WorldWideScience

Sample records for arteries state-of-the-art endoluminal

  1. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  2. Inferior knee arterial endoluminal angioplasty in treating severe lower limb ischemia though the DEEP balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoqin; Jiang Guomin; Zhao Jinwei; Chen Yaxian; Tian Feng; Wang Yun; Huang Wenhua; Ni Caifang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of inferior knee arterial endoluminal angioplasty for treating severe lower limb ischemia with the use of the DEEP balloon catheter. Methods: Eleven patients (17 limbs) with severe ischemia of lower extremities from August 2007 to April 2008 were retrospectively studied. All involved limbs suffered from rest pain including 6 limbs (6/17)complicated with ulcer, 2 (2/17) with toe gangrene or 3 (3/17)with both of the complaints. ABI (Ankle bxancial index) were 0.2-0.5 and 0.51-0.7 in 12 limbs and 5 limbs respectively, with average value 0.47. Results: The success rate of operation was 100% (17/17). Pain relieved obviously in 13 limbs (13/17) and reduced in 2 limbs (2/17). 2 limbs (2/17) still suffered from pain and underwent upper-knee amputation and other 2 with ulcerations(2/ 17)were healed. 3 (3/17) with toe gangrene underwent partial foot amputation, 1 with dried gangrene remained unchanged and the other was lost. Another one showed ulcer healed and toe was lost. Increase of ABI was more than 0.5 in 10 limbs(10/17) and 0.3-0.5 in 5 limbs(5/17) with average value of 0.83. 10 patients with sixteen limbs were followed up in an average period of 4.3 months (1-9 months). Of the 15 immediate pain-relieved limbs, 12(12/15) limbs remained free of pain and pain recurred in 3 other limbs; and 2 of them with pain-reduