明显高于SAD组(P<0.05):CAS组为41.9%, SAD组为21.7%。本研究提示ApoE4等位基因是SAD和CAS的共同危险因素,但ApoE2等位基因对CAS病人患AD具有保护作用。

  13. The effects of different hydration strategies before endovascular treatments to the renal function of the arteriosclerosis obliterans patients%下肢动脉硬化闭塞症腔内治疗不同水化方案对患者肾功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雅亭; 熊江; 郭伟; 刘小平; 尹太; 贾鑫; 马晓辉; 杜昕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacies of different hydration strategies in protecting the renal function of the arteriosclerosis obliterans(ASO) patients undergoing endovascular treatments. Methods 40 patients who underwent endovascular treatments for arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities in the Vascular Surgery Department of PLA Hospital from January 2009 to October 2009 were divided into normal (eerumcreatinine≤110 μmol/L) and abnormal (serum creatine > 110 μmol/L) groups according to their baseline serum concentration of creatinine before treatments. Each group was treated by different hydration strategies 12 h before procedures. Changes of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were measured 6,24,48 h after procedures to evaluate the changes of renal function and the effects of different hydration strategies. Results No contrast-induced nephopathy (CIN) was observed among the 40 patients. There are significant differences between normal saline hydration group and control group in the changes of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance 24 h and 48 h after exposure to contrast medium for the normal renal function patients ( P < 0. 05 ). For the patients pre-existing renal dysfunction, no significant difference was found between Sodium Bicarbonate + Saline group and Saline group in the changes of Scr and Ccr 6,24,48 h after exposure to contrast medium(P >0. 05). Conclusion Sodium chloride provides a good efficacy for preventing the adverse effect of contrast medium to the renal function of theASO patients. For the patients pre-existing renal dysfunction, Combination hydration with sodium bicarbonate is not more effective than normal saline alone in preventing contrast-induced renal dysfunction.%目的 比较不同水化方案对行腔内治疗的下肢动脉硬化闭塞症(ASO)患者肾功能的保护作用.方法 2009年1-10月解放军总医院血管外科行腔内治疗的40例ASO患者,根据术前基础肌酐水平分

  14. Tissue-intrinsic dysfunction of circadian clock confers transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Anea, Ciprian B; Yao, Lin; Chen, Feng; Patel, Vijay; Merloiu, Ana; Pati, Paramita; Caldwell, R William; Fulton, David J; Rudic, R Daniel

    2011-10-11

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain is the circadian center, relaying rhythmic environmental and behavioral information to peripheral tissues to control circadian physiology. As such, central clock dysfunction can alter systemic homeostasis to consequently impair peripheral physiology in a manner that is secondary to circadian malfunction. To determine the impact of circadian clock function in organ transplantation and dissect the influence of intrinsic tissue clocks versus extrinsic clocks, we implemented a blood vessel grafting approach to surgically assemble a chimeric mouse that was part wild-type (WT) and part circadian clock mutant. Arterial isografts from donor WT mice that had been anastamosed to common carotid arteries of recipient WT mice (WT:WT) exhibited no pathology in this syngeneic transplant strategy. Similarly, when WT grafts were anastamosed to mice with disrupted circadian clocks, the structural features of the WT grafts immersed in the milieu of circadian malfunction were normal and absent of lesions, comparable to WT:WT grafts. In contrast, aortic grafts from Bmal1 knockout (KO) or Period-2,3 double-KO mice transplanted into littermate control WT mice developed robust arteriosclerotic disease. These lesions observed in donor grafts of Bmal1-KO were associated with up-regulation in T-cell receptors, macrophages, and infiltrating cells in the vascular grafts, but were independent of hemodynamics and B and T cell-mediated immunity. These data demonstrate the significance of intrinsic tissue clocks as an autonomous influence in experimental models of arteriosclerotic disease, which may have implications with regard to the influence of circadian clock function in organ transplantation.

  15. [Arteriosclerosis obliterans. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orea, A; Valdés, R; Niebla, L; Rivas, R; Camacho, B

    1990-01-01

    We compare the effects of two of the main angiotensin convertase enzyme inhibitors, captopril and enalapril, aiming to evaluate their effects in the arterial circulation performance, micro-circulation, and changes in regional blood flow, assuming their property of lowering the angiotensin II blood levels, a very strong peripheral vasoconstrictor. We studied 22 patients: all of them with hypertension and/or skin ulcerations, dropping out those who had venous. They were evaluated periodically, clinically and with photoelectric plethysmography of lower extremities. To interpret the traces we designed an ideogram which gathered the plethysmographic behavior before and after the treatment. Nearly 80% showed considerable improvement in pain, functional capacity and plethysmographic traces patterns. healing of the ulcerations was achieved in all case. We propose some hypothesis to explain the good effect that we have observed.

  16. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  17. Study on the relationship of serum sP-selectin and hs-CRP with carotid arteriosclerosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke%急性缺血性卒中患者血清可溶性P-选择素、hs-CRP水平与颈动脉粥样硬化关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋菊; 刘振伟; 万琦

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is tO investigate the assOciatiOn between levels Of serum sP -selectin,hs -CRP and extracranial carOtid arteriOsclerOsis in patients with acute ischemic strOke. Methods 120 inpatients with acute ischemic strOke attacking within 72 hOurs were selected and the serum sP-selectin,hs-CRP were measured by ELISA. A cOlOr DOppler ultrasOund sys-tem was used tO detect the plaque Of carOtid artery. Results The serum cOncentratiOns Of sP-selectin were different when the intima-media thickness Of ECCA,the nature Of plaque and the level Of carOtid artery stenOsis were different(P 0. 05). Conclusion The severer ex-tracranial carOtid atherOsclerOsis is the higher the serum cOncentratiOns Of sP -selectin are in acute ischemic strOke patients. There is a pOsitive relatiOnship between serum sP-selectin and carOtid atherOsclerOsis,and the activity is mOre sensitive than Hs-CRP in the detectiOn Of carOtid atherOsclerOsis.%目的:研究急性缺血性卒中患者血清可溶性 P-选择素( sP-selectin)、高敏 C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)水平与颈动脉粥样硬化程度的关系。方法选择发病72 h 内急性脑梗死患者120例,采用ELISA法测定患者血清sP-selectin及hs-CRP浓度,并应用颈动脉超声对斑块特点进行分析。结果不同颈总动脉内-中膜厚度、不同颈动脉斑块性质、不同颈动脉狭窄程度时,sP-selectin水平存在显著性差异( P<0.05);随着颈总动脉内-中膜厚度越厚,颈动脉斑块稳定性越差,颈动脉狭窄程度越重,sP -selectin 水平越高,而 hs -CRP 差异不显著。结论急性缺血性卒中患者sP-selectin水平随着颅外段颈动脉粥样硬化程度加重而升高,sP-selectin与动脉粥样硬化呈正相关;且较 hs-CRP更好地反映了颈动脉粥样硬化的程度。

  18. 周围动脉硬化指标结合运动负荷试验预测冠状动脉狭窄程度的临床意义%Clinical significance of combined peripheral arteriosclerosis index and exercise load test in predictiing severity of coronary artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 李小鹰; 罗学胜; 陈穗; 张建; 陈琳; 孟艳玲; 何璐

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the clinical significance of peripheral arteriosclerosis index in predicting early occurrence and severity of coronary heart disease. Methods Fifty-six patients admitted to Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, were enrolled in this study. Their ankle-brachial index( ABI) ,brachial ankle artery pulse wave velocity(baPWV) ,and haPWV were measured before and after exercise by treadmill test followed by coronary angiography and analyzed by chi-squre test. The patients were divided into non-disease group(n= 9), non-significant stenosis group(n= 12) ,single vessel lesion group(n=17) ,2-vessel lesion group and 3-vessel lesion group according to their angiographic findings. Results No significant difference was found in ABI among the 4 groups at rest(P>0. 05). The baPWV and haPWV were significantly higher in coronary heart disease group than in non-disease group(P0. 05). The ABI, baPWV and haPWV decreased immediately after treadmill exercise. Conclusion The significantly increased resting baPWV and haPWV can predict coronary heart disease,but cannot predict its severity. The ABI before and after exercise and the baPWV and haPWV after exercise can hardly predict the occurrence and severity of coronary heart disease.%目的 探讨周围动脉硬化指标对早期预测冠心病及冠状动脉病变程度的临床意义.方法 随机选取解放军总医院心内科住院患者56例,平板运动试验前后完成静息性及运动后即刻踝臂指数( ankle-brachial index,ABI);肱动脉-踝动脉脉搏波速度(brachial ankle artery pulse wave velocity,baPWV)、上行主动脉-踝动脉脉搏波速度(haPWV)检测,同时完成冠状动脉造影检查,根据造影结果,分为无病变组9例,无意义狭窄组12例,单支病变组17例,双支病变组9例及3支病变组9例,对各组患者运动前后ABI、baPWV及haPWV进行统计学分析.结果 静息状态下,与无病变组比较,冠状动脉病变各

  19. Arteriosclerosis and the promise of GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors in stroke Arteriosclerosis y nuevas perspectivas de los inhibidores del receptor GPIIb/IIIa en stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO SAPOSNIK

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic mechanisms in patients with brain and heart attacks have been studied for more than 150 years. Antiplatelets agents did show benefit in secondary prevention. Aspirin is the most common antiaggregant in clinical use today. However, the benefit produced by the "best" antiplatelet regimen in stroke prevention is lower than 40%. The adherence of circulating platelets to the subendothelium is mediated by glycoprotein (GP residing on the cell's surface. GPIIb/IIIa is the most important platelet membrane receptor that mediates the process of platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation. Thus, new drugs that block the GPIIb/IIIa receptor have recently emerged. Clinical trials using these agents have shown effectiveness in acute coronary syndromes. However, the absence of studies in cerebrovascular disease and the potential hemorrhagic complications questioned their use in stroke prevention. We review the clinical trials using the new GPIIb/IIIa agents in myocardial ischemia, and consider the potential implications for cerebrovascular disease.Los mecanismos de isquemia en infarto de miocardio y enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV han sido estudiados por mas de 150 años. Drogas antiplaquetarias mostraron un beneficio en la prevención secundaria. La aspirina es el mas común de los antiagregantes usados en la practica clínica. No obstante, el beneficio producido, aun con el "mejor" tratamiento antiagregante, en la prevención de ECV es inferior al 40%. La adhesión plaquetaria es un proceso mediado por glicoproteinas (GP de la membrana celular. GPIIb/IIIa es un receptor de membrana plaquetaria que interviene en el proceso de agregación plaquetaria y formación del trombo. Estudios clínicos con nuevos agentes que bloquean a este receptor mostraron ser efectivos en los síndromes coronarios agudos. No obstante, la falta de estudios en ECV y las potenciales complicaciones hemorrágicas, limitan su uso en la prevención de stroke. Revisamos los mecanismos de trombogenésis y los estudios clínicos con los nuevos agentes GPIIb/IIIa, considerando sus implicancias en ECV.

  20. Relationship between non-dipper hypertension and arteriosclerosis in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈策

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of non-dipper blood pressure rhythm on peripheral atherosclerosis in elderly hypertensive patients.Methods The 199 elderly hypertensive patients with 24-hour average systolic blood pressure<140 mmH g were selected.Body mass index(BMI),glycosylated hemoglobin,blood lipids,uric acid,creatinine,Brachial ankle pulse wave velocity(ba PWV),ankle arm index(ABI)and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were tested and calculated.The elderly patients were divided into dipper hypertensive group(n=95),and non-dipper hypertensive

  1. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of Biomedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-05-27

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  2. Intrathymic immune modulation prevents acute rejection but not the development of graft arteriosclerosis (chronic rejection)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; Raue, HP; Klatter, FA; Hylkema, MN; Platteel, [No Value; Hardonk-Wubbena, A; Nieuwenhuis, P; Rozing, J

    2001-01-01

    Background. We showed previously that our intrathymic immune modulation protocol induces virtually permanent graft survival of simultaneously transplanted cardiac allografts in MHC-incompatible rat strain combinations. It is, however, unknown whether this procedure prevents the development of graft

  3. CT angiography in the diagnosis of lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans: a Meta analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To systematically assess the diagnostic performance of CTA for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using a Meta analysis method. Methods: Studies were located through electronic searching of the PubMed, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, CNKI, Cochrane library (from the date of establishment of the databases to October 2009). Bibliographies of the retrieved articles were also checked. All the studies concerning the diagnosis of PAD using CTA had been searched and reviewed, and the studies with the DSA as the gold standard were adopted as eligible. Subsequently, the characteristics of the included articles were appraised and extracted. Data on accuracy of included studies were extracted for further heterogeneity exploring, statistical pooling and SROC (summary receiver operating characteristics) analyzing using the Meta Disc 1.4 software. Results: Totally 24 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 1096 patients. The heterogeneity was found in these studies. The pooled accuracy indicators like sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.94-0.95), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95-0.96), and 471.13 (95% CI: 242.92-913.71), respectively. The area under of SROC curve was 0.9888 and the Q index was 0.9555. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significant difference on diagnostic performance for various CT slices (P<0.05). Conclusion: CTA can be regarded as an effective and feasible method for PAD diagnosis and screening, based on the results of this systematic review. However, more rigorous evaluations of CTA in patients with critical limb ischemia are needed. (authors)

  4. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  5. Minimal distal pressure rise after reconstructive arterial surgery in patients with multiple obstructive arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    Forty-one reconstructive procedures were carried out in thirty-five consecutive patients. Average age was 63 years (range 46-75). Thrombendarterectomy or by-pass procedures were carried out in twenty-nine proximal and twelve femoropopliteal reconstructions. Twenty-three patients had rest pain fif...

  6. Impact of arteriosclerosis on the functioning of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolić Radojica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous clinical studies have shown that the incidence of artheriosclerosis is higher in patients with progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of artheriosclerosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis and its influence on survival and functioning of vascular access. Methods. The study was organized as one-year prospective study. All the patients had arteriovenous fistulas native as a vascular access. The study analyzed demographic, biochemical, clinical and Doppler echomorphological characteristics of the patients in order to make an evidence of artheriosclerotic incidences as compared to functioning arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Results. The examined patients were of the mean age 55.7±12.68 years. Of them, 53.8% were males and 46.2% females. Functioning arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis were found in 56.8% of the examined patients. Concentration of hemoglobin was a significant parameter of functioning fistula (group with complications - 89±14.034 vs. group with no complications - 96.6±17.71; p = 0.0489. An amount of urea removed (URR was a statistically more significant parameter among the patients without fistula complications: (group with complications - 58.67±7.92% vs. group with no complications - 62.80±7.53%; p = 0.037. A Cox regressive analysis of an index of Doppler parameters of the carotid arteries found no statistical significance between the examined groups. There was a positive correlation between artheriosclerosis and the age, as well as the time on dialysis. In multiple regression, where intima media is a dependent and the age and time on dialysis independent variables, the regressive model was statistically significant (F = 8.22, p = 0.001. Both independent variables had statistically significant inclinations, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Anemia and the level of urea elimination, as a statistically significant indicator of hemodialysis adequacy, were in correlation with the risk for fistula complications. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries is a significant non-invasive method for detecting artheriosclerosis. Intima- media thickness of the carotid arteries was an important marker of artheriosclerosis correlating significantly with the age and time on dialysis, but not with the traditional risk factors.

  7. Origin of vascular smooth muscle cells and the role of circulating stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J

    2003-01-01

    To date, clinical solid-organ transplantation has not achieved its goals as a long-term treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Development of so-called chronic transplant dysfunction (CTD) is now recognized as the predominant cause of allograft loss long term (after the first postopera

  8. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation

  9. Direct measured systolic pressure gradients across the aorto-iliac segment in multiple-level-obstruction arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Praestholm, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    Patients with severe ischemia due to multi-level obstructions in the leg arteries both above and below the region were assessed preoperatively by intraarterial brachial and femoral artery pressure measurements. The systolic pressure drop along aorto-iliac obstructions was compared to the angiogra...

  10. Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebral Arteriosclerosis; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Ischemia; Atherosclerosis

  11. A Rare Complication of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Report of a Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsubara, Yutaka; Inoue, Kentaro; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okadome, Jun; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of a rare complication of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Computed tomography showed stenosis and calcification of bilateral iliac arteries and a saccular aneurysm of the terminal aorta. Paraplegia occurred soon after balloon angioplasty of iliac arteries and EVAR. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage was not performed because the patient was on dual antiplatelet drugs. The patient was treated with intravenous methylpredonisolone and naloxone; however, this did not improve his paraplegia. SCI after EVAR is extremely rare and unpredictable complication, however, physicians should be aware of SCI after EVAR in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:27738476

  12. Correlation between cardiac syndrome X and arteriosclerosis%X综合征与动脉硬化程度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南; 严研; 韩静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the effect of vascular endothelial function and athrosclerosis on cardiac syndrome X by studying the corralation between carotid intima media thickness (IMT),brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and cardiac syndrome X.Methods Sixtythree cardiac syndrome X patients served as cardiac syndrome X patients group and 40 healthy subjects served as a control group in this study.Their carotid IMT and brachial artery FMD,measured with a high-resolution 2D ultrasonic diagnostic appartus,were analyzed.Results The brachial artery FMD was significantly lower whereas the carotid IMT was significantly higher in cardiac syndrome X patients group than in control group (3.25% ±2.36% vs 5.99% ±3.63%,P<0.01;1.03±0.36 mm vs 0.79±0.09 mm,P<0.01).Linear correlation analysis showed that the brachial artery FMD was negatively correlated with the carotid IMT (r =-0.249,P =0.013).Univariate regression analysis displayed that the systolic blood pressure and smoking were the high risk factors for brachial artery FMD.Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the advanced age was an independent risk factor for the carotid IMT while the HDL-C was an independent protective factor for the carotid IMT.Conclusion The carotid IMT is significantly higher whereas the brachial artery FMD is significantly lower in cardiac syndrome X patients than in healthy subjects.The brachial artery FMD is negatively correlated with the carotid IMT.%目的 本研究通过运用无创检查方法对X综合征患者颈动脉内膜中层厚度(intima-media thickness,IMT)、肱动脉血流介导的血管扩张功能(flow mediated dilation,FMD)的检测,探讨颈动脉IMT、肱动脉FMD与X综合征的相关性,从而了解血管内皮功能和动脉硬化程度对X综合征的影响.方法 选择X综合征患者63例(X综合征组),另选健康体检者40例(对照组).应用高分辨率二维超声诊断仪分别检测2组的颈动脉IMT、肱动脉FMD,并进行比较分析.结果 X综合征组肱动脉FMD明显低于对照组[(3.25±2.36)% vs(5.99±3.63)%,P<0.01],颈动脉IMT明显大于对照组[(1.03±0.36)mm vs(0.79±0.09)mm,P<0.01].直线相关分析显示,FMD与IMT呈负相关(r=-0.249.P=0.013).单因素回归分析显示,收缩压和吸烟是肱动脉FMD的高风险因素.多因素回归分析显示,收缩压是肱动脉FMD的独立危险因素,年龄是颈动脉IMT的独立危险因素,HDL-C是颈动脉IMT的独立保护因素.结论 X综合征患者较健康体检者颈动脉IMT明显增厚,肱动脉FMD明显降低.肱动脉FMD与颈动脉IMT呈负相关.

  13. Alzheimer Disease and Arteriosclerosis Factors%阿尔茨海默病与血管因素的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任刚; 陈祥慧; 刘文运; 李友莲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨阿尔茨海默病( Alzheimer disease AD) 与血管危险因素之间的关系.方法 选取临床诊断为AD 患者68例作为观察组,认知功能正常老年人70 例为对照组.两组性别、职业及受教育程度相匹配,分析两组中高血压、糖尿病、脂代谢紊乱、高同型半胱氨酸血症、颅内各血管血流速度减慢、颈部血管狭窄以及脑梗死的分布情况,以Logistic 回归模型分析各因素与AD 的关系.结果 高血压、糖尿病、血脂代谢异常、高同型半胱氨酸血症、颅内各血管血流速度减慢、颈部血管狭窄以及脑梗死在AD 与对照组之间差异有统计学意义( P < 0.05).结论 AD 与血管性因素有关,高血压、糖尿病、血脂代谢异常、脑梗死、颈部血管狭窄是AD 的独立危险因素.

  14. Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway and Arteriosclerosis%泛素蛋白酶体通路与动脉粥样硬化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世超; 吕鑫; 吴江

    2015-01-01

    泛素-蛋白酶体通路(ubiquitin-proteasome pathway,UPP)是广泛存在于真核细胞中的,依赖ATP的选择性蛋白质降解的主要途径.泛素的主要功能是标记细胞中需要降解的蛋白质,使其被26S蛋白酶体识别和降解.UPP主要通过介导细胞中蛋白的降解而发挥调节作用.该通路的异常与许多疾病诸如肿瘤、遗传性疾病、神经退行性疾病、心血管疾病等密切相关.本文主要综述了UPP在动脉粥样硬化的发生,发展和复合病变中的作用.

  15. 骨质疏松与动脉硬化的研究现状%Current Research Status of Relationship between Osteoporosis and Arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚麒

    2011-01-01

    动脉硬化和骨质疏松是两种常见的老年病,两者具有相同的危险因素和病理生理机制.护骨素、基质Gla 蛋白、维生素D、甲状旁腺素、骨桥蛋白、氧化脂质等均参与或加速了两者的共同发病.基于两者相似的发病机制,使用他汀类药物、双磷酸盐、护骨素等药物可同时对骨量丢失和动脉硬化起保护作用,这是今后治疗动脉硬化和骨质疏松的一个新思路.%Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are very common chronic diseases in elders.Both have the same risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, such as osteoprotegerin, matrix Gla protein, vitamin D, parathyroid gland, osteopontin, lipid oxidation, participate or accelerate these disease.Statins, biphosphonates,osteoprotegerin based on the biological linkage of the above entities may benefit both bone and vascular.And it’s expected to bring a new method of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and aerosclerosis.

  16. Lipidómica, una herramienta para determinar nuevos biomarcadores de riesgo cardiovascular, obesidad y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Balsinde, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Trabajo presentado al 25 Congreso Nacional de la Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis: Symposium satélite pre-congreso: "Diabetes y Arteriosclerosis", celebrado en Tarragona del 5 al 6 de junio de 2012.

  17. After Discharge Management of Low Income Frail Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    Heart Failure, Congestive; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Atrial Fibrillation; Cerebrovascular Accident; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Diabetes Mellitus; Hypertension; Osteoarthritis; Osteoporosis

  18. Prediction value of cardio-ankle vascular index in coronary arteriosclerosis%心脏脚踝指数对冠状动脉粥样硬化的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧邦豪; 李博; 方胜先; 吴清华; 黄雪兰; 李家梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 讨论研究心脏脚踝指数(CAVI)、最大颈动脉内中膜厚度(Max IMT)及平均颈动脉内中膜厚度(MeanIMT)对冠状动脉粥样硬化的预测诊断价值.方法 选取我院心内科冠心病拟行冠状动脉造影(CAG)患者90例作为研究对象,根据CAG结果及Gensini评分,分为正常组A组(得分0分),B组(得分在1~80分)及C组(评分为81~160分),并以B、C组作为CAG阳性组.对三组人员分别进行空腹采血及CAVI、Max IMT及Mean IMT.结果 CAVI、Max IMT及Mean IMT三项指标中,CAVI曲线下面积显然大于其余两项指标;其次为Max IMT.说明CAVI预测动脉粥样硬化的价值显然高于其余两项指标.同时CAVI、Max IMT及Mean IMT对预测粥样硬化的CUT-OFF值、敏感性及特异性分别为8.84、84.01%及69.00%;1.33、74.51%及74.00%;0.92、68.85%及73.22%.CAVI、Max IMT及Mean IMT的三项评分均与Gensini评分呈正相关,评分分别为0.56(P<0.01)、0.32(P<0.05)、0.41(P<0.01),其中CAVI与该项评分相关性最强.CAVI假阳性率显著低于Max IMT及Mean IMT,CAVI阴性预测性显著高于其余两项指标,Mean IMT阴性预测值最小.结论 CAVI相对于Max IMT及Mean IMT两个指标对判断动脉粥样硬化更具有预测价值,且该指数变化随动脉粥样硬化程度加重而逐渐升高,对临床判断冠心病及相关疾病风险具有重要意义.

  19. [Effect of anti-arteriosclerosis diet, containing soya protein isolate and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the activity of mononuclear and platelet lysosomal hydrolases in patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, M A; Pogozhaeva, A V; Vasilév, A V; Bogdanova, S N; Pokrovskaia, G R; Varsanovich, E A; Orlova, L A

    1993-01-01

    In response to antiatherosclerosis dietotherapy containing 20 g of ichthyenic oil, coronary and hypertensive subjects showed lowered serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index, elevated HDLP cholesterol and corrected immunochemical shifts. SPI-containing diet resulted in changes of CIC IgM levels only. Shifts in the activity of mononuclear and platelet lysosomal hydrolases which occurred in the above patients due to relevant diets reflect higher sensitivity of this parameter in assessment of the dietotherapy effectiveness. PMID:7975402

  20. Observation of Curative Effect on Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Treated by Deng zhan Huasu Injection and Cerebrolysin%灯盏花素注射液合脑活素治疗脑动脉硬化症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹韶刚

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察灯盏花素注射液合脑活素治疗脑动脉硬化症的疗效.方法:将185例随机分为两组:对照组94例采用脑活素静脉注射,每天1次;治疗组91例,在上述治疗的基础上,加用灯盏花素注射液静脉注射,每天1次.观察治疗前后主要临床症状和患者血浆一氧化氮(NO)、内皮素(ET)的变化.结果:治疗组临床总有效率为(88.10%)显著高于对照组(67.47%),(P<0.05);治疗组治疗后血浆NO水平上升,ET值下降,与对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:灯盏花素注射液合脑活素治疗脑动脉硬化症疗效显著.

  1. 不同糖调节受损状态对早期动脉粥样硬化的影响%Association between different impaired glucose regulation and the early-stage arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 梁军; 窦连军; 龚莹; 腾飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨糖尿病前期不同血糖水平对颈-股动脉脉搏波传导速度(carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity,c-f PWV)的影响.方法:对5 098例非糖尿病者的空腹血糖、口服葡萄糖耐量试验2小时血糖 (2-hour oral glucose tolerance test,2h OGTT)、糖化血红蛋白(hemoglobin A1c,HbA1c)和c-f PWV水平进行分析.结果:空腹血糖受损(impaired fasting glucose,IFG)组、糖耐量受损 (impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)组和高HbA1c组与糖耐量正常组的c-f PWV差异分别为0.97 m/s、1.08 m/s 和 0.92 m/s,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).高HbA1c合并IFG、高HbA1c合并IGT的c-f PWV明显高于单纯高HbA1c(P=0.036,P=0.03).IFG合并高HbA1c、IGT合并高HbA1c的c-f PWV明显高于单纯IFG 和单纯IGT (P=0.02,P=0.04).结论:c-f PWV水平与糖尿病前期相关联,并独立于其他代谢因素.IFG合并高HbA1c、IGT合并高HbA1c对c-f PWV水平的影响呈叠加效应,提示糖尿病前期不同糖调节受损状态均可引起血管弹性的改变,导致早期动脉粥样硬化发生.%Objective: To explore the associations of glucose exposure and carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity ( c-f PWV ) in prediabetes adults. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test ( 2h OGTT ), hemoglobin Alc( HbAlc ) and c-f PWV were analysed in 5 098 non-diabetes subjects. Results: We found that the differences in c-f PWV between individuals with impaired fasting glucose ( IFG ), impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ), high HbAlc and those without these abnormalities were 0. 97 m/s, 1. 08 m/s and 0. 92 m/s ( P <0. 01 ). In addition, our data indicated that individuals of both high HbAlc and IFG or IGT had significantly higher levels of c-f PWV compared with those who only had high HbAl c ( P = 0. 036 and 0. 03 , respectively ); or those only had IFG ( P - 0. 02 ); or only had IGT ( P = 0.04 ). Conclusion: c-f PWV was associated with prediabetes, independent of metabolic risk factors. We found that individuals of both high HbAlc and IFG or IGT had additive effects on c-f PWV, and all these alterations may contribute to development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  2. Hybrid procedure on revascularization of arteriosclerosis obliterans on lower extremity%杂交手术在下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症血管重建中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌平; 肖乐; 龚昆梅; 王昆华; 欧阳一鸣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨杂交手术在下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症血管重建中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析本院1998年1月至2009年8月收治血管重建的56例下肢动脉硬化性闭塞症多节段病变患者的临床资料,其中杂交手术32例,外科手术13例,血管腔内治疗11例.探讨3种血管重建方法在多节段病变血管重建的适应证、治疗效果、并发症及围手术期死亡率.结果 随访36例,随访时间2~101个月,平均随访时间53个月,随访率64.29%.杂交手术组远期通畅率明显高于外科手术和腔内治疗组(62.50% vs 30.76% vs 27.27%,ANOVA分析,F=54.17,P<0.05);临床疗效明显优于外科手术和腔内治疗组(有效率分别为56.25%、15.38%、13.64%,ANOVA分析,F=58.46,P<0.05;无效率分别为12.5%、61.54%、54.55%,ANOVA分析,F=54.23,P<0.05).并发症明显低于外科手术组,与腔内治疗组相当(12.5% vs 38.46% vs 18.19%,ANOVA分析,F=52.56,P<0.05).围手术期死亡率杂交手术和腔内治疗组均为0%,外科手术组为7.69%.结论 杂交手术对多节段病变患者更具优势,不仅能减少和降低麻醉及手术风险,而且能获得满意的临床疗效和远期通畅率.

  3. A Clinical and Histological Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Ischemia; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Peripheral Vascular Disease; Vascular Disease; Arterial Occlusive Disease; Arteriosclerosis; Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Disease; Pathologic Processes; Orthopedic Procedures; Amputation

  4. Neurological Complications Comparing Endoscopically vs. Open Harvest of the Radial Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    Complications Due to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  5. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  6. ABI与CAVI评价原发性高血压患者血压控制不良对动脉硬化影响的研究%ABI and CAVI in assessment of arteriosclerosis progress in primary hypertensive patients with poor blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利月; 任爱华; 俞志红; 寿晓玲; 王雁; 刘新文

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨踝-臂指数(ABI)与心踝指数(CAVI)评价原发性高血压患者血压控制不良对动脉硬化影响的临床应用价值.方法 原发性高血压患者105例,根据24h动态血压结果,分为高血压控制达标组46例和高血压控制不良组59例,另择同期行健康体检者41例为正常对照组,分别测定3组的CAVI、ABI、BMI值并进行两两比较.结果 3组比较结果显示:CAVI、ABI、BMI值差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);其中血压控制不良组双侧CAVI值明显增高,双侧ABI值明显降低,BMI值增高,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);而高血压控制达标组与正常对照组比较双侧CAVI、双侧ABI、BMI值差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 血压控制不良将促进动脉硬化进展,应用ABI与CAVI值可准确评价高血压控制不良对动脉弹性的影响.

  7. Impact of different lipid lowering scheme on the liver and kidney function and endothelial function in arteriosclerosis rats model%不同调脂方案对动脉硬化大鼠肝肾功能及血管内皮功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳玲; 张静; 周琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate vascular endothelial function,liver function and renal function of mixed hyperlipidemia rats treated by different ways including high doses of simvastatin and small doses of simvastatin combined with ezetimibe.Methods Forty-two healthy Wistar 6-month-old male rats were randomly divided into five groups,including normal control group (n =8),hyperlipidemia control group (n =10),low dose of simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8),high dose of simvastatin [20 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8),simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] combined with ezetimibe [5 mg/(kg · d)] group (n =8).Levels of total cholesterol (TC),lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),triglycerides (TG),alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),serum creatinine (Scr),urea nitrogen (BUN),uric acid,urine protein,urine creatinine (Ucr),serum creatinine clearance rate (Ccr),C-reactive protein (CRP),soluble thrombomodulin regulatory proteins (sTM) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and urinary protein were tested in all groups.Renal index was also calculated.Results ① Compared with hyperlipidemia control group,levels of TC,IDL-C,TG,ALT,AST,BUN,uric acid,urine protein,CRP,sTM and sICAM-1 in all the therapeutic groups were significantly lower (P <0.01).But HDL-C and Ccr levels were significantly higher.Renal function were improved and levels of sTM and slCAM-1 were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in high dose of simvastatin [20 mg/(kg· d)] group.Liver function were improved and limpid-lowering were better in simvastatin [10 mg/(kg · d)] combined with ezetimibe [5 mg/(kg · d)] group.②Small size of glomerular and mesangial cell proliferation relief were seen in the therapeutic groups with light microscope.And high dose of simvastatin group had better results.Conclusions ①Compared with simvastatin combined with ezetimibe group,high dose of simvastatin treatment has lower levels of BUN,uric acid,urine protein,sTM and sICAM-1,can reduce renal index,increase Ccr and HDL-C levels,improve glomerular morphology and improve renal function and vascular endothelial function.②Compared with high-dose simvastatin group,small doses of simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment can significantly reduce TC,LDL-C and CRP levels,don't affect serum transaminase levels,and reduce lipid effectively but not increase damage of liver function.%目的 探讨单用较大剂量辛伐他汀与小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布对动脉硬化大鼠血管内皮功能及肝肾功能的影响.方法 将42只健康6月龄Wistar雄性大鼠完全随机分为正常对照组(n=8)、高脂对照组((n=10)、辛伐他汀低剂量组[10 mg/(kg·d),n=8]、辛伐他汀高剂量组[20 mg/(kg·d),n=8)]和辛伐他汀[10 mg/(kg·d)]联合依折麦布[5 mg/(kg·d)]组(n=8),给予相应剂量的辛伐他汀及依折麦布灌胃.分别于实验第8周末眼静脉丛采血及第12周末心脏采血后测定各组大鼠TC、LDL-C、HDL-C、TG、ALT、AST、血清肌酐(Scr)、BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、尿肌酐(Ucr)、血清肌酐清除率(Ccr)、C反应蛋白(CRP)、可溶性血栓调节蛋白(sTM)和可溶性细胞间黏附因子1(sICAM-1)水平及尿蛋白浓度,并计算肾指数.结果 ①辛伐他汀低剂量组、高剂量组,辛伐他汀联合依折麦布组较高脂对照组TC、LDL-C、TG、ALT、AST、BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、CRP、sTM、sICAM-1水平明显降低(P<0.01),HDL-C及Ccr水平升高,其中辛伐他汀高剂量组肾功能明显改善[实验12周末血Scr:(2.00±0.47) ml/min比(0.55±0.12) ml/min,BUN:(5.25±0.50) mmol/L比(7.82±0.25) mmol/L,尿酸:(81±17) μmol/L比(142±13) μmol/L,尿蛋白:(1.98±0.18) g/L比(2.89±0.32) g/L]、sTM、sICAM-1水平明显降低[实验12周末sTM:(165±26) g/L比(279±30) g/L,sICAM-1:(20.1±3.2)g/L比(48.1±6.4)g/L],辛伐他汀联合依折麦布组血脂及肝功能明显改善.②光镜下:各处理组肾小球体积小,系膜细胞增生减轻,且均以辛伐他汀高剂量组改善明显.结论 ①单用较大剂量辛伐他汀与小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布相比,能更好降低BUN、尿酸、尿蛋白、sTM和sICAM-1水平,降低肾指数,提高Ccr和HDL-C水平,改善肾小球形态,从而起到改善肾功能及血管内皮功能的作用.②小剂量辛伐他汀联合依折麦布较单用大剂量辛伐他汀更能显著降低TC、LDL-C和CRP水平,且不增加血清转氨酶水平,有效降脂的同时不增加肝功能损害.

  8. 下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者股动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞极化表型与自噬信号相关性的研究%Correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文娜; 郭胜男; 王俊岩; 贾连群; 李大勇; 田英

    2016-01-01

    本文探讨了下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者股动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞自噬与极化的相互联系.取下肢动脉硬化闭塞症截肢患者的股动脉标本,分别行HE (hematoxylin and eosin)、油红O和免疫荧光染色,观察动脉粥样硬化斑块形态、斑块内巨噬细胞表型及自噬体表达;采用实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术检测动脉组织巨噬细胞M1与M2型标记物的mRNA表达水平;采用Western blot方法检测巨噬细胞极化信号通路及自噬蛋白表达水平.结果显示,动脉标本染色可见明显脂质沉积和大量泡沫细胞及炎性细胞浸润,纤维斑块以M1型巨噬细胞为主,粥样斑块M1与M2表型同时高表达,其中M2型巨噬细胞升高尤为显著,且粥样斑块自噬水平明显高于纤维斑块.纤维斑块组织肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、单核细胞趋化因子1(MCP-1)、诱导性—氧化氮合成酶(iNOS)、白细胞介素6 (IL-6)、白细胞介素12 (IL-12) mRNA表达水平均明显高于粥样斑块组织(P<0.01或0.05),而精氨酸酶1 (Arg-1)、转化生长因子β(TGF-β)、CD163及白细胞介素10 (IL-10)表达水平明显低于粥样斑块组织(P<0.01).纤维斑块组织p-STAT1及NF-κB表达水平显著升高(P<0.01),而粥样斑块组织p-STAT6表达显著升高(P<0.01),粥样斑块组织自噬体蛋白LC3-Ⅱ表达水平明显高于纤维斑块组织(P<0.01).研究提示早期动脉粥样硬化斑块中巨噬细胞通过p-STAT1/NF-κB通路诱导向M1型极化,表达适度的自噬水平;而晚期斑块中巨噬细胞则通过激活p-STAT6通路诱导向M2型极化的过渡,M2型巨噬细胞较M1型具有更高的自噬水平.

  9. Atorvastatin calcium plus calcium dobesilate in arteriosclerosis obliterans in lower extremity of diabetes mellitus%阿托伐他汀钙联合羟苯磺酸钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿托伐他汀钙联合羟苯磺酸钙治疗糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床疗效。方法将30例2型糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者随机分为治疗组18例和对照组12例,两组均予以诺和灵30 R皮下注射治疗,治疗组在此基础上口服阿托伐他汀钙、羟苯磺酸钙治疗,观察16周。检测两组腓总神经感觉传导速度、踝臂指数、趾臂指数及血糖、血脂的变化。结果治疗后两组腓总神经感觉传导速度、踝臂指数、趾臂指数均较治疗前显著提高(P<0.05或0.01),治疗组较对照组提高更显著(P<0.01);治疗组脉博波传导速度较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),对照组则无显著变化(P>0.05)。治疗组总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白水平均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),对照组虽较治疗前有所下降,但差异无显著性(P>0.05)。结论阿托伐他汀钙联合羟苯磺酸钙治疗能有效改善糖尿病下肢动脉硬化闭塞症患者下肢缺血状况。%Objective To explore the efficacy of atorvastatin calcium plus calcium dobesilate in arterioscle‐rosis obliterans in lower extremity (AOLE) of diabetes mellitus (DM ) .Methods Thirty type 2 DM pa‐tients with AOLE were randomly assigned to treatment (n=18) and control group (n=12) ,both groups were treated with isophane protamine biosynthetic human insulin injection (pre‐mixed30R) ,on this basis treatment group took orally atorvastatin calcium plus calcium dobesilate foe 16 weeks .Changes of common peroneal nerve sensory conduction velocity (SCV) ,ankle‐brachial index (ABI) ,toe brachial index (TBI) , blood glucose and blood fat were detected .Results After treatment SCV ,ABI and TBI of both groups heightened more significantly compared with pretreatment (P0 .05) .Cholesterol total ,triacylglycerol and low density lipoprotein level lowered more significantly in treatment (P0 .05) .Conclusion Atorvastatin calcium plus calcium dobe‐silate could effectively improve lower limb ischemia status of DM patients with AOLE .

  10. 应用杂交技术治疗多节段下肢动脉硬化闭塞症34例%Application of hybrid technology for the treatment of multi segmental arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower limbs in 34 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 邢壮杰; 郑新; 邓芝徽; 李润生; 郝国强

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨杂交手术治疗复杂的多节段下肢动脉硬化闭塞症的临床效果。方法2008年1月至2013年4月,采用杂交手术(髂动脉支架植入联合股深动脉成形或股动脉-腘动脉人工血管旁路移植术)治疗下肢多节段动脉硬化闭塞治疗34例。34条患肢行髂动脉球囊扩张和支架植入术,其中21条患肢联合行股深动脉成形术,13条患肢联合行股-腘动脉旁路术。结果手术均获成功,无严重并发症,平均随访12个月(3~24个月)术后踝肱指数0.73与术前0.26相比显著提高(P<0.05)。结论杂交技术治疗复杂的多节段下肢动脉硬化闭塞症是一种安全有效的治疗方法。%Objective to study the treatment of hybrid operatiaon with multilevel atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremity. Methods from January 2008 to april 2013, hybrid operatiaon(intraoperative iliac Balloon angioplasty and stenting combined with vascular bypass and profundoplasty )were performed on 34 limb, suffering from lower extremity multilevel athcrosclcrotic occlusive disease. in 34 limbs iliac balloon angioplasty and stent placement were performed with profundoplasty in 21 limbs and femoro-popliteal bypass in 13 limbs. Results surgical procedures were technically successful in all limbs. there were no severe postoperative morbidity or mortality. Before-operative vs postoperative aBi was 0.26 vs 0.73 (P<0.05). the mean following-up period was 12months(range of 3 to 24 months). Conclusions Hybrid operatiaon are effective in the treatment of patients with multilevel atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremity.

  11. 硒对高氟所致兔血管内皮损伤及动脉硬化影响的病理形态学研究%Pathological morphology of vascular endothelial injury and arteriosclerosis caused by high fluoride and the effects of selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边建朝; 杨晓霞; 蔺新英; 朱秋丽; 樊婷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study morphological changes of rabbit artery endothelial cell injury and atherosclerosis caused by high fluoride and the role of selenium. Methods Twenty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits, body weight (2.0 ± 0.5)kg, were randomly divided into control group(drinking deionized water, fed basic diet), fluoride group(drinking fluoride 100 mg/L deionized water, fed basic diet), selenium group(drinking selenium 1 mg/L deionized water, fed basic diet), fluoride plus selenium group(drinking fluoride 100 mg/L deionized water, selenium 1 mg/L of deionized water, fed basic diet). The experimental period was 6 months. At 0, 3, 6 months of the experiment, serum fluorine and selenium levels were determined. At the end of the experiment,thoracic aorta was collected to observe its pathology and ultrastructural changes. Results Serum fluoride was significantly higher at the 3rd and the 6th month of experiment(all P < 0.01 ) in fluoride group[ (0.589 ± 0.146),(0.772 ± 0.175)mg/L] and fluoride plus selenium group[ (0.502 ± 0.094), (0.693 ± 0.158)mg/L] than in control group[ (0.174 ± 0.002), (0.208 ± 0.031 )mg/L] and serum fluoride was significantly higher at 6 months than at 3 months(P < 0.05 ) in fluoride group. Serum selenium was significantly higher at the 3rd and the 6th month of experiment (all P < 0.01 ) in selenium group[ (0.252 ± 0.022), (0.319 ± 0.052)mg/L] and fluoride plus selenium group[ (0.239 ±0.016), (0.294 ± 0.018)mg/L] than in control group[(0.135 ± 0.014), (0.167 ± 0.019)mg/L], and serum selenium was significantly higher at the 6th month than at 3rd month of experiment in selenium group(P < 0.05). Endothelial cell apoptosis indices were (4.92 ± 1.32)%, (30.30 ± 6.80)%, (6.57 ± 2.14)% and (14.29 ± 2.99)%, respectively in control group, fluoride group, selenium group and fluoride plus selenium group. Their main effect of fluorine and selenium was statistically significant (F = 106.833,20.082, all P < 0.01 ). There were antagonistic effect between fluoride and selenium(F = 30.402, P < 0.01 ). Pathological changes of rabbit aortic endothelial cells in fluoride group included endothelial with attached fibrin and red blood cells, and structural of the cells changed, with serious vascular injury; in fluoride plus selenium group apoptosis of endothelial cells decreased, with reduced number of attached red blood cells and fibrin, endothelial cell structure normal, the extent and scope of vascular damage significantly reduced. Conclusions Appropriate amount of selenium inhibits the apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by high fluoride, reduces aortic structural damage caused by high fluoride, and maintains the integrity of endothelial cells, thereby antagonizes the vascular damage and atherosclerosis induced by high fluoride.%目的 研究硒对高氟所致兔动脉血管内皮细胞损伤和动脉硬化病理形态学变化的影响作用.方法 20只健康雄性新西兰白兔,体质量(2.0±0.5)kg,按体质量随机分对照组(饮去离子水,饲基础饲料)、加氟组(饮含氟离子100mg/L去离子水,饲基础饲料)、加硒组(饮含硒1 mg/L去离子水,饲基础饲料)、加氟加硒组(饮含氟离子100 mg/L、含硒1 mg/L去离子水,饲基础饲料),每组5只,实验期6个月.于实验第0、3、6个月取血测定血清含氟量和含硒量;实验终末取胸主动脉,观察主动脉病理及超微结构变化.结果实验第3、6个月时,加氟组和加氟加硒组血清氟[(0.589±0.146)、(0.772±0.175)mg/L和(0.502±0.094)、(0.693±0.158)mg/L]显著高于对照组[(0.174±0.002)、(0.208±0.031)mg/L,P均<0.01];加氟组第6个月血清氟显著高于第3个月(P<0.05).实验第3、6个月时,加硒组和加氟加硒组血清硒[(0.252±0.022)、(0.319±0.052)mg/L和(0.239±0.016)、(0.294±0.018)mg/L]显著高于对照组[(0.135±0.014)、(0.167±0.019)mg/L,P均<0.01];加硒组第6个月血清硒显著高于第3个月(P<0.05).对照组、加氟组、加硒组、加氟加硒组内皮细胞凋亡指数分别为(4.92±1.32)%、(30.30±6.80)%、(6.57±2.14)%和(14.29±2.99)%,氟与硒各自的主效应有统计学意义(F值分别为106.833、20.082,P均<0.01),高氟与适硒之间存在显著的拮抗作用(F=30.402,P<0.01).病理观察加氟组主动脉内皮有红细胞及纤维蛋白沉着,细胞走向及结构发生改变,血管受损严重;加氟加硒组减少内皮细胞凋亡,附着的纤维蛋白以及红细胞数量减少,内皮细胞结构基本正常,血管受损程度和范围明显减轻.结论适量硒抑制高氟引起的内皮细胞凋亡,减轻高氟所致主动脉结构破坏,保持内皮细胞的完整性,以此拮抗高氟对血管的损伤和促动脉粥样硬化作用.

  12. Tissue Characterization on Common Carotid Artery using AR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    This study uses one image with a echocardiography and detects arteriosclerosis on the common carotid artery by tissue characterization. The conventional methods are measurement of thickness on the vessel wall or stiffness on the common carotid artery. However, they need frames of several beats and great calculation times. But, we detect the arteriosclerosis with only one image. Our method estimate the grade of arteriosclerosis by AR model parameters fitted to the texture on the lumen-intima wall. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Ankyloserende spondylitis er associeret med øget kardiovaskulær morbiditet og mortalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the axial skeleton. The disease is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Structural changes in the heart, and arteriosclerosis secondary to inflammation may be of importance. The role of traditional...

  14. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) : genomic sequencing and relevance to hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, S.G.; Lievers, K.J.A.; Boers, G.H.; Verhoef, P.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia is caused by altered functioning of enzymes of its metabolism due to either inherited or acquired factors. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) serves, next to methionine synthase, a

  15. Breast arterial calcifications : A systematic review and meta-analysis of their determinants and their association with cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Eva J E; de Jong, Pim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P Th M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC), regularly observed at mammography, are medial calcifications and as such an expression of arteriosclerosis. Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the available evidence on the associations of BAC with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascul

  16. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1998-01-01

    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  17. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, ... and Metabolism; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on the Kidney ...

  18. The effect of different immunosuppressants on alloantigen dependent and independent factors involved in the development of chronic rejection in an animal model.

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, O.; Rigg, K.; Shehata, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and SDZ RAD on an animal model of transplant arteriosclerosis involving alloantigen dependent and independent mechanisms.

  19. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) - Ancillary Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Heart Diseases; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hypertension; Diabetic Retinopathy; Macular Degeneration; Diabetes Mellitus

  20. Multidisciplinary Inpatient Palliative Care Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-12

    Cerebrovascular Accident; Cancer; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Heart Failure, Congestive; Diabetes Mellitus; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Failure to Thrive; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Dementia; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Pneumonia; Liver Failure; Renal Failure; Respiratory Failure; Stroke

  1. Vacuum-compression therapy for ischemic disease of the extremities:experience with 40 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effects of vacuum-compression therapy for ischemic disease of the extremities. Methods A total of 40 cases of peripheral arterial disorders,including 23 thromboangiitis obliterans (31 limbs) and 17 arteriosclerosis obliterans (23 limbs),were treated by a self-made vacuum-compression therapeutic apparatus. Results The effective rate in thromboangiitis obliterans and arteriosclerosis obliterans groups was 96.77% and 92.23%,respectively. The cuffs on the apparatus were improved ...

  2. Tortuous Common Carotid Artery: A Report of Four Cases Observed in Cadaveric Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Iwanaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A tortuous common carotid artery poses a high risk of injury during tracheotomy. Preoperative diagnosis is therefore important to avoid serious complications. We found four cases of tortuous common carotid artery during an anatomical dissection course for students. The first case was a 91-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 2 was a 78-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries without arteriosclerosis. Case 3 was an 86-year-old woman who died from bladder cancer and who also had a right tortuous common carotid artery without arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was an 89-year-old woman who had bilateral tortuous common carotid arteries and a tortuous brachiocephalic artery with severe arteriosclerosis. Case 4 was also examined using computed tomography to evaluate the arteriosclerosis. Computed tomography revealed severe calcification of the vascular wall, which was confirmed in the aortic arch and origins of its branches. In all four cases, the tortuosity was located below the level of the thyroid gland. Based on prior study results indicating that fusion between the carotid sheath and visceral fascia was often evident at the level of the thyroid gland, we speculated that the major region in which tortuosity occurs is at the same level or inferior to the level of the thyroid gland.

  3. Assessment of intra and extra cranial atherosclerosis in coronary artery disease. Advantage of MRI/MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of arteriosclerosis has increased in recent years as the aging population has grown. We carried out the present study to investigate the association of internal carotid arteriosclerosis, sclerosis of intracranial main arteries, and cerebral arteriolosclerosis to coronary arteriosclerosis using MRI and MRA in a total of 133 consecutive patients (107 males and 26 females), who visited our hospital with a main complaint of chest pain. We also examined serum lipids and the presence or absence of hypertension and/or diabetes. Coronary arteriosclerosis underlying atherosclerotic lesions was correlated with internal carotid arteriosclerosis, serum cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol level. As characteristic findings of this study, lacunar infarction (LI), which is thought to represent cerebral arteriolosclerosis, was not only significantly correlated with age and hypertension, but increased also lacunar infarcts in number as the number of affected coronary branches increased. Examination of the cases of severe coronary artery disease with MRI/MRA was thought to be able to predict the occurrence of cerebrovascular disorder after CABG and to be useful for the selection of a therapeutic regimen, such as PTCA and MID-CABG. (author)

  4. Assessment of intra and extra cranial atherosclerosis in coronary artery disease. Advantage of MRI/MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hirohide; Oda, Yoshinori; Hirai, Akio; Ibukiyama, Chiharu; Utsugi, Osamu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    The incidence of arteriosclerosis has increased in recent years as the aging population has grown. We carried out the present study to investigate the association of internal carotid arteriosclerosis, sclerosis of intracranial main arteries, and cerebral arteriolosclerosis to coronary arteriosclerosis using MRI and MRA in a total of 133 consecutive patients (107 males and 26 females), who visited our hospital with a main complaint of chest pain. We also examined serum lipids and the presence or absence of hypertension and/or diabetes. Coronary arteriosclerosis underlying atherosclerotic lesions was correlated with internal carotid arteriosclerosis, serum cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol level. As characteristic findings of this study, lacunar infarction (LI), which is thought to represent cerebral arteriolosclerosis, was not only significantly correlated with age and hypertension, but increased also lacunar infarcts in number as the number of affected coronary branches increased. Examination of the cases of severe coronary artery disease with MRI/MRA was thought to be able to predict the occurrence of cerebrovascular disorder after CABG and to be useful for the selection of a therapeutic regimen, such as PTCA and MID-CABG. (author)

  5. MR angiography for follow-up after percutaneous vessel recanalization and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares MR angiography with conventional and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in arteriosclerosis and to find out whether arteriosclerotic vessel pathology is delineated correctly by MR angiography. MR angiographic findings in 103 cases were correlated with DSA and conventional angiographic findings. The angiograms were obtained in patients with arteriosclerosis before and after percutaneous recanalization or vascular surgery in the femoropopliteal region. For MR angiography, a flow-sensitive, three-dimensional, fast imaging with steady precision sequence with rephased and dephased subtracted images were used on a 1.5-T Magnetom imager. The scan time is 4-5 minutes

  6. Efecto "in vivo" de los derivados fíbricos sobre enzimas microsomales implicados en la síntesis hepática de ácidos grasos

    OpenAIRE

    Alegret i Jordà, Marta

    1993-01-01

    La arteriosclerosis es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, principal causa de deterioro en la calidad de vida o de mortalidad precoz en los países industrializados, debido a que desemboca con frecuencia en accidentes vasculares como el infarto agudo de miocardio. Entre los factores de riesgo cuya corrección puede conducir a la prevención del desarrollo de la arteriosclerosis destacan las hiperlipoproteinemias. Los fibratos son fármacos hipolipemiantes eficaces en el tratamiento de las hi...

  7. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  8. Relation of Serum Adiponectin Levels to Number of Traditional Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune H;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects and appears to protect against arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, an association between low concentrations of plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular (CV) disease has been demonstrated in several studies. In contrast, elevated plasma...... or nonfatal myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke (n = 502). High adiponectin was inversely associated with an increasing number of traditional CV risk factors (p...

  9. Relativity analysis of arterosclerotic cerebral infarction of senile patients and secondary epilepsy%老年动脉硬化性脑梗死与继发性癫痫相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 马艳

    2001-01-01

    @@Background: Acute cerebral vascular secondary epilepsy isn't uncommon in clinic.It can happen at any time of epilepsy,even as first- onset or main clinical manifestation.Main cause of stroke of senile patients is arteriosclerosis,which is main cause of old stage epilepsy. Objective:To analyze relativity of arterosclerotic cerebral infarction of senile patients and secondary epilepsy.

  10. Water Flow through Xylem: An Investigation of a Fluid Dynamics Principle Applied to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stanley A.; McArthur, John

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to prove that a large blood or xylem vessel could conduct 256 times more fluid than a vessel or a pipe that is four times smaller. The result of this study proved that if arteriosclerosis causes an artery to loose half its effective diameter, the blood flow would be reduced by fifteen-sixteenths.

  11. Doppler-ultralydundersøgelse af underekstremitetsarteriosklerose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, P; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H H;

    1992-01-01

    Arteriography, which requires resources and is not entirely without risk, has hitherto been a prerequisite for reconstructive surgery in cases of symptom-producing arteriosclerosis in the lower limbs. As an alternative, indirect Doppler ultrasonic examination has been employed but does not appear...

  12. The Benefits of Health Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    The article focuses on the merits of a comprehensive, medically-oriented health maintenance/risk assessment program, and suggests that such conditions as heart disease, cancer, and arteriosclerosis can be prevented or postponed through proper nutrition, weight control, exercise, smoking cessation, and stress management. (Author/CB)

  13. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  14. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Majumder

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: From our current study it can be reasonably said that NAFLD may be an independent risk factor for developing arteriosclerosis. This hypothesis should be verified with larger studies in different population groups. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(10.000: 4359-4364

  15. Is pancreatic polypeptide response to food ingestion a reliable index of vagal function in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholt, M B; Arlien-Soeborg, P; Hilsted, L;

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients is based on cardiovascular reflex tests. Since cardiac function may be affected by arteriosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus, alternative tests reflecting vagal nerve function, in other organ systems, are needed...

  16. Genetic and bibliographic information: MNDA [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen human atherosclerosis (MeSH) Card...iovascular Diseases (C14) > Vascular Diseases (C14.907) > Arterial Occlusive Diseases (C14.907.137) > Arteriosclerosis... (C14.907.137.126) > Atherosclerosis (C14.907.137.126.307) 05A0467425 ...

  17. Relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and 'sudden cardiac death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary arteriosclerosis in mini-pigs was produced by combination of hypercholesterolemia and twofold X irradiation of the cardiac region. 15-21 weeks following irradiation 40% of the adult animals and 58% of the juvenils died of 'sudden cardiac death'. The mortality rate decreased significantly after application of the calcium-channel blocking agent nifedipine

  18. Detection and interpretation of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua in urine, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Nadal, Laia Llovera; Broedbaek, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    DNA and RNA oxidations have been linked to diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegeneration and diabetes. The prototype base modification studied is the 8-hydroxylation of guanine. DNA integrity is maintained by elaborate repair systems and RNA integrity is less studied but relies...

  19. Non-Bone Marrow Origin of Neointimal Smooth Muscle Cells in Experimental In-Stent Restenosis in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Hendrik C.; Onuta, Geanina; Goris, Maaike; Zandvoort, Andre; Zijlstra, Felix; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Rozing, Jan; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in in-stent restenosis (ISR) and transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). Methods: Non-transgenic rats WT F344(TG) (n = 3) received stent implantation 6 weeks after lethal total body irradiation and suppletion with bone marrow from

  20. Quantitative Measurement of Changes in Retinal Vessel Diameter in Ocular Fundus Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    1999-01-01

    The Change in diameter of retinal vessels as a funcion of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, Focal Arteriolar Narrowing (FAN) is considered...

  1. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...

  2. Ischemic pain in the extremities and Raynaud's phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devulder, J.; Suijlekom, H. van; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Diwan, S.; Mekhail, N.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Two important groups of disorders result from an insufficient blood supply to the extremities: critical vascular disease and the Raynaud's phenomenon. The latter can be subdivided into a primary and a secondary type. Critical ischemic disease is often caused by arteriosclerosis due to hypertension o

  3. Application of a four-channel vibrometer system for detection of arterial stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Waz, Adam; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Dirckx, Joris; Abramski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CD) are the most important cause of death in the world and their prevalence is only rising. A significant aspect in the etiology of CD is the stiffening of the large arteries (arteriosclerosis) and plaque formation (atherosclerosis) in the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck. As shown by increasing evidence, both conditions can be detected by assessing pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the CCA, and several approaches allow local detection of PWV, including ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In previous studies, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) was introduced as an approach to assess arterial stiffness. In the present work, a new, compact four-channel LDV system is used for PWV detection in four phantom arteries mimicking real life CCA conditions. The high sensitivity of the LDV system allowed PWV to be assessed, and even local changes in phantom architecture could be detected. This method has potential for cardiovascular screening, as it allows arteriosclerosis assessment and plaque detection.

  4. Border detection on Common Carotid Artery using Gauss-Markov Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility, high accuracy and high-speed. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy and high-speed detection method by Gauss-Markov estimation. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border. And, about high-speed, it realized by calculating matrix only one time.

  5. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  6. A new course in the clinical pathways for metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic syndrome is consisted with multiple risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension based on visceral fat accumulation, for the development of arteriosclerosis. We present, here, a clinical pathway for education of patients with metabolic syndrome. The program contains an adequate explanation of the high risk for arteriosclerosis to the patients, the measurement of visceral fat content by computed tomography, and several clinical examinations for the evaluation of arteriosclerotic lesions. We have presented this program on the ward of diabetes center in our hospital for patients diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Because the focus of education is to clarify understanding of the harmful effects of visceral fat and the benefits of its reduction, it might be a valuable tool to motivate and empower the patient and improve the patient's lifestyle. (author)

  7. Transgenetic Animal Model in Studying Blood Fat Metabolism%血脂类代谢研究中的转基因动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢笑丛; 王有为

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal model for diseases established to show diversified disease through the expression or excessiveexpression of gene. The lipid metabolizing is very a complex physiological process in human. During the gene-relating lipid metabolizing, it includes the factors of causing arteriosclerosis formed and the factors of reducing arteriosclerosis attack. This paper described the transgenic animal model and its characters of gene of aplipoprotein (Apo) such as ApoE,ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, receptor gene sweeping receptor SR-A, SR-B and SR-CD, gene of lipid metabolizing enzyme,gene of transprotein such as CETP, LPL etc. Those transgenic animal models play an important role in studying disease mechanism, drug screening, gene treatment and in producing the protein as drug using.

  8. Nutritional phenolic compounds in red wines determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and MS/MS technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Vojnoski, Borimir; Gulaboski, Rubin

    2015-01-01

    Red wine is a rich source of bioactive and nutritional phenolic compounds which show antioxidant properties, present potential health effect, exhibit a free radical scavenging activity as well as a protective activity against arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease or inhibit the cancer cell growth. In this study, the detailed phenolic profile of Macedonian red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, was determined. For that purpose, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with...

  9. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hyp...

  10. Calcificación vascular asociada a inflamación : influencia de la vitamina D

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Pavón, Fátima

    2012-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis y aterosclerosis son procesos comunes en los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). De hecho, la calcificación vascular (CV) representa un importante factor de riesgo que contribuye a la alta tasa de mortalidad cardiovascular asociada a la ERC. En pacientes urémicos, la CV está causada, en parte, por alteraciones en el metabolismo mineral estrechamente relacionadas con el control del hiperparatiroidismo secundario (HPT2º). Los pacientes con ERC muestr...

  11. Bypassmaterialien in der Gefäßchirurgie

    OpenAIRE

    Eidt, D; Roll, S.; Kulp, W; Müller-Nordhorn, J.; Vauth, C; Greiner, W; Willich, SN; von der Schulenburg, JM

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle), surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are av...

  12. Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    ,; Seino, Yutaka; Nanjo, Kishio; Tajima, Naoko; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Araki, Eiichi; Ito, Chikako; Inagaki, Nobuya; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kasuga, Masato; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Haneda, Masakazu; Ueki, Kohjiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Concept of Diabetes Mellitus: Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from be...

  13. Clinical Observation on Acupuncture Treatment of Cerebrovascular Dementia- A Report of 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Cerebrovascular dementia is a common disease in the middle-aged and old people. Its incidence makes up about 10-20% of all kinds of dementia. It is mainly caused by general degeneration of the brain function resulted from cerebral arteriosclerosis and cerebral infarction. The author has treated 32 cases of cerebrovascular dementia with acupuncture in the recent years with satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  14. Medial arterial calcification, calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification in a diabetic patient with severe autonomic neuropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Medial arterial calcification (Monckeberg\\'s arteriosclerosis) is well described in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. There is also a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. We describe a diabetic patient with autonomic neuropathy and extensive medial arterial calcification who also had calcification of the aortic valve and of the mitral valve annulus. We propose that autonomic neuropathy may play a role in calcification of these structures at the base of the heart.

  15. Puncture-ejection of own egg by Least Bell's Vireo and potential implications for anti-parasitism defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Bryan L.; Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  16. Metastatic, papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in a black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Davidson, J.P.; Novilla, M.N.; Huang, J.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. Attempts at virus isolation were negative. Other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, aortic arteriosclerosis, and focal interstitial pneumonia.

  17. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  18. C-Reactive Protein Inhibits Survivin Expression via Akt/mTOR Pathway Downregulation by PTEN Expression in Cardiac Myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Seob Lee; Soo Hyuk Kim; Jaewon Oh; Taewon Jin; Eun Young Choi; Sungha Park; Sang-Hak Lee; Ji Hyung Chung; Seok-Min Kang

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We ...

  19. The treatment of type 2 diabetes in the presence of renal impairment: what we should know about newer therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Melanie Davies,1,2 Sudesna Chatterjee,1,2 Kamlesh Khunti1,2 1Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, 2Leicester Diabetes Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Abstract: Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD), the most common causes of which include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. Importantly, ~40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD, yet evidence from major multicenter randomized controlled trials s...

  20. Arterial Stiffening and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is more efficient to handily assess arteriosclerosis than aortic PWV. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is also a novel blood pressure-independent arterial stiffness parameter. In dialysis patients, both baPWV and CAVI are increased compared to general subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that increased baPWV is associated with carotid athe...

  1. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism and Fat Synthesis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    YONEJIMA, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a major risk factor for the development of obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stimulation of lipolytic activity in adipose tissue or inhibition of fat synthesis is one way to prevent these serious diseases. Lactic acid bacteria have an anti-obesity effect, but the mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the administration of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri NT) on lipid...

  2. Not at random location of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic aorta and their prognostic significance in relation to the risk of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracic aortic calcium deposits are frequently detected on tomography of the chest, and in other imaging modalities. Numerous studies indicated the correlation of hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress in relation to distribution aortic calcifications. This publication discusses similarities and differences of two distinct pathomechanisms of arterial calcifications: intimal associated with atherosclerosis and medial knows as Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis. This review also analyzes the frequent coexistence of aortic calcification and coronary artery disease in terms of risk of cardiovascular events

  3. Blood pressure changes resulting from aortography.

    OpenAIRE

    Snowdon, S L; Whitehouse, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Patients requiring aortography frequently suffer from generalized arteriosclerosis. Uncontrolled hypotension is therefore clearly undesirable, especially if associated with myocardial depression. Significant hypotension was observed following the use of conventional ionic contrast media, Urografin 370 and Cardioconray, and occurred following every injection in this study. Metrizamide, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be associated with a smaller fall in blood pressure of a shorter du...

  4. Homocysteine and atheromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪梅

    2006-01-01

    @@ Homocysteine (Hcy) was first linked with atherosclerosis over more than 30 years ago. McCully reported autopsy evidence of extensive arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in two children with elevated plasma Hcy concentrations and homocystinuria in 1969. On the basis of this clinical observation, he put forward the Hcy theory of arteriosclerosis. Subsequent investigations HHcy have confirmed the association between and premature atherosclerosis of the coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular beds.

  5. Obsah vybraných fenolických látek v kořeninových rostlinách.

    OpenAIRE

    BERANOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This work concerns the amount of certain phenols in some of the representatives of families Alliaceae, Lamiaceae and Apiaceae. Phenols in plants are widely represented and highly concentrated. Flavonoids are one of the smallest, yet quite significant classes of phenols. Ingestion of food containing flavonoids can prevent certain diseases such as Arteriosclerosis. cardiovascular and tumor diseases. This work focuses, for their special biological effects, on five flavonoids: Kaempferol, Quercet...

  6. Relationship between vascular endothelial function and pulse wave velocity in prehypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娉婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between vascular endothelial function and arteriosclerosis in prehypertensive,hypertensive and healthy subjects.Methods 810 consecutive subjects were divided into three groups:hypertension group,prehypertension group and control group.Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(ba PWV)and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation(FMD)were used to evaluate the artery vascular stiffness and endothelial function respectively.Results Prehypertension

  7. Chronic cardiac rejection: identification of five upregulated genes in transplanted hearts by differential mRNA display.

    OpenAIRE

    Utans, U; Liang, P; Wyner, L R; Karnovsky, M. J.; Russell, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis, the major manifestation of chronic rejection, develops after allogeneic (Lewis to F344) but not syngeneic (Lewis to Lewis) rat cardiac transplantation. To identify transcriptionally regulated mediators associated with chronic cardiac rejection, we adapted the differential mRNA display technique for in vivo transplant specimens. Gene transcript patterns in four allogeneic hearts showing early signs of chronic rejection were compared with those in two syngeneic hear...

  8. ストレス課題における心臓血管系反応に対する怒り表出性の検討 : anger expression-inの効果

    OpenAIRE

    石原, 俊一

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that anger expressions such as anger-in, anger-out, and anger-control contribute to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the 1980s, an increased number of studies indicated that anger and hostility were directly related to CHD. Dembroski et al. reported the relationship between angiographically documented coronary arteriosclerosis and anger and hostility. Williams et al. found a relationship between the scale of hostility in the Minnesota Multiph...

  9. Searching of the peripheric arterial disease in which patient have cerebrovascular event

    OpenAIRE

    Kanar, Rayiha Görkem

    2012-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic disease a systemic disease. Arteriosclerotic disease may affect more than one region in vascular system. In the presence of risk factors of arteriosclerosis; clinical manifestations will emerge depending on organ involvement. The aim of our study is searching the association of peripheral artery disease and determining related risk factors in patients who had cerebrovascular event. This study was performed by Cardiovascular Surgery Department of Trakya Universty Faculty of Me...

  10. KLOTHO Allele Status and the Risk of Early-Onset Occult Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arking, Dan E; Becker, Diane M.; Lisa R Yanek; Fallin, Daniele; Judge, Daniel P.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Lewis C.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2003-01-01

    We previously identified a functional variant of KLOTHO (termed “KL-VS”), which harbors two amino acid substitutions in complete linkage disequilibrium and is associated with reduced human longevity when in homozygosity. Klotho-deficient mice display extensive arteriosclerosis when fed a normal diet, suggesting a potent genetic predisposition. To determine whether klotho influences atherosclerotic risk in humans, we performed cross-sectional studies to assess the association between the KL-VS...

  11. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto Kei; Nishioka Makiko; Miyashita Yumi; Hiki Yoshito; Sasaki Takashi; Nishimura Rimei; Nemoto Masami; Sakuma Toru; Ohashi Toya; Fukuda Kunihiko; Eto Yoshikatsu; Tajima Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery c...

  12. Addition of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor to a calcium channel blocker ameliorates arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuchi S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shunsuke Kiuchi,1 Shinji Hisatake,1 Muneyasu Kawasaki,2 Osamu Hirashima,2 Takayuki Kabuki,1 Junichi Yamazaki,1 Takanori Ikeda1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Misato Central General Hospital, Saitama, JapanBackground: The aim of controlling hypertension is to protect against arteriosclerosis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors have been reported to have antihypertensive effects, but their effect on the progression of arteriosclerosis is not fully understood. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI was developed to estimate arterial stiffness, which reflects arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the longer term effects of CCBs and RAAS inhibitors on the progression of arteriosclerosis by monitoring the CAVI.Methods: Our subjects were 115 consecutive, non-smoking hypertensive patients on oral treatment with a CCB and/or RAAS inhibitor for at least 3 years in whom the CAVI was measured on two occasions approximately 1 year apart during the period from January 2009 to December 2011. Changes in CAVI were evaluated in patients administered a CCB alone (group C, an RAAS inhibitor (group R alone, or both drugs together (group B. Changes in laboratory findings, blood pressure, and ankle-brachial index were similarly evaluated.Results: No significant change in laboratory findings, blood pressure, or ankle-brachial index was noted in any of the groups. The CAVI decreased slightly in group R (first recording 8.80±1.03, second recording 8.57±0.97, P=0.517 and increased significantly in group C (first 8.45±0.92, second 8.95±1.04, P=0.038, but showed no significant change in group B (first 9.01±1.26, second 9.05±1.35, P=0.851.Conclusion: Long-term administration of a CCB alone increased the CAVI, but this effect was offset by the concomitant use of a RAAS inhibitor, indicating that a RAAS

  13. 心踝血管指数、年龄及其交互作用与颈动脉粥样硬化的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄系; 李萍; 张芹; 诸葛张明; 胡华青; 崔寰; 阮积晨; 毛广运

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between arteriosclerosis early identiifcation and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), age and their interaction.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to ex-plore this association in a Chinese population consisting of 328 participants enrolled from the ordinary medical checkup population in the 1st afifliated hospital of Anhui Medical University. CAVI was measured in duplicate and carotid ultrasound detection was performed in a quiet environment by well-trained physicians. Generalized linear models were conducted to assess the correlation.Results: Prevalence of carotid arteriosclerosis for partici-pants with high, medium and low CAVI score were 90.9%, 57.0% and 19.8%, respectively. After adjusted for the potential confounding factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood pressure (BP), creatinine, education, occupation, psychological ten-sion, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, CAVI positively associated with the risk for carotid arteriosclerosis. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile of CAVI (5.15~7.40), those in the medium (7.41~8.65) and high-est (8.66~13.60) had the OR (95% CI) of 2.2 (1.0, 4.9) and 4.4 (1.5, 13.3) for developing carotid arteriosclerosis (P=0.007). Compared with low age groups, the risks of future carotid arteriosclerosis for participants with me- dium and high age increased 7.1 and 51.3 folds, respectively. CAVI and age were all positively associated with the future carotid arteriosclerosis risk (Trend testP<0.001). Compared to subjects with low age and low CAVI, the risks of future carotid arteriosclerosis for participants with low age and high CAVI, high age and low CAVI, high age and high CAVI increased 6.6, 17.3 and 57.1 folds, respectively.Conclusion: CAVI is an independent risk factor of carotid arteriosclerosis, can be used for the prediction of future carotid arteriosclerosis developing and

  14. Association between poor glycemic control, impaired sleep quality, and increased arterial thickening in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Yoda

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients.Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory.The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1 without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT.HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period (β=-0.280, p=0.033, but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001. In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038, but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023 emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT.In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening.

  15. Arteriosclerotic changes in the myocardium, lung, and kidney in dogs with chronic congestive heart failure and myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Bo Torkel; Jönsson, Lennart; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier;

    2006-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of small vessel arteriosclerosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease has not been previously investigated systematically. Methods: Twenty-one dogs with naturally occurring congestive heart failure and 21 age......-matched, sex-matched, and weight-matched control dogs underwent extensive pathological and histopathological examination. Morphometry and scoring of tissue sections were used to measure arterial narrowing and fibrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and lung; and intimal thickness and plaque formation in the aorta...... and pulmonary artery. Results: Dogs with congestive heart failure had significantly more arterial narrowing in the left ventricle (Pdogs. However...

  16. Autoevaluación en Enfermería: Educación sanitaria del paciente con isquemia de las extremidades inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rodrigo, María Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Juan L.R., jubilado de 72 años de edad, acude al médico por presentar dolor en ambas pantorrillas al caminar aproximadamente 800 metros. Hace 5 años se le diagnosticó diabetes mellitus e hiperlipidemia, que controla adecuadamente con antidiabéticos orales y dieta. La exploración física está dentro de la normalidad, si se exceptúa la disminución del latido en las arterias pedias. El médico diagnostica una arteriosclerosis...

  17. Hybrid surgical treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease and 26 cases of thrombosis Experience%杂交手术治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症并血栓形成26例体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵松峰; 李文明; 李彦州

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨杂交手术对下肢动脉硬化闭塞症并血栓形成的疗效。方法回顾我科2005年-2010年26例下肢动脉硬化闭塞症并血栓形成患者行杂交手术治疗,全部股动脉切开取栓,其中球囊扩张者11例,支架置入者15例。结果26例患者术后肢体麻木症状减轻,发凉、疼痛症状缓解,跛行消失或跛行距离延长,ABI平均提高至0.98±0.13;出院后随访2-7年,其中死亡6例,糖尿病膝下动脉硬化闭塞1例,支架内动脉内膜增生血管狭窄2例。结论杂交手术是治疗下肢动脉硬化闭塞症并血栓形成的有效方法,严格把握手术适应症和合理选择手术方式是治疗的关键。%Objective To investigate the hybrid operation for arteriosclerosis obliterans and thrombosis treatment. Methods Retrospective our department in 2005-2010 26 cases of arteriosclerosis obliterans and thrombosis underwent surgical treatment of hybrids and all femoral artery incision embolectomy, in which 11 cases of balloon dilation, stent placement in 15 cases. Results Symptoms such as numbness, coldeness, pain, limp of the 26 patients have been relieved after operation, ABI has been increased to 0.98±0.13. The patients were followed up 2-7 years, 6 of them dead, 1 of them arteriosclerosis obliterans, 2 of them in-stent stenosis. Conclusion Surgery is the treatment of hybrid arteriosclerosis obliterans and effective way of thrombosis. Strictly control surgical indications and rational choice of surgical approach is the key to treatment.

  18. Marcadores de inflamación e insulinorresistencia en la hiperlipemia familiar combinada

    OpenAIRE

    Carratalá Calvo, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    La hiperlipemia familiar combinada (HFC) es un modelo genético de dislipemia mixta con resistencia a la insulina (RI) y elevado riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica por el desarrollo precoz de arteriosclerosis. La RI es independiente del grado de obesidad y del fenotipo lipoproteico. Constituye, además, factor de riesgo cardiovascular en estos pacientes. Actualmente existe una gran evidencia de que en el desarrollo y progresión de la aterosclerosis subyacen mecanismos inmunológicos e inflamator...

  19. Efecto del género y parámetros antropométricos en marcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación en situación postprandial

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri Císcar, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Título Efecto del género y parámetros antropométricos en marcadores de estrés oxidativo e inflamación en situación postprandial Introducción La arteriosclerosis (AE) es la principal causa de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y está relacionada con múltiples factores que son marcadores de inflamación crónica de bajo grado y de estrés oxidativo (EO) contribuyendo desde su inicio en el desarrollo de la disfunción endotelial. La lipemia postprandial (LPP) alterada está asociada co...

  20. Fatty acids and antioxidants in reindeer and red deer

    OpenAIRE

    Sampels, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate importance of dietary fatty acids (FA) and animal age and sex on FA metabolism. In addition relation between FA and antioxidants on the consequent nutritional and technological quality of reindeer and red deer meat were addressed. A diet rich in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) especially long chained n-3 FA (≥C20) has beneficial effects on human health, e.g. in prevention of arteriosclerosis. Game meat is a potential food source that is both lean and rich i...

  1. A case study of technology transfer: Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, G.

    1974-01-01

    Research advancements in cardiology instrumentation and techniques are summarized. Emphasis is placed upon the following techniques: (1) development of electrodes which show good skin compatibility and wearer comfort; (2) contourography - a real time display system for showing the results of EKGs; (3) detection of arteriosclerosis by digital computer processing of X-ray photos; (4) automated, noninvasive systems for blood pressure measurement; (5) ultrasonoscope - a noninvasive device for use in diagnosis of aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve disease; and (6) rechargable cardiac pacemakers. The formation of a biomedical applications team which is an interdisciplinary team to bridge the gap between the developers and users of technology is described.

  2. Measure and analyze the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity of 125 plots%飞行员肢体动脉硬化与吸烟关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单清; 王惠贤

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore the situation and related factors of the arteriosclerosis between the smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots. By means:125 pilots were randomly selected and divided into two groups: smoking group and non - smoking group. Measure the brachial - ankle pulse wave velocity of each pilot by Arteriosclerosis Checking Instrument , record the height , weight , systolic pressure , diastolic pressure , pulse pressure , driving plane period and smoking period of each pilot of the groups and compare the data of Bapwv of different ages between smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots. Results : There was little difference in Bapwv between the smoking pilots and non - smoking pilots with ages younger than 30 and 30 to 39( P >0. 05 ). The Bapwv of the smoking pilots who are over 40 years old are obvious higher than those same age non - smoking pilots( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The brachial - ankle arteriosclerosis situation of the smoking pilots can be diagnosed correspondingly early. And we may prevent , interpose and doctor the arteriosclerosis of the smoking pilots to keep their flight safe.%目的:探讨飞行员肢体动脉硬化程度与吸烟关系.方法:随机选择125名飞行员分为吸烟组和非吸烟组,应用动脉硬化测定仪测定臂踝脉搏波传导速度,同时确定飞行员身高、体重、收缩压、舒张压、脉压、飞行时间等.对比各年龄段吸烟组与非吸烟组飞行员臂踝脉搏波传导速度.结果:30岁以下和30 ~39岁飞行员吸烟组臂踝脉搏波传导速度与非吸烟组无明显差异(P>0.05);40岁以上飞行员吸烟组臂踝脉搏波传导速度较非吸烟组显著升高(P<0.05).结论:通过对臂踝脉搏波传导速度的测定可以相对早期发现飞行员中特别是吸烟飞行员中动脉硬化程度,做到早预防、早干预,确保飞行安全.

  3. Arteria poplitea afklemningssyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, Peter; Meyer, Joan N; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) should be suspected in young persons without predisposing factors to arteriosclerosis, who present with unilateral claudication in the calf and foot. This entity results from a developmental abnormal relation between the popliteal artery and the medial...... head of the gastrocnemius muscle. PAES is mostly found in young sportsmen or young soldiers with well-developed muscles. The onset of the symptoms is often sudden, occurring during an episode of intense lower extremity activity. The diagnosis is best established by a thorough clinical examination...

  4. Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiu-Ying; LIU Da-He; ZHOU Jing; JIN Yong-Juan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in awide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation arepresented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in theareas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particularblood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmannmethod is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.

  5. Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head Occurred after Stent Placement of Femoral Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Shimatani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH that occurred after stent angiography of femoral artery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO of left inferior limb in a 76-year-old woman. No case of late collapse of femoral head as a complication of endovascular procedure such as stent placement has been previously documented. We considered that ONFH occurred after detaining stent at a junction of left deep femoral artery for the treatment of the ischemia of left lateral and medial femoral circumflex artery.

  6. Ultrasonic Imaging of Hemodynamic Force in Carotid Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, N.; Homma, K.

    Hemodynamic forces including blood pressure and shear stress affect vulnerable plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and biochemical activation of endothelium such as NO production. In this study, a method for estimating and imaging shear stress and pressure gradient distributions in blood vessel as the hemodynamic force based on viscosity estimation is presented. Feasibility of this method was investigated by applying to human carotid blood flow. Estimated results of shear stress and pressure gradient distributions coincide with the ideal distributions obtained by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment.

  7. Laser Biostimulation Of Wound Healing In Arteriopatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, G.; Baldoni, F.; Raimondi, G.; Massaro, M.; Peruzzi, G.; Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Scudieri, F.

    1981-05-01

    Low-power laser irradiation has been employed in the attempt to accelerate the wound-healing of ischemic cutaneous ulcerations with threatening or manifest gangrene due to arteriosclerosis obliterans of the lower limbs. Irradiation was performed by using a low-power He-Ne gas laser of 6328 Å wavelength and was concentrated at the peripheral zone of the lesions. The preliminary results of the study indicate that laser stimulation might be new approach in the conservative menagement of the ischemic ulcers in patients with severe peripheral obstructive arteriopaties not suited for arterial reconstruction.

  8. Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Da-He; Zhou, Jing; Jin, Yong-Juan

    2005-11-01

    The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation are presented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in the areas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particular blood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmann method is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.

  9. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  10. Dieta, estilos de vida y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en niños y adolescentes europeos

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Serrat, Silvia; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Krogh, Vittorio; Mouratidou, Theodora

    2014-01-01

    La infancia y la adolescencia no sólo se caracterizan por ser periodos de crecimiento rápido y maduración, sino también porque se adquiere el comportamiento alimentario para toda la vida. También se ha observado que las primeras manifestaciones de arteriosclerosis se dan de forma temprana durante la infancia y que, además, están relacionadas con la dieta y otros estilos de vida como la actividad física y los comportamientos sedentarios, entre otros factores. Por todo ello, es de gran importan...

  11. Relationship between taurine and cardiovascular system diseases%牛磺酸与心血管系统疾病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴荣; 陈玲; 万顺康; 狄勇

    2002-01-01

    @@ Taurine is a kind of β amino acid containing sulfur, and the free amino acid that content is the highest in cells.Recent researches found that taurine is closely related to cardiovascular system.Some documents reported that taurine has apparent treatment effects on many kinds of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomuscular necrosis,arrhythmia caused by hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia, cardiomuscular ischmia and reperfusion injury[1].It also can resist hypertension,decrease blood cholesterol,increase high density lipoprotein,prevent arteriosclerosis and decrease blood sugar,which had became the main study domain on physical function of taurine.

  12. Observation on Efficiency of Jiangtang (降糖) Capsule in Treating Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Arteriosclerosis is a major common vascular disorder of diabetes mellitus (DM), and as the life-span of DM patients prolonged, the incidence increased, arteriosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases have become the principal causes of death of DM. Therefore, improving the disturbance of glucose and lipid metabolism, and preventing chronic complication are the key links in the treatment of DM. The authors used Jiangtang capsule (降糖胶囊, JTC) in treating DM type 2. While treating hypoglycemia, promising effect in improving lipid metabolism disturbance is also obtained. It is reported as follows.

  13. Biomarcadores de la inflamación en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Efecto del control glucémico y del fenotipo de las LDL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinagre Torres, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen las complicaciones más prevalentes en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y son las que se asocian con mayor morbi-mortalidad. Los mecanismos responsables del desarrollo acelerado de arteriosclerosis en los pacientes con DM2 no se conocen con precisión, pero tanto la dislipemia aterogénica y la inflamación de bajo grado características de esta población, están implicados. La información sobre la relación del grado de control glucémico...

  14. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis.

  15. Progress report 1980/81 of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the numerous institutes and divisions of the Austrian Academy of Sciences presented in this report the Commission for Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis Research (application of radioimmunoassay) and the Institute for X-ray Microstructure Research (investigation of biological substances by X-ray and neutron small angle scattering) are partly within the scope of INIS. Fully in scope are short project discriptions of the Institute for Radium Research and Nulear Physics: the Commission for the SIN-project and the Institute for High Energy Physics, completed by publication lists. (G.Q.)

  16. Enfermedad arterial periférica silente en pacientes ingresados en el servicio de urgencia

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Loría-Castellanos; Angélica Hernández-Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP) es un síndrome aterotrombótico que manifiesta la arteriosclerosis sistémica. Su detección en las fases preclínicas (silentes) podría ayudar a detectar a los individuos y poblaciones en riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades aterotrombóticas mayores (cerebrovasculares o coronarias). Material y métodos: Estudio observacional autorizado por el Comité de investigación, en el que a través de un método aleatorio simple se incluyó a pacientes mayores...

  17. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  18. Hyperuricemia and carotid artery dilatation among young adults without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Krishnan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not known if hyperuricemia is associated with early vascular changes signifying arteriosclerosis. We performed a cross sectional study of 163 young adults without metabolic syndrome in Allegheny County, PA, USA. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure two metrics of early arteriosclerosis: carotid artery dimensions and aortic pulse wave velocity. Individuals in the highest quartiles of serum uric acid (>6.2 mg/dL for men and >4.6 for women were more likely to be of younger age, and to possess greater measures of adiposity and an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Higher serum uric acid concentration was associated with larger luminal and adventitial diameters as well as changes in diameters between the phases of the cardiac cycle (P<0.001 but not with carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity, or pressure strain modulus. In multivariable linear regression models where the effects of age, ethnicity, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, current alcohol use, body mass index and smoking status were accounted for, the highest quartile of serum uric acid was associated with greater luminal and adventitial diameters and change in luminal diameter between the phases of cardiac cycle (P<0.05, but not with pulse wave velocity, pressure strain modulus or carotid intima media thickness. We can conclude that hyperuricemia is associated with larger carotid artery diameters signifying an early adaptive response to vascular stress. This has implications on the observed link between hyperuricemia and hypertension.

  19. Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Yamagata, Kumi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ohta, Shigeo

    2008-12-26

    Oxidative stress is implicated in atherogenesis; however most clinical trials with dietary antioxidants failed to show marked success in preventing atherosclerotic diseases. We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H(2)) acts as an effective antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress [I. Ohsawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, K. Katsura, Y. Katayama, S, Asoh, S. Ohta, Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals, Nat. Med. 13 (2007) 688-694]. Here, we investigated whether drinking H(2)-dissolved water at a saturated level (H(2)-water) ad libitum prevents arteriosclerosis using an apolipoprotein E knockout mouse (apoE(-/-)), a model of the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) mice drank H(2)-water ad libitum from 2 to 6 month old throughout the whole period. Atherosclerotic lesions were significantly reduced by ad libitum drinking of H(2)-water (p=0.0069) as judged by Oil-Red-O staining series of sections of aorta. The oxidative stress level of aorta was decreased. Accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions was confirmed. Thus, consumption of H(2)-dissolved water has the potential to prevent arteriosclerosis. PMID:18996093

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit firm adhesion, crawling, spreading and transmigration across aortic endothelial cells: effects of chemokines and shear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Chamberlain

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and may be useful in the therapy of diseases such as arteriosclerosis. MSCs have some ability to traffic into inflamed tissues, however to exploit this therapeutically their migratory mechanisms need to be elucidated. This study examines the interaction of murine MSCs (mMSCs with, and their migration across, murine aortic endothelial cells (MAECs, and the effects of chemokines and shear stress. The interaction of mMSCs with MAECs was examined under physiological flow conditions. mMSCs showed lack of interaction with MAECs under continuous flow. However, when the flow was stopped (for 10 min and then started, mMSCs adhered and crawled on the endothelial surface, extending fine microvillous processes (filopodia. They then spread extending pseudopodia in multiple directions. CXCL9 significantly enhanced the percentage of mMSCs adhering, crawling and spreading and shear forces markedly stimulated crawling and spreading. CXCL9, CXCL16, CCL20 and CCL25 significantly enhanced transendothelial migration across MAECs. The transmigrated mMSCs had down-regulated receptors CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR6 and CCR9. This study furthers the knowledge of MSC transendothelial migration and the effects of chemokines and shear stress which is of relevance to inflammatory diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  1. Histopathological analysis of pre-implantation donor kidney biopsies: association with graft survival and function in one year post-transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-implantation kidney biopsy is a decision-making tool when considering the use of grafts from deceased donors with expanded criteria, implanting one or two kidneys and comparing this to post-transplantation biopsies. The role of histopathological alterations in kidney compartments as a prognostic factor in graft survival and function has had conflicting results. Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence of chronic alterations in pre-implant biopsies of kidney grafts and the association of findings with graft function and survival in one year post-transplant. Methods: 110 biopsies were analyzed between 2006 and 2009 at Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, including live donors, ideal deceased donors and those with expanded criteria. The score was computed according to criteria suggested by Remuzzi. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated using the abbreviated MDRD formula. Results: No statistical difference was found in the survival of donors stratified according to Remuzzi criteria. The GFR was significantly associated with the total scores in the groups with mild and moderate alterations, and in the kidney compartments alone, by univariate analysis. The multivariate model found an association with the presence of arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, acute rejection and delayed graft function. Conclusion: Pre-transplant chronic kidney alterations did not influence the post-transplantation one-year graft survival, but arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis is predictive of a worse GFR. Delayed graft function and acute rejection are independent prognostic factors.

  2. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Inami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression.

  3. ME 04-2 AORTIC PWV FOR RISK STRATIFICATION IN HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-09-01

    High pressure of the blood in artery is a common condition and it is closely related to cardiovascular (CV) diseases in future. Blood pressure itself is the most important criteria for hypertension prognosis but attempts are being made to detect hypertensive vascular changes early. Healthy arteries are flexible, strong and elastic but if the condition of high blood pressure persists, arteries turn narrow, thick and stiff, become a condition of arteriosclerosis. And so now, pulse wave velocity (PWV) which measures arteriosclerosis became one of the clinically significant method that evaluates CV risks among patients in hypertension (yes, it is also very important for general population), detects biological changes in blood vessels caused by hypertension, and it is known as a guide for hypertension management.Other than hypertension, the importance of PWV on various pathological status such as diabetes and renal diseases has been known and it is widely used in clinical settings. There is a method which measures PWV between two blood vessels, regional PWV and arterial structure in one particular blood vessel site, local PWV. Controversies still exist over its accuracy but most of them were resolved and so now, it was introduced as a standard technique by American Heart Association (AHA), European Society of Hypertension and others. Once the problem of pricing is resolved, it can be broadly used as inexpensive technique in clinical settings. I will further discuss which PWV techniques to use and how to interpret aortic PWV data in CV risk stratification of hypertension in clinical settings. PMID:27643282

  4. 不同年龄女性超重和肥胖与动脉僵硬度的相关性研究%Association of overweight/obesity with arterial stiffness in females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆昀; 沈振海; 李红卫; 李凤; 恽景廷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of body weight with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in females.Methods A total of 2 921 residents (≥20 years old) were selected by the stratified cluster random sampling method from March to December 2011.Arterial stiffness was assessed by baPWV.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on arteriosclerosis.The predictive value of BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis was analyzed by using receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve.Results The prevalence of arteriosclerosis was significantly increased in overweight/obese residents (P<0.01).BMI was positively correlated with baPWV (r=0.310,P<0.01).The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness in individuals≥65 years older was higher than that in people of 20-40 or 41-64 years old (x2 values were 677.30 and 347.26,respectively; both P<0.01).For females of 20-40 or 41-46 years old,the prevalences of increased arterial stiffness in overweight and obese groups were higher than those in normal body weight group (both P<0.01).In univariate analysis,age,resting heart rate,systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were correlated with arteriosclerosis (all P<0.01).The odds ratio for the prevalence of arteriosclerosis in overweight women was 2.017 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.637-2.486,P<0.01) and that in obese women was 2.759 (95% CI:1.964-3.876,P<0.01) after adjustment for age,resting heart rate and blood pressure.The area under the ROC curve was 0.693 (95% CI:0.671-0.715,P<0.01) to evaluate arteriosclerosis in females and the optimal cut-off point for BMI was 23.42 kg/m2.Conclusions For females,overweight and obesity may be risk factors of arteriosclerosis.The optimal cut-off point for BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis in women could be 23.42 kg/m2.%目的 探讨女性人群不同体重与臂踝脉搏波速度(baPWV)的关系,评估超重和肥胖女性人群的

  5. Juvenile elastic arteries after 28 years of renal replacement therapy in a patient with complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoll Florian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complement activation products are present in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, binding of complement to elastin and collagen in the aortic wall has been demonstrated, suggesting a role of complement in the development aortic stiffness and atherosclerosis. The definitive role of complement in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, however, remains unclear. Case presentation We here describe a patient with hereditary complete deficiency of complement C4 suffering from Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and on renal replacement therapy for twenty-eight years. The patient had the full range of risk factors for vascular damage such as hypertension, volume overload, hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism. Despite that, his carotid artery intima media thickness was below the normal range and his pulse wave velocity was normal. In contrast, the patient’s coronary and peripheral muscular arteries were heavily calcified. Conclusion This case supports the hypothesis that complement plays an important role in the development of stiffness of elastic arteries. We speculate that inability to activate complement by the classical or lectin pathways protected the patient from atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, stiffening and calcification of the aorta and carotid arteries. Inhibition of complement activation may be a potential target for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions.

  6. Radiotherapy-induced aortic valve disease associated with porcelain aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediastinal irradiation has been reported to induce cardiac disease such as pericarditis, valvular dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, accelerated arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries, and also calcifications of the ascending aorta. We herein describe a case of radiotherapy-induced porcelain aorta and aortic valve disease and their surgical treatment. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) in 1965 (Osserman's type II), and mediastinal irradiation was performed in 1970 for treatment of thymic tumor associated with MG. Thirty years after radiation therapy, complete atrioventricular block and aortic valve disease with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and aortic arch (porcelain aorta) were detected on echo cardiogram and cardiac catheterization. A permanent pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein and aortic valve replacement was performed under extracorporeal circulation established by selective cerebral perfusion and balloon occlusion instead of aortic cross-clamping. As no risk factors of arteriosclerosis such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension were apparent, we concluded that the aortic valve disease and porcelain aorta were primarily induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  7. A novel photoplethysmography technique to derive normalized arterial stiffness as a blood pressure independent measure in the finger vascular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffening of the small artery may be the earliest sign of arteriosclerosis. However, there is no adequate method for directly assessing small arterial stiffness. In this study, the finger arterial elasticity index (FEI) was defined as the parameter n which denotes the curvilinearity of an exponential model of pressure (P)–volume (Va) relationship (Va = a − b exp (−nP)). For the original estimation, the FEI was calculated from a compliance index from the finger photoplethysmogram whilst occluding the finger. A simple estimation of the FEI was devised by utilizing normalized pulse volume instead of the compliance index. Both estimations yielded close agreement with the exponential model in healthy young participants (study 1: n = 19). Since the FEI was dependent on finger mean blood pressure, normalized finger arterial stiffness index (FSI) was defined as standardized residual from their relationship: mean and standard deviation (SD) of the FSI were 50 ± 10 (study 2: n = 174). The mean coefficient of variation of the FSI for four measurements was 5.72% (study 3: n = 6). The mean and SD of the FSI in seven arteriosclerotic patients were 100.0 ± 13.5. In conclusion, the FEI and FSI by simple estimation are valid and useful for arteriosclerosis research

  8. 超重和肥胖与动脉僵硬度的相关性研究%Association between overweight, obesity and arterial stiffness in community residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晖明; 李森; 许浩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between overweight,obesity and arterial stiffness in community residents.Methods A total of 4585 community-dwelling adults in Jiangsu province,China were surveyed with the method of stratified and cluster sampling from 2007 to 2009.Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI) and arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV).Statistical analysis of arteriosclerosis included multivariate logistic regression testing among which BMI was viewed as continuous variable( 1 kg/m2 increasing to BMI)and categorical variables (underweight,normal,overweight and obesity) respectively.Odds ratio,population attributable risk percent and the optimal cut-off points for BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve.Results ( 1 ) After age control,BMI of male or female were positively correlated with baPWV (r =0.213,P <0.01; r =0.186,P <0.01).baPWV and prevalence of arteriosclerosis were significantly higher in obese residents compared with normal body weight group ( all P < 0.01 ).(2)As a continuous variable,the odds ratio value of BMI on predicting arteriosclerosis was 1.146 (95%CI:1.117 - 1.175,P < 0.01 ) after adjusting of age,gender and hypertension.As categorical variables,the odds ratio value of BMI was 0.369(95% CI:0.141 -0.962,P <0.05) for underweight group,1.576 (95% CI:1.333 - 1.863 ) for overweight group and 2.087 ( 95% CI:1.615 - 2.698 ) for obesity group (all P <0.01 ).(3) The population attributable arteriosclerosis risk was 19.1% and 11.6%in overweight and obesity groups,respectively.The area under the ROC curve was 0.661 (95% CI:0.645 -0.678,P < 0.01 ) and the optimal cut-off point for BMI to evaluate arteriosclerosis was 24.25 kg/m2.Conclusions Overweight and obese residents faced higher risk for arteriosclerosis than normal population.Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for

  9. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: rogerinhofurtado@gmail.com [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  10. Respiratory Care Guide on Acute Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma%支气管哮喘急性发作期的呼吸指导与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁静

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管哮喘急性发作期的呼吸指导和临床护理方法.方法:对照组所有患者均采用传统护理方法,包括严密观察病情、保持呼吸道畅通、心理护理和健康教育:研究组患者在此基础上,行加强性呼吸指导和呼吸训练护理.结果:研究组患者的护理临床总有效率100%明显高于对照组96.08%,数据经统计学比较具有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:有效的呼吸指导与洲练护理,对于减少临床不良症状、提高呼吸力具有良好的疗效.%Objective: To explore effect of promoting cerebral venous return on brain function and inflammatory factor of patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction for the reference in clinical treatment.Methods: Forty patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction were taken as Observation Group and healthy examined people as Control Group. Observation Group was treated with thrombolysis-based therapy promoting cerebral venous return. Please observe variations in sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CR inflammatory markers of both groups before and after treatmentResults: After therapy promoting cerebral venous return, 28 cases' brain function took a turn for the better and 12 cases not. Logistic regression analysis showed hs-CRP activity wss an independent inflammatory marker of efficacy of clinical prognosis (P<0.05). Con elusion :It improved brain function of patients with acute arteriosclerosis cerebral infarction and changed the inflammatory factor by promoting cerebral venous return. Hereinto, hs-CRP activity gave a hint at cerebral infarction to a certain degree.

  11. 高龄老年人脉压差、血脂、血糖关系分析%Analysis of the Correlation between Pulse Pressure,Blood Lipid,Blood Sugar in the Elderly People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翊; 刘芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Removed the age factor, to probe into the correlation between blood pressure,blood lipid,blood sugar and arteriosclerosis in the elderly people. Methods:Analyzed the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and Diabetes mellitus,Hypertension in 279 examination of the elderly. analyzed the changes of blood glucose,blood lipid at the different levels of Pulse Pressure. In order to know the correlation between Pulse Pressure,Mean Arterial blood pressure and blood glucose,blood lipid, blood pressure. Results:There was a correlation between arteriosclerosis and arterial compliance in the elderly people and hyperglycemia,the disorder of lipid metabolism and high systolic blood pressure. Conclusions:Strengthened the blood glucose management and the treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, strengthened the control of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension, these measures had a positive effect on prevention and treatment of senile arteriosclerosis.%目的:探讨老年动脉硬化除去年龄因素以外与血压、血糖、血脂的关系。方法:体检的老年人279例,分析脉压、平均动脉压与糖尿病、高血压病的关系及不同脉压水平下血糖、血脂的变化,进一步了解脉压、平均动脉压与血糖、血脂、血压之间的关系。结果:高龄老年人动脉硬化、血管顺应性减低与血糖增高、血脂代谢紊乱、收缩压增高有关。结论:加强糖尿病患者的血糖管理及血脂紊乱的治疗、加强高血压病患者血压控制对老年动脉硬化的防治有积极作用。

  12. Mice aorta loop grafting: A new model which separate vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 窦科峰; 何勇; 孙凯

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the cause and mechanism of transplantation vasculopathy which characterized by accelerated graft arteriosclerosis (AGA), we established a mouse aorta graft model. Methods: A segment of thoracic aortas of B10.A (2R) mice were transplanted to C57BL/10 mice abdominal aorta by end to side anastomoses. The different time point collected grafts were analyzed by morphological, histochemical and electro microscopic methods. Results: Rejection was manifested as a concentric progressive destruction of the smooth muscle cells. In contrast, the endothelial inflammation and subsequent neointimal proliferation characteristic of AGA was localized to the regions of turbulent flow, i.e. the junction of the graft with the recipient aorta. Conclusion: This model separates the processes of rejection and neointimal formation which usually manifested together in the lesion of AGA, elucidate that different mechanisms control vascular rejection and neointimal formation in chronic rejection.

  13. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity

    CERN Document Server

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac d...

  14. /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide angioscintigraphic perfusion analysis in the assessment and follow-up of peripheral vascular diseases of the lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral arterial diseases (PADs) of the lower limbs such as thromboangitis obliterans (TAO) (Buerger's disease), arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and diabetes mellitus, produce trophic disturbances occurring most often in the toes. Perfusion analysis of the foot and toes was previously reported. The analysis utilized radionuclide arteriography (RNA) during reactive hyperaemia to obtain peak activity in RNA time-activity curves (TACs). RNA was also used to assess healing capability of skin ulcers of the calf and ankle, which depends on localized enhancement of capillary blood flow. On these bases, detection of capillary blood flow assumes primary importance in the assessment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether RNA of the toes at rest could provide adequate assessment of microcirculation in PVD and of microcirculatory changes induced by lumbar sympathectomy (LS)

  15. [8-year experience in 40 patients with an axillary-femoral graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostozky, L; Rish, L; Legaspi, R; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Morales, F; Oropeza, G

    1977-01-01

    The 8 years (1967-1975) experience with axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts in 40 patients is presented; 6 females and 34 males, between 50 and 90 years of age, with arteriosclerosis, all complicated by chronic illnesses. The results have been satisfactory, as the grafts are functioning from 2 months to 80 months (6 years, 8 months), most of them being more than 12 months old. Twenty eight of the 40 patients operated are alive. Four patients (10%) had infection of their grafts. In 6 (15%) the graft closed because of severe progresive distal obstruction. Three patients (7.5%) died in the first 32 post-operative days. In 9 (22.5%) the deaths were not related to surgery. The indications for placement of axillary-femoral and femoro-femoral grafts is established.

  16. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-04-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  17. Imaging of atherosclerosis with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular delineation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) suffers from severe artifacts caused by the motion of flowing blood. With recent developments these artifacts are reduced significantly. Using special sequences and processing algorithms the resulting images have an angiographic-like character (MR-Angiography, MRA). While MRA-signals derive from moving spins, the vessel wall itself is suppressed like it is in conventional angiography also. Prerequisites for the assessment of the arterial wall are increased spatial resolution and the discrimination of blood signals. This study demonstrates the clinical value of MRA with respect to arteriosclerosis. Moreover, a pilot study to visualize the arterial wall and atheroma is presented. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. The significance of MR angiography for the diagnosis of carotid stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteriosclerosis of the supra-aortic vessels is a known risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Large multicenter studies like NASCET and ECST have proven the protective effects of the surgical treatment of severe (>70%) carotid artery stenoses. The exact detection and grading of stenoses of the carotid arteries is a prerequisite for a successful therapy. Besides the gold-standard examination, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), MR angiography (MRA) is being used increasingly. MRA allows a non-invasive, high-resolution depiction of the supra-aortic vessels without ionizing radiation in only 20 s. This article first illustrates the MRA-techniques, and the indications and limitations of MRA. Next, the diagnostic accuracy of MRA is compared to DSA and ultrasound. The clinical value of MRA for the detection of stenoses of the carotid arteries is discussed on the basis of clinical examples. (orig.)

  19. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Osamu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)], E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-1-1, Honjo Kumamoto 860-8505 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  20. Paper de la 1,25 dihidroxivitamina D3 extrarenal
    en l'arteriopatia urèmica. Efecte diferencial de l'analeg 19-nor-dihidroxivitamina D2

    OpenAIRE

    Cardús Figueras, Anna

    2007-01-01

    L'arteriosclerosis és un procés caracteritzat per l'engruximent i enduriment dela paret arterial, aquest procés es troba accelerat en pacients amb insuficiència renalcrònica (IRC). A més a més, aquests pacients pateixen una disminució de la síntesisde 1,25-dihidroxivitamina D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) que comporta altres complicacions comel hiperparatïroidisme secundari (HPT2). Per aquesta raó es comú l'ús de 1,25(OH)2D3en el tractament del HPT2. L'efecte de la 1,25(OH)2D3 en la calcificació de les cèl·...

  1. Drug treatment of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, D; Gotto, A M

    1976-03-01

    The most frequent indication for treatment of hyperlipidemia is for prevention of arteriosclerosis, a suspected but unproved benefit. The cornerstone of treatment of primary hyperlipidemia is diet; drugs may be added to, but do not replace, diet. When a drug is used with any patient, its potential benefits and hazards must be carefully weighed for the given subject. The subjects should be carefully followed and observed for side effects. Plasma lipids should be monitored during the course of treatment. Five drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: cholestyramine, clofibrate, nicotinic acid, sodium dextrothyroxine and beta-sitosterol. The use, the actions and the side effects of each and of several nonapproved agents are discussed.

  2. Non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography in renal transplantation and renal donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in cases of severe renal disease. The majority of candidates for kidney transplantation have arteriosclerosis to some extent; thus, preoperative imaging of the vessels is needed. Different imaging modalities are available and are used...... renal transplantation. In 2006, it was realised that the Gd used in CEMRA could cause NSF, which prompted the Danish National Board of Health to produce guidelines for the use of contrast agents in patients with severe renal disease. This thesis discusses different preoperative imaging methods without...... contrast agents before kidney transplantation and kidney donation. Study I is a review of NCMRA techniques and clinical applications. In study II, we searched for an NCMRA method with consistently good image quality for the examination of the pelvic vessels in patients with severe renal disease. Five...

  3. Review article: Getting the balance right: assessing causes and extent of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Markus; Biggar, Patrick H

    2009-06-01

    Vascular calcification is part of the definition of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It is also a surrogate parameter of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk in the CKD population. However, vascular calcification is not a homogenous entity, but a rather complex manifestation influenced by derangements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, by dysregulated calcification inhibitors and promoters, and by the type of arterial disease (atherosclerosis vs arteriosclerosis). Despite the clear-cut risk association between the presence of vascular calcification and mortality, it is currently not well defined, how this knowledge about calcification should be translated into active clinical management. Further, the choice of the appropriate imaging test is a matter of debate. This article attempts to provide an update on insights into the pathophysiology of vascular calcification processes and a subjective view of the clinical consequences of management of CKD patients at risk. PMID:19563380

  4. Diabetes mellitus in a black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus was tentatively diagnosed in a black-footed ferret with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dehydration, and weight loss. Laboratory findings (marked hyperglycemia (724 mg/100 ml), glycosuria, and ketonuria) and the subsequent favorable response to insulin therapy confirmed the diagnosis. Although lesions were not observed in the pancreas, gross and histologic findings concomitant with diabetes mellitus included arteriosclerosis, with calcification of the aorta and other major vessels; mild necrotizing hepatitis; and mild proliferative glomerulonephritis. A perineal adenocarcinoma, with metastasis to an internal iliac lymph node, was an incidental finding. Special stains demonstrated adequate numbers of beta cell granules in the islets of Langerhans. Thus, the diabetes was apparently due to a lack of release of the synthesized insulin or to diminished effectiveness of the secreted insulin.

  5. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  6. C-Peptide and Atherogenesis: C-Peptide as a Mediator of Lesion Development in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Marx

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes exhibit an increased propensity to develop a diffuse and extensive pattern of arteriosclerosis. Typically, these patients show increased levels of C-peptide and over the last years various groups examined the effect of C-peptide in vascular cells as well as its potential role in lesion development. While some studies demonstrated beneficial effects of C-peptide, for example, by showing an inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, others suggested proatherogenic mechanisms in patients with type 2 diabetes. Among them, C-peptide may facilitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells into early lesions and promote lesion progression by inducing smooth muscle cell proliferation. The following review will summarize the effects of C-peptide in vascular cells and discuss the potential role of C-peptide in atherogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Laser angioplasty for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masayoshi

    2005-07-01

    Recently, endovascular interventions such as balloon angioplasty, atherectomy and the stenting method, except for conventional surgery have been clinically employed for the patients with atheromatous plaques of the peripheral- and the coronary arteries, because the number of patients with arteriosclerosis is now increasing in the worldwide. Among these procedures, restenoses after endovascular interventions have been remarkably disclosed in 20-40 % of the patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions. Thus, there are still some problems in keeping long-term patency by means of endovascular techniques such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy (1, 2). For reduction of these problems , laser angioplasty using Argon laser was applied experimentally and clinically. Based on excellent experimental studies, laser was employed for 115 patients with stenotic ,or obstructive lesions occluding more thasn 75 % of the peripheral and the coronary arteries angiographycally.

  8. Estimation of Stiffness Parameter on the Common Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Mizoshiri, Isao; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. Up to the present, several methods to measure stiffness parameter of the carotid artery have been proposed. However, they have analyzed at the only one point of common carotid artery. In this paper, we propose the method of analysis extended over a wide area of common carotid artery. In order to measure stiffness parameter of common carotid artery from echocardiogram, it is required to detect two border curves which are boundaries between vessel wall and blood. The method is composed of two steps. The first step is the detection of border curves, and the second step is the calculation of stiffness parameter using diameter of common carotid artery. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear Rate Based on Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear rate, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear rate estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear rate was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles based on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear rate calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear rate estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear rate calculation.

  10. Nitric oxide prevents alveolar senescence and emphysema in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Boe

    Full Text Available Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME treatment induces arteriosclerosis and vascular senescence. Here, we report that the systemic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production by L-NAME causes pulmonary emphysema. L-NAME-treated lungs exhibited both the structural (alveolar tissue destruction and functional (increased compliance and reduced elastance characteristics of emphysema development. Furthermore, we found that L-NAME-induced emphysema could be attenuated through both genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Because PAI-1 is an important contributor to the development of senescence both in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether L-NAME-induced senescence led to the observed emphysematous changes. We found that L-NAME treatment was associated with molecular and cellular evidence of premature senescence in mice, and that PAI-1 inhibition attenuated these increases. These findings indicate that NO serves to protect and defend lung tissue from physiological aging.

  11. Estimation of Arterial Stiffness by Time-Frequency Analysis of Pulse Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yuya; Shibayama, Yuka; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furuya, Mio; Asada, Takaaki

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of a pulse wave is effective for the early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis because the pulse wave contains the reflected wave that is the age- and stiffness-dependent component. In this study, we attempted to extract the parameter reflecting the component by pulse wave analysis using continuous wavelet transform. The Morlet wavelet was used as the mother wavelet. We then investigated the relationship between the parameter and the reflected wave that was extracted from the pulse wave by our previously reported separation technique. Consequently, the result of wavelet transform of the differentiated pulse waveform changed markedly owing to age and had medium correlation with the peak of the reflected wave (R=0.68).

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  13. Development of a Mechanical Scanning-type Intravascular Ultrasound System Using a Miniature Ultrasound Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Masayuki; Xie, Shangping; Tagawa, Norio; Moriya, Tadashi; Furukawa, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays an important role for the detection of arteriosclerosis, which causes the ischemic heart disease. In mechanical scanning-type IVUS, it is necessary to rotate a transducer or a reflecting mirror. A method that involves rotating the transducer using a torque wire causes image distortion (NURD: non uniform rotation distortion). For a method that involves placing an electromagnetic motor on the tip of an IVUS probe is difficult to miniaturize the probe. Our objectives are to miniaturize the probe (1 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) and to remove NURD. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility of attaining these objectives by constructing a prototype IVUS system, in which an ultrasound motor using a stator in the form of a helical coil (abbreviated as CS-USM: coiled stator-ultrasonic motor) is incorporated, and to clarify problems that need to be solved in constructing the probe.

  14. Ultrasonic Measurement of Fluid Viscosity for Blood Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro

    2005-06-01

    Although plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis is affected by not only its strength but also by hemodynamic factors, such as blood pressure and shear stress, in particular, the viscous coefficient which directly controls the magnitude of shear stress might be a risk factor in plaque rupture. Therefore, if the viscous coefficient can be assessed noninvasively, it can be a useful index for prediction of a plaque rupture and assessment of various diseases. In this work, an ultrasonic methodology to estimate the viscous coefficient was investigated by numerical simulation and flow-phantom experiment as the fundamental investigation for noninvasively assessing the viscous characteristics of blood. These results show that the proposed method is useful for estimating the kinematic viscosity coefficient in the viscous evaluation of blood.

  15. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  16. Compliant Wall Simulation of a Healthy Carotid Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Shobha; Rayz, Vitaliy; Saloner, David; Berger, Stanley

    2003-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in the industrialized world. Together with the genetic causes of this disease, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in the arterial system plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis. In an effort to further understand this disease, an FSI model of the carotid artery is in progress. To construct this model, we begin with compliant arterial wall deformation considered under transient global blood pressure. Vessel walls are composed of collagen fibers, elastin, smooth muscle, and water. Due to its complexity and variation among humans, it is difficult to create an accurate mechanical description of this material. Hence, we begin by way of isotropic properties with the future intent of anisotropic modeling. Using these parameters, a pulsatile 3D model of wall movement for a healthy carotid artery is presented. Supported under a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship, NIH Grant HL61823, and PBD, Inc.

  17. Architectural Analyses and Developments of 1 mm Diameter Micro Forceps for Catheter Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takumi

    Blockage in a blood vessel due to cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis or aneurysms requires minimally invasive placement of a mesh tube or platinum coil stent via a catheter to open the affected area. Stents are positioned using a guide wire via a catheter, but the stent may be dropped on the way to its destination and requires much time in surgery, increasing the burden on the patient. Medical apparatuses are thus desired having a mechanism to grasp artifacts securely in blood vessels. We designed prototype microforceps for use on the end of a catheter for grasping operation in blood vessels and to contribute to medical apparatuses in this field. The microforceps we designed using a minimum number of parts uses metal injection molding (MIM) to realize strong mass production. Microforceps installed in the tip of a catheter. Stress analysis verified its capability to grasp, bend and turn within the confines of a blood vessels model.

  18. Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity using RGB cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Aoki, Yuta; Satoh, Ryota; Hoshi, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-03-01

    Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) using red, green, and blue (RGB) digital color images is proposed. Generally, PWV is used as the index of arteriosclerosis. In our method, changes in blood volume are calculated based on changes in the color information, and is estimated by combining multiple regression analysis (MRA) with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model of the transit of light in human skin. After two pulse waves of human skins were measured using RGB cameras, and the PWV was calculated from the difference of the pulse transit time and the distance between two measurement points. The measured forehead-finger PWV (ffPWV) was on the order of m/s and became faster as the values of vital signs raised. These results demonstrated the feasibility of this method.

  19. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  20. Regional calcium distribution and ultrasound images of the vessel wall in human carotid arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Uzonyi, I.; Szíki, G. Á.; Magyar, M. T.; Molnár, S.; Ida, Y.; Csiba, L.

    2005-04-01

    Arterial calcification can take place at two sites in the vessel wall: the intima and the media. Intimal calcification occurs exclusively within atherosclerotic plaques, while medial calcification may develop independently. Extensive calcified plaques in the carotid arteries can be easily detected by B-mode ultrasonic imaging. The calcium content might correlate with the ultrasound reflectance of the vessel wall, and could be a surrogate marker for arteriosclerosis. In this study, segments of human carotid arteries collected at autopsy were examined by ultrasonography in vitro and calcium distributional maps of sections from the same segments were determined by particle induced X-ray emission. Our aim was to make a first step towards investigating the relationship between the calcium distributional maps and the respective ultrasound images.

  1. Modulation of the sis Gene Transcript during Endothelial Cell Differentiation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, Michael; McConathy, Evelyn; Drohan, William; Tong, Benton; Deuel, Thomas; Maciag, Thomas

    1985-05-01

    Endothelial cells, which line the interior walls of blood vessels, proliferate at the site of blood vessel injury. Knowledge of the factors that control the proliferation of these cells would help elucidate the role of endothelial cells in wound healing, tumor growth, and arteriosclerosis. In vitro, endothelial cells organize into viable, three-dimensional tubular structures in environments that limit cell proliferation. The process of endothelial cell organization was found to result in decreased levels of the sis messenger RNA transcript and increased levels of the messenger RNA transcript for fibronectin. This situation was reversed on transition from the organized structure to a proliferative monolayer. These results suggest a reciprocity for two biological response modifiers involved in the regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

  2. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  3. Flexible pulse-wave sensors from oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Tateyama, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Flexible pulse-wave sensors were fabricated from density-packed oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns prepared on aluminum foils. The nanocolumns were prepared by the rf magnetron sputtering method and were perpendicularly oriented to the aluminum foil surfaces. The sensor structure is laminated, and the structure contributes to avoiding unexpected leakage of an electric charge. The resulting sensor thickness is 50 μm. The sensor is flexible like aluminum foil and can respond to frequencies from 0.1 to over 100 Hz. The sensitivity of the sensor to pressure is proportional to the surface area. The sensor sensitively causes reversible charge signals that correlate with the pulse wave form, which contains significant information on arteriosclerosis and cardiopathy of a man sitting on it.

  4. Chronic Kidney Isograft and Allograft Rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严群; 张鹏; 杨传永

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In this study antigen-independent factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rejection of organ transplants was examined. Kidney isografts and allografts were transplanted orthotopically into bilaterally nephroectomized rat recipients and studied functionally, morphologically and immunohistologically, at serial intervals up to 52 weeks after transplantation. Allograft recipients developed progressive proteinuria after 12 weeks, with gradual renal failure ultimately leading to death. At the same time, morphological changes, including progressive arteriosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, developed. Immunohistologically, macrophages infiltrated glomeruli during this period and cytokines became unregulated. Our resuits showed that antigen-independent functional and morphological changes occurred in long-term kidney isografts and mimicked those appearing much earlier in allografts that reject chronically.Initial injury and extent of functioning renal mass is suggested to be important factor for such late changes.

  5. Water hardness in relation to cadium accumulation and microscopic signs of cardiovascular disease in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Jonsson, L; Sternström, T; Piscator, M; Linnman, L

    1980-01-01

    The hardness of drinking water (i.e., the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations) has been related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex and to microscopic signs of arteriosclerosis and focal myocardial fibrosis in 50 Swedish horses slaughtered for meat production. A significant negative correlation was found between water hardness and cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex. This indicates that horses living in soft water areas are more inclined to accumulate cadmium from the general environment. Microscopic changes in the aorta and myocardium were approximately 2 times as frequent in horses that drank soft water compared to horses that drank hard water. The differences were, however, not statistically significant. It is concluded that horses are well suited for studies of the "water factor". PMID:7369796

  6. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  7. Interventional therapy of huge aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the methods and the efficacy of interventional therapy for huge aneurysm. Methods: Seven patients with huge aneurysm including 2 with pulmonary aneurysm, 2 with renal aneurysm, 1 with humeral artery aneurysm, 1 with right common iliac artery aneurysm, 1 with right internal iliac artery aneurysm. Among these, 5 were true aneurysm, and 2 were pseudoaneurysms caused by congenital, trauma, arteriosclerosis. Three patients were treated with endovascular covered stent graft and 2 patients with embolization containing metallic coils. Two patients were treated with partial aneurysm and feeding artery trunk embolization with metallic coils. Results: All 7 patients were successful carried out the interventional therapy with successful rate of 100%. Six aneurysms were completely obstructed with disappearance of symptoms and signs. One died of aneurysm rupture. No other complication occurred. Conclusion: Interventional therapy for huge aneurysm is an effective method. (authors)

  8. Mediastinal radiotherapy and ostial lesion of the left main coronary artery; Radioterapia mediastinica e lesao ostial de tronco de coronaria esquerda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, Edgar Guimaraes; Parente, Giordano Bruno de Oliveira [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: evictor@truenet.com.br

    2004-03-01

    Ischemic cardiac disease is a rare complication and, only recently recognized, of mediastinal irradiation for neoplasms in this region. A case of a 51 years old woman with angina pectoris, rapidly progressive is related, where the angiographic finding was represented by ostial sub occlusive lesion of the left coronary body. The previous story showed the use of radiotherapy for mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma treatment, with close relation to right ventricle, removed by surgery and afterwards treated with irradiation and chemotherapy two years ago. The coronary stenosis induction in these patients can be dependent or not of the focal arteriosclerosis and is mediated, mainly, by intimal thickness due to tissular fibrosis without alteration in the medium layer and with inclination for the ostial portions of the main arteries. The recognition of this condition (thorax radiotherapy), as an isolated and independent factor for the coronary disease, should be considered in the acting plan for prevention, detection and previous therapy.

  9. Celiac artery stenosis/occlusion treated by interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe stenosis/occlusion of the proximal celiac trunk due to median arcuate ligament compression (MALC), arteriosclerosis, pancreatitis, tumor invasion, and celiac axis agenesis has been reported. However, clinically significant ischemic bowel disease attributable to celiac axis stenosis/occlusion appears to be rare because the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) provides for rich collateral circulation. In patients with celiac axis stenosis/occlusion, the most important and frequently encountered collateral vessels from the SMA are the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. Patients with celiac artery stenosis/occlusion are treated by interventional radiology (IR) via dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. In patients with dilation of the pancreaticoduodenal arcade on SMA angiograms, IR through this artery may be successful. Here we provide several tips on surmounting these difficulties in IR including transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma, an implantable port system for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to treat metastatic liver tumors, coil embolization of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms, and arterial stimulation test with venous sampling for insulinomas.

  10. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture: a rare finding in a healthy man after minimal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Michael; Forman, Edward S

    2010-03-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury; the incidence of simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is extremely rare. Two distinct categories-individuals older than 50 years and between 27 and 54 years-have been described. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is more common in patients older than 50 years and is thought to be the result of tendon weakening due to obesity and arteriosclerosis-induced fibrotic changes, or previous injury.In younger individuals, bilateral simultaneous quadriceps rupture is less frequent and has been associated with anabolic steroid use, but more frequently with underlying comorbid medical conditions such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, endocrine disorder, gout, diabetes and obesity, which predispose the patients to tendon rupture. Our case report is unique because we report the simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following minor trauma in an otherwise healthy 43-year-old man with no predisposing comorbidity.

  11. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of an endocarditis valvularis in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroff, Sandra; Schmidt, Volker; Kiefer, Ingmar; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Pees, Michael

    2010-12-01

    An 11-yr-old Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) was presented with a history of respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography and an endoscopic examination of the left lung were performed and revealed severe pneumonia. Microbiologic examination of a tracheal wash sample and an endoscopy-guided sample from the lung confirmed infection with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Computed tomographic examination demonstrated a hyperattenuated structure within the heart. Echocardiographic examination revealed a hyperechoic mass at the pulmonic valve as well as a dilated truncus pulmonalis. As therapy for pneumonia was ineffective, the snake was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed pneumonia and infective endocarditis of the pulmonic valve caused by septicemia with Salmonella enterica ssp. IV. Focal arteriosclerosis of the pulmonary trunk was also diagnosed. The case presented here demonstrates the possible connection between respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in snakes.

  12. The evaluation of asymptomatic arterial occlusive disease of the legs using an exercise test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usui,Yoshiyuki

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The Doppler-derived ankle pressure index (API is a useful indicator of the necessity for peripheral vascular reconstruction of the lower extremities. But the API at rest dose not reflect the functional capacity of leg circulation, especially in the early stage of disease. Therefore, an asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant lesion in one leg is sometimes missed by pressure measurement at rest when there is a severe lesion with symptoms in the other leg. In this study, the API not only at rest but also after exercise was measured in twenty normal subjects and thirty-two patients with angiographically proven arteriosclerosis obliterans. About 60% of the patients had unilateral symptoms, although they had significant disease bilaterally. The API after exercise proved to be more sensitive than the API at rest and may be useful in assessing asymptomatic legs of such patients and determining their surgical indication.

  13. Aging and calcium as an environmental factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1985-12-01

    Calcium deficiency is a constant menace to land-abiding animals, including mammals. Humans enjoying exceptional longevity on earth are especially susceptible to calcium deficiency in old age. Low calcium and vitamin D intake, short solar exposure, decreased intestinal absorption, and falling renal function with insufficient 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D biosynthesis all contribute to calcium deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and possibly calcium shift from the bone to soft tissue, and from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment, blunting the sharp concentration gap between these compartments. The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others (Fig. 6). PMID:2943880

  14. A matrix of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol alone, primes human monocytes/macrophages for excessive endotoxin-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Role in atherosclerotic inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus; Christensen, Ole; Nielsen, Claus Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to small amounts of bacterial endotoxin, matrices of cholesterol crystals, but not cholesterol itself, primed human monocytes/macrophages to a highly augmented (>10-fold) production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α. Priming also sensitized the cells, as 10- to 100-fold lower...... levels of endotoxin were needed for TNF-α production equivalent to that of unprimed cells. The pro-inflammatory effect was selective as endotoxin-induced production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines was unaffected while production of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 was diminished. These findings...... suggest that cholesterol matrix formation may play a pathogenic role in atherosclerotic inflammation, and they indicate a mechanism by which bacteria and/or bacterial products may play a role in processes leading to arteriosclerosis....

  15. Quantitative and semi-quantitative histopathological examination of renal biopsies in healthy individuals, and associations with kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Yael; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Wallin, Maria; Mölne, Johan

    2016-05-01

    This study assesed the prevalence of histopathological changes in renal biopsies from healthy individuals, and the association with age, sex and smoking. Donor biopsies from 109 subjects were obtained from living kidney donors, and blood and urine samples were collected together with medical history. All biopsies were scored according to the Banff '97 classification with some modifications. The parameters included in this study were tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, arteriolohyalinosis and a sclerosis score. An alternative scoring system for tubular atrophy was examined (using ≤5% rather than kidney donors around 50 years of age with normal kidney function. We propose that a cut-off of ≤5% yields a better definition of grade 0 tubular atrophy compared with the established cut-off of >0%.

  16. Homocysteine and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-03-01

    The homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis was discovered by study of arteriosclerotic plaques occurring in homocystinuria, a disease caused by deficiencies of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. According to the homocysteine theory, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities leading to elevation of plasma homocysteine cause atherosclerosis in the general population without these rare enzymatic abnormalities. Through studies of metabolism of homocysteine thiolactone, the anhydride of homocysteine, in cell cultures from homocystinuric children, the pathway for synthesis of sulfate was found to be dependent upon thioretinamide, the amide formed from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone. Two molecules of thioretinamide form the complex thioretinaco with cobalamin, and oxidative phosphorylation is catalyzed by reduction of oxygen, which is bound to thioretinaco ozonide, by electrons from electron transport particles. Atherogenesis is attributed to formation of aggregates of homocysteinylated lipoproteins with microorganisms, which obstruct the vasa vasorum during formation of arterial vulnerable plaques. PMID:25653125

  17. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate suppressed the differentiation of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, Masayoshi; Zhao, Ran; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2009-12-16

    Recently, various physiological effects of the tea polyphenol catechin for alleviating diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia and osteoporosis have been reported. However, the physiological effect of catechin on bone metabolism remains unclear. We examined the physiological effect of EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate], which is the main component of green tea catechin, on osteoblast development using the precursor cell line of osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1, and co-culture of the osteoblasts from mouse newborn calvaria and mouse bone marrow cells. Although EGCG did not affect the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, EGCG inhibited the osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, EGCG did not affect the mineralization of differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells, and reduced osteoclast formation in co-culture. These results suggest that EGCG can effectively suppress bone resorption, and can be used as an effective medicine in the treatment of the symptoms of osteoporosis.

  18. Renal histology in two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, K; Saito, T; Sato, H; Ogawa, M; Igarashi, Y; Yoshinaga, K

    1993-02-01

    Two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease (I-GSD) had chronic renal disease with heavy proteinuria. Renal biopsies showed focal glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy or vacuolation, and prominent arteriosclerosis. Marked glomerular hypertrophy was demonstrated histometrically. Oil red O staining in one patient revealed numerous lipid deposits in the glomerular mesangium, tubular epithelial cells and interstitium. Electron microscopy in the other patient revealed diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and lipid droplets within the mesangium. The glomerular hypertrophy, thickening of the GBM, and subsequent sclerosis were similar to those in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These findings may explain the similarities between the natural histories of renal involvement in the two disorders. Particularly, glomerular hypertrophy may be a key step leading to glomerular sclerosis, which is the predominant finding I-GSD. Hyperlipidemia, which is commonly seen in I-GSD, may also accelerate the glomerular sclerosing process.

  19. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  20. [Raynaud's phenomenon and other circulatory disorders of the fingers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Felix

    2014-02-26

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is defined as attacks of blanking, subsequent cyanosis and rubeosis of fingers due to vasospasms in response to cold or emotional stimuli. Primary RP has no known underlying cause and occurs mainly in young and otherwise healthy women. Secondary RP goes along with various causes such as connective tissue diseases, toxic substances, drugs, physical trauma or organic finger artery occlusions, and occurs at any age and in both genders. Related affections are acrocyanosis and finger artery occlusions either due to arteriosclerosis or vasculitis. Also spontaneous finger hematoma may provoke an episode of RP. Therapeutically strict cold protection and avoidance of possible noxa is recommended besides the treatment of underlying diseases. No standard vasoactive drug has proven ideal for RP due to side effects. In cases with rest pain or ulcerations the same principles are applied as in ischemic diseases with no possibility for revascularization.

  1. Acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following total knee arthroplasty: Report of one case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui He; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Acute arterial occlusion is a rare complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA).The incidence as reported previously is from 0.03% to 0.17%;however,the sequelae can be disastrous because of its potential threat to limb loss.We report a case of acute arterial occlusion in the midpiece of femoral artery following TKA occurred 40 min postoperatively.The occlusion site existed at the midpiece of femoral artery is uncommon.Arterial circulation of the lower limb could not be restored by the thrombolysis and thrombectomy treatments performed within 11 h after TKA.In the end,amputation had to be carried out.In the treatment of acute arterial occlusion following TKA with a tourniquet,it is important to fully consider that arteriosclerosis may induce atheromatous plaque disruption,which might be the reason for acute arterial occlusion.

  2. Arterial Stiffness in Patients Taking Second-generation Antipsychotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fındıklı, Ebru; Gökçe, Mustafa; Nacitarhan, Vedat; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Hüseyin Avni; Kardaş, Selçuk; Şahin, Merve Coşgun; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objective That treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) causes metabolic side effects and atherosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) is well-known. Increased arterial stiffness is an important marker of arteriosclerosis and has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arteriosclerosis in patients with schizophrenia and BD who use SGAs. Methods Patients and controls were collected from our psychiatry outpatient clinics or family medicine. Mental illness was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Mean age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, Framingham risk score (FRS), etc. were determined. Simultaneous electrocardiography and pulse wave were recorded with an electromyography device. The photo-plethysmographic method was used to record the pulse wave. Inclusion criteria included use of SGAs for at least the last six months. Patients with diseases that are known to cause stiffness and the use of typical antipsychotics were excluded. Results Ninety-six subject (56 patients, 40 controls) were included in our study. There were 49 females, 47 males. Patients had schizophrenia (n=17) and BD (n=39). Their treatments were quetiapine (n=15), risperidone (n=13), olanzapine (n=15), and aripiprazole (n=13). Although differences in mean age, gender, and FRS in the patient and control groups were not statistically significant (p=1), PWV was greater in patients in the antipsychotic group (p=0.048). Conclusion This study supported the liability to stiffness in patients with schizophrenia and BD. Using SGAs may contribute to arterial stiffness in these patients. PMID:27776389

  3. Nephroangiosclerosis in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy: is NOTCH3 mutation the common culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrot, Dominique; François, Arnaud; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Boulos, Nada; Hanoy, Melanie; Legallicier, Bruno; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Guyant-Marechal, Lucie; Laquerriere, Annie; Freguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Ronco, Pierre; Godin, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a systemic arterial disease characterized by impairment of vascular smooth muscle cell structure and function related to NOTCH3 mutations. Pathological findings include pathognomonic granular osmiophilic material (GOM) deposition with nonspecific hyalinization within the artery wall in a variety of tissues. The main clinical presentation is iterative strokes in young adults despite the lack of cardiovascular risk factors, leading to early dementia. Although arteriosclerosis and GOM have been found in kidneys from patients with CADASIL, kidney disease has been described only once up to now, in association with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient with a medical history of CADASIL and recent mild hypertension. His mother also showed neuropsychiatric symptoms and end-stage renal disease of unknown cause. The patient had a chronic kidney disease defined by means of estimated glomerular filtration rate using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation of 58 mL/min/1.73 m(2) associated with mild proteinuria and intermittent microscopic hematuria. Renal histological analysis showed severe arteriosclerosis and mild interstitial fibrosis. Glomeruli did not show mesangial immunoglobulin A deposition or focal segmental proliferation. Electron microscopic analysis showed typical GOM deposition in the vicinity of altered vascular smooth muscle cells in interlobular and juxtaglomerular arteries. The nephroangiosclerosis-like lesions were unusually severe in contrast to the recent mild hypertension. The presence of GOM strongly suggests that renal lesions were related to the NOTCH3 mutation. Here, we describe the first case of familial occurrence of kidney disease with decreased kidney function in the absence of coexisting nephropathy in patients with CADASIL. We discuss the role of NOTCH3 mutation in the pathogenesis

  4. Heart wall is thicker on postmortem computed tomography than on antemortem [corrected] computed tomography: the first longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Okuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postmortem changes of the heart wall on postmortem (PM computed tomography (CT in comparison with those on ante mortem CT (AMCT, and in comparison with the pathological findings, obtained in the same patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 57 consecutive patients who had undergone AMCT, PMCT, and pathological autopsy in our tertiary care hospital between April 2009 and December 2010. PMCT was performed within 20 hours after death, followed by pathological autopsy. The cardiac chambers were measured at five sites on both AMCT and PMCT by two board-certified radiologists who were not provided with clinical information. The differences in heart wall thickness between AMCT with and without contrast medium, between AMCT and PMCT, and between PMCT and pathological anatomy were evaluated statistically. Confounding factors of postmortem change such as gender, presence of arteriosclerosis, the organ related to cause of death, age, and elapsed time since death were examined statistically. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed on AMCT in comparison of contrasted and non-contrasted images. The heart wall was significantly thicker on PMCT than on AMCT (p < 0.0001 at all five measurement sites. The heart wall was significantly thicker on PMCT than on pathology specimens when measured in accordance with pathological standard mensuration. However, no significant difference was observed between PMCT measurements and those of pathology specimens at any site when the papillary muscles and epicardial fat were included. No significant association was found between postmortem change in heart wall thickness and gender, presence of arteriosclerosis, the organ related to cause of death, age, or elapsed time since death. CONCLUSION: This is the first longitudinal study to confirm greater thickness of heart wall on postmortem images compared with ante mortem images, in the same patients. Furthermore, the postmortem changes on CT

  5. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  6. Effects of candesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on inflammatory parameters and their relationship to pulse pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Masaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are reported to provide direct protection to many organs by controlling inflammation and decreasing oxidant stress in patients without arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate (1 whether an ARB (candesartan decreases values for inflammatory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration accompanied by arteriosclerosis and (2 whether there any predictors of which patients would receive the benefits of organ protection by candesartan. Methods We administered candesartan therapy (12 mg daily for 6 months and evaluated whether there was improvement in serum inflammatory parameters high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-ADN, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in serum and urinary-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (U-8-OHdG. We then analyzed the relationship between the degree of lowering of blood pressure and inflammatory factors and the relationship between pulse pressure and inflammatory factors. Finally, we analyzed predictive factors in patients who received the protective benefit of candesartan. Results After 6 months of treatment, significant improvements from baseline values were observed in all patients in HMW-ADN and PAI-1 but not in Hs-CRP, VCAM-1 and U-8-OHdG. Multilinear regression analysis was performed to determine which factors could best predict changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1. Changes in blood pressure were not significant predictors of changes in metabolic factors in all patients. We found that the group with baseline pulse pressure Conclusions Candesartan improved inflammatory parameters (HMW-ADN and PAI-1 in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration independent of blood pressure changes. Patients with pulse pressure Trial registration UMIN000007921

  7. Characterization of the apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes in the domestic pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchbauer, A.; Knipping, G.; Juritsch, B.; Zechner, R. (Univ. of Graz (Austria)); Aschauer, H. (Sandoz-Forschungs Institut Ges.m.b.H., Vienna (Austria))

    1993-03-01

    The apolipoproteins (apo) AI and CIII are important constituents of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. In humans, apo AI is believed to play an important protective role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, whereas apo CIII might be involved in the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Both human genes are located within a gene cluster on chromosome 11. Although the domestic pig has been widely used as an animal model in arteriosclerosis and lipid research, the porcine apolipoproteins genes are poorly characterized. In this report, the complete nucleotide sequences of the porcine apo AI and CIII genes are presented and the authors demonstrate, for the first time, apo CIII expression in the pig. Both genes are composed of four exons and three introns and resemble closely their human counterparts with regard to the transcriptional start sites, exon sizes, intron sizes, exon-intron borders, and the size of the intergenic region. The predicted pig apo AI is a protein of 241 amino acids, which is 2 amino acids shorter than human apo AI. The protein sequence was found to be very homologous to apo AI sequences in other mammalian species. Apo AI expression was detected on the mRNA level in porcine liver and intestine. The apo CIII gene encodes a protein with 73 amino acids, which is 6 amino acids shorter than human apo CIII. In contrast to the three isoforms of apo CIII found in humans, only one major isoform was detected in the pig. Presumably this isoform is unglycosylated. In addition to apo CIII expression in the liver and the intestine, a truncated form of apo CIII mRNA was also found in porcine kidney. The studies demonstrate the presence of an apo CIII gene, an apo CIII mRNA, and an apo CIII protein in the pig and, therefore, exclude a hypothesized apo CIII deficiency in these animals. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Chemical pathology of homocysteine. V. Thioretinamide, thioretinaco, and cystathionine synthase function in degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2011-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia was first associated with degenerative disease by observation of accelerated arteriosclerosis in children with inherited disorders of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase, and methylene tetrohydrofolate reductase. The metabolic blockade of sulfate synthesis from homocysteine thiolactone in malignant cells is ascribed to a deficiency of a chemopreventive derivative of homocysteine thiolactone that occurs in normal cells. Its chemical structure was elucidated by the organic synthesis of thioretinamide from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone. Oxidation of the sulfur atom of homocysteine is inhibited in scorbutic guinea pigs, demonstrating ascorbate function in sulfate synthesis from homocysteine. Studies of homocysteine metabolism in protein energy malnutrition led to the conclusion that the biosynthesis of thioretinamide from the retinol of transthyretin is catalyzed by dehydroascorbate and superoxide generated from the heme oxygenase group of cystathionine synthase. Newly synthesized thioretinamide is complexed with cobalamin to form thioretinaco, which is activated by ozone and oxygen to function as the active site of oxidative phosphorylation. In accordance with the trophoblastic theory of cancer, pancreatic enzymes are believed to be oncolytic because they hydrolyze the homocysteinylated proteins, nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans of malignant tissues. The clonal selection of malignant cells that are deficient in the heme oxygenase function of cystathionine synthase produces cells dependent upon glycolysis for ATP synthesis, since they are deficient in synthesis of thioretinamide, thioretinaco and thioretinaco ozonide. The vulnerable plaque of arteriosclerosis originates from complexes of microbes with homocysteinylated lipoproteins, obstructing vasa vasorum narrowed by endothelial dysfunction, causing arterial ischemia, and intimal micro-abscesses. Degenerative diseases may be ameliorated by a proposed therapeutic protocol

  9. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  10. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasu, Junichiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.).

  11. 比较不同腰围、体质指数体检人群血压及心踝血管指数%To compare blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index in health examination population with different waist circumference and body mass index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继军; 胡华青; 黄章伟; 金小芬; 谭月霞; 韩卫星

    2013-01-01

    目的比较体检人群中超重、肥胖者尤其是中心性肥胖者的血压及心踝血管指数(CAVI),分析腰围(WC)、体质指数(BMI)在评价动脉硬化和高血压中的意义。方法测量675例体检人群的身高、体重和WC,计算出其BMI,使用动脉硬化检测仪测出CAVI值与血压,对上述指标进行统计分析,进行评价。结果①体检人群中,男性中心性肥胖率为74.9%,女性中心性肥胖率为61.0%,男性超重者占48.1%,肥胖者占16.4%,女性超重者占35.6%,肥胖者占9.3%。于超重、肥胖者尤其是中心性肥胖者血压明显高于BMI正常者和WC正常者。男性组中心性肥胖者CAVI值低于WC正常者,而肥胖者CAVI值低于超重及BMI正常者。结论超重和肥胖尤其中心性肥胖者比BMI正常和WC正常者更具有患高血压的风险,男性CAVI值与WC、BMI呈负相关趋势,女性差异无统计意义,提示单纯的BMI或WC尚不能够准确的反映动脉硬化与肥胖的关系。%Objective To compare blood pressure and cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI) of the overweight and o-besity, especially the central obesity in health examination population, analysising the significance of waist circum-ference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in the evaluation of arteriosclerosis and hypertension. Methods To calculate their BMI by measuring the height, weight and WC of 675 health examination people and detect CAVI and blood pressure by using arteriosclerosis detector, then analyze the indexes above and do an evaluation. Results ①Among 675 health examination people, the rate of central obesity was 74.9% in male and 61.0% in female, and the overweight and obesity in male accounts for 48.1% and 16.4%, 35.6% and 9.3% in female.② The blood pressure of overweight and obesity,especially central obesity was significantly higher than people with normal BMI and WC. The CAVI of central obesity in male was smaller than people with normal WC, the CAVI of obesity was smaller than people

  12. Clinical characters of cerebral infarction on older patients%87例老年人脑梗死的临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍书元; 杨冰洁; 张钦林; 杨剑文; 杨期明

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical characters of cerebral infarction on older patients Methods:87 cases of cerebral infarctions on older patients were retrospectively studied to explore its clinical characters such as the cause, dangerous factors and recovery Results There were 78 cases of cerebral infarction with clear causes ( 89.66%) , among which 75 cases were arteriosclerosis ( 86.20%) , 10 cases were cardiogenic cerebralinfarction ( 11.49%) , 2 cases with unclear causes ( 2.30%) .The main dangerous factors included smoking, hypertension, abnormal blood fat, familial cerebrovascular disease, obesity,alcoholism, TIA medical record, diabetes and atria tril 1 There were 45 cases of basic recovery after therapy ( 51.72%) ,17 cases of obvious improvement(19.54%) , 15 cases of improvement ( 17.24%) and 10cases remained unchanged ( 11.49%) Conclusion:The most common causes for cerebral infarction on older patients include arteriosclerosis, cardiogenic cerebral thrombus.The most common dangerous factors are smoking, hypertension and abnormal blood fat. Most of the patients recover wel .%目的:分析老年人脑梗死的临床特点。方法:回顾性分析87例老年脑梗死患者的临床资料,探讨其病因、危险因素和预后等临床特点。结果:有明确病因者78例(89.66%),其中动脉粥样硬化75例(86.20%),心源性脑栓塞10例(11.49%),病因不明者2例(2.30%)。主要危险因素有高血压病、糖尿病、房颤、血脂异常、脑血管疾病家族史、肥胖、吸烟、酗酒、TIA 病史等。经治疗基本痊愈45例(51.72%),显著进步17例(19.54%),进步15例(17.24%),无变化10例(11.49%)。结论:老年人脑梗死的病因以动脉粥样硬化、心源性脑栓塞最常见。以高血压病、糖尿病、房颤、血脂异常等为最常见的危险因素,大多数患者预后较好。

  13. 脑动脉硬化性眩晕的临床治疗观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于源东

    2012-01-01

    Objective Investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of the treatment of vertigo in Xuesaitong tablet combined with vertigo rather. Method Random sample of outpatient and inpatient cerebral arteriosclerosis vertigo as the main symptoms of 70 patients were randomly divided into treatment and control groups, which Xuesaitong tablet combined with vertigo rather for the treatment of 35 cases, Xuesaitong tablet three times a day, once100 mg, dizziness rather orally once three times a day, after meals, once every 15 days; Sibelium control group, oral Sibelium once a day, once 10 ~20 mg of atorvastatin for 15 days, were observed treatment effect.Result The total effective rate of treatment group, 94.2%, significantly higher than 80.0% (P <0.05). Conclusion Xuesaitong tablet combined with vertigo rather the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis, vertigo significant, worthy of clinical application.%目的探讨血塞通片联合眩晕宁治疗眩晕症的临床疗效及安全性.方法随机抽取门诊及住院脑动脉硬化症以眩晕为主要症状的70例患者,随机分成治疗组和对照组,其中血塞通片联合眩晕宁为治疗组35例,血塞通片口服3次/d,100 mg/次,眩晕宁口服3片/次,3次/d,饭后服用,连用15天;西比灵为对照组,口服西比灵1次/d,5~10mg/次,连用15天,观察两组治疗效果.结果治疗组总有效率达94.2%,明显高于对照组的80.0%(P<0.05).结论血塞通片联合眩晕宁治疗脑动脉硬化性眩晕疗效显著,值得在临床上推广应用.

  14. 青壮年急性心肌梗死患者临床分析%Analysis of clinical characteristics in the young and middle-aged male patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 刘梅林; 朱正炎

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨青壮年急性心肌梗死患者的危险因素及临床特征.方法:比较青壮年组与老年组急性心肌梗死患者的危险因素及临床特征.结果:吸烟、糖尿病、高脂血症、动脉硬化家族史、代谢综合征病史在青壮年组与老年组所占比例分别为78.6%/vs 55.0%、22.3%vs 39.1%、63.1%vs 38.7%、12.6%vs 4.6%、19.4%vs 8.0%.P<0.05;心绞痛病史、典型临床症状在两组中所占比例为49.6%vs 61.8%、78.6%vs 61.8%.P<0.05;两组左室射血分数分别为(63.1±13.6)%和(53.4±14.5)%,P<0.05.结论:青壮年急性心肌梗死患者与吸烟、高脂血症、动脉硬化家族史、代谢综合征病史,呈正相关,行冠状动脉搭桥术比率低.%Objective:This article examined the clinical characters and risk factors in young adults with acute myocardial infarction.Methods:Compare clinical characteristics and risk factors in the young patients and in the old patients.Results: The proportion of smoking,diabetes,hyperlipidemia,family history of arteriosclerosis,metabolic syndrome,hypertension in two groups were 78.6% vs 55.0%,22.3% vs 39.1%,63.1% vs 38.7%,12.6% vs 4.6%,19.4% vs 8.0%,P<0.05.Left ventricular e-jection fraction of younger and older group is ( 63.1±13.6)% and (53.4±14.5)%,respectively.Conclusion :The risk factors in young adults group is relation to the smoking,hyperlipidemia,family history of arteriosclerosis, metabolic syndrome.

  15. 青年缺血性脑卒中50例临床病因分析%The clinical analysis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth in 50 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝善尧; 方克炳; 葛伟; 张业敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics, subtypes, risk factors, and prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth. Methods The clinical data of 50 young patients with cerebral ischemic stroke were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were more males than females in the young patients with cerebral infarction, 79. 5% vs 20. 5%; The type of lacunar infarction is dominant; Hypertension, arteriosclerosis, smoking, obesity and family history were risk factors in these young patients with cerebral infarction and smoking is prominent, 67.5%. Prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is relative good. Conclusion The incidence of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is increasing and the number of male exceeds that of femal; Hypertension,arteriosclerosis, smoking, obesity and family history are risk factors for cerebral ischemic stroke in the young patients; Prognosis of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth is relative optimistic. More further studies are needed, measures should be actively taken to get rid of these factors in order to reduce the incidence of cerebral ischemic stroke in youth radically.%目的 分析青年缺血性脑卒中临床特点、亚型、危险因素和预后.方法 回顾性地分析50例青年缺血性脑卒中临床病例.结果 男女比例为79.5%∶ 20.5%,亚型以腔隙性脑梗死为主,青年脑梗死与高血压、动脉硬化、吸烟、肥胖及家族史相关,以吸烟为著,占67.5%.青年缺血性脑卒中预后相对比较好.结论 青年缺血性脑卒中发病率正在逐步增长且男性超过女性;高血压、动脉硬化、吸烟、肥胖和家族史是青年缺血性卒中常见的危险因素;青年卒中的预后相对较好.进一步的研究是必须的,应该积极去除这些危险因素从根本上减少青年缺血性脑卒中发病率.

  16. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI as an indicator of arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun CK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cheuk-Kwan Sun Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medical Education, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Arterial stiffness has been identified as an independent predictor of prognostic outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although measurement of pulse wave velocity has been a widely accepted noninvasive approach to the assessment of arterial stiffness, its accuracy is hampered by changes in blood pressure. Taking the exponential relation between intravascular pressure and arterial diameter into consideration, a stiffness parameter can be obtained by plotting the natural logarithm of systolic–diastolic pressure ratio against the arterial wall extensibility. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, which is calculated based on the stiffness parameter thus obtained, is theoretically independent of changes in blood pressure. With this distinct advantage, CAVI has been widely applied clinically to assess arterial stiffness in subjects with known cardiovascular diseases including those with diagnosed atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke as well as those at risk, including those with hypertension, diabetes, the elderly, and the obese. Because of its enhanced sensitivity, not only has the index been used to discern subtle changes in the disease process, it has also been utilized in studying normal individuals to assess their potential risks of developing cardiovascular diseases. The primary aims of assessing arterial stiffness using CAVI are not only to aid in early detection of arteriosclerosis to allow timely treatment and change in lifestyle, but also to quantitatively evaluate the progression of disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Despite its merit of being unaffected by blood pressure, discretion in data interpretation is suggested because an elevated CAVI represents not just vascular stiffness caused by pathological changes in the arterial wall, but can also be attributed to

  17. Oxidación de las LDL (lipoproteínas de baja densidad y su relación con la patogénesis de la aterosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La arteriosclerosis es el endurecimiento de las arterias, una enfermedad común de los vasos sanguíneos principales que se caracteriza por franjas de grasa a lo largo de las paredes arteriales y depósitos de colesterol y calcio.La aterosclerosis suele transcurrir sin síntomas durante años hasta que ocurre la trombosis, causa fundamental de las enfermedades coronarias, cerebro vasculares y arteriales periféricas, provocando, anginas inestables, infarto del miocardio y muerte súbita. La hipótesis oxidativa de la aterogénesis, propuesta inicialmente por Steinberg en 1989 y el papel de los micronutrientes de la dieta como las vitaminas antioxidantes en prevenir la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL, han constituido un atractivo desafío en las investigaciones actuales por sus implicaciones en la medicina preventiva. En los últimos años la hipótesis de que los antioxidantes que inhiban la oxidación de las LDL puedan reducir la incidencia de eventos coronarios, ha creado nuevas interrogantes, ya que se han realizado estudios aleatorizados contra placebo y se han obtenido resultados a favor y en contra. Además, se han realizado diversos estudios con vitaminas antioxidantes en humanos que han sugerido que estas sustancias pueden reducir la incidencia de arteriosclerosis y sus complicaciones. Sin embargo, los resultados no han sido homogéneos y en algunos ensayos la adición de vitaminas antioxidantes a la dieta no demostró ser beneficiosa en ningún sentido. Los beneficios aportados por el consumo de antioxidantes sobre la reducción del riesgo a padecer enfermedades de diferentes etiologías tales como enfermedades vasculares o cáncer, no se encuentra sustentado con evidencias provenientes de estudios de prevención de eventos. Diferentes argumentos tratan de explicar los resultados negativos obtenidos en estudios que en su totalidad alcanzan mas de 30 000 pacientes. Por otra parte, referencias aisladas y su propio

  18. Renal arterial resistive index is associated with severe histological changes and poor renal outcome during chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigé Naïke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing public health problem and end stage renal disease (ESRD represents a large human and economic burden. It is important to identify patients at high risk of ESRD. In order to determine whether renal Doppler resistive index (RI may discriminate those patients, we analyzed whether RI was associated with identified prognosis factors of CKD, in particular histological findings, and with renal outcome. Methods RI was measured in the 48 hours before renal biopsy in 58 CKD patients. Clinical and biological data were collected prospectively at inclusion. Arteriosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis were quantitatively assessed on renal biopsy in a blinded fashion. MDRD eGFR at 18 months was collected for 35 (60% patients. Renal function decline was defined as a decrease in eGFR from baseline of at least 5 mL/min/ 1.73 m2/year or need for chronic renal replacement therapy. Pearson’s correlation, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for analysis of quantitative and qualitative variables respectively. Kaplan Meier analysis was realized to determine renal survival according to RI value using the log-rank test. Multiple logistic regression was performed including variables with p Results Most patients had glomerulonephritis (82%. Median age was 46 years [21–87], eGFR 59 mL/min/ 1.73m2 [5–130], percentage of interstitial fibrosis 10% [0–90], glomerulosclerosis 13% [0–96] and RI 0.63 [0.31-1.00]. RI increased with age (r = 0.435, p = 0.0063, pulse pressure (r = 0.303, p = 0.022, renal atrophy (r = −0.275, p = 0.038 and renal dysfunction (r = −0.402, p = 0.0018. Patients with arterial intima/media ratio ≥ 1 (p = 0.032, interstitial fibrosis > 20% (p = 0.014 and renal function decline (p = 0.0023 had higher RI. Patients with baseline RI ≥ 0.65 had a poorer renal outcome than those with baseline RI Conclusions Our results suggest that RI ≥ 0.65 is associated

  19. Outcome of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection in kidney transplant recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupy, A; Suberbielle-Boissel, C; Hill, G S; Lefaucheur, C; Anglicheau, D; Zuber, J; Martinez, F; Thervet, E; Méjean, A; Charron, D; Duong van Huyen, J P; Bruneval, P; Legendre, C; Nochy, D

    2009-11-01

    This study describes clinical relevance of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (SAMR) in a cohort of 54 DSA-positive kidney transplant recipients receiving a deceased donor. In 3 months screening biopsies, 31.1% of patients met the criteria of SAMR. A total of 48.9% had an incomplete form of SAMR (g+/ptc+/C4d-negative) whereas 20% had no humoral lesions. Patients with SAMR at 3 months had at 1 year: a higher C4d score, ptc score, and arteriosclerosis score, higher rate of IFTA (100% vs. 33.3%, p SAMR. Patients with SAMR at 3 months exhibited at 1 year a higher class II MFImax-DSA and a lower mGFR compared to patients without SAMR (39.2 +/- 13.9 vs. 61.9 +/- 19.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) respectively, p SAMR at 3 months developed more ptc and IFTA lesions, and lower GFR at 1 year in comparison to biopsies without humoral lesions. SAMR is a frequent entity in KTR with preexisting DSAs and promotes subsequent GFR impairment and development of chronic AMR. C4d-negative SAMR patients displayed an intermediate course between the no-SAMR group and the C4d+ SAMR group. Screening biopsies may be useful to recognize patients more likely to develop SAMR. PMID:19775320

  20. Ultrasonic Measurement of Common Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Its vascular complications can be characterized by arteriosclerosis formation in carotid arteries. Due to its delayed diagnosis resulting in more complications in Iran, it seems that screening diabetic patients is mandatory. The aim of this study was to compare the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 80 participants (40 diabetics and 40 non-diabetics). By using ultrasound, bilateral IMTs of the distal carotid were measured and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate regression tests in SPSS 14. The mean IMT was 0.97 in diabetic patients and 0.63 in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Age and gender had significant positive effects on the increase of IMT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively for age and gender). Past medical history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in diabetes is associated significantly with an increase in IMT (P =0.019 and 0.027 respectively). Other confounding variables such as smoking, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) in diabetic patients showed no significant relationship with the increase of IMT. Although measuring the IMT of the carotid artery by sonography is a useful tool for screening diabetic patients, more studies are needed for determining how to use these measurements in promoting the patients outcomes

  1. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    1999-10-01

    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  2. Discuss The Clinical And Etiology For 21Cases Ocular Myoparalysis Of Diplopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaoling; Tan Talin; Lin Xixiang

    2000-01-01

    Objective The author discuss the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of diplopia lacked certain abnormality after routine Laboratory examination and review relative articles to combine the study of the possibility etiology. Methods The clinical analysis date Result According to the clinical presentation and laboratory further provide investigation showed their etiology diagnosis for 21 cases. Ocular type Graves disease are 7 cases, Latent diabets are 8 cases ,Hypertension arteriosclerosis are 2 cases, High urine acid in serum are 2 cases ,rheumatic extrocular myoparalysis in l case and uncertain cause in 1 case. Discussion As to diplopia single extrocular myoparalysis or monoeuropathy for untipical syndrome, after excluded the routine neuropath and Occupation . Etiology diagnosis should consider some matabolism and endocrie disorder such as latent diabet ,Graves disease , high urine acid in serum etc, except for attention usual hypertension and artreiosclerosis diabet . Conclusion To improve the ability to diagnosis and differentiate diplopia, this paper recognised more attention to be paid to study and distinguish the possibility of d iplopia caused by vascular disease, especially by microrangium for some matabolism and endocrie disease.

  3. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  4. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Stefan [Frankfurt Univ., Sankt Katharinen Hospital Teaching Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology; Nichtweiss, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  5. Bogalusa Heart Study: a long-term community study of a rural biracial (Black/White) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, G S

    2001-11-01

    The Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term population study with a continued relationship with a community, addresses the problem of capacity building in minority health research. The study was originally funded as a Specialized Center of Research-Arteriosclerosis (SCOR-A) by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). These centers were to conduct research on atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and complications of cardiovascular-renal disease as the major causes of deaths in the United States. From earlier research on atherosclerosis, we became interested in the underlying characteristics in early life that would eventually lead to clinical morbidity and mortality from heart disease. An observation at autopsy showed the degree of atherosclerotic involvement in human aortas, from young to older individuals (Figure 1). For example, at age 40 years, marked individual variability occurred in the severity and involvement with atherosclerotic disease. Some individuals showed very little disease, while almost 70% of the surface was diseased in others. Further studies on arterial wall matrix showed aortas from young individuals varied with the extent of disease and its chemical composition. This background stimulated an interest in studying children for early clinical evidence of major adult heart diseases. The Bogalusa Heart Study was begun in 1972 as an epidemiology study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents; it eventually evolved into observations of young adults. Bogalusa, LA, is a biracial (black/white) rural community 70 miles north of New Orleans, comparable to many other communities in southeastern United States.

  6. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hideo [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management and Promotion Center (Japan); Nakane, Yoshibumi [Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Bio-medicine (Japan); Suzuki, Gen [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  7. Sulfur amino acids and atherosclerosis: a role for excess dietary methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Troen, Aron M

    2016-01-01

    The homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis received credence when it was shown that after a methionine load, circulating homocysteine-cysteine concentrations were higher in cardiovascular disease patients than in healthy controls. Subsequent studies showing associations between homocysteine and coronary artery disease, stroke and cognitive impairment, relied on small increases in homocysteine concentration unlike the very high homocysteine seen in the rare genetic disorders that lead to homocystinuria and much higher homocysteine levels. Subsequent studies in cell culture, animals, and humans showed that a variety of cardiovascular adverse effects of "high homocysteine" introduced either as a nonphysiological bolus or as a methionine load led to high homocysteine. We fed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice diets designed to achieve three conditions: (1) high methionine intake with normal blood homocysteine, (2) high methionine intake with B vitamin deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia, and (3) normal methionine intake with both B vitamin deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. We found that the mice fed methionine-rich diets had significant atheromatous pathology in the aortic arch even with normal plasma homocysteine levels. Mice fed B vitamin-deficient diets developed severe hyperhomocysteinemia but without any increase in vascular pathology. Our findings suggest that even moderate increases in methionine intake are atherogenic in susceptible mice while high plasma homocysteine is not.

  8. [Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Paulina; Pytel, Edyta; Kurowska, Joanna; Koter-Michalak, Maria

    2015-07-24

    For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases. These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders. They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and - 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  9. Vitamin K: novel molecular mechanisms of action and its roles in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, which is involved in blood coagulation mediated by maintaining the activity of coagulation factors in the liver. Vitamin K also has extrahepatic actions and has been shown to prevent bone fractures in clinical studies. In addition, epidemiological studies suggest that a lack of vitamin K is associated with several geriatric diseases, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, dementia and arteriosclerosis. It has also been shown that vitamin K contributes to the prevention and treatment of some kinds of malignancies. Recently, we discovered a novel role for vitamin K as a ligand of the nuclear receptor, steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). In addition to its established roles as a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) in mediating post-transcriptional modifications, vitamin K has a different mode of action mediated by transcriptional regulation of SXR/PXR target genes. Analysis of bone tissue from PXR-deficient mice showed that the bone protective effects of vitamin K are partially mediated by SXR/PXR-dependent signaling. The discoveries of a novel mode of vitamin K action have opened up new possibilities that vitamin K might be useful for prevention or treatment of a variety of diseases that affect the geriatric population.

  10. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes.

  11. An Update on the Use of Animal Models in Diabetic Nephropathy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Boris; Conway, Bryan R

    2016-02-01

    In the current review, we discuss limitations and recent advances in animal models of diabetic nephropathy (DN). As in human disease, genetic factors may determine disease severity with the murine FVB and DBA/2J strains being more susceptible to DN than C57BL/6J mice. On the black and tan, brachyuric (BTBR) background, leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice develop many of the pathological features of human DN. Hypertension synergises with hyperglycemia to promote nephropathy in rodents. Moderately hypertensive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS(-/-)) deficient diabetic mice develop hyaline arteriosclerosis and nodular glomerulosclerosis and induction of renin-dependent hypertension in diabetic Cyp1a1mRen2 rats mimics moderately severe human DN. In addition, diabetic eNOS(-/-) mice and Cyp1a1mRen2 rats recapitulate many of the molecular pathways activated in the human diabetic kidney. However, no model exhibits all the features of human DN; therefore, researchers should consider biochemical, pathological, and transcriptomic data in selecting the most appropriate model to study their molecules and pathways of interest. PMID:26814757

  12. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  13. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  14. Oxidation-labile subfraction of human plasma low density lipoprotein isolated by ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, H; Yamada, N; Ishibashi, S; Mokuno, H; Mori, N; Gotoda, T; Harada, K; Akanuma, Y; Murase, T; Yazaki, Y

    1991-05-01

    We isolated subfractions of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) using ion-exchange chromatography. Plasma LDL from normolipidemic subjects were applied to a DEAE Sepharose 6B column. After elution of the bulk of LDL at 150 mM NaCl (the major fraction), the residual LDL was eluted at 500 mM NaCl and designated as the minor fraction. The minor fraction, only less than 1% of total LDL, tended to be somewhat similar in certain properties to oxidized LDL, e.g., an increased negative charge, higher protein/cholesterol ratio, and a higher flotation density than native LDL. These results were consistent with data reported by Avogaro et al. (1988. Arteriosclerosis. 8: 79-87). However, assays of 125I-labeled LDL binding activity for LDL receptors equal to that of the major fraction. Incorporation of [14C]oleate into cholesteryl ester [acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity] in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with the minor fraction was only slightly greater than that with the major fraction. Incubation of the minor fraction with 0.5 microM Cu2+ caused a remarkable stimulation of ACAT activity, while stimulation by the major fraction required incubation with 5 microM Cu2+, suggesting that the minor fraction was relatively labile to oxidation. The minor but definite presence of a plasma LDL subfraction more negative and susceptible to oxidation implicates the possibility of its association with atherogenesis. PMID:2072039

  15. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology: the effect of fasudil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, plays central roles in the organization of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Due to the discovery of effective inhibitors, such as fasudil and Y27632, the biological roles of ROCK have been extensively explored with particular attention on the cardiovascular system. In many preclinical models of cardiovascular diseases, including vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, ROCK inhibitors have shown a remarkable efficacy in reducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular remodeling, and cardiac remodeling. Moreover, fasudil has been used in the clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. The continuing utilization of available pharmacological inhibitors and the development of more potent or isoform-selective inhibitors in ROCK signaling research and in treating human diseases are escalating. In this review, we discuss the recent molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies with a focus on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular physiology and diseases. We particularly note that emerging evidence suggests that selective targeting ROCK isoform based on the disease pathophysiology may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the disease treatment including cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The public health impact of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, T L; Seidell, J C

    2001-01-01

    The increase in obesity worldwide will have an important impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, osteoarthritis, work disability, and sleep apnea. Obesity has a more pronounced impact on morbidity than on mortality. Disability due to obesity-related cardiovascular diseases will increase particularly in industrialized countries, as patients survive cardiovascular diseases in these countries more often than in nonindustrialized countries. Disability due to obesity-related type 2 diabetes will increase particularly in industrializing countries, as insulin supply is usually insufficient in these countries. As a result, in these countries, an increase in disabling nephropathy, arteriosclerosis, neuropathy, and retinopathy is expected. Increases in the prevalence of obesity will potentially lead to an increase in the number of years that subjects suffer from obesity-related morbidity and disability. A 1% increase in the prevalence of obesity in such countries as India and China leads to 20 million additional cases of obesity. Prevention programs will stem the obesity epidemic more efficiently than weight-loss programs. However, only a few prevention programs have been developed or implemented, and the success rates reported to date have been low. Obesity prevention programs should be high on the scientific and political agenda in both industrialized and industrializing countries. PMID:11274526

  17. NANOROBOTICS IN ADVANCES IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPA R. PARMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10-9 metres, machines constructed at the molecular level (nanomachines may be used to cure the human body of its various ills. This application of nanotechnology to the field of medicine is commonly called as nanomedicine.Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery. Taking inspiration from the biological motors of living cells, chemists are learning how to utilize protein dynamics to power microsize and nanosize machines with catalytic reactions. Nanorobot?s toolkit contains features like medicine cavity containing medicine, probes, knives and chisels to remove blockages and plaque, microwave emitters and ultrasonic signal generators to destroy cancerous cells, two electrodes generating an electric current, heating the cell up until it dies, powerful lasers could burn away harmful material like arterial plaque.To cure skin diseases, a cream containing nanorobots may be used which remove the right amount of dead skin, remove excess oils, add missing oils, apply the right amounts of natural moisturising compounds, and even achieve the elusive goal of ’deep pore cleaning’.other fields of applications are to clean the wounds,to break the kidney stones, to treat gout, for parasite removal, for cancer treatment, treatment of arteriosclerosis.

  18. Simulations of the Microcirculation in the Human Conjunctiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, William; Jacobitz, Frank; Chen, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The microcirculation in the conjunctiva of a healthy human subject is analyzed using a simulation approach. A comparison between healthy and diseased states may lead to early diagnosis for a variety of vascular related disorders. Previous work suggests that hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus have noticeable very early changes in the microvasculature (Davis and Landau, 1957; Ditzel, 1968; Kunitomo, 1974) and the vessels of the conjunctiva are specifically useful for this research because they can be studied non-invasively. The microcirculation in the conjunctiva has been documented over the course of disease treatments, providing both still images and video footage for information on vessel length, diameter, and connectivity as well as the direction of blood flow. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. The simulations use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider blood rheology as well as passive and active vessel properties.

  19. Breast arterial calcification on mammogram: correlation with carotid arterial atherosclerosis on ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Ju; Suh, Jung Ho [School of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyung [College of Medicine, KonYang Univ., Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of breast arterial calcification in Korean women, and to determine its association with systemic diseases and carotid arterial atherosclerosis. One thousand seven hundred and thirteen female subjects who underwent mammography at a health care center between May 1999 and May 2000 were included in this study. Of the total, 172 were found to have breast arterial calcification, and were classified according to age. The coincidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia was examined in both the subject group and the control group selected on the same age basis. To investigate the presence and degree of carotid atherosclerosis, sonographic imaging was performed and the findings were compared between the two groups. The incidence of breast arterial calcification showed statistically significant differences according to age, with a higher incidence in older patients (p<0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the incidence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus between groups. Carotid atherosclerosis was subjects more prevalent among subjects than in the control group (p<0.05), though there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of luminal stenosis. The most common pathologic cause of breast arterial calcification is arteriosclerosis. Breast arterial calcification is demonstrated at mammography, along with other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis or coincidental neurologic symptoms. We stress that further evaluation of the carotid artery is necessary.

  20. Clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lower lip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovas, J G; Goodday, R H

    1993-10-01

    Only 14 cases of caliber-persistent labial artery of the lower lip have been reported to date. Six of these were misdiagnosed and treated as squamous cell carcinoma, another as a mucocele. The correct diagnosis emerged only after the wedge resections were examined histopathologically. We report the first cases of caliber-persistent labial artery to be diagnosed clinically since the original description of the condition by Howell and Freeman in 1973. Our first case was a nonpulsatile hard, linear, "gooseneck lamp" submucosal nodule of the lower lip. On the basis of an initial misdiagnosis of sclerosing sialadenitis, a biopsy was attempted. Brisk pulsatile bleeding proved the lesion to be an artery, and the superficial location and large diameter of the vessel lead to the clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery. The "gooseneck lamp" hardening is typical of Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis. The second case was a pulsatile blue linear submucosal nodule of the lower lip. The clinical diagnosis of caliber-persistent labial artery was confirmed when angiography showed the lesion to be an abnormally dilated labial artery. Both cases were successfully ligated with no complications at 16 and 10 months after surgery. PMID:8233429

  1. [Cardiovascular screening for recreational, leisure, vigorous and competitive sport activities over 35 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, R; Littwitz, H; Dworrak, B; Spelsberg, N; Seyfarth, M; Tiroch, K

    2014-10-01

    Particularly among over 30 years old ambitious hobby- and competitive athletes arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac deaths occur again and again. The spectacular sudden deaths during marathon, football and, just recently, in the trend discipline triathlon seem to support that view. Reports about the "athlete`s heart" and complications in the elderly causes uncertainty among athletes, fitness fans and sports physicians. The question arises, how to avoid complications caused by ambitious sporting activity in the elderly and how to screen hobby- and ambitious athletes between the age of 35 and 75 years. For athletes > 35 years old besides medical history and physical examination basic examinations including resting ECG, echocardiography and exercise ECG/stress echocardiography are mandatory. Further examinations, if clinically necessary, should be spiroergometry, Holter ECG or magnetic resonance tomography and Carotis-Duplex or Cardio-CT for the purpose of arteriosclerosis screening. In suspicious inflammation a further extended laboratory testing may become necessary (incl. viral/bacterial antibodies) or even a multidisciplinary approach (immunological, neurological, dental or orthodontic examination).

  2. The detection and role of heat shock protein 70 in various nondisease conditions and disease conditions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoge; Jia, Yiguo; Liu, Yuanxun; Wang, Hui; Ren, Guangying; Wang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    As an intracellular polypeptide, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) can be exposed on the plasma membrane and/or released into the circulation. However, the role of HSP70 in various nondisease and disease conditions remains unknown. Quantitative methods for the detection of HSP70 have been used in clinical studies, revealing that an increase in circulating HSP70 is associated with various types of exercise, elderly patients presenting with inflammation, mobile phones, inflammation, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, carotid intima-media thickness, glutamine-treated ill patients, mortality, diabetes mellitus, active chronic glomerulonephritis, and cancers. Circulating HSP70 decreases with age in humans and in obstructive sleep apnea, arteriosclerosis, atrial fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass surgery, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, moderate-to-severe alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic steatosis, and Helicobacter pylori infection. In conclusion, quantitative methods can be used to detect HSP70, particularly in determining circulating HSP70 levels, using more convenient and rapid screening methods. Studies have shown that changes in HSP70 are associated with various nondisease and disease conditions; thus, HSP70 might be a novel potential biomarker reflecting various nondisease conditions and also the severity of disease conditions. However, the reliability and accuracy, as well as the underlying mechanism, of this relationship remain poorly understood, and large-sample clinical research must be performed to verify the role. PMID:26139132

  3. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, Pál; Joensen, Høgni Debes

    2012-01-01

    For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life--both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption. PMID:22789518

  4. 腹型肥胖的中医针灸治疗现状%Acupuncture for Abdominal Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠梅; 胡慧

    2012-01-01

    当肥胖超过一定限度并出现相关症状时就演变为肥胖症.肥胖症患者中,腹型肥胖患者发生动脉硬化、脑卒中、高血压、冠心病、糖尿病、高脂血症等各种并发症的危险性很高.本研究不仅对腹型肥胖的概念和治疗现状进行了回顾,还从中医角度对腹型肥胖的中医病因病机进行了阐述,并记述了针灸治疗这一祖国医学瑰宝在腹型肥胖治疗领域的现状和展望.%Obesity becomes a symptom when over a certain limit and accompanying correlated symptom. Among the obesity patients, abdominal obesity inclines to suffer arteriosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperiipidemia, and other complications. This text reviews the conception and status of abdominal obesity, and explains the cause and mechanism of abdominal obesity in Chinese medicine. Meanwhile , the actuality and prospect of acupuncture and a branch of Chinese therapy for abdominal obesity are recounted.

  5. Heat Killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 Reduces Fibrosis Effects on the Liver and Heart in High Fat Diet-Hamsters via TGF-β Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Ting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and NAFLD is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Scholars have suggested that certain probiotics may significantly impact cardiovascular health, particularly certain Lactobacillus species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263 probiotics, which have been shown to reduce obesity and arteriosclerosis in vivo. In the present study, we examined the potential of heat-killed bacteria to attenuate high fat diet (HFD-induced hepatic and cardiac damages and the possible underlying mechanism of the positive effects of heat-killed Lr263 oral supplements. Heat-killed Lr263 treatments (625 and 3125 mg/kg-hamster/day were provided as a daily supplement by oral gavage to HFD-fed hamsters for eight weeks. The results show that heat-killed Lr263 treatments reduce fatty liver syndrome. Moreover, heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 supplementation in HFD hamsters also reduced fibrosis in the liver and heart by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β expression levels. In conclusion, heat-killed Lr263 can reduce lipid metabolic stress in HFD hamsters and decrease the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease.

  6. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  7. Change in Elasticity Caused by Flow-Mediated Dilation Measured Only for Intima-Media Region of Brachial Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masataka; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial step of arteriosclerosis [R. Ross: N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2004) 115]. For the assessment of the endothelium function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) caused by increased blood flow has been evaluated with ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. In the case of conventional methods, the change in artery diameter caused by FMD is measured [M. Hashimoto et al.: Circulation 92 (1995) 3431]. Although the arterial wall has a layered structure (intima, media, and adventitia), such a structure is not taken into account in conventional methods because the change in diameter depends on the characteristic of the entire wall. However, smooth muscle present only in the media contributes to FMD, whereas the collagen-rich hard adventitia does not contribute. In this study, we measure the change in elasticity of only the intima-media region including smooth muscle using the phased tracking method [H. Kanai et al.: IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43 (1996) 791]. From the change in elasticity, FMD measured only for the intima-media region by our proposed method was found to be more sensitive than that measured for the entire wall by the conventional method.

  8. Importância clínica da determinação quantitativa ε qualitativa do fluxo sanguíneo por meio de isótopos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wilcke

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available Es wird über die bisher entwickelten Methoden zur bestimmung der Hirndurchblutung mit radioaktiven Isotopen berichtet, wobei die quantitativen Untersuchungsmethoden hinsichtlich ihrer klinischen Bedeutung den qualitativen gegenübergestellt werden. Während die quantitativen Methoden eine genaue Bestimmung des cerebralen Blutvolumens und damit der Gesamtdurchblutung des Hirns bzw. bestimmter Hirnareale ermöglichen, bieten die qualitativen Untersuchungsmethoden hinsichtlich der klinisch-diagnostischen Aussagekraft besondere Vorteile. Aus der Bestimmung der Zirkulationszeit des Hirns und dem Verlauf der über beiden Hemisphären registrierten Aktivitätskurven lassen sich differenzial-diagnostische Schlüsse auf das Vorliegen eines Tumors, einer arteriovenösen Missbildung und auch eines cerebralen Gefässprozesses, im Sinne einer Arteriosclerosis cerebri Ziehen. Die Untersuchung, die nur wenige Minuten beansprucht, ist weder mit einer Belastung für den Patients verbunden, noch mit einer nennenswerten Strahlenbelastung. Sie kann auch bei älteren Patienten vorgenommen werden, bei denen eine Angiographie gefahrvoll erscheint.

  9. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque detection using a multiwavelength handheld photoacoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Susumu; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Patients affected by diseases caused by arteriosclerosis are increasing. Atherosclerosis, which is becoming an especially difficult health problem, forms plaques from lipids such as cholesterol located in walls of the aorta, cerebral artery, and coronary artery. Because lipid-rich plaques are vulnerable and because arterial rupture causes acute vascular occlusion, early detection is crucially important to prevent plaque growth and rupture. Ultrasound systems can detect plaques but cannot discriminate between vulnerable and equable plaques. To evaluate plaques non-invasively and easily, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging device. Its usefulness was verified in phantom experiments with a bovine aorta in which mimic plaque had been embedded. Photoacoustic images taken at wavelengths that produce high light absorbance by lipids show strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary of the mimic plaque. Results confirmed that our system can evaluate plaque properties by analysis with the photoacoustic spectrum. The effects of surrounding tissues and tissue components on plaque evaluation were investigated using a layered phantom. The mimic plaque located under a 6 mm blood layer was also evaluated. Results of these analyses demonstrate the system's usefulness.

  10. Measurement system for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics of arterial bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Bagnasco, D.; Balay, G.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R. L.; Negreira, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    Arterial behaviour in-vivo is influenced, amongst other factors, by the interaction between blood flow and the arterial wall endothelium, and the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall. This interaction plays an important role in pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. To quantify these interactions both from biomechanical and hemodynamical standpoints, a complete characterization and modelling of the arterial wall, blood flow, shear wall and circumferential wall stresses are needed. The development of a new multi-parameter measurement system (distances, pressures, flows, velocity profiles, temperature, viscosity) for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics in arterial bifurcations (specially in carotid bifurcations) is described. This set-up represents an improvement relative to previous set-ups developed by the group FCIEN-FMED and is presently under development. Main subsystems interactions and environment-system interactions were identified and compensated to improve system's performance. Several interesting problems related with signal acquisition using a variety of sensors and some experimental results are shown and briefly discussed. Experimental data allow construction of meshes and parameter estimation of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall, as well as boundary conditions, all suitable to be employed in CFD and FSI numerical simulation.

  11. Interventional CT and MRI: a challenge for safety and cost reduction in the health care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenemeyer, Dietrich H.; Seibel, Rainer M.

    1995-10-01

    For increasing safety in guidance techniques of endoscopes and instruments, fast radiologic imaging should be integrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT) and electron beam tomography (EBT) scanners permit transparency of the operative field; CT and EBT can be combined with fluoroscopy and ultrasound units. MRI avoids x ray exposure, but entails the possibility for 3 D localization. Open access and keyhole imaging allows nearly real time guidance of instruments. Combining minimally invasive techniques using endoscopes and tomographic guidance these technologies improve surgical access and reduce complications. This offers a safe access into the body and leads to the new field of interventional and surgical tomography. Important cost reduction for health care systems is possible, especially in the outpatient treatment of common diseases like disk herniation, back and tumor pain, metastasis, or arteriosclerosis. For realizing a long term cost reduction effect, these techniques have to be integrated in a quality management combining prevention, modern diagnosis, minimal access techniques and, if necessary, hospital stay with maximal access treatments as well as rehabilitation and secondary/tertiary prevention.

  12. Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

  13. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Integrated Diagnostic/Therapeutic Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Serena H.; Wygant, Ira O.; Yeh, David T.; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A. Sanli; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2006-05-01

    In recent years, medical procedures have become increasingly non-invasive. These include endoscopic procedures and intracardiac interventions (e.g., pulmonary vein isolation for treatment of atrial fibrillation and plaque ablation for treatment of arteriosclerosis). However, current tools suffer from poor visualization and difficult coordination of multiple therapeutic and imaging devices. Dual-mode (imaging and therapeutic) ultrasound arrays provide a solution to these challenges. A dual-mode transducer can provide focused, noncontact ultrasound suitable for therapy and can be used to provide high quality real-time images for navigation and monitoring of the procedure. In the last decade, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have become an attractive option for ultrasonic imaging systems due to their fabrication flexibility, improved bandwidth, and integration with electronics. The CMUT's potential in therapeutic applications has also been demonstrated by surface output pressures as high as 1MPa peak to peak and continuous wave (CW) operation. This paper reviews existing interventional CMUT arrays, demonstrates the feasibility of CMUTs for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and presents a design for the next-generation CMUTs for integrated imaging and HIFU endoscopic catheters.

  14. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  15. Persistent release of IL-1s from skin is associated with systemic cardio-vascular disease, emaciation and systemic amyloidosis: the potential of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Yamanaka

    Full Text Available The skin is an immune organ that contains innate and acquired immune systems and thus is able to respond to exogenous stimuli producing large amount of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1 and IL-1 family members. The role of the epidermal IL-1 is not limited to initiation of local inflammatory responses, but also to induction of systemic inflammation. However, association of persistent release of IL-1 family members from severe skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, epidermolysis bullosa, atopic dermatitis, blistering diseases and desmoglein-1 deficiency syndrome with diseases in systemic organs have not been so far assessed. Here, we showed the occurrence of severe systemic cardiovascular diseases and metabolic abnormalities including aberrant vascular wall remodeling with aortic stenosis, cardiomegaly, impaired limb and tail circulation, fatty tissue loss and systemic amyloid deposition in multiple organs with liver and kidney dysfunction in mouse models with severe dermatitis caused by persistent release of IL-1s from the skin. These morbid conditions were ameliorated by simultaneous administration of anti-IL-1α and IL-1β antibodies. These findings may explain the morbid association of arteriosclerosis, heart involvement, amyloidosis and cachexia in severe systemic skin diseases and systemic autoinflammatory diseases, and support the value of anti-IL-1 therapy for systemic inflammatory diseases.

  16. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  17. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

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    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  18. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Involvement in Inflammatory Diseases

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    Yaw Kuang Chuah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is a transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, capable of binding a broad repertoire of ligands. RAGE-ligands interaction induces a series of signal transduction cascades and lead to the activation of transcription factor NF-κB as well as increased expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These effects endow RAGE with the role in the signal transduction from pathogen substrates to cell activation during the onset and perpetuation of inflammation. RAGE signaling and downstream pathways have been implicated in a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related pathologic conditions such as arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis. Despite the significant progress in other RAGE studies, the functional importance of the receptor in clinical situations and inflammatory diseases still remains to be fully realized. In this review, we will summarize current understandings and lines of evidence on the molecular mechanisms through which RAGE signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the aforementioned inflammation-associated conditions.

  19. Molecular Modeling Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Targetting

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    Chandra Sekhar Akula,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, is the leading cause of illness and death in the India. A number of studies have shown that inflammation of blood vessels is one of the major factors that increase the incidence of heart diseases, including arteriosclerosis (clogging of the arteries, stroke and myocardial infraction or heart attack. Studies have associated obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, with lowgradeinflammation. Furthermore, some findings suggest that drugs commonly prescribed to the lower cholesterol also reduce this inflammation, suggesting an additional beneficial effect of the stains. The recent development of angiotensin 11 (Ang11 receptor antagonists has enabled to improve significantly the tolerability profile of thisgroup of drugs while maintaining a high clinical efficacy. ACE2 is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and in renal tubular epithelium, and it thus may be an import new cardiovascular target. In the present study we modeled the structure of ACE and designed an inhibitor through using ARGUS lab and the validation of the Drug molecule is done basing on QSAR properties and Cache for this protein through CADD.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Free 15-F2t-Isoprostane from Plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbe

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    Bertha Rusdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 15-F2t-isoprostane is a biomarker in assessment of oxidative stress status that due to its relatively low concentration in biological fluid and also has many isomers, the 15-F2t-isoprostane sample need to be extracted prior to the quantifying processes. Extraction techniques commonly used to extract 15-F2t-isoprostane are solid phase extraction (SPE and immunoaffinity extraction. Improvements to the SPE and immunoaffinity extraction techniques had been conducted, and the recovery results was then compared. The quantification of 15-F2t-isoprostane then was conducted using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Then followed by the examination of the plasma recovery results. Extraction technique which had the highest recovery then was used to quantify 15-F2t-isoprostane from plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA patients. Immunoaffinity extraction technique has a good recovery result. OSA patients have the tendency to have high 15-F2t-isoprostane concentrations in the plasma, therefore have a potential risk to get diseases related to the biological activities of 15-F2t-isoprostane, such as arteriosclerosis.

  1. The Epidemiological Boehringer Ingelheim Employee Study—Part I: Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Kempf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Obesity-dependent diseases cause economic burden to companies. Large-scale data for working populations are lacking. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI Employee cohort and the relationship between body mass index (BMI and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases were estimated. Design and Methods. Employees (≥38 years, employed in Ingelheim ≥2 years; n=3151 of BI Pharma GmbH & Co. KG were invited by the medical corporate department to participate in intensive health checkups. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected through 2006–2011 was performed. Results. 90% of eligible subjects participated (n=2849. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 40% and 18% and significantly higher in men and participants ≥50 years. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels and prevalences of cardiometabolic diseases significantly increased with BMI and were higher in overweight and obese participants. Cut-points for increased risk estimated from ROC curves were ≈25 kg/m2 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertriglyceridemia and 26.7–28.0 kg/m2 for the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, increased intima media thickness, and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. This is the first large-scale occupational health care cohort from a single company. Cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases accumulate with increasing BMI. Occupational weight reduction programs seem to be reasonable strategies.

  2. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

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    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  3. Genomics in cardiovascular diseases: analysis of the importance of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway

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    Bustamante J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available J Bustamante,1 E Tamayo,2 J Herreros3,41Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hospital Universitario Valdecilla, Santander, 4Biomedical Engineering Institute of Santander, Santander, SpainAbstract: The development of techniques for genomics study makes it possible for us to further our knowledge about the physiopathology of various immunological or infectious diseases. These techniques improve our understanding of the development and evolution of such diseases, including those of cardiovascular origin, whilst they help to bring about the design of new therapeutic strategies. We are reviewing the genetic alterations of immunity in said field, and focusing on the signaling pathway of toll-like receptors because not only does this play a decisive role in response to microorganisms, it is also heavily involved in modulating the inflammatory response to tissue damage, a side effect of numerous cardiovascular diseases. These alterations in tissue homeostasis are present under a wide range of circumstances, such as reperfusion ischemia (myocardial infarction phenomena, arteriosclerosis, or valvulopathy.Keywords: genome-wide association study, single-nucleotide polymorphism, innate immune system, ischemic/reperfusion, myocardial infarction

  4. Progress of OCT and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2009-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue based on the low-coherence interferometry, where the image resolution is around 10 ım with the imaging depth of 1 to 2 mm. Since its first demonstration, OCT has been developed intensively for clinical diagnoses of ophthalmology and arteriosclerosis. Beside the clinical applications, OCT is used for analysis of physiological functions underneath the human skin surface. Recently, we proposed and demonstrated the dynamic OCT for in vivo observation of physiological functions of small organs underneath the skin surface. In the dynamic OCT, tomographic images are obtained time-sequentially for tracking of the dynamics of eccrin sweat glands and peripheral vessels. In the last three years, the dynamic skin physiology has been analyzed using both time-domain (TD) OCT and swept source (SS) OCT. In this paper, we present progress of OCT as well as the dynamic analysis of mental sweating and pulsation of a small artery in synchronization with the heartbeat using SS-OCT.

  5. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

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    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  6. Europium tetracycline biosensor for the determination of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Samad, Ricardo Elgul; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Development of cholesterol biosensors is of great importance in clinical analysis because the concentration of cholesterol in blood is a fundamental parameter for the prevention and diagnosis of a number of clinical disorders such as heart disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In general, determination of cholesterol is based on spectrophotometry; but this method involves complicated procedures and the cost is high because expensive enzyme must be used in each assay. We report here the observation, for the first time, of the enhancement of Europium-Tetracycline complex emission in cholesterol solutions. This enhancement was initially observed with the addition of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase, which produces H IIO II, the agent driver of the Europium tetracycline complex, to the solution. However, it was found that the enzyme is not needed to enhance the luminescence. A calibration curve was determined, resulting in an easy-handling immobilization method with a cheap stable material. This method shows that the complex can be used as a sensor to determine cholesterol in biological systems with good selectivity, fast response, miniature size, and reproducible results.

  7. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  8. Monitoring intra-cellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman- and CARS-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in lipid metabolism in vessel wall tissues. Macrophages can take up lipids by various mechanisms. As phagocytes, macrophages are important for the decomposition of lipid plaques within arterial walls that contribute to arteriosclerosis. Of special interest are uptake dynamics and intra-cellular fate of different individual types of lipids as, for example, fatty acids, triglycerides or free and esterified cholesterol. Here we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and follow subsequent storage or degradation patterns. The combination of optical microscopy with Raman spectroscopy allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through the associated spectral information. Relatively long measuring times, due to the weakness of Raman scattering can be overcome by non-linear effects such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). With this contribution we introduce first results to monitor the incorporation of lipid components into individual cells employing Raman and CARS microscopy.

  9. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: Need for early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestanol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects and premature death from arteriosclerosis. The primary biochemical defect is deficiency of hepatic mitochondrial enzyme sterol-27-hydroxylase which catalyses the hydroxylation of cholestanol (5-alpha dehydro derivative of cholesterol and this deficiency decreases bile acid synthesis. Substantial elevation of serum cholestanol and urinary bile alcohols with low to normal plasma cholesterol concentration establishes the diagnosis. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is exceptionally rare in the Indian population. We are reporting a woman with this rare disorder, who was on antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs for a prolonged period and whose original condition went undiagnosed. She presented with xanthomas on the Achilles tendons and the upper end of tibia. She was mentally subnormal and her serum cholestanol level was raised. Her younger sister too was severely affected by this disorder. Early treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid is known to prevent disease progression.

  10. Neuroprotection by flavonoids

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    Dajas F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 µM of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine, probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.

  11. Development of Antiatherosclerotic Drugs on the basis of Natural Products Using Cell Model Approach

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    Alexander N. Orekhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis including its subclinical form is one of the key medical and social problems. At present, there is no therapy available for widespread use against subclinical atherosclerosis. The use of synthetic drugs for the prevention of arteriosclerosis in its early stages is not sufficient because of the limited indications for severe side effects and high cost of treatment. Obviously, effective antiatherosclerotic drugs based on natural products would be a preferred alternative. Simple cell-based models for testing different natural products have been developed and the ability of natural products to prevent intracellular lipid accumulation in primary cell culture was evaluated. This approach utilizing cell models allowed to test effects of such direct antiatherosclerotic therapy, analyzing the effects mimicking those which can occur “at the level” of arterial wall via the inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition. The data from the carried out clinical trials support a point of view that the identification of antiatherosclerotic activity of natural products might offer a great opportunity for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic disease, reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  12. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  13. Fiber Optic Laser Delivery For Endarterectomy Of Experimental Atheromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, John; Pollock, Marc E.; McColgan, Stephen J.; Hammer-Wilson, Marie; Berns, Michael W.

    1986-08-01

    Fiber optic delivery of argon ion laser energy and Nd-YAG laser energy were compared by the performance of open laser endarterectomy in the rabbit arteriosclerosis model. In Group I, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with an argon ion laser (488 nm and 514.5 nm) with the laser beam directed through a 400 pm quartz fiber optic. In Group II, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with a Nd-YAG laser (1.06 pm) with the laser beam directed through a 600 pm quartz fiber optic. Gross and light microscopic examination revealed smooth endarterectomy surfaces with tapered end points in Group I. In Group II, the endarterectomy surfaces were uneven and perforation occurred at 5/6 end points. Although energy could be precisely delivered with each laser by fiber optics, satisfactory results could only be achieved with the argon ion laser because argon ion energy was well absorbed by atheromas. Successful intravascular laser use requires a strong interaction between wavelength and atheroma as well as a precise delivery system.

  14. Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel context-aware image force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Udhayaraj; Wels, Michael; Rempfler, Markus; Grosskopf, Stefan; Suehling, Michael; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automated approach to coronary vessel segmentation, which involves calcification or soft plaque delineation in addition to accurate lumen delineation, from 3D Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography data. Adequately virtualizing the coronary lumen plays a crucial role for simulating blood ow by means of fluid dynamics while additionally identifying the outer vessel wall in the case of arteriosclerosis is a prerequisite for further plaque compartment analysis. Our method is a hybrid approach complementing Active Contour Model-based segmentation with an external image force that relies on a Random Forest Regression model generated off-line. The regression model provides a strong estimate of the distance to the true vessel surface for every surface candidate point taking into account 3D wavelet-encoded contextual image features, which are aligned with the current surface hypothesis. The associated external image force is integrated in the objective function of the active contour model, such that the overall segmentation approach benefits from the advantages associated with snakes and from the ones associated with machine learning-based regression alike. This yields an integrated approach achieving competitive results on a publicly available benchmark data collection (Rotterdam segmentation challenge).

  15. Near-field infrared imaging of molecular changes in cholesteryl oleate by free electron laser infrared ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Tatsuhiro; Goto, Kazuya; Inouye, Yasushi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    We have applied infrared near-field scanning optical microscopy (IR-NSOM) to enable evaluation of detailed molecular changes in cholesteryl oleate, a primary cause of arteriosclerosis. In our IR-NSOM, a wide wavelength range of 2.9-6.7 μm is achieved by use of an optical parametric amplifier and an apertured cantilever. IR irradiation from a free-electron laser (FEL) tuned to a 5.75 μm wavelength induced molecular structural changes and caused cholesteryl oleate to decompose to cholesterol and fatty acids in the FEL irradiated areas. The IR-NSOM images at two different wavelengths, 5.75 and 5.3 μm, with a 2 μm apertured cantilever probe successfully identified areas of molecular change in cholesteryl oleate beyond the diffraction limit of IR microspectroscopy. In-depth molecular structure changes were also evaluated by the IR-NSOM and we demonstrated that the FEL irradiation induced subsurface molecular structure changes throughout cholesteryl oleate in the irradiated areas.

  16. Advances in the analysis and prediction of turbulent viscoelastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatski, T. B.; Thais, L.; Mompean, G.

    2014-08-01

    It has been well-known for over six decades that the addition of minute amounts of long polymer chains to organic solvents, or water, can lead to significant turbulent drag reduction. This discovery has had many practical applications such as in pipeline fluid transport, oil well operations, vehicle design and submersible vehicle projectiles, and more recently arteriosclerosis treatment. However, it has only been the last twenty-five years that the full utilization of direct numerical simulation of such turbulent viscoelastic flows has been achieved. The unique characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow are dictated by the nonlinear differential relationship between the flow strain rate field and the extra-stress induced by the additive polymer. A primary motivation for the analysis of these turbulent fluid flows is the understanding of the effect on the dynamic transfer of energy in the turbulent flow due to the presence of the extra-stress field induced by the presence of the viscoelastic polymer chain. Such analyses now utilize direct numerical simulation data of fully developed channel flow for the FENE-P (Finite Extendable Nonlinear Elastic - Peterlin) fluid model. Such multi-scale dynamics suggests an analysis of the transfer of energy between the various component motions that include the turbulent kinetic energy, and the mean polymeric and elastic potential energies. It is shown that the primary effect of the interaction between the turbulent and polymeric fields is to transfer energy from the turbulence to the polymer.

  17. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type with perforating peritonitis.

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    Noguch H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, especially the colonic type. We report a case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type associated with perforating peritonitis after aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery. A 79-year-old woman presented with fever and pain in the right lower abdomen. She had undergone aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery due to arteriosclerosis obliterans 6 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a suspected pool of fluid surrounding the artificial vessel and a mass lesion in the upper end of the fluid collection. These findings suggested localized peritonitis due to appendiceal perforation. Emergency laparotomy showed a pool of pus around the artificial vessel and inflamed appendix, which adhered to the surrounding tissue. The mass was excised in combination with an ileocaecal resection, followed by an ileocolic anastomosis. The histological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix, colonic type. The tumour had infiltrated and obstructed the lumen of the orifice of the appendix, which may have caused perforation of the appendix. She was examined at regular periodic follow-ups and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was noted in the 12-month postoperative period. These findings indicate that, in cases of acute appendicitis, especially with perforation, the possibility of appendiceal adenocarcinoma should be considered.

  18. Photocoagulation as treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Fernandez, L.; de Pedraza, Maria L.; Gamella, C.; Santervas, R.

    1992-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that is revealed with a lot of alterations due to factors such as an absolute or relative reduction of the insulin. It is usually accompanied by generalized arteriosclerosis and prepares for certain microvasculares pathologies such as retinopathy, nefropathy, and neuropathy. The first effects of diabetes in the retina seem to act on the capillaries. The functional modifications of the retinal circulation appear before the structural ones. These consist of the blood flux damage and the obligation of the hematorretinal barrier with extravasacy as can be proved in the fluorophotometry of the vitreous humor. Nowadays, medical treatments are more effective and only vitrectomy and photocoagulation are used in diabetic retinopathy. For that, the argon laser and the xenon arch are used. The treatment is usually spread panretine, with coagulation in a grid pattern around the eye, avoiding the macula and other vital structures, and treating the neoformed blood vessels. The rate of grave visual loss in the studies carried out with there techniques was 12 in relation to 28 in the non-treated cases. The most important factors of risk found, were the discal neoformed blood vessels and the hemorrhage of the vitreous humor. Adverse effects were found such as the reduction of visual sharpness and the contrition of the visual field, these are greater in patients treated with the xenon arch than in those treated with the argon laser.

  19. Pregnancy Followed by Delivery May Affect Circulating Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Levels in Women of Reproductive Age

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    Mehmet Balin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective. It is known that menopause or lack of endogenous estrogen is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CAD. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1 is involved inmultiple phases of vascular dysfunction.The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1 and pregnancy followed by delivery in women of reproductive age. Materials/Methods. Sixty-eight subjects with pregnancy followed by delivery (group 1 and 57 subjects with nongravidity (group 2 were included in this study. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by EL SA. Results. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly lower in Group 1 than Group 2 in women of reproductive age (0.52±0.18 ng/mL and 0.78±0.13, resp., <0.001. There were strong correlations between sLOX-1 levels and the number of gravida (=−0.645, <0.001. The levels of sLOX-1 highly correlated with the number of parous (=−0.683, <0.001. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with pregnancy followed by delivery that might predict endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that pregnancy followed by delivery may delay the beginning and progress of arteriosclerosis and its clinical manifestations in women of reproductive age.

  20. Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images

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    G. Delucta Mary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  1. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in maté ( Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T. C. F.; Fanaro, G. B.; Souza, M. F. F.; Bastos, D. H. M.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The maté ( Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrão or tererê, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of tererê beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  2. A new screening pathway for identifying asymptomatic patients using dental panoramic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Takuya; Sawagashira, Tsuyoshi; Tagami, Motoki; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Zhou, Xiangrong; Iida, Yukihiro; Matsuoka, Masato; Katagi, Kiyoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    To identify asymptomatic patients is the challenging task and the essential first step in diagnosis. Findings of dental panoramic radiographs include not only dental conditions but also radiographic signs that are suggestive of possible systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and maxillary sinusitis. Detection of such signs on panoramic radiographs has a potential to provide supplemental benefits for patients. However, it is not easy for general dental practitioners to pay careful attention to such signs. We addressed the development of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system that detects radiographic signs of pathology on panoramic images, and the design of the framework of new screening pathway by cooperation of dentists and our CAD system. The performance evaluation of our CAD system showed the sensitivity and specificity in the identification of osteoporotic patients were 92.6 % and 100 %, respectively, and those of the maxillary sinus abnormality were 89.6 % and 73.6 %, respectively. The detection rate of carotid artery calcifications that suggests the need for further medical evaluation was approximately 93.6 % with 4.4 false-positives per image. To validate the utility of the new screening pathway, preliminary clinical trials by using our CAD system were conducted. To date, 223 panoramic images were processed and 4 asymptomatic patients with suspected osteoporosis, 7 asymptomatic patients with suspected calcifications, and 40 asymptomatic patients with suspected maxillary sinusitis were detected in our initial trial. It was suggested that our new screening pathway could be useful to identify asymptomatic patients with systemic diseases.

  3. Pulsed liquid microjet for intravascular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Miller, Jason; Huie, Philip; Marmor, Michael; Blumenkranz, Mark S.

    2002-06-01

    Occlusions of the retinal veins and arteries are associated with common diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis and usually cause severe and irreversible loss of vision. Treatments for these vascular diseases have been unsatisfactory to date in part because of the difficulty of delivering thrombolytic drugs locally within the eye. In this article we describe a pulsed liquid microjet for minimally invasive intra-vascular drug delivery. The microjet is driven by a vapor bubble following an explosive evaporation of saline, produced by a microsecond-long electric discharge in front of the 25 micrometers electrode inside the micronozzle. Expansion of the transient vapor bubble produces a water jet with a diameter equal to the diameter of the nozzle, and with a velocity and duration that are controlled by the pulse energy. We found that fluid could be injected through the wall of a 60-micrometers -diameter artery in choriallantoic membrane using a 15-micrometers diameter liquid jet traveling at more than 60 m/s. Histological analysis of these arteries showed that the width of the perforation is limited to the diameter of the micronozzle, and the penetration depth of the jet is controlled by the discharge energy. The pulsed liquid microjet offers a promising technique for precise and needle-free intravascular delivery of thrombolytic drugs for localized treatment of retinal vascular occlusions.

  4. Development of catheters for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Wang, Bo; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis is a complex disease accompanied by the development of plaques in the arterial wall. Since the vulnerability of the plaques depends on their composition, the appropriate treatment of the arteriosclerosis requires a reliable characterization of the plaques' geometry and content. The intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is capable of providing structural details of the plaques as well as some functional information. In turn, more functional information about the same plaques can be obtained from intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) images since the optical properties of the plaque's components differ from that of their environment. The combined IVUS/IVPA imaging is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating the plaques, thus determining their vulnerability. The potential of combined IVUS/IVPA imaging has already been demonstrated in phantoms and ex-vivo experiments. However, for in-vivo or clinical imaging, an integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter is required. In this paper, we introduce two prototypes of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheters for in-vivo imaging based on a commercially available single-element IVUS imaging catheter. The light delivery systems are developed using multimode optical fibers with custom-designed distal tips. Both prototypes were tested and compared using an arterial mimicking phantom. The advantages and limitations of both designs are discussed. Overall, the results of our studies suggest that both designs of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter have a potential for in-vivo IVPA/IVUS imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.

  5. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

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    Christine Susara du Plooy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  6. Harmful effects of the azathioprine metabolite 6-mercaptopurine in vascular cells: induction of mineralization.

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    Jasmin Prüfer

    Full Text Available Vascular mineralization contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients who suffer from chronic kidney disease and in individuals who have undergone solid organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen used to treat these patients appears to have an impact on vascular alterations. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP on vascular calcification has not yet been determined. This study investigates the effect of 6-MP on vascular mineralization by the induction of trans-differentiation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. 6-MP not only induces the expression of osteo-chondrocyte-like transcription factors and proteins but also activates alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and produces calcium deposition in in vitro and ex vivo models. These processes are dependent on 6-MP-induced production of reactive oxygen species, intracellular activation of mitogen-activated kinases and phosphorylation of the transcription factor Cbfa1. Furthermore, the metabolic products of 6-MP, 6-thioguanine nucleotides and 6-methyl-thio-inosine monophosphate have major impacts on cellular calcification. These data provide evidence for a possible harmful effect of the immunosuppressive drug 6-MP in vascular diseases, such as arteriosclerosis.

  7. Espasmo hemifacial familiar: relato de dois casos Familial hemifacial spasm: report of two cases

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    EGBERTO REIS BARBOSA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam os achados clínicos e angiográficos de dois casos de espasmo hemifacial familiar. Esta é a quinta descrição sobre esse tema na literatura e apresenta mãe e filha com idades de 76 e 51 anos respectivamente, nas quais o lado esquerdo foi o acometido. Exames de angiorressonância realizados nas pacientes revelaram dolicobasilar com origem lateralizada à esquerda para ambos os casos. Também demonstraram artéria cerebelar póstero-inferior muito desenvolvida e irregularidades murais nas artérias vertebrais e basilar sugestivas de arteriosclerose na mãe e vasos intracranianos levemente alongados na filha. Dados de revisão da literatura e sobre a etiologia do espasmo hemifacial são enfocados.The authors report the clinical and angiographical findings of two cases of familial hemifacial spasm. This is the fifth description in the literature and presents mother and daughter at the ages of 76 and 51 respectively, in whom the left side was affected. They underwent exams of angioresonance that showed dolichobasilar with left side origin in both patients. The exams also demonstrated postero-inferior cerebellar artery very developed and irregularities in the walls of the vertebral and basilar arteries suggestive of arteriosclerosis in the mother and slightly elongated intracranial vessels in the daughter. Literature review and etiology data of the hemifacial spasm are focused.

  8. MYCTOIC ANEURYSM OF POPLITEAL ARTERY AND AORTOFEMORAL BYPASS GRAFT

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    A. Sohrabi

    1979-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic aneurysm could be divided into three types according to their etiology: septic-embolic, cryptogenic and traumatic type. During the period from 1972 to 1974 two cases of mycotic aneurysms have been seen at the Ohio Valley Medical Center - one following a sub acute bacterial endocarditic and another one was two years following surgery for aortofemoral bypass graft. The clinical course of both patients is discussed. The prognosis of mycotic aneurysm is always fatal without surgical intervention. Mycotic aneurysm is a rare entity which is occasionally reported in the literatures. As far as these case reports go the pathology could be divided into three categories according to their etiology, even though the pathology is essentially the same. 1. The septic-embolic or primary mycotic aneurysm in which the aneurysm is secondary to the sepsis which settles in the wall of the artery and destroys the lamina media and finally developing an aneurysm. This type of mycotic aneurysm is, usually seen in any type of septicemia. 2. The cryptogenic or secondary, mycotic aneurysm in which the sepsis takes place in the pra-existing aneurysm of the arterial wall usually due to arteriosclerosis disease. 3. Traumatic or mixed type mycotic aneurysm in which the sepsis and arterial wall damage takes place at the same time.

  9. Fiber Optic Versus Direct Laser Delivery For Endarterectomy Of Experimental Atheromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, John; Pollock, Marc E.; McColgan, Stephen J.; Hammer-Wilson, Marie; Berns, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    Direct laser energy delivery was compared to fiber optic laser energy delivery by the performance of open laser endarterectomy in the rabbit arteriosclerosis model. In Group I, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with a hand-held CO2 laser (10.6 pm). In Group II, 6 open laser endarterectomies were performed with an argon ion laser (488 nm and 514.5 nm) with the laser beam directed through a 400 μm quartz fiber optic. Gross and light microscopic examination revealed uneven endarterectomy surfaces and frequent perforations at the end points in Group I. In Group II, the endarterectomy surfaces were even and the end points were fused with a tapered transition. Energy density for Group I was 38 ±5 J/cm2. Energy density for Group II was 110±12 J/cm2. CO2 laser energy was better absorbed by arteriosclerotic rabbit aortas than argon ion laser energy, but it could not be as easily controlled. We conclude that a more precise endarterectomy can be performed with fiber optic delivery of laser energy.

  10. Comparison of Three Different Types of Wrist Pulse Signals by Their Physical Meanings and Diagnosis Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Peng; Zhang, David

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has been focused on computational pulse diagnosis where sensors are developed to acquire pulse signals, and machine learning techniques are exploited to analyze health conditions based on the acquired pulse signals. By far, a number of sensors have been employed for pulse signal acquisition, which can be grouped into three major categories, i.e., pressure, photoelectric, and ultrasonic sensors. To guide the sensor selection for computational pulse diagnosis, in this paper, we analyze the physical meanings and sensitivities of signals acquired by these three types of sensors. The dependence and complementarity of the different sensors are discussed from both the perspective of cardiovascular fluid dynamics and comparative experiments by evaluating disease classification performance. Experimental results indicate that each sensor is more appropriate for the diagnosis of some specific disease that the changes of physiological factors can be effectively reflected by the sensor, e.g., ultrasonic sensor for diabetes and pressure sensor for arteriosclerosis, and improved diagnosis performance can be obtained by combining three types of signals.

  11. [Regulatory role of mechanical stress response in cellular function: development of new drugs and tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Takehisa; Oike, Masahiro; Obara, Kazuo; Laher, Ismail; Sugiura, Seiryo; Ohata, Hisayuki; Nakayama, Koichi

    2003-02-01

    The investigation of mechanotransduction in the cardiovascular system is essentially important for elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in not only the maintenance of hemodynamic homeostasis but also etiology of cardiovascular diseases including arteriosclerosis. The present review summarizes the latest research performed by six academic groups, and presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society. Technology of cellular biomechanics is also required for research and clinical application of a vascular hybrid tissue responding to pulsatile stress. 1) Vascular tissue engineering: Design of pulsatile stress-responsive scaffold and in vivo vascular wall reconstruction (T. Matsuda); 2) Cellular mechanisms of mechanosensitive calcium transients in vascular endothelium (M. Oike et al.); 3) Cross-talk of stimulation with fluid flow and lysophosphatidic acid in vascular endothelial cells (K. Momose et al.); 4) Mechanotransduction of vascular smooth muscles: Rate-dependent stretch-induced protein phosphorylations and contractile activation (K. Obara et al.); 5) Lipid mediators in vascular myogenic tone (I. Laher et al.); and 6) Caldiomyocyte regulates its mechanical output in response to mechanical load (S. Sugiura et al.).

  12. [Chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome in comparison with other signs belonging to the image of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder which concern even 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disorders with chronic anovulation. The most common clinical symptoms observed in PCOS are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients with PCOS often suffer from metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis and other abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. 35 to 60% of women with PCOS are obese and about 50% of them have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis emphasizes the role of inflammatory processes. There are a number of markers of the inflammation process. They are also observed in PCOS and may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women. More than 46% of women with PCOS can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Because of the fact that patients with PCOS are at higher risk group of the earlier development of complications such as diabetes t 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular system diseases, it is important to carry out metabolic disorders diagnosis in every patient with PCOS. It will help to estimate the risk of complications and allow for the implementation of prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases belonging to the image of PCOS.

  13. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  14. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  15. Light and Dark of Reactive Oxygen Species for Vascular Function: 2014 ASVB (Asian Society of Vascular Biology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Satoh, Kimio

    2015-05-01

    Vascular-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) serves as an important signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system and contributes to vascular homeostasis. H2O2 is a second messenger, transducing the oxidative signal into biological responses through posttranslational protein modification. The balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems regulates intracellular redox status, and their imbalance causes oxidative or reductive stress, leading to cellular damage in cardiovascular systems. Excessive H2O2 deteriorates vascular functions and promotes vascular disease through multiple pathways. The RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway plays an important role in various fundamental cellular functions, including production of excessive reactive oxygen species, leading to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Rho-kinase (ROCK1 and ROCK2) belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases and is an important downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein RhoA. Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, and heart failure. Thus, Rho-kinase inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in humans. In this review, we will briefly discuss the roles of vascular-derived H2O2 and review the recent progress in the translational research on the therapeutic importance of the Rho-kinase pathway in cardiovascular medicine.

  16. [Anesthetic management of a patient with Mulvihill-Smith syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Junya; Yamada, Tatsuya; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Junzo

    2007-07-01

    Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is a rare disease that belongs to progeroid syndromes. This syndrome is characterized by a senile face with an underdeveloped lower half, short stature, microcephaly, multiple pigmented nevi, immunodeficiency, hearing loss, and high-pitched voice. We report anesthetic management of a 27-year-old woman, 138 cm and 27 kg, with this syndrome, who underwent removal of mandibular cyst, partial resection of tongue and keratoplasty. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, propofol and vecuronium. There was difficulty in maintaining adequate ventilation with a face mask for children, and we used a mask for infants. Her Cormack grade was rated 3 but her trachea could be intubated assisted by BURP procedure. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen supplemented with fentanyl. The changes of blood pressure during anesthesia were extraordinary, suggesting the presence of advanced arteriosclerosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, with stable hemodynamics, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on 9th postoperative day. Anesthesia for Mulvihill-Smith syndrome should be performed with caution for the potential risk of difficult airway and unstable hemodynamics. PMID:17633848

  17. 彩色超声观察低血压患者血流剪切应力对颈动脉粥样硬化的影响%Observed Affective of Shear Stress to Carot Atherusclerosis in the Patients ofHypotension by Color Doppler Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈今; 李晓彦; 杨显国

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine file relationship between sheafing stress of Hypotension and carot atherusclerosis by color Doppler ultrasound.Methods:Thirtyfive cases of carotid arteriosclerosis with Hypotension were investigated using color Doppler ultrasound. Graphythe intimamedia thickness,IMT degree and ratio of carotid artery stenosis were measured atheromatous plaque showed the stereo image. Results:In the 35 patients of Hypotension,The carot atherusclerosis were found out in 27 patient (77.1%).It is higher than normorl Contrastive Group(32.5%,P<0.05).Conclusion:The relationship between Hypotension and artherosclerosis.%目的:初步探讨低血压患者的血流剪切应力对动脉粥样硬化的影响.方法:对入选的35 例低血压患者进行颈动脉超声检测,测量内膜-中层厚度IMT,观察斑块数量,了解其与低血压的关系.结果:低血压患者颈动脉粥样硬化检出率77.1%,明显高于正常对照组的32.5%(P<0.05).结论:低血压与动脉粥样硬化存在一定相关性.

  18. Anti-Glycation Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Extract and Its Components in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuya; Nakatani, Sachie; Onodera, Hideaki; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Nishida, Norihisa; Matsuura, Yoichi; Kobata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) leads to various diseases such as diabetic complications and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we examined the effect of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and its constituent polyphenols on AGE formation in vivo and in vitro. PFE, fed with a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet to KK-A(y) mice, significantly reduced glycation products such as glycoalbumin (22.0 ± 2.4%), hemoglobin A1c (5.84 ± 0.23%), and serum AGEs (8.22 ± 0.17 μg/mL), as compared to a control HFS group (30.6 ± 2.6%, 7.45 ± 0.12%, and 9.55 ± 0.17 μg/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In antiglycation assays, PFE, punicalin, punicalagin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid suppressed the formation of AGEs from bovine serum albumin and sugars. In this study, we discuss the mechanism of the antiglycation effects of PFE and its components in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26242637

  19. [The adipose tissue as a regulatory center of the metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Alaniz, Miriam H; Takada, Julie; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Lima, Fabio Bessa

    2006-04-01

    The recent progress in the research about the metabolic properties of the adipose tissue and the discovery of its ability to produce hormones that are very active in pathophysiologic as well as physiologic processes is rebuilding the concepts about its biology. Its involvement in conditions like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis, dislipidemias and chronic and acute inflammatory processes indicate that the understanding of its functional capacities may contribute to improve the prognosis of those diseases whose prevalence increased in a preoccupying manner. Here we review some functional aspects of adipocytes, such as the metabolism, its influence on energy homeostasis, its endocrine ability and the adipogenesis, i.e., the potential of pre-adipocytes present in adipose tissue stroma to differentiate into new adipocytes and regenerate the tissue. In addition, we are including some studies on the relationship between the adipose tissue and the pineal gland, a new and poorly known, although, as will be seen, very promising aspect of adipocyte physiology together with its possible favorable repercussions to the therapy of the obesity related diseases.

  20. [Dyslipidemias: a pending challenge in cardiovascular prevention. Consensus document from CEIPC/SEA Committee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Guijarro Herráiz, Carlos; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; Pedro-Botet Montoya, Juan; Santiago Nocito, Ana de

    2011-06-11

    In Spain, where cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death, hypercholesterolemia, one of the most prevalent risk factors in adults, is poorly controlled. Dyslipidemia should not be approached in isolation, but in the context of overall cardiovascular risk (CVR). Measurement of CVR facilitates decision making, but should not be the only tool nor should it take the place of clinical judgment, given the limitations of the available calculation methods. This document, prepared by the Interdisciplinary Spanish Committee on Cardiovascular Prevention, at the proposal of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, reviews the cardiovascular prevention activities of the regional health authorities, scientific societies and medical professionals. An initiation of a national strategy on cardiovascular prevention is proposed based on lifestyle modification (healthy diet, physical activity and smoking cessation) through actions in different settings. At the population level, regulation of food advertising, elimination of trans fats and reduction of added sugar are feasible and cost-effective interventions to help control dyslipidemias and reduce CVR. In the health setting, it is proposed to facilitate the application of guidelines, improve training for medical professionals, and include CVR assessment among the quality indicators. Scientific societies should collaborate with the health authorities and contribute to the generation and transmission of knowledge. Finally, it is in the hands of professionals to apply the concept of CVR, promote healthy lifestyles, and make efficient use of available pharmacological treatments.

  1. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease using 3-T MRI and MRA: value of cisternal moyamoya vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Seiko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Yukio [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Fukui University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to propose new magnetic resonance (MR) criteria of diagnosing moyamoya disease (MMD) from cisternal moyamoya vessels (MMVs) on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the existing MR criteria and the proposed MR criteria. Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients with MMD (4 males, 16 females) diagnosed clinically using conventional angiography and 20 controls (13 male and 7 female arteriosclerosis patients). In these participants, 3-T MRI/MRA was evaluated by the existing MR criteria, which use MMVs in the basal ganglia, and the proposed MR criteria, which use cisternal MMVs, and then these two criteria were statistically compared by McNemar's test. Diagnostic accuracy was 62.5% with the existing MR criteria and 97.5% with the proposed MR criteria. The proposed MR criteria was more sensitive (1.00) than the existing MR criteria (0.45), but less specific (0.95) than the existing MR criteria (1.00). The proposed MR criteria using cisternal MMVs showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than the existing MR criteria. We believe that our proposed MR criteria will be beneficial for diagnosing MMD. (orig.)

  2. Arterial Stiffening and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is more efficient to handily assess arteriosclerosis than aortic PWV. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is also a novel blood pressure-independent arterial stiffness parameter. In dialysis patients, both baPWV and CAVI are increased compared to general subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that increased baPWV is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition, higher baPWV is related to all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. CAVI is similarly associated with CVD. However, baPWV is superior to CAVI as a predictor of CV outcomes in HD patients. Besides these outcomes, a close relationship exists between sarcopenia, abdominal visceral obesity and arterial stiffening. Reduction of thigh muscle mass is inversely correlated with baPWV and CAVI in males. Abdominal fatness is also associated with increased arterial stiffness in females. These observations provide further evidence of higher risk of CV events in HD patients with sarcopenic obesity. In addition, arterial stiffness is associated with cerebral small vessel disease and decreased cognitive function in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether arterial stiffness may be useful as an early indicator of cognitive decline in dialysis patients. Because dialysis patients are at risk of developing dementia, more studies are needed to elucidate the causal link between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. PMID:26587457

  3. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations. PMID:24964573

  4. The Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Hypertension. A Call for Anti-Inflammatory Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor H. García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important goal of antihypertensive therapy is to prevent the complications associated with hypertension (stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, etc. For this, secondary targets such as left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, dementia, and other signs of hypertension-induced organ damage help the physician to assess risks and monitor treatment efficacy. New treatment targets may be arising, however. One such target may be endothelial dysfunction. In effect, endothelial dysfunction not only may precede the elevation of blood pressure, but may also pave the way to conditions often associated with hypertension, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, microalbuminuria, congestive heart failure, and tissue hypertrophy. Because inflammation often accompanies endothelial dysfunction, approaches to counteract inflammation are now being evaluated. For this, antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, statins, and beta blockers are all being tested. All of these agents seem to prevent or delay the induction of proinflammatory molecules aside from, and in addition to, their specific effects on blood pressure. The focus of this review is to update some of the animal and human research showing that hypertension sets off an inflammatory state and also to consider some of the anti-inflammatory approaches that may prevent the development of endothelial dysfunction, and the subsequent renal and cardiovascular damage.

  5. Serious response during tilt-table test in elderly and its prophylactic management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; LI Xiao-xia; JLANG Wei-li; WANG Zhao-di; CHEN Tian-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serious response during tilt-table test (TTT) and its prophylactic management. Method:Seventy-six elderly patients were tested at a tilt angle of 70 degrees for a maximum of 45 min and then subjected to isoproterenol-provocative tilt testing. ECG and blood pressure were monitored during the test and patients were kept at normal saline condition through a peripheral intravenous duct. Results: Fifty-one of 76 patients were defined as positive including 23 having serious response; 6 of the 23 patients had arteriosclerosis involving intemal carotid arteries and 7 cases had bradycardia, two of which were associated with Ⅱ°-Ⅰ A-V block and the others with chronic atrial fibrillation. The serious response consisted of cardiac arrest for more than 5 s (6 cases), or serious bradycardia for more than 1 min (7 cases) or serious hypotension for more than 1 min (10 cases).Those with serious response were managed by returning to supine position, thus driving up legs and intravenous atropine, CPR (2cases with cardiac arrest) and needing oxygen supplementation (11 cases). Only 2 hypotension patients recovered gradually by 10min after emergency management, while others recovered rapidly with no complications. Conclusion: Although non-invasive,TTT may result in serious response, especially in elderly. Therefore proper patient selection, control of isoproterenol infusion and close observation of vital signs are decisive for a safe consequence.

  6. IDENTIFYING ALL TRUE VESSELS FROM SEGMENTED RETINAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delucta Mary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  7. Do the health claims made for Morinda citrifolia (Noni) harmonize with current scientific knowledge and evaluation of its biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Patel, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia, also known as Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry, or Noni, is a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae. A number of major chemical compounds have been identified in the leaves, roots, and fruits of Noni plant. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternative medicine for different kinds for illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle ached and pains, menstrual difficulties, headache, heart diseases, AIDS, gastric ulcer, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Several studies have also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effect of Noni in various cancers. Based on a toxicological assessment, Noni juice was considered as safe. Though a large number of in vitro, and, to a certain extent, in vivo studies demonstrated a range of potentially beneficial effects, clinical data are essentially lacking. To what extent the findings from experimental pharmacological studies are of potential clinical relevance is not clear at present and this question needs to be explored in detail before an recommendations can be made.

  8. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the true local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only 4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  9. Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue are activated in lean mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or high-fat diets. NKT cells comprised a larger portion of lymphocytes in adipose tissues compared with the spleen and peripheral blood, with epididymal adipose tissue having the highest number of NKT cells. Furthermore, some NKT cells in adipose tissues expressed higher levels of CD69 and intracellular interferon-γ, whereas the Vβ repertoires of NKT cells in adipose tissues were similar to other cells. In obese mice fed a high-fat diet, adipose tissue inflammation had little effect on the Vβ repertoire of NKT cells in epididymal adipose tissues. We speculate that the NKT cells in adipose tissues may form an equivalent subset in other tissues and that these subsets are likely to participate in adipose tissue inflammation. Additionally, the high expression level of CD69 and intracellular IFN-γ raises the possibility that NKT cells in adipose tissue may be stimulated by some physiological mechanism.

  10. Chlorella Protein Hydrolysate Attenuates Glucose Metabolic Disorder and Fatty Liver in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naoto; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Rahman, Shaikh Mizanoor; Ando, Yotaro

    2016-07-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beijerinckii) powder is reported to show a preventive effect against metabolic syndromes such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Approximately 60% of the chlorella content is protein. In order to understand the role of chlorella protein, we prepared a chlorella protein hydrolysate (CPH) by protease treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: a normal diet group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and high-fat diet supplemented with CPH (HFD+CPH) group. The CPH administration improved glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue hypertrophy in the high-fat diet-fed mice. In addition, the HFD+CPH group had significantly decreased liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared with those in the HFD group. Furthermore, the HFD+CPH group had a decreased level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in serum and a lower MCP-1 mRNA expression level in adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. The present study suggests that chlorella protein hydrolysate can prevent a high-fat diet-induced glucose disorder and fatty liver by inhibiting adipocyte hypertrophy and reducing the MCP-1 protein and gene expression. PMID:27321121

  11. Recent developments in antiangiogenic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredge, Keith; Dalgleish, Angus G; Marriott, J Blake

    2002-12-01

    The use of antiangiogenic therapy is gaining momentum as a novel treatment for a number of conditions, ranging from cancer to psoriasis. This has stemmed from research in the early 1970s showing that the formation of new blood vessels by pre-existing endothelial cells is essential in tumour growth and progression. However, although antiangiogenic therapy was hailed as a new avenue of treatment for cancer, initial clinical data have been disappointing. This has led to the reassessment of antiangiogenic therapy for cancer, and new strategies have been proposed to increase the efficacy of these agents in this setting. Angiogenesis has also been implicated in other conditions that are notoriously difficult to treat, such as arteriosclerosis, arthritis, psoriasis and diabetic retinopathy. Increased understanding of the angiogenic process, the diversity of its inducers and mediators, appropriate drug schedules and the use of these agents with other modalities may lead to radically new treatment regimens for many of these conditions. The role of angiogenesis in different pathological settings, and emerging antiangiogenic agents currently in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed in this review. However, while potential benefits are profound, limitations of antiangiogenic therapy have also been identified, suggesting that there is also a need for caution in applying these compounds to the clinical setting. PMID:12517273

  12. The roentgenographic study of aortic calcification in Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteriosclerosis generally has various changes such as thickening and hypertrophy of the intima, fatty infiltration and calcium deposition in the arterial wall and atheroma, which lead to their loss of elasticity. Numerous experiments in animals have demonstrated with production of atheromatous lesions following the administration of large amount of lipoid substances such as cholesterol. However, many other factors such as hypertension, aging, heredity, maleness arterial anatomy play an important role in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic involvement of aorta usually produces no subjective symptoms unless involvement of the medium sized arteries arising from the aorta. In asymptomatic cases of atherosclerosis no method of antemortem diagnosis is available except roentgenographic detection of aortic calcification. Schilling, et al insisted that the lateral abdominal roentgenogram appeared to be not only useful in detecting large vessel atherosclerosis, but also in the detection of asymptomatic aortic aneurysms, which are of more significance to the internist and surgeon. This study included reviews of 5166 chest roentgenograms (Thoracic group) and 1062 lateral roentgenograms of lumbar spine (Abdominal group) which were taken in Hanyang University Hospital during the period of May 1972 to April 1977. The age of these cases were 40 or more.

  13. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin

  14. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P1 production (P1 release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway

  15. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kazuaki, E-mail: Kazuaki_Ohara@kirin.co.jp [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Hideyuki [Laboratory for New Product Development, Kirin Beverage Company Limited, 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8628 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshimasa [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shindo, Kazutoshi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Yajima, Hiroaki [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Aruto [Central Laboratories for Key Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  16. Lymphangiogenesis and NOS Localization in Healing Process after Tooth Extraction in Akita Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinya; Kikuchi, Ryuta; Ambe, Kimiharu; Nakagawa, Toshihiro; Takada, Satoshi; Ohno, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Type I diabetes, an autoimmune disease, induces insulin deficiency, which then disrupts vascular endothelial cell function, affecting blood and lymphatic vessels. Nitric oxide (NO) is an immune-induced destructive mediator in type I diabetes, and inhibition of its production promotes arteriosclerosis. In this study, lymphangiogenesis and expression of NO synthase (NOS) during the healing process after tooth extraction were investigated immunohistochemically in control (C57BL) and Akita mice as a diabetes model. Between 1, 4, and 10 days after extraction, expression of NOS, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), and von Willebrand factor was strongest during the granulation tissue phase. This suggests that severe inflammation triggers regulation of NOS and these other angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. During the callus phase, a few days after extraction, induced osteoblasts were positive for VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in both the control and Akita mice, suggesting that bone formation is active in this period. Bone formation in the Akita group exceeded that in the controls. Bone tissue formation was disrupted under hyperglycemic conditions, however, suggesting that such activity would be insufficient to produce new bone. PMID:27665690

  17. Structural and Functional Changes With the Aging Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Aleksandar; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as compared to a disease that occurs in some but not all individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitial fibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume, larger medullary volume until middle age, and larger and more numerous kidney cysts. Among carefully screened healthy kidney donors, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines at a rate of 6.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per decade. There is reason to be concerned that the elderly are being misdiagnosed with CKD. Besides this expected kidney function decline, the lowest risk of mortality is at a GFR of ≥75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age kidney functional reserve when they do actually develop CKD, and they are at higher risk for acute kidney injury.

  18. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  19. Application Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Pig Production%共轭亚油酸在养猪生产中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid is a kind of unsaturated fatty acid, which is a safe and update feed additive, with anti-cancer, arteriosclerosis resistance, immunity enhancement, body fat deposits reduction and bone formation promotion and other biological functions. In this paper, the structure of conjugated linoleic acid and its application effect in pig production were prospected.%共轭亚油酸是一种不饱和脂肪酸,是安全性较高的新型饲料添加剂,具有抗癌、抗动脉硬化、增强机体免疫、降低体脂肪沉积及促进骨生成等生物学功能。文章综述了共轭亚油酸的结构及其养猪生产中的应用效果,展望了共轭亚油酸在养猪业中的应用前景。

  20. Research Progress in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Combined with Coronary Artery Disease%系统性红斑狼疮合并冠心病的发病机制及治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁晶; 张兴华

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus( SLE ) is a autoimmune diseases with higher incidence. Heart disease is an important clinical manifestations of SLE, and coronary artery disease is the most important complication of heart damage of SLE patients. SLE patients have obviously increased risk for coronary artery disease, which might be the result of multiple pathogenic mechanisms including arteriosclerosis,vasculitis or an-ti-phospholipids. Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death of SLE patients. The most effective treatment for those patients is control of risk factors and revascularization.%系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)是一种发病率较高的自身免疫疾病.心脏损害是SLE重要的临床表现之一,SLE可累及心脏的各个部分,而冠状动脉疾病是SLE心脏损害中最重要的一种.患者冠状动脉性心脏病的危险性显著增加,其原因可能是动脉硬化、血管炎性反应或抗磷脂抗体的作用.缺血性心脏病是SLE致死的主要原因,控制危险因素和血运重建是有效的治疗方法.

  1. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to down-regulation of fibronectin and functional changes in RF/6A cells and HUVECs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jiang

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic studies have suggested that high-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1 is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. To date, no functional studies have investigated the biological effect of HTRA1 on vascular endothelial cells, essential vascular components involved in polypoidal vascular abnormalities and arteriosclerosis-like changes. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effect of HTRA1 on the regulation of fibronectin, laminin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR and matrix metalloparoteinases 2 (MMP-2 and the role of HTRA1 in choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HTRA1 was used to explore effects of the protease on RF/6A and HUVEC cells in vitro. HTRA1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration and tube formation of RF/6A and HUVEC cells, effects that might contribute to the early stage of PCV pathological lesions. Fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of HTRA1, whereas the expressions of laminin, VEGF and MMP-2 were unaffected by alterations in HTRA1 expression. The decreased biological function of vascular endothelial cells and the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, may be involved in a contributory role for HTRA1 in PCV pathogenesis.

  2. Treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive through retrograde access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of retrograde access for the interventional treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment of lower extremity artery could not be reached through antegrade access. Methods: Twenty-seven cases (male 17, female 10; age range 32-89 years) were retrospectively investigated, including 18 with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, 7 with diabetic foot and 2 with thromboangiitis obliterans. According to the Fontaine staging, 6 cases were classified as Fontaine Ⅱ, 11 were classified as Fontaine Ⅲ and 10 were classified as Fontaine Ⅳ. All cases underwent endovascular operation through antegrade access first with an attempt to cross the occlusive segment, but in vain. So retrograde access was tried via puncture of pedis dorsalis or posterior tibial artery or exposure of lateral branches of posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery or dorsal artery by open surgery,which followed by Percutaneous transluminal angiography and (or) stenting. Results: The operation through retrograde access was successful in all cases with obvious improvement of ischemic symptoms. Hematoma at the puncture site occurred in 3 patients, and paresthesia of toes occurred in 1 after dorsalis pedis arteriotomy. No severe perioperative complication occurred. The average ankle brachial index increased from 0.37 ± 0.11 preoperatively to 0.85 ± 0.12 postoperatively. Conclusions: Retrograde access could be used as an alternative strategy in lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment could not reach through antegrade access. (authors)

  3. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  4. Knockout of the TauT gene predisposes C57BL/6 mice to streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Han

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the world. Although tremendous efforts have been made, scientists have yet to identify an ideal animal model that can reproduce the characteristics of human diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we hypothesize that taurine insufficiency is a critical risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy associated with diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in vivo in TauT heterozygous (TauT+/- and homozygous (TauT-/- knockout in C57BL/6 background mice. We have shown that alteration of the TauT gene (also known as SLC6A6 has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to development of extensive diabetic kidney disease in both TauT+/- and TauT-/-mouse models of diabetes. These animals developed histological changes characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy that included glomerulosclerosis, nodular lesions, arteriosclerosis, arteriolar dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining of molecular markers of smooth muscle actin, CD34, Ki67 and collagen IV further confirmed these observations. Our results demonstrated that both homozygous and heterozygous TauT gene deletion predispose C57BL/6 mice to develop end-stage diabetic kidney disease, which closely replicates the pathological features of diabetic nephropathy in human diabetic patients.

  5. High prevalence of and potential mechanisms for chronic kidney disease in patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas; Mami, Iadh; Schmitt, Caroline; Karim, Zoubida; François, Arnaud; Rabant, Marion; Nochy, Dominique; Gouya, Laurent; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Xu-Dubois, Yichum; Thervet, Eric; Puy, Hervé; Karras, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic disorder of the synthesis of heme caused by a deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), leading to the overproduction of the porphyrin precursors δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and biological characteristics, the renal pathology, and the cellular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP. A total of 415 patients with HMBS deficiency followed up in the French Porphyria Center were enrolled in 2003 in a population-based study. A follow-up study was conducted in 2013, assessing patients for clinical, biological, and histological parameters. In vitro models were used to determine whether porphyrin precursors promote tubular and endothelial cytotoxicity. Chronic kidney disease occurred in up to 59% of the symptomatic AIP patients, with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate of ~1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) annually. Proteinuria was absent in the vast majority of the cases. The renal pathology was a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, associated with a fibrous intimal hyperplasia and focal cortical atrophy. Our experimental data provide evidence that porphyrin precursors promote endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and epithelial phenotypic changes in proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease associated with AIP should be considered in cases of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy and/or focal cortical atrophy with severe proliferative arteriosclerosis.

  6. Ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2, and heat shock protein 27: potential targets of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besgen, Petra; Trommler, Paul; Vollmer, Sigrid; Prinz, Joerg Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Psoriasis is an HLA-Cw6-associated T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the skin that is often triggered by streptococcal angina. To identify keratinocyte proteins, which may become psoriatic autoantigens as the result of an immune response against streptococci, rabbits were immunized with heat-killed Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal immunization induced Ab formation against various human keratinocyte proteins. Sera from psoriasis patients reacted against several of these proteins as well. Common serologic reactivities of rabbits and patients included the proteins ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), heat shock protein (hsp)27, and keratin 6. When used for stimulation of blood lymphocytes, ezrin, maspin, PRDX2, and hsp27 induced increased T cell activation in psoriasis patients, which was particularly evident for HLA-Cw6(+) individuals. Ag-specific T cell lines generated with these proteins consisted predominantly of CD8(+) T cells and used TCR beta-chain rearrangements, which were highly homologous to those expanded within the corresponding skin lesion. Several immunodominant epitopes on the different proteins could be defined according to sequence alignments with the whole genome of S. pyogenes. Our data indicate that maspin, ezrin, PRDX2, hsp27, and potentially keratin 6 could act as autoantigens of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response and represent targets of the exaggerated T cell response in psoriasis. Additionally, ezrin and hsp27 might constitute antigenic links between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, or arteriosclerosis, which are clinically associated.

  7. [Foods related to the novel 'don quixote de la mancha'. did they follow the healthy nutritional recommendations which are advised nowadays?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbayo Herencia, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    It is known that Miguel de Cervantes's novel 'Don Quixote de La Mancha' has done and is still doing a great contribution to the universal literature. A book that has reached such category and grows in number of its readers, shows multiple dimensions for its study. One of them is nutrition. One of the aims of this study has been to value and expound, according to their own nutrients, the kinds of food cited in 'The Quixote' and in the times of Cervantes. This has allowed the comparison made between ways of nutrition in La Mancha and in Catalonia, as well as the regions situated at the beginning and end of the itinerary covered by its main characters Don Quixote and Sancho Panza. The evaluation of the nutrients in the middle part of the itinerary, placed mainly in Aragón, has not been considered in this study. Another purpose has been to check if these nutrients followed the current recommendations of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis and other valid agreements at the moment.

  8. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life – both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption.

  9. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors. Study of inpatients in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, 1981 - 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Nambu, Shigeru

    1988-03-01

    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at less than or equal to2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  12. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  13. Evaluating arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes patients using ultrasonic radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Yang; Du, Lian-Fang; Luo, Xiang-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Differences in arterial stiffness between the two sides of the carotid arteries were investigated using ultrasonic radiofrequency in 88 patients with type 2 diabetes and 70 controls. The compliance coefficient (CC), pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima-media thickness (CIMT) and diameter (CCAD) of the common carotid arteries (CCAs) were measured. The ratio of the left to right CCAs was calculated to provide four indexes: CC ratio, PWV ratio, CIMT ratio and CCAD ratio. In the diabetes group, the PWV on the left side was significantly higher than that on the right side, while the CC on the left side was significantly lower than that on the right side. The bilateral CIMT was thicker and CCAD was wider, the left PWV traveled faster, and the right CC was higher in the diabetes group than in the control group. The PWV ratio between the two groups was significantly different and correlated positively with duration of diabetes and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The differences between the two sides of CCAs in patients with diabetes suggested that disease duration and SBP were important risk factors for arterial stiffness. Identifying the difference could potentially lead to the much earlier diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. PMID:27376818

  14. Haplotypes with copy number and single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2A6 locus are associated with smoking quantity in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiko Kumasaka

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major public health problem, but the genetic factors associated with smoking behaviors are not fully elucidated. Here, we have conducted an integrated genome-wide association study to identify common copy number polymorphisms (CNPs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD in Japanese smokers (N = 17,158. Our analysis identified a common CNP with a strong effect on CPD (rs8102683; P=3.8 x 10(-42 in the 19q13 region, encompassing the CYP2A6 locus. After adjustment for the associated CNP, we found an additional associated SNP (rs11878604; P=9.7 x 10(-30 located 30 kb downstream of the CYP2A6 gene. Imputation of the CYP2A6 locus revealed that haplotypes underlying the CNP and the SNP corresponded to classical, functional alleles of CYP2A6 gene that regulate nicotine metabolism and explained 2% of the phenotypic variance of CPD (ANOVA F-test P=9.5 x 10(-52. These haplotypes were also associated with smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and arteriosclerosis obliterans.

  15. 25. Ischemic pain in the extremities and Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Jacques; van Suijlekom, Hans; van Dongen, Robert; Diwan, Sudhir; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Two important groups of disorders result from an insufficient blood supply to the extremities: critical vascular disease and the Raynaud's phenomenon. The latter can be subdivided into a primary and a secondary type. Critical ischemic disease is often caused by arteriosclerosis due to hypertension or diabetes. Primary Raynaud's is idiopathic and will be diagnosed as such if underlying systemic pathology has been excluded. Secondary Raynaud's is often a manifestation of a systemic disease. It is essential to try to establish a diagnosis as soon as possible in order to influence the evolution of the disease. A sympathetic nerve block can be considered in patients with critical ischemic vascular disease after extensive conservative treatment, preferably in the context of a study (2B±). If this has insufficient effect, spinal cord stimulation can be considered in a selected patient group (2B±). In view of the degree of invasiveness and the costs involved, this treatment should preferably be applied in the context of a study and with the use of transcutaneous pO(2) measurements. In case of primary Raynaud's, life style changes are the first step. Sympathectomy can be considered as a treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon (2C+), but only after multidisciplinary evaluation of the patient and in close consultation with the patient's rheumatologist, vascular surgeon or internist.

  16. Vascular changes in sporadic ergotism. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical practice, and diagnosis with special regard to angiographic documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, B.

    1986-08-01

    Whereas the epidemic form of ergotism has been rare in the 20th century, the sporadic form has a wide distribution as a consequence of therapy with ergot-derivative drugs. Favourable prognosis of the condition, with complete recovery from the ischemic peripheral circulatory disorders can be obtained by early diagnosis. Precise evaluation of the history, with recognition of treatment of migraine headache or postpartum hemorraghe with ergot alkaloids, can be determinative in diagnosis. The specific pattern of the angiographic findings, as we saw it in 6 cases within the last 4 years, decisively confirms the diagnosis. We could demonstrate thread-, thorn- and hour glass-like narrowing of the vessels, due to spasm. Total occlusion with the development of collaterals may occur, but we saw no thrombus formation. The stenotic arterial segments had smooth margins. The distribution of the involved arteries was more focal than generalized and more peripheral than central. In two cases spasm could be abolished immediately by a pharmaceutical (i.a. injection of tolazoline) or by anesthetic procedures (halothane). The phenomenologic data, together with the complete reversal of the circulatory ischemic disorders after therapy (particularly the absolute ban of ergots), is so specific that other diseases of ischemic nature (emboli, arteriosclerosis, Buerger's disease, fibromuscular hyperplasia) can be excluded.

  17. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in vascular smooth muscle cells by interferon-gamma contributes to medial immunoprivilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffy, Madison C; Silverio, Amanda M; Qin, Lingfeng; Wang, Yinong; Eid, Raymond; Brandacher, Gerald; Lakkis, Fadi G; Fuchs, Dietmar; Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George

    2007-10-15

    Atherosclerosis and graft arteriosclerosis are characterized by leukocytic infiltration of the vessel wall that spares the media. The mechanism(s) for medial immunoprivilege is unknown. In a chimeric humanized mouse model of allograft rejection, medial immunoprivilege was associated with expression of IDO by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of rejecting human coronary artery grafts. Inhibition of IDO by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT) increased medial infiltration by allogeneic T cells and increased VSMC loss. IFN-gamma-induced IDO expression and activity in cultured human VSMCs was considerably greater than in endothelial cells (ECs) or T cells. IFN-gamma-treated VSMCs, but not untreated VSMCs nor ECs with or without IFN-gamma pretreatment, inhibited memory Th cell alloresponses across a semipermeable membrane in vitro. This effect was reversed by 1-MT treatment or tryptophan supplementation and replicated by the absence of tryptophan, but not by addition of tryptophan metabolites. However, IFN-gamma-treated VSMCs did not activate allogeneic memory Th cells, even after addition of 1-MT or tryptophan. Our work extends the concept of medial immunoprivilege to include immune regulation, establishes the compartmentalization of immune responses within the vessel wall due to distinct microenvironments, and demonstrates a duality of stimulatory EC signals versus inhibitory VSMC signals to artery-infiltrating T cells that may contribute to the chronicity of arteriosclerotic diseases.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF KIDNEY ALLOGRAFT (KAG FUNCTION DURING FIRST POSTTRANSPLANT YEAR

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    A. V. Trailin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of the influence of histological changes in donor kidneys on the KAG function during first year was conducted in 75 recipients of a cadaveric kidney. The state of tubuli, glomeruli, interstitium, vessels was assessed semiquantitatively in the material of «0»-biopsies. The endpoints were serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate at 3, 6 and 12 months. KAG function in the first year is programmed by histological changes in all compartments of donor kidney. Influence of histological changes is time-dependent: the effect of ischemic damage shows up quickly, but disappeared after 6 months; the effect of arteriolohyalinosis and arteriosclerosis begins to show up later – since 6 months; changes in glomeruli have influence on a KAG function in 3 months and 1 year; interstitial fibrosis in cortex and medulla negatively influences KAG function on the extent of all first year. Our data argue for the necessity of «0»-biopsies examination for the prediction of KAG subsequent function. 

  19. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  20. 微生物来源的洛伐他汀的研究进展%Research progress on the microbial lovastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 台喜生; 冯佳丽; 李师翁

    2011-01-01

    洛伐他汀esses作为一种有效的降胆固醇药物,对人体的健康有着非常重要的意义,可以用于治疗高血脂、动脉粥样硬化、高血压、冠心病等"富贵病"。对洛伐他汀的菌种选育、培养基优化、工艺条件优化、提取、测定以及作用等方面研究进展进行了综述。%As an effective cholesterol-lowering drug,lovastatin has very important significance on human health,it can be used to treat high blood lipids,atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis,hypertension,coronary heart disease and other "rich man's disease".The research progress on strain selection,optimization of medium and process conditions,extraction,measurement and function of lovastatin were reviewed.

  1. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  2. 心踝血管指数、踝臂指数与颈动脉超声检查在体检中的相关性分析%Relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index,ankle brachial index and carotid artery ultrasonography in physical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宁; 田利源; 卢丽琨; 高镇北

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究心踝血管指数(CAVI)、踝臂指数(ABI)与颈动脉超声检查结果的相关性及这些指标在体检筛查动脉硬化上的应用。方法对481例体检人员进行CAVI、ABI、颈动脉超声检查,对结果的相关性进行统计学分析。结果相对于ABI,CAVI与颈动脉内中膜厚度(IMT)相关度更高(r=0.437,P=0.001),超声检出颈动脉斑块与未检出斑块的人群CAVI、ABI均有显著性差异(P<0.05);CAVI正常与异常人群比较, ABI无显著性差异,而IMT、颈动脉斑块阳性率均有显著性差异。结论 CAVI和ABI与颈动脉超声检查结果均有相关性,针对不同性别、年龄、身高、体重给出CAVI的正常值范围对于早期诊断动脉硬化更为敏感,但各个指标之间不能相互替代,需要进行综合判断。%Objective To investigate the relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI),ankle brachial index (ABI) and carotid ultrasonic examination results and their application in physical examination for screening arteriosclerosis. Methods Cardio ankle vascular index,ankle brachial index were measured and carotid artery ultrasonography was checked in 481 people. Correlation of the results was statistically analyzed. Results Compared with ABI,CAVI was more relevant to the carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMT), r=0.437,P=0.001. CAVI and ABI had significant differences between carotid artery plaque and no plaque group tested by ultrasound (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ABI between normal CAVI group compared with the abnormal group,while IMT and the positive rate of carotid artery plaque were significantly different(P<0.05). Conclusion CAVI and ABI are relevant with the result of carotid artery ultrasound test. CAVI normal ranges given according to different gender,age,height,weight are more sensitive for early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. But all the indexes can not replace each other. The results should be

  3. Study on the correlation of lower extremity arterial vessels by ultrasonography and atherosclerosis detection indicators%下肢动脉血管超声与动脉硬化检测指标的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕊; 李寅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between lower extremity artery ultrasound and arteriosclerosis detection indicators,including ankle-brachial index(ABI) and Cardiac Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI).Methods According to the level of lower extremity arterial disease by ultrasonography,320 patients were divided into 3 groups (normal group,mild lesions group and severe lesions group).Comparative analysis of the difference of arteriosclerosis detection indicators among the groups,including ABI and CAVI.To analyze the correlation of two test results and explore the risk factors of lower extremity atherosclerotic lesions.Results To compare ABI among the three groups,the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Lower extremity arterial disease was negatively correlated with ABI and positively correlated with CAVI (P =0.000).Using Logistic regression analysis:age,gender,diabetes,pulse pressure is the impact of lower extremity arterial disease risk factors.Conclusion ABI and CAVI can be used as reliable indicators for the screening of artery stenosis,occlusion and atherosclerosis,combined with color Doppler ultrasonography can improve the diagnosis rate of lower extremity arterial disease.%目的 探讨下肢动脉血管超声与动脉硬化检测指标踝臂指数(ABI)和心踝血管指数(CAVI)的相关性.方法 收集2010年1月至2012年4月在北京市第二医院进行下肢动脉超声检查的320例患者,依据病变情况分为3组(无病变组、轻度病变组和重度病变组),比较各组间动脉硬化检查指标ABI和CAVI的差异,分析两种检查结果的相关性,探讨下肢动脉硬化病变的危险因素.结果 三组间ABI比较,差异均具有统计学意义(均P<0.05);下肢动脉病变与ABI呈负相关,而与CAVI呈正相关(P=0.000);采用Logistic回归分析表明,年龄、性别、糖尿病、脉压差是影响下肢动脉病变的危险因素.结论 ABI和CAVI可以作为筛查血管闭塞和动脉硬化的可靠指

  4. Analysis of type 2 diabetes patients with ABI and CAVI%209例Ⅱ型糖尿病患者ABI和CAVI测定结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明容; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 N探讨Ⅱ型糖尿病患者踝臂指数(ankle-brachial index,ABI)与心踝血管指数(cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI)对早期糖尿病大血管病变监测的临床意义.方法 随机选取Ⅱ型糖尿病患者209例,测定ABI与CAVI值.结果 右侧ABI:89例(42.6%)在正常范围,76例(36.1%)有动脉闭塞可能,42例(20.1%)动脉闭塞可能性较高,2例(1.0%)血管有早期动脉硬化或有钙化现象;左侧ABI:94例(44.9%)在正常值范围,72例(34.4%)有动脉闭塞的可能,38例(18.2%)动脉闭塞的可能性较高,5例(2.5%)血管有早期动脉硬化或钙化现象.右侧CAVI:136例(65.1%)在正常范围,62例(29.6%)有动脉闭塞可能,11例(5.2%)动脉闭塞可能性较高;左侧CAVI:146例(69.8%)在正常范围,58例(27.8%)有动脉闭塞可能,5例(2.4%)动脉闭塞可能性较高.结论 在Ⅱ型糖尿病患者中应用ABI和CAVI测定,有利于筛选出合并大血管病变患者,具有临床应用意义.%Objective To explore the type 2 diabetic patients with ankle brachial index ( ankle-brachial, index, ABI ) and cardio-ankle vascular index ( cardio-ankle vascular index,CAVI ) on early stage of diabetic macrovascular disease and the clinical significance of monitoring. Methods We randomly selected patients with type 209 diabetes mellitus patients to determinate the value of ABI and CAVI. Results Right ABI:89 cases ( 42. 6% ] were in the normal range;in 76 cases ( 36.1%) with arterial occlusion may;in 42 cases ( 20. 1%) arterial occlusion higher likelihood;in 2 cases [1% ) vascular early arteriosclerosis or calcification phenomenon. The left ABI:94 cases ( 44. 9%) in the range of normal value; in 72 cases ( 34.4%) with arterial occlusion may; 38 (18.2%) ABI artery occlusion with the possibility of higher; in 5 cases (2. 5 %) vascular early arteriosclerosis or calcification phenomenon. Right CAVI: 136 cases (65.1 %) were in the normal range; in 62 cases ( 29. 6%) with arterial occlusion may;in 11

  5. Detección de Clamydia pneumoniae en placas ateroscleróticas de pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de revascularización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmar D. Patiño

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: El reconocimiento de factores de riesgo cardiovascular ha impactado el manejo médico de la arteriosclerosis. Sin embargo, éstos sólo explican entre el 50% al 70% de la distribución mundial. Por lo que investigaciones en búsqueda de nuevos factores de riesgo han dado importancia a los agentes infecciosos en la etiología de la arteriosclerosis y en especial al papel que tiene la Clamydia pneumoniae.

    Objetivos: 1. Detectar la presencia de Clamydia pneumoniae en personas sometidas a procesos de revascularización percutánea o quirúrgico mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. 2. Determinar los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares asociados a la presencia de C. pneumoniae.

    Metodología: Se seleccionarán todos los pacientes que sean sometidos a revascularización percutánea o quirúrgica en las unidades de hemodinamia y cirugía de la Universidad de Antioquia o de la Clínica Medellín, durante doce meses, a partir de agosto de 1999. Las muestras se almacenarán a –800 C hasta su procesamiento.

    Resultados parciales: Hasta el momento se han procesado 27 muestras de las cuales 11 (40.7% son positivas para C. pneumoniae, del total de muestras 13 corresponden a placas de ateroma coronario y de ellas 6 (46% son positivas. Tres muestras de placas carot

  6. Cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s disease

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    Roher AE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alex E Roher,1 Josef P Debbins,2 Michael Malek-Ahmadi,3 Kewei Chen,4 James G Pipe,2 Sharmeen Maze,2 Christine Belden,3 Chera L Maarouf,1 Pradeep Thiyyagura,4 Hua Mo,4 Jesse M Hunter,1 Tyler A Kokjohn,1,5 Douglas G Walker,6 Jane C Kruchowsky,6 Marek Belohlavek,7 Marwan N Sabbagh,3 Thomas G Beach81The Longtine Center for Neurodegenerative Biochemistry, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 2Keller Center for Imaging Innovation, Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, 3Cleo Roberts Center for Clinical Research, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 4Computational Image Analysis Program, Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, Phoenix, 5Department of Microbiology, Midwestern University, Glendale, 6Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 7Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, 8Civin Laboratory for Neuropathology, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ, USABackground: Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia is a consequence of heterogeneous and complex interactions of age-related neurodegeneration and vascular-associated pathologies. Evidence has accumulated that there is increased atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis of the intracranial arteries in AD and that this may be additive or synergistic with respect to the generation of hypoxia/ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. The effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies and lifestyle modification in reducing cardiovascular disease has prompted a reconsideration of the roles that cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular function play in the pathogenesis of dementia.Methods: Using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified cerebral blood flow within the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries in a group of individuals with mild to moderate AD (n = 8 and compared the results with those from a group of age-matched nondemented control (NDC subjects (n = 9

  7. 腹腔镜胆囊切除中转开腹的危险因素分析%Risk factors for conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to open management. Methods Collecting the patients undergoing cholecystectomy in our center,according to conversion to open management or not, we divided the patients in laparoscopic cholecystectomy( LC )group and laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy( LOC ) group. The single factor analysis would be performed with age, gender, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis, previous upper abdominal surgery, body mass index( BMI), gallbladder wall thickness, count of white blood cells, drinking, gallbladder enlargement and impacted stones and serum total bilirubin, then we enrolled those with statistical difference in the binary logistic regression model, and evaluated which was the independent risk factor. Results A total of 260 patients were enrolled. There were statistical differences in age, gender, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, previous upper abdominal surgery, BMI, gallbladder wall thickness, count of white blood cells and serum total bilirubin. After the logistic regression, we found that gender, BMI,gallbladder wall thickness and count of white blood cells could be treated as the independent risk factor. The operation time of LOC was higher than LC[ ( 83.48 ±7.25 )min vs( 42.77 ± 10.37 )min,t = 19. 54,P <0.01 ]. Conclusion LC is a safe and effective management for gallbladder disease but it is technically demanding. Patients with elder age,gender as man,obesity, gallbladder wall thickening and high WBC count prefer to have open cholecystectomy directly.%目的 分析影响腹腔镜胆囊切除中转开腹的相关因素,以进一步指导临床.方法 选取该院近5年行胆囊切除的患者,对其相关指标进行单因素及Logistic回归分析,从而找出相关危险因素或独立危险因素.结果 共260例患者纳入本次研究,经单因素分析显示中转组和非中转组年龄、性别、糖尿病、动脉硬化、上腹部手术史、BMI、胆囊壁厚

  8. Relationship of blood pressure variability and ambulatory arterial stiffness index with coronary artery lesions%血压变异性及动态动脉硬化指数与冠状动脉病变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡战友; 茶春喜; 罗仁

    2012-01-01

    (P<0. 05). BPV and AASI increased with the number of coronary artery lesions. AASI was positively correlated with 24-hour and day systolic blood pressure standard deviation. The age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, 24-hour systolic blood pressure standard deviation, day systolic blood pressure standard deviation, night systolic blood pressure standard deviation, night diastolic blood pressure standard deviation and AASI were positively correlated with coronary heart disease. Many factors logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that 24-hour systolic blood pressure standard deviation, night systolic blood pressure standard deviation and dynamic arteriosclerosis index were independent risk factors for coronary heart disease. Conclusion Systolic blood pressure standard deviation and dynamic arteriosclerosis index have much better prediction value to coronary artery lesion degree.

  9. Lipid disorders in patients of 15 to 64 years old in a policlinic of Rodas municipality. Trastornos lipídicos en pacientes de 15 a 64 años en un consultorio médico del municipio de Rodas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González Solis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since long time ago clinic medicine established the inexorable progress or development of the human arteriosclerosis, a disease expressed through complications as coronary and cerebrovascular ischemia and obliterant arteriosclerosis of inferior limbs, among others. Objectives: To determine lipid disorders in patients of 15 to 64 years of age of a policlinic in an urban health area. Methods: A transversal cut and descriptive study that included 263 patients to whom the cold test and the cholesterol and triglyceride exams were applied. Results and Conclusions: The risk factors that were more associated with the type of hyperlipoproteinemia were alcoholic consumption, poor nutrition, sedentary habit and overweight. The 26.9% presented hyperlipoproteinemia diagnoses, the 63, 4% of them are masculine and the 50, 7% belonged to the age group of 45 to 54 years old, the one who predominated. The hyperlipoproteinemia type found with more percentage was that of IIb, followed by IIa type and IV type. The non transmissible diseases more associated were arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and angina.
    Fundamento: Dentro de las enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles, las de índole vascular encabezan a escala mundial lo registros de morbi-mortalidad de la población adulta. Los trastornos lipídicos aumentan estas afecciones. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de trastornos lipídicos en pacientes de 15 a 64 años, del consultorio 3 del área de salud urbana del municipio de Rodas, Cienfuegos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y de corte transversal, realizado en un universo constituido por 438 pacientes con edades comprendidas entre los 15 y 64 años, del que se obtuvo una muestra representativa de 263 pacientes, mediante la aplicación del método estratificado por sexo y edad, tomándose como grupo de

  10. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

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    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  11. Linkage disequilibrium blocks, haplotype structure, and htSNPs of human CYP7A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yu-Jui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 is the rate limiting enzyme for converting cholesterol into bile acids. Genetic variations in the CYP7A1 gene have been associated with metabolic disorders of cholesterol and bile acids, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, arteriosclerosis, and gallstone disease. Current genetic studies are focused mainly on analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at A-278C in the promoter region of the CYP7A1 gene. Here we report a genetic approach for an extensive analysis on linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks and haplotype structures of the entire CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences in Africans, Caucasians, Asians, Mexican-Americans, and African-Americans. Result The LD patterns and haplotype blocks of CYP7A1 gene were defined in Africans, Caucasians, and Asians using genotyping data downloaded from the HapMap database to select a set of haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP. A low cost, microarray-based platform on thin-film biosensor chips was then developed for high-throughput genotyping to study transferability of the HapMap htSNPs to Mexican-American and African-American populations. Comparative LD patterns and haplotype block structure was defined across all test populations. Conclusion A constant genetic structure in CYP7A1 gene and its surrounding sequences was found that may lead to a better design for association studies of genetic variations in CYP7A1 gene with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism.

  12. Analysis of angiographic trial data in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, R J

    1994-01-01

    There are few angiographic trials of cholesterol lowering in women. Two trials have included a sufficient number of women for meaningful assessment of lesion change, as determined by quantitative coronary angiography. In the University of California, San Francisco Specialized Center of Research in Arteriosclerosis (UCSF SCOR) trial, 72 patients (57% women) with familial hypercholesterolaemia (90% of whom had no overt coronary heart disease) were randomised to receive either diet and intensive drug therapy (combinations of colestipol, nicotinic acid and lovastatin) or diet and modest doses of colestipol, according to baseline low density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Coronary angiograms were obtained at 2-year intervals. Change in percentage area of stenosis (the primary end-point) in women receiving intensive drug treatment was -2.06% compared with +1.07% for the controls (p = 0.05). For the intensively treated men, corresponding values were -0.88% compared with +0.41% for the controls (difference not significant). In a recently completed trial in Canada, 269 men and 62 women with established coronary heart disease were randomised to receive either diet alone, or diet and lovastatin (up to 80 mg daily). In men, the increase in percentage diameter of stenosis was reduced by 43% (p = 0.05), and in women by 40% (not significant). By contrast, new lesions appeared in 4% of women assigned to intensive drug treatment, compared with 45% of those randomised to diet (p < 0.001). In men, new lesions appeared in 18% and 29% of patients, respectively (p = 0.047). These data suggest that coronary artery lesions in women respond at least as well as those in men to cholesterol lowering.

  13. Oxysterol content in selected meats and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Derewiaka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. High consumption of oxysterols contributes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Thus it is necessary to monitor changes of their concentration in foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to determine the content of oxysterols in selected meats and meat products before and after heat treatment. Material and methods. Meats and meat products were pan fried in rapeseed oil for 10 minutes. Oxysterols methodology applied for the study of fat extraction, saponification, derivatization and determination by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Results. The content of cholesterol oxidation products in meats and meat products after heat treatment (17.5 to 34.9 µg/g of fat was statistically higher than before frying (2.2 to 10.7 µg/g of fat. Raw meats and processed meat products contained mainly cholesterol oxidation products which equalled from 1.0 to 8.3% of cholesterol content. In fried meats and meat products has been found phytosterol oxidation products (0.1-1.7 µg/g of fat but only in small amounts. Conclusions. The increase in the content of phytosterol oxidation products in analysed meat samples after frying was probably the result of intensive phytosterol oxidation included in the rapeseed oil, also induced by haeme dyes within meat. From the results of the samples analyzed, it seems that multiple parameters are associated with the formation of oxysterols. Further studies should be performed to identify the factors e.g. water content, pro-oxidants, exposure to light, storage time and conditions, that may affect oxysterol formation during home frying.

  14. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIETARY GLYCEMIC INDEX AND GLYCEMIC LOAD AND INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS IN A POPULATION AT HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: A SUBGROUP ANALYSIS IN THE PREDIMED TRIAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez González, Miguel Ángel; Salas Salvadó, Jordi; Buil Cosiales, Pilar; Diez Espino, Javier; Martinez Vila, Eduardo; Irimia Sierra, Pablo; Ros Rahola, Emilio; Toledo Atucha, Estefania

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el grosor de la íntima media carotídea (GIMC) es un conocido marcador de arteriosclerosis precoz y un buen predictor de eventos cardiovasculares futuros. Aunque se ha demostrado que la adhesión a la dieta mediterránea, especialmente si está enriquecida con aceite de oliva virgen extra o frutos secos, tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre los cambios en el GIMC, el papel de los carbohidratos en el desarrollo de la arterioesclerosis sigue siendo controvertido. Objetivo: valorar la relación entre el índice glucémico (IG) o la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta y el GIMC en una población asintomática con alto riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: en el marco del estudio PREDIMED (PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea), se seleccionaron de manera aleatorizada 187 sujetos del centro PREDIMED- NAVARRA. A estos pacientes asintomáticos, pero con alto riesgo cardiovascular, se les realizó una ecografía carotídea basal para determinar su GIMC, y tras un año en el estudio se les repitió la misma medición. Se usó un cuestionario validado de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (137 ítems) tanto basal como anualmente para obtener el IG y la CG, que fueron categorizados en cuartiles, tras ser ajustados por energía. Mediante modelos multivariables (ANCOVA) se estudió la posible asociación entre el IG o la CG de la dieta y el GIMC o su cambio al año. Resultados: en la población estudiada no se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el IG o la CG y el GIMC, ni al inicio ni tras un año de seguimiento.

  15. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  16. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A. [Dartmouth College and Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hour of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  17. Structural basis of transport of lysophospholipids by human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shihui; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Bian, Chuanbing; Huang, Mingdong; (UAH); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-10-08

    Lysophospholipids play important roles in cellular signal transduction and are implicated in many biological processes, including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, cancer and neuronal survival. The intracellular transport of lysophospholipids is through FA (fatty acid)-binding protein. Lysophospholipids are also found in the extracellular space. However, the transport mechanism of lysophospholipids in the extracellular space is unknown. HSA (human serum albumin) is the most abundant carrier protein in blood plasma and plays an important role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In the present study, LPE (lysophosphatidylethanolamine) was used as the ligand to analyse the interaction of lysophospholipids with HSA by fluorescence quenching and crystallography. Fluorescence measurement showed that LPE binds to HSA with a K{sub d} (dissociation constant) of 5.6 {micro}M. The presence of FA (myristate) decreases this binding affinity (K{sub d} of 12.9 {micro}M). Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of HSA in complex with both myristate and LPE and showed that LPE binds at Sudlow site I located in subdomain IIA. LPE occupies two of the three subsites in Sudlow site I, with the LPE acyl chain occupying the hydrophobic bottom of Sudlow site I and the polar head group located at Sudlow site I entrance region pointing to the solvent. This orientation of LPE in HSA suggests that HSA is capable of accommodating other lysophospholipids and phospholipids. The study provides structural information on HSA-lysophospholipid interaction and may facilitate our understanding of the transport and distribution of lysophospholipids.

  18. LUPUS NEPHRITIS COMPLICATED WITH MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION: FROM RENAL VASCULAR PATHOLOGY TO CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ling Tao; Hang Li; Yu Tang; Yu-bing Wen; Xue-wang Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of lupus nephritis patients complicated with malignant hypertension.Methods We retrospectively studied 19 patients with lupus nephritis complicated with malignant hypertension who underwent renal biopsy between January 2002 and December 2006.Results Of 19 patients, 3 were men and 16 were women, with a mean age of 24. 4±7. 7 years old. All had positive antinuclear antibodies and low serum complement was found in 13 patients. All were anemic and 12 of them were thrombocytopenic. Impaired renal function was found in 17 patients with an average serum creatinine of 184. 5 ± 88.9 μmol/L. Severe intrarenai arteriolar lesion was found in all patients. Six patients had lupus vasculopathy, 11 patients had renal thrombotic microangiopathy lesion, 2 had severe arteriosclerosis. All patients received steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, 15 received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker ( ARB ) with resultant well-controlled blood pressure. Thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia resolved remarkably.The renal function improved or recovered in 14 of 17 patients, and 3 developed end-stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis.Conclusions Severe intrarenal vascular lesion complicated with renal nephritis parallels clinical manifestation of malignant hypertension. Renal pathology is the key of treatment strategy emphasizing on the significance of renal vascular involvement and type. On the basis of immunosuppressive drugs and steroids to control systemic lupus activity, timely initiation of ACEI/ARB could be of benefit to blood pressure control and long term renal survival.

  19. Increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acne inversa.

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    Robert Sabat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acne inversa (AI; also designated as Hidradenitis suppurativa is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, localized in the axillary, inguinal and perianal skin areas that causes painful, fistulating sinuses with malodorous purulence and scars. Several chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with the metabolic syndrome and its consequences including arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, myocardial infraction, and stroke. So far, the association of AI with systemic metabolic alterations is largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based case-control study in 80 AI patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control participants was carried out. The prevalence of central obesity (odds ratio 5.88, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.24, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia (odds ratio 4.56, and hyperglycemia (odds ratio 4.09 in AI patients was significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome, previously defined as the presence of at least three of the five alterations listed above, was more common in those patients compared to controls (40.0% versus 13.0%; odds ratio 4.46, 95% confidence interval 2.02 to 9.96; P<0.001. AI patients with metabolic syndrome also had more pronounced metabolic alterations than controls with metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the severity or duration of the disease and the levels of respective parameters or the number of criteria defining the metabolic syndrome. Rather, the metabolic syndrome was observed in a disproportionately high percentage of young AI patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that AI patients have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and all of its criteria. It further suggests that the inflammation present in AI patients does not have a major impact on the development of metabolic alterations. Instead, evidence is given for a role of metabolic alterations in the development of AI. We recommend

  20. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertheau, Robert C.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weckbach, Sabine; Schlett, Christopher L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Lochner, Elena [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Findeisen, Hannes M. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster (Germany); Parhofer, Klaus G. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine II, Munich (Germany); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  1. Effect of magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate on vascular reactivity in experimental hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyal, M T; Khayyal, M A; Sharaf, H M; el-Sherbeeny, M; Okpanyi, S N; Schneider, W

    1998-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is known to affect the responsiveness of various blood vessels to endogenous and to exogenous vasoactive agents. Of particular interest is the increased responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, e.g., 5-hydroxy tryptamine and noradrenaline, and the decreased reactivity towards vasodilators, e.g., acetylcholine. This, together with the development of arteriosclerosis, could play an important role in the progression of many vascular complications, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate (MPPG) has been shown to effectively reduce serum lipids in animals and in man, and to retard the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in experimental animals. It was therefore considered of interest to investigate the reactivity of both the aorta and the renal artery to different vasoactive substances in hypercholesterolemic rabbits under the influence of MPPG as well as the effect of such substances on the blood pressure of the anesthetized animals. The rabbits were fed a high cholesterol diet for 2 months, followed by MPPG for 1 month, while keeping the rabbits on the same diet. One batch of animals was used for blood pressure recording and testing drug effects, and another was used for testing the responsiveness of their aortae and renal arteries to the different mediators. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, treatment with MPPG tended to normalize the increased responsiveness of the blood pressure to the vasoconstrictors: noradrenaline and angiotensin and the diminished sensitivity to histamine and acetylcholine. For the isolated arteries, however, MPPG did not significantly affect the responses to noradrenaline nor potassium chloride, but tended to normalize responses to clonidine and acetylcholine. It could be concluded from the present findings that the high cholesterol diet induces changes in vascular reactivity which are possibly related to endothelial and/or receptor sensitivity changes. Treatment with MPPG

  2. Screening and characterization of purine nucleoside degrading lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut and evaluation of the serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99% to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A (P<0.05. The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment (P<0.05. Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential

  3. Experimental Study of Yishou Tiaozhi Tablet(

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Yi

    2001-01-01

    [1]XU SY. Screening method on lowering lipid drug and inhibiting arteriosclerosis drug. Pharmacological Experimental Methodology. Beijing: The People's Health Publishing House, 1985∶781-783.[2]LI YL. Assay of alkali hydrolytic decomposition method on serum HYP determination. Clinical Journal of Decimology 1988;6(2)∶69-71.[3]LI ZJ, HAN CS, WANG JX. Practical Radioimmunology. Beijing: The Scientific Technological Archive Publishing House, 1989∶198-221.[4]GAO YC. Effect of Yixing decoction on rats' serum lipid level in hyperlipidemia and its mechanism. Academic Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1990;(5)∶53-56.[5]Manninen V, Tenkanen L. Lipid alteration and decline in the incidence of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. JAMA 1988;260∶641-651.[6]HUANG JG, translated. The atherosclerous lipid marker. Fascicle of Cardiovascular Disease in Journal of Foreign Medicine 1987;14(1)∶4-9.[7]YANG RX. Lp(a) and atherosclerosis. Journal of Progression on Cardiovascular Disease 1994;15(4)∶221-223.[8]Colin J, Schwartz MD. A modern view of atherogenesis. Am J Cardio 1993;71∶9B-14B.[9]LIN XQ. Exploration on relationship between HYP and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia. Journal of Chinese Circulation 1993;8(3)∶160-163.[10].CHEN SH. Hyperlipidemia and platelet high response. Fascicle of Cardiovascular Disease in Journal of Foreign Medicine 1989;16(5)∶257-262.

  4. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  5. Switch-like genes populate cell communication pathways and are enriched for extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have placed gene expression in the context of distribution profiles including housekeeping, graded, and bimodal (switch-like. Single-gene studies have shown bimodal expression results from healthy cell signaling and complex diseases such as cancer, however developing a comprehensive list of human bimodal genes has remained a major challenge due to inherent noise in human microarray data. This study presents a two-component mixture analysis of mouse gene expression data for genes on the Affymetrix MG-U74Av2 array for the detection and annotation of switch-like genes. Two-component normal mixtures were fit to the data to identify bimodal genes and their potential roles in cell signaling and disease progression. Results Seventeen percent of the genes on the MG-U74Av2 array (1519 out of 9091 were identified as bimodal or switch-like. KEGG pathways significantly enriched for bimodal genes included ECM-receptor interaction, cell communication, and focal adhesion. Similarly, the GO biological process "cell adhesion" and cellular component "extracellular matrix" were significantly enriched. Switch-like genes were found to be associated with such diseases as congestive heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, breast neoplasms, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and type I and type II diabetes. In diabetes alone, over two hundred bimodal genes were in a different mode of expression compared to normal tissue. Conclusion This research identified and annotated bimodal or switch-like genes in the mouse genome using a large collection of microarray data. Genes with bimodal expression were enriched within the cell membrane and extracellular environment. Hundreds of bimodal genes demonstrated alternate modes of expression in diabetic muscle, pancreas, liver, heart, and adipose tissue. Bimodal genes comprise a candidate set of biomarkers for a large number of disease states because

  6. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  7. Familial young-onset diabetes, pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with genetic variants of DACH1 in Chinese.

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    Ronald Ching Wan Ma

    Full Text Available In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1 was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4 × 10(-5. Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02. In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802 with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, P(meta  = 0.012. In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953, rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019 for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214 and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184 for coronary heart disease (CHD and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.

  8. Analysis of disease spectrum of corporate executives after physical examination

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    Li Qing

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To find out the disease spectrum of corporate executives and screen the common chronic diseases.Methods: The physical examination data of corporate executives were collected to carry out cross-sectional study.Results: Among 231 subjects, there were one hundred and ninety four males, which made up 85.3%, and thirty seven females, which made up 14.7%. The detection rate of chronic diseases in corporate executive was high. Specifically, the incidence rate of blood viscosity rise was 87.8%; the incidence rate of blood lipid rise was 79.5%; the incidence rate of obesity and overweight was 76.7%; the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori was 55.7%; the prevalence rate of fatty liver was 52.1%; the prevalence rate of kidney stones was 43.5%; the incidence of abnormal pancreatic echo was 52.3%; the incidence rate of abnormal TCD was 66.2%; the detection rate of coarse gallbladder wall was 35.5%. The prevalence rate of bone mineral density reduction was 39.6%; the detection rate of reduction of diastolic function of left ventricle was 37.5%; the incidence rate of raised serum uric acid was 28.6%; the incidence rate of blood glucose going up was 22%; the incidence rate of liver cyst was 19.5%. The prevalence rate of blood LDL rise was 23.9%; the prevalence rate of abnormal thyroid was 21.3%; the incidence rate of arteriosclerosis was 17.5%; the prevalence rate of hypertension was 17.4%.Conclusion: The corporate executives are high risk group of common metabolic diseases and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, screening should be strengthened for them.

  9. Complexity analysis of angiogenesis vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Tyrell, James A.; Tong, Ricky T.; Brown, Edward B.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Roysam, Badrinath

    2005-04-01

    Tumor vasculature has a high degree of irregularity as compared to normal vasculature. The quantification of the morphometric complexity in tumor images can be useful in diagnosis. Also, it is desirable in several other medical applications to have an automated complexity analysis to aid in diagnosis and prognosis under treatment. e.g. in diabetic retinopathy and in arteriosclerosis. In addition, prior efforts at segmentation of the tumor vasculature using matched filtering, template matching and splines have been hampered by the irregularity of these vessels. We try to solve both problems by introducing a novel technique for vessel detection, followed by a tracing-independent complexity analysis based on a combination of ideas. First, the vessel cross-sectional profile is modeled using a continuous and everywhere differentiable family of super-Gaussian curves. This family generates rectangular profiles that can accurately localize the vessel boundaries in microvasculature images. Second, a robust non-linear regression algorithm based on M-estimators is used to estimate the parameters that optimally characterize the vessel"s shape. A framework for the quantitative analysis of the complexity of the vasculature based on the vessel detection is presented. A set of measures that quantify the complexity are proposed viz. Squared Error, Entropy-based and Minimum Description Length-based Shape Complexities. They are completely automatic and can deal with complexities of the entire vessel unlike existing tortuousity measures which deal only with vessel centerlines. The results are validated using carefully constructed phantom and real image data with ground truth information from an expert observer.

  10. A Kampo Medicine, Boi-ogi-to, Inhibits Obesity in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Jun-ichi Yamakawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In women facing menopause, end of menstrual activity is accompanied by lower levels of estrogen and gradual weight gain. Postmenopausal weight gain sounds an alarm for women's health and may lead to hyperlipidemia, a lipid increase and glucose intolerance. These phenomena are connected to lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerosis and metabolic syndrome, making it essential to prevent weight gain in women. A Kampo medicine, Boi-ogi-to, is traditionally used to treat obese conditions, but the mechanism has not yet been investigated. In this experiment, we tested the antiobesity properties of Boi-ogi-to in ovariectomized rats by measuring changes of serum cytokine levels and adipocytokines in fat cells. After treatment with this extract for 6 weeks (20-week-old rats, we found that there was a significant weight decrease in rats treated with Boi-ogi-to as compared with that in the control group. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression of adipose tissue in uterus also dose dependently showed a significant increase of TNF-α levels, suggesting that secretion of TNF-α by fat cells might play a role in the ability of Boi-ogi-to to inhibit weight gain. While peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ and adiponectin levels did not show a significant difference as compared with those in the control, levels of mRNA expression showed a tendency to increase dose dependently. Resistin did not show any significant change. These results suggest that Boi-ogi-to might be useful for the prevention of obesity that occurs in women with reduction of estrogen.

  11. Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis seeds or their water extract on alloxan diabetic rats

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    H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats. Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes (low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

  12. Integration of retinal image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    1998-10-01

    In this paper a method for noise reduction in ocular fundus image sequences is described. The eye is the only part of the human body where the capillary network can be observed along with the arterial and venous circulation using a non invasive technique. The study of the retinal vessels is very important both for the study of the local pathology (retinal disease) and for the large amount of information it offers on systematic haemodynamics, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. In this paper a method for image integration of ocular fundus image sequences is described. The procedure can be divided in two step: registration and fusion. First we describe an automatic alignment algorithm for registration of ocular fundus images. In order to enhance vessel structures, we used a spatially oriented bank of filters designed to match the properties of the objects of interest. To evaluate interframe misalignment we adopted a fast cross-correlation algorithm. The performances of the alignment method have been estimated by simulating shifts between image pairs and by using a cross-validation approach. Then we propose a temporal integration technique of image sequences so as to compute enhanced pictures of the overall capillary network. Image registration is combined with image enhancement by fusing subsequent frames of a same region. To evaluate the attainable results, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated before and after integration. Experimental results on synthetic images of vessel-like structures with different kind of Gaussian additive noise as well as on real fundus images are reported.

  13. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Pejičić Snježana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  14. Levodopa/carbidopa and entacapone in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: efficacy, safety and patient preference

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    Thomas Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Müller1,21Department of Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weißensee, Berlin, Germany; 2IGSN, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, GermanyAbstract: Levodopa (LD is the oldest, most efficacious and best-tolerated drug for dopaminergic substitution of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Its main drawback is its short half-life, which supports onset of motor complications in the long term. Therefore well-informed PD patients mostly accept LD therapy as late as possible. Recent LD trials indicate that a combination of LD with carbidopa (CD and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT inhibitor entacapone (EN may reduce the onset of these motor complications to a certain extent. This observation is further supported by pharmacokinetic trials and experimental research, but there is still a need to confirm this in a clinical trial, which is under way. Additionally, combined LD/CD/EN was superior to LD/CD administration regarding cognition, muscle behavior and gastrointestinal function in small clinical trials. Moreover there is accumulating evidence that combined COMT inhibition with LD administration reduces homocysteine synthesis. In the long term, homocysteine elevation supports onset of arteriosclerosis-related disorders, which are more frequent in PD patients according to epidemiological studies than in the normal healthy population. The introduction of LD/CD/EN in one tablet supported patients’ preference of COMT inhibition as an essential component of LD/DDI therapy, as this combination reduced number and size of tablets.Keywords: levodopa, entacapone, Parkinson’s disease, preference, compliance, acceptance

  15. The Reduction Of Motion Artifacts In Digital Subtraction Angiography By Geometrical Image Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Pickens, David R.; Mandava, Venkateswara R.; Grefenstette, John J.

    1988-06-01

    In the diagnosis of arteriosclerosis, radio-opaque dye is injected into the interior of the arteries to make them visible. Because of its increased contrast sensitivity, digital subtraction angiography has the potential for providing diagnostic images of arteries with reduced dye volumes. In the conventional technique, a mask image, acquired before the introduction of the dye, is subtracted from the contrast image, acquired after the dye is introduced, to produce a difference image in which only the dye in the arteries is visible. The usefulness of this technique has been severely limited by the image degradation caused by patient motion during image acquisition. This motion produces artifacts in the difference image that obscure the arteries. One technique for dealing with this problem is to reduce the degradation by means of image registration. The registration is carried out by means of a geometrical transformation of the mask image before subtraction so that it is in registration with the contrast image. This paper describes our technique for determining an optimal transformation. We employ a one-to-one elastic mapping and the Jacobian of that mapping to produce a geometrical image transformation. We choose a parameterized class of such mappings and use a heuristic search algorithm to optimize the parameters to minimize the severity of the motion artifacts. To increase the speed of the optimization process we use a statistical image comparison technique that provides a quick approximate evaluation of each image transformation. We present the experimental results of the application of our registration system to mask-contrast pairs, for images acquired from a specially designed phantom (described in a companion paper), and for clinical images.

  16. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  17. The role of the class A scavenger receptors, SR-A and MARCO, in the immune system. Part 1. The structure of receptors, their ligand binding repertoires and ability to initiate intracellular signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Józefowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Recognition of pathogens by innate immune cells is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRR, which include scavenger receptors (SR. The class A SR, SR-A/CD204 and MARCO, are characterized by the presence of collagenous and SR cysteine-rich domains in their extracellular portions. Both receptors are expressed mainly on macrophages and dendritic cells. Thanks to their ability to bind to a wide range of polyanionic ligands, the class A SR may participate in numerous functions of these cells, such as endocytosis, and adhesion to extracellular matrix and to other cells. Among SR-A ligands are oxidized lipoproteins and β-amyloid fibrils, which link SR-A to the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Despite the demonstration of class A SR involvement in so many processes, the lack of selective ligands precluded reaching definite conclusions concerning their signaling abilities. Using specific receptor ligation with antibodies, we showed that SR-A and MARCO trigger intracellular signaling, modulating pro-inflammatory and microbicidal activities of macrophages. Surprisingly, despite similarities in structure and ligand binding repertoires, SR-A and MARCO exert opposite effects on interleukin-12 (IL-12 production in macrophages. SR-A ligation also stimulated H2O2 and IL-10 production, but had no effect on the release of several other cytokines. These limited effects of specific SR-A ligation contrast with generalized enhancement of immune responses observed in SR-A-deficient mice. Recent studies have revealed that many of these effects of SR-A deficiency may be caused by compensatory changes in the expression of other receptors and/or disinhibition of signal transduction from receptors belonging to the Toll/IL-1R family, rather than by the loss of the receptor function of SR-A.

  18. Neoplastic and other pathologic effects of fractionated fast neutrons or photons on the thorax and anterior abdomen of beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine adult male beagle dogs received either fast-neutron or photon irradiation to the right hemithorax and right rostral abdomen. Twenty-four dogs (six per group) received fast neutrons (15 MeV) to total doses of 1000, 1500, 2250, or 3375 cGy in four fractions per week for six weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 cGy of photons in an identical fractionation pattern. One photon-irradiated dog and 13 neutron-irradiated dogs died or were euthanatized because of hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances 47 to 708 days after irradiation; 20 dogs died of other causes. These 34 dogs were necropsied and have been studied microscopically; the remaining five dogs are still alive seven years after irradiation. Neutron-induced lesions included hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis, and atrophy of the heart, liver, pancreas, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney. All lesions were associated with degenerative and occlusive vascular changes including coronary arteriosclerosis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons, assessed by clinical signs and by gross and microscopic pathology, is between 3 and 4.5 for pancreas, ∼4.5 for heart, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney, and greater than 6.75 for liver. Ten malignancies and two benign tumors developed in the irradiated field of six of 12 neutron-exposed dogs that survived over one year after irradiation. Two malignancies and one benign tumor arose in three of 12 photon-exposed dogs surviving over one year postirradiation. Only one neoplasm developed in the same field in 11 nonirradiated controls or in 62 dogs irradiated at sites other than the thorax or abdomen. The neutron RBE for neoplasia is approximately 6.75. 85 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. BLOOD VESSELS SEGMENTATION BY RADIAL GRADIENT SYMMETRY METHOD VIA DIFFERENT THRESHOLD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Parasuraman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A Key identifier for some diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hypertension, macular edema, diabetes mellitus, and the recognition qualities of geometrical changes in retinal veins and supply routes are recognized by Retinal Vein morphology and might be connected to a mixed carrier of clinical studies. Extraction of the retinal veins is a help to see all the more about its morphology and will give a superior wellspring of data for contemplating the different related diseases. Two of the significant issues in the extraction of retinal veins are the vicinity of a wide assortment of vessel widths and inhomogeneous foundation of the retina. Machine based dissection for computerized extraction of veins in retinal images will help eye mind pro's screen bigger populaces for vessel variations from the norm. In this extend a technique for robotized extraction of fundus pictures of the retinal vein is introduced. This paper displays another strategy for vein recognition in computerized retinal pictures. In this system first separating is carried out utilizing reciprocal channel to uproot the commotions in the picture and second, differentiates the fundus picture into red, green and blue channels. Third, Kirsch's format with spatial separating is utilized to discover the beginning and bearing of the veins and for smoothing the limits. Fourth, the veins are fragmented by applying threshold values and by utilizing outspread radial symmetry strategy. These segmentations are looked at against manual estimations and between imaging strategies. Its adequacy and strength with distinctive picture conditions, together with its smoothness and quick usage, make this vein division proposal suitable for retinal picture workstation examination, for example, computerized screening for right on time diabetic retinopathy discovery.

  20. A non-contact approach for PWV detection: application in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Adriaan; Heuten, Hilde; Goovaerts, Inge; Ennekens, Guy; Vrints, Christiaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2016-07-01

    A need for screening methods for arteriosclerosis led to the development of several approaches to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV) being indicative of arterial stiffness. Carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) can be measured between common carotid artery (CCA) and femoral artery (FA) displaying the physiologically important stiffness of the conduit arteries. However, this measurement approach has several disadvantages, and a local PWV-measurement of CCA-stiffness has been proposed as an alternative in the past. In the presented pilot study, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is used to measure PWV locally in the CCA (PWVLDV) in 48 patients aged between 48 and 70, with known atherosclerotic arterial disease: stabilized coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Additionally, cfPWV, CCA distensibility coefficient (DC), CCA intima-media thickness (IMT), blood pressure (BP) and age were evaluated. LDV is a valid method for local PWV-measurement. The method is potentially easy to use, and causes no discomfort to the patient. PWVLDV correlates with age (R  =  0.432; p  =  0.002) as reported in related studies using other techniques, and measured values lay between 2.5 and 5.8 m s(-1), which is well in line with literature measures of local PWV in the CCA. In conclusion, PWVLDV potentially is a marker for arterial health, but more research in a larger and more homogeneous patient population is mandatory. In future studies, blood velocity measurements should be incorporated, as well as a reference method such as pulse wave imaging (PWI) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:27244585

  1. Flow-sensitive in-vivo 4D MR imaging at 3T for the analysis of aortic hemodynamics and derived vessel wall parameters; Die Analyse aortaler Haemodynamik und Gefaesswandparameter mittels fluss-sensitiver in-vivo 4D-MRT bei 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydrychowicz, A.; Markl, M.; Stalder, A.F.; Bock, J.; Bley, T.A.; Berger, A.; Russe, M.F.; Hennig, J.; Langer, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik; Harloff, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Klinische Neurologie und Neurophysiologie; Schlensak, C. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

    2007-05-15

    Modern phase contrast MR imaging at 3 Tesla allows the depiction of 3D morphology as well as the acquisition of time-resolved blood flow velocities in 3 directions. In combination with state-of-the-art visualization and data processing software, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemodynamic changes associated with vascular pathologies is possible. The 4D nature of the acquired data permits free orientation within the vascular system of interest and offers the opportunity to quantify blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters at any desired location within the data volume without being dependent on predefined 2D slices. The technique has the potential of overcoming the limitations of current diagnostic strategies and of implementing new diagnostic parameters. In light of the recent discussions regarding the influence of the wall shear stress and the oscillatory shear index on the genesis of arteriosclerosis and dilatative vascular processes, flow-sensitive 4D MRI may provide the missing diagnostic link. Instead of relying on experience-based parameters such as aneurysm size, new hemodynamic considerations can deepen our understanding of vascular pathologies. This overview reviews the underlying methodology at 3T, the literature on time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping, and presents case examples. By presenting the pre- and postoperative assessment of hemodynamics in a thoracic aortic aneurysm and the detailed analysis of blood flow in a patient with coarctation we underline the potential of time-resolved 3D phase contrast MR at 3T for hemodynamic assessment of vascular pathologies, especially in the thoracic aorta. (orig.)

  2. [Guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The AHA/ACC 2013 guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in adults contains major differences with the previous ESC/EAS 2011 guidelines and the remaining international guidelines, which has generated major controversies. The AHA/ACC document has developed a new model for estimating cardiovascular risk for primary prevention which is not comparable with the SCORE recommended in the European guidelines. This guideline does not establish a fixed target for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Instead, it identifies 4 major statin benefit groups at risk for the development ASCVD, who should receive low-, moderate-, and high-intensity statin therapy to reduce LCLc. In contrast, the European guidelines maintain LDLc as the main treatment target and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a secondary treatment target. The document recommends calculating cardiovascular risk for the overall treatment of patients with dyslipidemia according to 4 risk levels (low, moderate, high, and very high), establishes LDLc treatment targets, and recommends a statin-based therapeutic strategy and other, lipid-lowering strategies, aimed at achieving these targets. The American guidelines cannot be extrapolated to the European population. Target-based treatment, as recommended in the EAS/ESC guidelines, is the best strategy for Europe. In Spain, the Primary Care Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine (semFYC) and the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians (SEMERGEN) are based on the European recommendations. Finally, the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA), SEMERGEN, semFYC and the Spanish Society of General Medicine (SEMG) are reaching a consensus on the approach and management of patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care.

  3. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis. PMID:22181072

  4. The treatment of type 2 diabetes in the presence of renal impairment: what we should know about newer therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Melanie; Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 200 million people have chronic kidney disease (CKD), the most common causes of which include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. Importantly, ~40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD, yet evidence from major multicenter randomized controlled trials shows that intensive blood glucose control through pharmacological intervention can reduce the incidence and progression of CKD. Standard therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes include metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, and insulin. While these drugs have an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes, only the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone can be used across the spectrum of CKD (stages 2–5) and without dose adjustment; there are contraindications and dose adjustments required for the remaining standard therapies. Newer therapies, particularly dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, are increasingly being used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes; however, a major consideration is whether these newer therapies can also be used safely and effectively across the spectrum of renal impairment. Notably, reductions in albuminuria, a marker of CKD, are observed with many of the drug classes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors can be used in all stages of renal impairment, with appropriate dose reduction, with the exception of linagliptin, which can be used without dose adjustment. No dose adjustment is required for liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide in CKD stages 2 and 3, although all glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are currently contraindicated in stages 4 and 5 CKD. At stage 3 CKD or greater, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin) either require dose adjustment or are contraindicated. Ongoing trials, such as CARMELINA, MARLINA, CREDENCE, and CANVAS-R, will help determine the position of

  5. Research of relationship between retinol binding protein 4 and cardiovascular disease%视黄醇结合蛋白4与心血管疾病关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑄; 郑刚

    2016-01-01

    Retinol binding protein 4(RBP4)is a kind of lipophilic carrier protein ,and also a kind of small hydrophobic molecules-binding protein.Its function is transferring all kinds of active metabolite (retinol)from Vitamin A. Thus help the Vitamin A to play its chief physiological function. Many Clinical researches show that the RBP4 is related to many risk factors of cardiovascular disease such as the arteriosclerosis ,Insulin resistance ,disorders of lipid metabolism and obesity and is also some correlated to the cardiovascular disease including Hypertension and heart failure.So this article will summarize the structure and function of RBP4 and its related research in the field of cardiovascular disease.%视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP4)是一种亲脂载体蛋白,也是一种疏水小分子结合蛋白,在体内负责结合并转运维生素 A 的各种活性代谢物(视黄醇类),从而协助维生素 A 发挥其主要生理功能。临床多项研究显示 RBP4与动脉硬化、胰岛素抵抗、脂质代谢紊乱、肥胖等心血管危险因素密切相关,并且与心血管疾病如冠心病、高血压和心力衰竭的病理生理有一定相关性。本文将对 RBP4的结构功能及其在心血管疾病中的相关研究进展做一综述。

  6. Whole-body MR imaging including angiography: Predicting recurrent events in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups. During a median follow-up of 70 months, 26 diabetics developed a total of 39 events; 18 (30 %) developed one, 8 (13 %) recurrent events. Between diabetics with no, a single and recurrent events, a stepwise higher burden was observed for presence of left ventricular (LV) hypo-/akinesia (3/28/75 %, p < 0.0001), myocardial delayed-contrast-enhancement (17/33/63 %, p = 0.001), carotid artery stenosis (11/17/63 %, p = 0.005), peripheral artery stenosis (26/56/88 %, p = 0.0006) and vessel score (1.00/1.30/1.76, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, LV hypo-/akinesia (hazard rate ratio = 6.57, p < 0.0001) and vessel score (hazard rate ratio = 12.29, p < 0.0001) remained independently associated. Assessing organ system risk, cardiac and cerebral MR findings predicted more strongly events in their respective organ system. Vessel-score predicted both cardiac and cerebral, but not non-cardiocerebral, events. Whole-body MR findings predict occurrence of recurrent events in diabetics independent of clinical characteristics, and may concurrently provide organ system-specific risk. (orig.)

  7. 沂州木瓜汁抗氧化、降血脂保健功能的研究%Study on the health function on antioxidation and reducing blood lipid of Yizhou Chaenomeles fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东

    2011-01-01

    The health function on antioxidation and reducing blood lipid of Yizhou Chaenomeles fruit juice was studied.The mice experiments showed serum lipid-lowering and antioxidative action of the Yizhou Chaenomeles fruit juice.Compared with the hyperlipidemic group,Yizhou Chaenomeles fruit juice could significantly lower the cholesterol levels of mice,including the serum TC,TG,LDL-C and arteriosclerosis index(AI).It could also lower the liver weight,TC and TG.Yizhou Chaenomeles fruit juice also improved SOD activity,reduced MDA content in mice and enhanced GSH-Px activity in blood.%利用大白鼠进行动物实验,研究沂州木瓜汁的抗氧化、降血脂保健功能。实验结果表明:沂州木瓜汁能显著降低高血脂大鼠的血清总胆固醇、甘油三脂和低密度脂蛋白水平,减小动脉硬化指标,对大白鼠高脂血症和动脉硬化具有较好的预防作用;沂州木瓜汁还能显著降低高血脂大鼠的肝系数、肝脏总胆固醇和甘油三酯水平,缓解肝脏的脂肪病变;沂州木瓜汁能提高大鼠红细胞内SOD活力、降低红细胞中MDA含量、提高血液中GSH-Px活力,从而清除机体内的超氧阴离子,减少机体受自由基的攻击。

  8. Should we prescribe blood pressure lowering drugs to every patient with advanced chronic kidney disease? A comment on two recent meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Peter; Schirutschke, Holger; Barnett, Kerstin

    2009-10-01

    Antihypertensive treatment is an essential, life-prolonging measure in primary hypertension. It prevents apoplexy, myocardial infarction, and hypertensive kidney failure. Chronic kidney failure is associated with hypertension and an accelerated form of arteriosclerosis. Demise from cardiovascular affliction is a leading cause of death in renal patients (chronic renal failure stages II-IV, renal failure requiring dialysis, renal transplantation). What, then, is the role of antihypertensive treatment in such patients, and, specifically, what is achieved by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system modifying agents? Two meta-analyses have recently investigated these issues. An article in The Lancet evaluated eight studies on dialysis patients (n = 1679). It concluded that antihypertensives are beneficial in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, we criticize these conclusions and show that the data are not convincingly in favor of antihypertensive treatment. A meta-analysis in the American Heart Journal assessed the role of antihypertensive agents and RAA system modifying drugs in 45,758 patients (from 25 studies), who were in stages I-III of renal failure, i.e., not (yet) requiring dialysis. The authors claim that angiotensin- -converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) significantly reduced cardiovascular outcomes. However, our analysis of the data is not consistent with their conclusions. It showed that the results were quite mixed, that the authors may have overemphasized the positive results, and that considering all the results, it should be concluded that antihypertensive treatments, including those with ACEI/ARB, may not be superior to placebo (sic!) in renal patients. Rather than doing meta-analyses, larger primary studies are needed to reveal the real role of antihypertensive treatments in renal patients.

  9. Associations between white matter hyperintensities and β amyloid on integrity of projection, association, and limbic fiber tracts measured with diffusion tensor MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L Chao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between Aβ deposition and white matter pathology (i.e., white matter hyperintensities, WMH on microstructural integrity of the white matter. Fifty-seven participants (mean age: 78±7 years from an ongoing multi-site research program who spanned the spectrum of normal to mild cognitive impairment (Clinical dementia rating 0-0.5 and low to high risk factors for arteriosclerosis and WMH pathology (defined as WMH volume >0.5% total intracranial volume were assessed with positron emission tomography (PET with Pittsburg compound B (PiB and magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Multivariate analysis of covariance were used to investigate the relationship between Aβ deposition and WMH pathology on fractional anisotropy (FA from 9 tracts of interest (i.e., corona radiata, internal capsule, cingulum, parahippocampal white matter, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior front-occipital fasciculi, and fornix. WMH pathology was associated with reduced FA in projection (i.e., internal capsule and corona radiate and association (i.e., superior longitudinal, superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi fiber tracts. Aβ deposition (i.e., PiB positivity was associated with reduced FA in the fornix and splenium of the corpus callosum. There were interactions between PiB and WMH pathology in the internal capsule and parahippocampal white matter, where Aβ deposition reduced FA more among subjects with WMH pathology than those without. However, accounting for apoE ε4 genotype rendered these interactions insignificant. Although this finding suggests that apoE4 may increase amyloid deposition, both in the parenchyma (resulting in PiB positivity and in blood vessels (resulting in amyloid angiopathy and WMH pathology, and that these two factors together may be associated with compromised white matter microstructural integrity in multiple brain regions, additional studies

  10. Effect of losartan on Doppler sonography indices in kidney transplant patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Nouri-Majalan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nader Nouri-Majalan1, Reza Nafisi2, Sarasadat Moghadasi-Mousavi11Department of Nephrology; 2Department of Radiology, Shahid Sadoughi Medical University, Yazd, IranBackground: Color Doppler sonography indices, such as resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI, can predict arteriosclerosis of internal renal vessels after kidney transplantation. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, however, may have antiatherogenic effects. We therefore assessed the effects of losartan on RIs of renal allografts.Methods: We compared duplex sonographic measurements in renal allograft recipients (30 males, 20 females from living donors randomized to a losartan (25 mg twice daily or a control group.Results: The patients in the two groups had similar baseline characteristics, and 49 (24 in the losartan and 25 in the control group completed 12 months of follow-up. After 12 months, the losartan and control groups did not differ significantly in mean RI (0.71 ± 0.06 vs 0.69 ± 0.07, P = 0.4 or PI (1.3 ± 0.25 vs 1.29 ± 0.28, P = 0.8 of the intrarenal artery and mean RI (0.74 ± 0.07 vs 0.72 ± 0.07, P = 0.3 and PI (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 1.4 ± 0.34, P = 0.3 of the main artery.Conclusions: Losartan had no effect on Doppler sonography indices. Longer follow-up, however, may be needed to confirm this finding.Keywords: Doppler ultrasonography, kidney transplantation, losartan

  11. A major pain in the … Back and epigastrium: an unusual case of spontaneous celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Sarkar Patel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old woman with mitral valve prolapse, chronic low back pain, and a 30-pack year smoking history presented for a second admission of poorly controlled mid-back pain 10 days after her first admission. She had concomitant epigastric pain, sharp/burning in quality, radiating to the right side and to the mid-back, not associated with food nor improving with pain medications. She denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dark stools, or blood per rectum. Our purpose was to determine the cause of the patient's epigastric pain. Physical examination revealed epigastric and mid-back tenderness on palpation. Labs were normal except for a hemoglobin drop from 14 to 12.1 g/dL over 2 days. Abdominal ultrasound and subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy were normal. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT scan revealed the development of a spontaneous celiac artery dissection as the cause of the epigastric pain. The patient was observed without stenting and subsequent CT angiography 4 days later did not reveal worsening of the dissection. She was discharged on aspirin and clopidogrel with outpatient follow-up. Thus far, less than 100 cases of isolated spontaneous celiac artery dissections have been reported. The advent of CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly enabled its detection. Risk factors may include hypertension, arteriosclerosis, smoking, and cystic medial necrosis. There is a 5:1 male to female ratio with an average presenting age of 55. Management of dissections may include surgical repair, endovascular stenting, and selective embolization. Limited dissections can be managed conservatively with anti-platelet and/or anticoagulation agents and strict blood pressure control, as done in our patient.

  12. Relevance of hemostatic risk factors on coronary morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ansgar J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The influence hemostatitc parameters on the morphological extent and severity of coronary artery disease were studied in patients with and without DM type 2. Background It is known that patients with diabetes (DM have abnormal metabolic and hemostatic parameters Methods Of 150 consecutive patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease 29 presented with DM. Additionally to parameters of lipid-metabolism fibrinogen, tissue-plasminogenactivator (t-PA, plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI, plasmin-a-antiplasmin (PAP, prothrombin-fragment 1+2 (F1+2, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT, von-willebrand-factor (vWF, platelet factor 4 (PF4, glykomembranproteine 140 (GMP140 and the rheologic parameters plasma viscosity and red blood cell aggregation were evaluated. The extent and severity of CAD was evaluated according to the criteria of the American Heart Association. Results Patients with DM presented with a higher number of conventional risk factors as compared to non-diabetic patients. Additionally there were significant differences for F1+2, red blood cell aggregation and PAI. Diabetic patients showed a more severe extent of coronary arteriosclerosis, which also could be found more distally. A significant relationship between blood-glucose, thrombocyte-activation (vWF, endogenous fibrinolysis (PAI and the severity of CAD and a more distal location of stenoses could be found (r = 0.6, p Conclusion Patients with coronary artery disease and DM type 2 showed marked alterations of metabolic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and rheologic parameters, which can produce a prothrombogenic state. A direct association of thrombogenic factors on coronary morphology could be shown. This can be the pathophysiologic mechanism of more severe and distal pronounced coronary atherosclerosis in these patients.

  13. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  14. The Clinical Value of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography on Transient Ischemic Attack%经颅多普勒血管超声对短暂性脑缺血发作的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娜; 刘艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析经颅多普勒血管超声对短暂性脑缺血发作的临床价值。方法选取我院80例短暂性脑缺血发作患者为观察组对象,并选取同期来院体检的50例健康体检者为对照组,均接受经颅多普勒血管超声检查。结果本次80例患者脑血流动力学明显改变发生率为95%;观察组脑动脉硬化、血管狭窄及血流减低等发生率均高于对照组(P<0.05),有统计学意义。结论经颅多普勒血管超声检查可为治疗短暂性脑缺血发作的治疗方案提供重要信息。%Objective To analyze the transcranial Doppler vascular ultrasound Transient ischemic attack clinical value.Methods80 cases in our hospital Transient ischemic attack patients in the observation group object and select the same period to the hospital examination of 50 cases of healthy control group underwent transcranial Doppler vascular ultrasound. Results The 80 cases of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with signiifcant changes in incidence of 95%; observation group cerebral arteriosclerosis, vascular stenosis and reduced blood lfow, such as the incidence rate of the control group (P<0.05), there was signiifcant .Conclusion You can provide important information for the treatment of transient cerebral ischemic attack treatment programs transcranial Doppler vascular ultrasound.

  15. TiO2 nanoparticles tested in a novel screening whole human blood model of toxicity trigger adverse activation of the kallikrein system at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Hong, Jaan; Davoodpour, Padideh; Sandholm, Kerstin; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Bucht, Anders; Nilsson, Bo

    2015-05-01

    There is a compelling need to understand and assess the toxicity of industrially produced nanoparticles (NPs). In order to appreciate the long-term effects of NPs, sensitive human-based screening tests that comprehensively map the NP properties are needed to detect possible toxic mechanisms. Animal models can only be used in a limited number of test applications and are subject to ethical concerns, and the interpretation of experiments in animals is also distorted by the species differences. Here, we present a novel easy-to-perform highly sensitive whole-blood model using fresh non-anticoagulated human blood, which most justly reflects complex biological cross talks in a human system. As a demonstrator of the tests versatility, we evaluated the toxicity of TiO2 NPs that are widely used in various applications and otherwise considered to have relatively low toxic properties. We show that TiO2 NPs at very low concentrations (50 ng/mL) induce strong activation of the contact system, which in this model elicits thromboinflammation. These data are in line with the finding of components of the contact system in the protein corona of the TiO2 NPs after exposure to blood. The contact system activation may lead to both thrombotic reactions and generation of bradykinin, thereby representing fuel for chronic inflammation in vivo and potentially long-term risk of autoimmunity, arteriosclerosis and cancer. These results support the notion that this novel whole-blood model represents an important contribution to testing of NP toxicity. PMID:25770998

  16. [Local vascular complications after iatrogenic femoral artery puncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhwirth, J; Pascher, O; Hauser, H; Amann, W

    1996-01-01

    Over a period of 5 years 81 vascular complications after 15,460 catheterizations of the femoral artery for diagnostic (n = 11,883) or therapeutic (n = 3577) procedures were registered. The following complications were observed in declining frequency: 1. False aneurysm (n = 65), 2. arterial occlusion (dissection, embolia, thrombosis) (n = 8), 3. vascular lesion causing profuse bleeding (n = 7), 4. AV-fistula (n = 1). The total complication rate was 0.52%. The complication rate was significantly higher in therapeutical procedures (1,03%) than in diagnostic investigations (0.37%). Pseudoaneurysms were complicated by thrombosis of the femoral vein (n = 3), lymphatic fistula (n = 3) and deep wound infection (n = 9); secondary complication rate 18.5%. Risk factors for local vascular complications are old age, female gender, high grade arteriosclerosis at the puncture site, overweight, manifest arterial hypertension and medication with cumarin, acetylsalicylic acid or heparin. Further complicating factors are connected with technical risks such as duration of the procedure. French size of the catheter, the catheter sheath and multiple punctures. Vascular repair was performed by simple angiography in most cases, but in 14.8% more extensive surgical procedures were required. In patients with signs of occlusive vascular disease the external iliac artery was replaced by a PTFE-vascular access graft in 4 cases and an arterioplasty of the deep femoral artery was performed in 2 patients. 36% of the operations were undertaken as emergencies. Reintervention was necessary for a postoperative bleeding complication in 1 case (surgical complication rate 1.2%). A female patient suffering from aortic valve stenosis died during emergency operation due to massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage after cardiac catheterization (mortality rate 1.2%). Over a median follow-up period of 37 months no late complications of the intervention were recorded, nor recurrences of peripheral arterial occlusive

  17. STUDIES CONCERNIMG THE OBTAINMENT OF ASTAXANTHIN, AN IMPORTANT NATURAL PIGMENT USED IN COSMETIC, FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RĂDULESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments (CP are natural compounds which impart to the tissues wherethey occur, a yellow, orange, red and even blue color. They are precursors ofvitamins A, B12, D3 and can not be biosynthesized by any animal taxonomic groupincluding man. In plants they avoid chlorophyll bleaching and destruction of somebiological active substances like citocroms, peroxidases, catalase, flavonoidicpigments, vitamins B12, E, K etc./1/. They are used in cosmetics, in aquaculture,poultry farming, in food industry as antioxidants and natural colorants for drinksand dairy products, as fodder additives for color, organoleptic and biologicalqualities improvement. Due to the restrictive use in food industry or as fodderadditives of the synthetically obtained CP, though they are less expensive, thebiotechnologies based on carotenogenic yeasts, in particular for astaxanthinproduction, are now reconsidered even if the bioprocesses are more costly. Newsources identification and economic efficiency and feasibility of CP obtainmentprocesses are a constant challenge, especially since recent studies pointed out CProle in medicine for prevention and treatment of some chronic maladies like cancer,arteriosclerosis, cataract, cardiovascular diseases, immunodeficiency’s syndromes,brain dysfunctions, etc./2-4/. with a great occurrence in human population. Thispaper presents a technological model at laboratory scale for the red-violaceuspigment Astaxanthin (3,3'-dehidroxy-β,β'-caroten-4,4'dione obtainment with theSporobolomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSMZ 5626 [ICCF338].The yeast was screened for genetic purity and media and cultivating conditionswere studied. The pigment was extracted and separated chromatographically fromthe alkaline treated wet biomass, for cell wall disruption. The separated Astaxanthinwas diluted with sunflower oil up to a content of 50 μg/ml. The product can beconditioned as soft capsules, or as it is as food supplement for human

  18. STUDIES CONCERNIMG THE OBTAINMENT OF ASTAXANTHIN, AN IMPORTANT NATURAL PIGMENT USED IN COSMETIC, FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid pigments (CP are natural compounds which impart to the tissues wherethey occur, a yellow, orange, red and even blue color. They are precursors ofvitamins A, B12, D3 and can not be biosynthesized by any animal taxonomic groupincluding man. In plants they avoid chlorophyll bleaching and destruction of somebiological active substances like citocroms, peroxidases, catalase, flavonoidicpigments, vitamins B12, E, K etc./1/. They are used in cosmetics, in aquaculture,poultry farming, in food industry as antioxidants and natural colorants for drinksand dairy products, as fodder additives for color, organoleptic and biologicalqualities improvement. Due to the restrictive use in food industry or as fodderadditives of the synthetically obtained CP, though they are less expensive, thebiotechnologies based on carotenogenic yeasts, in particular for astaxanthinproduction, are now reconsidered even if the bioprocesses are more costly. Newsources identification and economic efficiency and feasibility of CP obtainmentprocesses are a constant challenge, especially since recent studies pointed out CProle in medicine for prevention and treatment of some chronic maladies like cancer,arteriosclerosis, cataract, cardiovascular diseases, immunodeficiency’s syndromes,brain dysfunctions, etc./2-4/. with a great occurrence in human population. Thispaper presents a technological model at laboratory scale for the red-violaceuspigment Astaxanthin (3,3'-dehidroxy-β,β'-caroten-4,4'dione obtainment with theSporobolomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSMZ 5626 [ICCF338].The yeast was screened for genetic purity and media and cultivating conditionswere studied. The pigment was extracted and separated chromatographically fromthe alkaline treated wet biomass, for cell wall disruption. The separated Astaxanthinwas diluted with sunflower oil up to a content of 50 μg/ml. The product can beconditioned as soft capsules, or as it is as food supplement for human

  19. Alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves: Effect of fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nain, Mahabir [Department of Physics, Government College Karnal, Haryana 132001 (India)], E-mail: mnain@rediffmail.com; Chauhan, R.P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Department of Applied Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2008-08-15

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are 10 times at a greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. The toxicity in tobacco is considered mainly due to the presence of chemi-toxins like nicotine, tar, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols and many other materials leading to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. There are many reports on the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides viz., {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco. Investigations on alpha-emitting radionuclides, especially on {sup 210}Po have gained significant importance as alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells may contribute to early arteriosclerosis developments in tobacco smokers. Due to relatively high activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its product cigarette can increase the internal intake of both the radionuclides and their concentrations in lung tissues. This causes an increase in the internal radiation dose which enhances the instances of lung cancer. Many workers have tried to explain the role of {sup 210}Po in tobacco in the epidemiological investigation of cancer and tumour formation. In the present work, the estimation of alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves taken from tobacco plants grown using different types of chemical fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP), zinc sulphate, potash, super phosphate, urea etc. in varying amounts before the plantation of the seedlings has been made. For these measurements we used {alpha}-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The results indicate an increase in alpha radioactivity with the use of some fertilizers.

  20. [The comparative analysis: the occurrence of acute respiratory system infections and chronic diseases among active smokers and non-smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the factors causing a lot of health problems. Breathing the smoke makes the development of arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart disease faster and the risk of myocardial infarction much higher. Toxic substances contained in the smoke induce inflammatory processes in bronchial tree, which finally leads to the destruction of lungs. One of the way of preventing complications in the circulatory system and stopping the inflammatory process in lungs is to give up the habit of smoking. Within the period of three years the group of more than 1000 people (smokers and non-smokers) was examined and the analysis of occurrence of acute respiratory system infections and chronic diseases was conducted. In the studies the questionnaire prepared by the author of the paper, some specialistic studies and medical reports were used. The achieved results show that more and more women smoke as many cigarettes as men and for as many years as they do. Both men and women who graduated either a grammar school or a university smoke more often than with elementary level of education. People who smoke suffer more often from numerous acute respiratory tract infections and must more often pay a visit to general practitioner. Considering the sex there are no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of chronic pulmonary diseases and the cardiovascular system. The achieved results show the changes of the attitude to smoking in Polish society. The increase of the consumption of cigarettes among women with high education is very worrying. It is a serious challenge for the whole medical staff. PMID:17288171

  1. 高三酰甘油腹型肥胖与糖代谢异常的研究%Hypertriglyceridemia Abdominal Obesity Associated with Disorders of Glucose Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楷

    2012-01-01

    高三酰甘油(TG)腹型肥胖是脂肪组织储存了过多的三酰甘油相关的脂质.高TG血症除引起促进动脉硬化和血栓形成外,对胰岛B细胞分泌功能及糖代谢产生一定影响.有研究证明,高TG可以导致胰岛素的分泌异常、外周胰岛素抵抗(IR)、胰岛B细胞的凋亡.越来越多的研究表明,腹型肥胖与IR和糖代谢异常密切相关,脂肪组织尤其是内脏脂肪组织是IR的始发部位.高TG腹型肥胖引起糖代谢紊乱主要是引发胰岛素分泌障碍和IR.现就高TG腹型肥胖对糖代谢异常的相关研究进展进行综述.%High triacylglycerol( TG )is a state of excessive TG lipids storage in fatty tissue, llyper TG affect endocrine function of pancreatic islets B cell and glucose metabolism besides promoting arteriosclerosis and thrombosis. Studies have indicated that hypertriglycerol can induce insulin secretory abnomality, insulin resistance , and apoptosis. Studies indicate that abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and disorders of glucose metabolism. Adipose tissue especially the visceral fat tissue is the initial position of insulin resistance. The hypertriglyceridemia-abdominal obesity induce disorders of glucose metabolism, the main reason is that triggers the insulin secretion obstacles and insulin resistance. Here is to make a review on the related research and development between hypertriglyceridemia-abdominal obesity and disorders of glucose metabolism.

  2. Unsupervised detection, quantification and localization of white matter hyper-intensities in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White matter hyper-intensities (WMH) are punctual ischemic areas, related to arteriosclerosis, visible on T2- and PD-weighted MRI. They are present on elderly normal subjects, and their proportion vary between 27 to 83 % from study to study. This strong variability in their counting is especially caused by human observation, so an unsupervised detection tool is necessary. The method is based on the analysis of Tl-weighted MRI in sagittal orientation, and of T2- and PD-weighted MRI in transaxial orientation of a single subject. Detection of WMH is based on a segmentation phase, and contains a large number of pre- and post-processing. First, a correction of inhomogeneities due to instrumentation is applied, with the modelization of the intensity variations appearing on a homogenous object. and the Computing a correction matrix. The three MRI modalities are then placed in a single referential, using a MRI-PET registration method. The brain is segmented on the Tl-weighted MRI, resulting in a mask used to segment the two others modalities after registration. A multispectral bayesian segmentation algorithm extracts the white matter (WM) and objects likely to be WMH. A set of morphological operations generate an image representing WM and potential WMH. A second segmentation of this image, in two classes, results in a WMH mask. It is then possible to list the WMH, their size, their shape, and their position in the MRI referential. At last, the coordinates of the WMH centers of mass are placed into Talairach space, allowing statistical analysis on a large number of subjects. This method has been in part applied on a data base of 850 subjects. The four steps (correction of inhomogeneities, registration, segmentation of the brain and detection of AC and PC landmarks) result in a global success rate of 90 %. (author)

  3. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiro [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Sugiura, Hisatoshi, E-mail: sugiura@rm.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Koarai, Akira; Kikuchi, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Masataka; Kawabata, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Keiichiro; Hirano, Tsunahiko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Minakata, Yoshiaki [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Ichinose, Masakazu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P<0.001) and collagen I (P<0.001) expression in HFL-1. 25-HC also significantly enhanced the release and activation of matrix metallaoproteinase (MMP)-2 (P<0.001) and MMP-9 (P<0.001) without any significant effect on the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. 25-HC stimulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β{sub 1} production (P<0.01) and a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody restored these 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses. 25-HC significantly promoted the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 into the nuclei (P<0.01), but not phospholylated-c-jun, a complex of activator protein-1. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB restored the 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses and TGF-β{sub 1} release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway.

  4. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  5. 数字化远程医疗模式在社区眼病筛查中的应用与评价%Application and Evaluation of Digital Remote Medical Model in Community Eye Disease Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菊红; 韩琤琤; 任学焘; 何志宏; 张磊; 王凌云; 马春红; 于秀文; 王学渊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of digital remote medical model in community eye disease screening. Methods Cooperation platform between community health centers and specialist medical institutions was established with digital remote medical information technology. Residents 55 years old or above in Desheng Community, Xicheng District, Beijing were invited to participate voluntarily in eye disease screening using community bulletin. Staff of the community health center performed external and fundus photography with digital camera and uploaded the data. Diagnosis feedback was given to the subjects after grading by specialists. Results From June 2009 to August 2012, 9 798 residents were screened which accounted for 8. 72% of the community population. Eye diseases ( except cataract and retinal arteriosclerosis ) were found in 21. 32% ( 2 089/ 9 798 ) of the subjects, including 690 cases ( 7. 04% ) of maculopathy, 518 cases ( 5. 29% ) of glaucoma and suspected glaucoma, 180 cases ( 1.84% ) of diabetic retinopathy, and 44 cases ( 0.45% ) of retinal vein obstruction. In addition, 2 876 ( 29. 35% ) cases were diagnosed as cataract and 2 657 ( 27. 12% ) as retinal arteriosclerosis. The photographs of 344 ( 3. 51% ) subjects could not be graded. Diabetic retinopathy were detected in 8. 93% ( 174/1 948 ) of the subjects with diabetes mellitus and retinal arteriosclerosis was detected in 36. 09% ( 1 464/4 056 ) of the patients with hypertension. Conclusion Digital remote medical model is an effective method to screen eye disease in the community. This model can promote rational use of medical resources and early detection and prevention of eye diseases.%目的 评价数字化远程医疗模式在社区眼病筛查中的运行效果.方法 利用数字化远程医疗信息技术,建立社区卫生服务中心与专科医疗机构间的技术合作平台;选择北京市西城区德胜地区年龄55岁及以上的社区居民为研究对象,采用公告告知、

  6. 老年人急性肠系膜缺血的临床特征%Clinical features of acute mesenteric ischemia in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫静; 杨昆; 甘华田

    2016-01-01

    .Results Acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolus (ASMATE) was the main cause of AMI in the elderly group and acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) was the main cause of AMI in the non-elderly group.Elderly patients were more prone to misdiagnosis as compared with the non-elderly group (P =0.007).Abdominal pain (100.0%) was the most common clinical manifestation of AMI patients,followed by vomiting (58.7%).Nausea and vomiting were strongly associated with AMI in the elderly (P<0.05).In laboratory data,serum creatinine,lactate dehydrogenase and uric acid were higher and the D-Dimer level was lower in elderly patients than in non-elderly patients (P<0.05).Hypertension,atrial fibrillation,arteriosclerosis,ischemic heart disease,cerebral infarction and chronic renal insufficiency were more common in the elderly with AMI (all P<0.05),while history of alcohol intake was higher in the non-elderly group (P=0.042).Hypertension,arteriosclerosis and cerebral infarction were independent relevant factors for elderly-onset AMI (P =0.000,OR =4.057;P =0.001,OR=4.585;P=0.007,OR=4.269).The number of patients with colon necrosis was higher in the elderly group than in the non-elderly group (P=0.038),and the prognosis was worse in the elderly group than in the non-elderly group (P=0.001).Conclusions ASMATE is the main cause of AMI in elderly patients.Nausea and vomiting are the main clinical manifestations,together with impaired renal function.Hypertension,arteriosclerosis and cerebral infarction are the independent relevant factors for elderly-onset AMI.Elderly patients are more prone to misdiagnosis,show more severity and have worse prognosis.

  7. Risk factors for the occurrence and development of Binswanger disease: A controlled observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhua Deng; Junyao Li; Xiaoling Li

    2006-01-01

    thickening of carotid artery and vertebral artery preformed by TCD, BD was graded as mild intimal thickening (< 1.1 mm), moderate intimal thickening (1.1 to 1.2 mm) and severe intimal thickening (> 1.2 mm).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of the ratio of BD patients with accompanied diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, coronary heart disease and transient ischemic attacks, TCD performance, blood glucose and blood lipid level between BD patients group and control group, and among BD patients with various disease conditions.RESULTS: Totally 126 BD patients and 126 subjects who received health examination all participated in the result analysis. Intergroup comparison: ①The ratio of BD patients with accompanied hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease was 91.3%, 46.8%, 42.9%,81.7% and 46.0% respectively in the BD patients group, and that was 36.5%, 17.5%, 15.9%, 34.1% and 34.1%, respectively in the control group. Significant difference existed between two groups (χ2=86.201,24.907,25.660,58.620,9.900, P < 0.01).②Compared with control group, anterior, middle cerebral and vertebrobasilar arteriosclerosis and insufficient cerebral blood supply existed significantly in BD patients with different disease condition (x2=40.34,7.585,15.429, P < 0.01 ).③ Compared with control group, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride of BD patients increased significantly (t=-6.939,3.891,3.711 ,P < 0.01).Comparison among BD patients with different disease condition: ① Compared with stable period, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease were found much in the BD patients at progressive period, with significant difference (x2=7.196,13.517,P < 0.01 ).② Mild arteriosclerosis at stable period was found in 17 cases, and significant difference existed compared with progressive period (χ2=6.523,P < 0.05).③ There was no significant difference in the blood glucose and blood lipid level (t

  8. Action mechanisms of a new erythrocyte-derived depressing factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    prevention and treatment of hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

  9. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Claudia; Pierre, Juliette; Pezet, Sophie; Desailly, Yann; Lenkei, Zsolt; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-11-26

    -invasive microscopy in animals and humans using ultrasound. We anticipate that ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy may become an invaluable tool for the fundamental understanding and diagnostics of various disease processes that modify the microvascular blood flow, such as cancer, stroke and arteriosclerosis.

  10. Frequency of infarct-related artery with myocardial bridging in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and its impact upon percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    trend in women, suggesting that arteriosclerosis and plaque rupture occurs more easily in the proximal artery to MB than in younger patients. Poor TIMI grade flow in patients with MB in the IRA after primary PCI may contribute to a high in-hospital mortality rate (13%) and 6-month MACE (19%) in the MB patients.

  11. Effects of Smoking on Carotid Vascular Function%吸烟对颈动脉功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉梅; 余朝萍; 许锋成; 刘颖; 曾洪燕; 郭华莉; 晏明君; 刘于菲; 刘天虎

    2014-01-01

    目的:利用超声技术及血管回声跟踪技术(Echo tracking technology,ET)评价男性吸烟者颈动脉弹性功能。方法将符合要求的男性受试者,吸烟者112例,非吸烟者80例,检测各组颈总动脉内中膜厚度(Intima-media thickness, IMT)、并分析动脉硬化参数,包括动脉僵硬系数(Arterial stiffness coefficient,β)、压力-应变弹性系数(Pressure elastic coeffi-cient, Ep)、动脉顺应性(Artery compliance,AC)、膨大指数(Adamkiewicz index, AI)及脉搏波传导速度(Pulse wave velocity, PWV)。结果男性吸烟者双侧颈总动脉窦部和左侧颈总动脉 IMT 较男性非吸烟者增厚,差异有统计学意义,动脉僵硬系数(β)、压力-应变弹性系数(Ep)、脉搏波传导速度(PWV)增加,膨大指数(AI)及动脉顺应性(AC)下降。结论长期大量吸烟可以导致脂代谢紊乱,并可导致颈总动脉内中膜厚度增加,损伤血管内皮功能导致动脉硬化。%Objective Use of ultrasound and vascular Echo tracking technology (ET) to evaluate the effects of smoking on carotid vascular function. Methods 112 active male smokers and 80 male nonsmokers were enrolled,ultrasound and ET were used to detect the carotid vascular intima-media thickness(IMT), arterial stiffness coefficient(beta), pressure elastic coefficient (Ep), artery compliance(AC), Adamkiewicz index(AI) and pulse wave velocity(PWV). Results Compared to the male non-smokers, bilateral carotid sinus and the left common carotid artery intima-media thickness increased in active male smokers, the difference is significant. Arterial stiffness coefficient (β) rised,Pressure elastic coefficient ( Ep ) increased,Pulse wave velocity ( PWV ) accelerated, Adamkiewicz index ( AI ) and Artery compliance(AC) dropped . Conclusion long-term heavy smoking may affect the lipid, leading to abnormal metabolism of blood lipid and endothelial dysfunction, leading to arteriosclerosis.

  12. [Arteriolosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Pathology of the distal and proximal arterial bed. Pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2011-04-01

    interstitial tissue inflammation. The obligate part of the biological reaction of inflammation is the oxidation by reactive oxygen species and the generation of malondialdehyde, that is also a bifunctional reagent. Fibroblast proliferation and arteriosclerosis are a result of MAP as a destructive inflammatory process in the arteriolar and capillary walls. PMID:21739639

  13. Evaluating the intensity of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging: Preliminary in vitro results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cho-Chiang; Lai, Ting-Yu; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The ability to measure the elastic properties of plaques and vessels is significant in clinical diagnosis, particularly for detecting a vulnerable plaque. A novel concept of combining intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has recently been proposed. This method has potential in elastography for distinguishing between the stiffness of plaques and arterial vessel walls. However, the intensity of the acoustic radiation force requires calibration as a standard for the further development of an ARFI-IVUS imaging device that could be used in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-frequency transducer with 11MHz and 48MHz was used to measure the association between the biological tissue displacement and the applied acoustic radiation force. The output intensity of the acoustic radiation force generated by the pushing element ranged from 1.8 to 57.9mW/cm(2), as measured using a calibrated hydrophone. The results reveal that all of the acoustic intensities produced by the transducer in the experiments were within the limits specified by FDA regulations and could still displace the biological tissues. Furthermore, blood clots with different hematocrits, which have elastic properties similar to the lipid pool of plaques, with stiffness ranging from 0.5 to 1.9kPa could be displaced from 1 to 4μm, whereas the porcine arteries with stiffness ranging from 120 to 291kPa were displaced from 0.4 to 1.3μm when an acoustic intensity of 57.9mW/cm(2) was used. The in vitro ARFI images of the artery with a blood clot and artificial arteriosclerosis showed a clear distinction of the stiffness distributions of the vessel wall. All the results reveal that ARFI-IVUS imaging has the potential to distinguish the elastic properties of plaques and vessels. Moreover, the acoustic intensity used in ARFI imaging has been experimentally quantified. Although the size of this two-element transducer is unsuitable for IVUS imaging, the

  14. Manifestaciones oftalmológicas de la enfermedad cerebrovascular Ophthalmological manifestations of cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gállego

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El ojo constituye una diana para la enfermedad vascular. El estudio de la microcirculación retiniana constituye una oportunidad muy interesante para la valoración del riesgo vascular al conocer la relación existente entre los cambios vasculares en la retina y el riesgo de padecer un ictus. Es además una ventana excepcional para conocer mejor la fisiopatología de la microcirculación. La arteria oftálmica es la primera rama de la arteria carótida interna. La afectación ocular puede ser uni o bilateral. Los síntomas oculares o neuro-oftalmológicos son transitorios o persistentes y sus manifestaciones son muy heterogéneas abarcando alteraciones de la agudeza visual, trastornos de los campos visuales, síndromes oculomotores y manifestaciones clínicas corticales y subcorticales complejas. Su conocimiento puede resultar clave para instaurar las medidas preventivas pertinentes o establecer el correcto diagnóstico y la aproximación diagnóstica inmediata, tan importante en la atención de los procesos vasculares cerebrales.Transient or persistent loss of vision in one eye is a common and distinctive manifestation of occlusive vascular disease. Occasionally, both eyes are involved together or sequentially, with temporary or even permanent blindness. The internal carotid arteries supply blood to the organ of vision; therefore pathologies of those arteries caused by arteriosclerosis may have a direct influence on its functioning. The most common syndromes are temporary (amaurosis fugax or constant reduction of visual acuity. In fundus examination central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are the most common diagnosis, while retinal vein occlusion, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, ocular ischemic syndrome are less common. There are many clinical ophtlamological manifestations due to vascular brain damage. Proper recognition and diagnosis of the disease may protect the patient against serious life

  15. Clinical analysis of 128 cases of cerebral infarction in young patients%青年脑梗死128例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩传孝; 王修军; 李凤玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨青年脑梗死的病因、危险因素、临床特点及预后.方法 回顾性分析128例青年脑梗死患者的临床资料.结果 115例有明确病因(89.84%),13例病因不详(10.12%).主要危险因素有:高血压病、吸烟、家族史、短暂性脑缺血发作及高血脂症.临床特点为:多见于男性,意识障碍少,预后较好.结论 青年脑梗死的病因以动脉粥样硬化最多见,其次为炎症性血管病和心源性栓塞,主要危险因素是高血压病、吸烟、家族史、短暂性脑缺血发作及高血脂症.一般预后较好,治愈率高,病死率低.%Objective To investigate the cause, dangerous factors,clinical features and prognosis of cerebral infarction in young patients. Methods To review the clinical data of 128 patients with cerebral infarction. Results There were 115 patients who had clear causes(89. 84% ) , and 13 patients who had no clear cause ( 10. 12% ). The main dangerous factors of cerebral infarction in young patients includes hypertension, smoking, family history, TIA and hyperlipemia. The features of cerebral infarction in young patients includes more male patients, and less disturbance of consciousness. The prognosis of the patients was good. Conclusions The main cause of cerebral infarction in young patients is arteriosclerosis.The minor causes are inflammation of vessels and embolism from heart. The main dangerous factors includes hypertension, smoking, family history, TIA and hyperlipemia. The prognosis of the patients is good. The recovery rate is high and the mortality is low.

  16. Evaluation of femoral artery elasticity in passive smokers and active smokers by E - tracking technology%血管回声跟踪技术评价主动与被动吸烟者股动脉弹性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞艳华; 郑转梅; 周琦; 雷晓莹

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血管回声跟踪(ET)技术评价主动吸烟者与被动吸烟者股动脉血管弹性功能的应用价值.方法 利用ET技术检测40例主动吸烟者、40例被动吸烟者、40例健康对照组的股动脉,通过内-中膜厚度(IMT)、僵硬度(β)、压力-应变弹性系数(Eρ)、动脉顺应性(AC)、脉搏波放大指数(AI)及脉搏波传导速度(PWVβ)评价动脉硬化程度.结果主动吸烟组AI、PWVβ高于被动吸烟组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);主动吸烟组、被动吸烟组β和Eρ均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05); 主动吸烟组、被动吸烟组AC均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 ET技术可早期发现被动吸烟者和主动吸烟者股动脉弹性功能的改变,测量结果精确,是一种无创、便捷的检查方法.%Objective To explore the application value of E - tracking technology (ET) in evaluating femoral artery elasticity in passive smokers and active smokers. Methods Forty active smokers, 40 passive smokers and 40 normal persons (the control group) were enrolled in this study. The arteriosclerosis degree was evaluated by (intima- media thickness) IMT,pressure- strain elastic modulus (Ep), stiffness parameters (β), arterial compliance (AC), pulse amplification index (Al),Pulse wave transmission speed(PWVβ). Results Al and PWVβ in active smoking group were higher than those in passive smoking group, while βand Eρ in active smoking group and passive smoking group were higher than those in normal control group (P <0.05), there was significant difference. AC was lower in passive and active smokers than that in normal control group,there was significant difference ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion As a convenient and non - invasive method, ET can be used to access the vessel dysfunction of passive and active smokers accurately.

  17. Efecto del germinado de maíz sobre el perfil lipídico, la hemoglobina y la uricemia Effect of clorophilic juice from germinated corn on seric lipids, hemoglobin, and uric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Bravo Aguiar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del jugo clorofílico de germinado de maíz, con una dosis de 30 ml diarios durante dos meses, sobre el perfil lipídico, la glicemia, la uricemia, la hemoglobina y el hematocrito, en nueve adultos con edad promedio de 44 años y que presentaban hipertrigliceridemia como trastorno principal. Las concentraciones promedio iniciales en mgl dl que eran de 6.9 (ácido úrico, 259 (triglicéridos y 199 (colesterol total descendieron en forma progresiva y significativa a los 30, 45 y 60 días de tratamiento hasta valores respectivos de 5.0, 171 y 169 (p = 0.010,0.015 y 0.034 respectivamente. La hemoglobina ascendió de manera progresiva y significativa (p = 0.008 durante el experimento. Este tratamiento natural podría ser útil en la regulación de los lípidos sanguíneos y otros factores biológicos de riesgo para el desarrollo de ateromatosis coronaría, sin los efectos tóxicos que se han demostrado con algunas drogas hipolipemiantes. The effect was studied of clorophilic juice from germinated corn on blood seric lipids, uric acid, glucose, hemoglobine and hematocrite. Nine adults with average age 44 years and who presented hypertriglyceridemia received daily 30 ml doses of the juice during 2 months. Initial average concentrations in mg/dl were 6.9 (uric acid, 259 (triglycerides and 199 (total cholesterol; they decreased progressively and significantly at 30, 45 and 60 days of treatment reaching values of 5.0, 171 and 169 respectively (p:0.01 0,0.015 and 0.034. Hemoglobin increased significantly (p:0.008. This natural treatment could be useful in regulating blood lipids and other biologic risk factors for coronary arteriosclerosis, without the toxic efects shown by some lipid control drugs.

  18. Arterial stiffness, as monitored by cardio–ankle vascular index, is affected by obstructive sleep apnea, blood glucose control, and body weight – a case with 8 years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Shimizu,1 Tomoyuki Yamamoto,2,3 Kohji Shirai2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Function, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, Chiba, Japan; 3Biological Information Analysis Section, Fukuda Denshi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Mihama Hospital, Chiba, Japan Abstract: The cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI is an indicator of arterial stiffness from the heart to the ankles. The CAVI increases as arteriosclerosis progresses, but it can be decreased by appropriate treatment. There are several risk factors for coronary artery disease, however, the degree of stress caused by each separate risk factor to arteries cannot be assessed. CAVI increases with age and according to the severity of atherosclerosis. We found that CAVI also changes in response to the control of risk factors, which may be associated with the functional stiffness of arteries. CAVI can be a useful indicator of risk control for coronary artery disease. We followed a patient aged 71 years who had diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by measuring CAVI for 8 years from age 63. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting due to angina pectoris when he was 63 years old. Before coronary artery bypass grafting, CAVI was 11.8 on the right and 11.5 on the left. Three years later he was found to have OSA and received treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. There was a marked improvement in CAVI after continuous positive airway pressure (age 68; right 10.4, left 10.2. However, following a gradual increase in body weight and worsening of diabetes mellitus, CAVI showed an increasing trend. CAVI decreased with biguanides treatment, but increased again with an increase in body weight. In conclusion, CAVI responded to the patient’s conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and OSA. CAVI is not only a marker of arterial stiffness, but can also be a

  19. Primary study on imaging in transient ischemic attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jie; LI Kun-cheng; HUA Yang

    2005-01-01

    Background Although transient ischemic attacks (TIA) is a clinical diagnosis, imaging findings are important for its diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluated the value and limitations of conventional CT, CT cerebral perfusion imaging and transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in patients with TIA.Methods Conventional CT, CT cerebral perfusion imaging and TCD were performed in 20 patients with TIA. After regular CT examination, 40-second dynamic scans were performed on selected slice, while 40 ml of non-ionic contrast materials was bolus-injected through antecubital vein with power injector. These dynamic images were processed with the perfusion software package on workstation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and time to peak (TTP) were measured in specific regions of the brain. TCD was also performed in 20 patients with TIA. Comparative analysis was made on the basis of the results of conventional CT, CT cerebral perfusion imaging and TCD. Results In the 20 patients with TIA, conventional CT turned out to be normal. However, persisting abnormal perfusion changes corresponding to clinical symptoms were found in 13 cases with the prolonged TTP. The other 7 cases were normal. TTP of the affected side (11.6±3.0)s was significantly prolonged (t=4.782,P<0.01) in comparison with the contralateral side (8.8±1.5)s. The difference in CBF was not statistically significant (t=1.912, P=0.073) between the affected side [(223.9±19.6) ml*min-1*L-1] and the contralateral side [(227.7±19.8) ml*min-1*L-1] . TCD revealed severe stenosis or occlusion of the carotid artery in 10 patients, arteriosclerosis in 6 patients, blood speed decrease in 2 patients, vasospasm in 1 patient. Conclusions Conventional CT can exclude intracerebral diseases. Perfusion CT provides valuable hemodynamic information and shows the extent of perfusion disturbances. TCD can demonstrate abnormalities of the involved arteries in patients with TIA. The combination of these three imaging methods can provide more

  20. Intracranial aneurysm formation in type-one diabetes rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications including arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Whether DM impacts intracranial aneurysm (IA formation has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we tested the underlying mechanism of type one DM (T1DM induced IA formation in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: T1DM was induced by streptozotocin injection. Rats were euthanized at 0, 4 and 10 weeks after T1DM induction. To evaluate cerebral vascular perfusion, Fluorescein isothiocyanate - dye was injected at 5 min prior to euthanasia. Vascular perfusion was measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Trichrome, Elastica van Gieson, alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA and receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 immunostaining were performed. The IA formation was classified by 0-3 stages: 0: Normal; 1: Endothelial damage; 2: Moderate protrusion; and 3: Saccular aneurysm formation. RESULTS: T1DM significantly increased IA formation identified by the classification of aneurysmal changes compared with non-DM rats (p<0.05. However, T1DM induced IA formations were classified as stage 1 and stage 2, but not stage 3. Cerebral vascular perfusion was significantly decreased in T1DM rats compared to non-DM rats (p<0.01. DM10W rats exhibited a significant decrease of cerebral vascular perfusion compared to DM4W rats (p<0.05. T1DM rats also significantly increased the internal carotid artery (ICA intimae and media thickness, and decreased the internal carotid artery diameter compared to non-DM rats. RAGE, MMP9 and TLR4 expression were significantly increased in T1DM rats compared to non-DM rats. The increased RAGE, TLR4 and MMP9 significantly correlated with IA formation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: T1DM increases IA formation. The increased RAGE, MMP9 and TLR4 expressions might contribute to IA formation in T1DM rats.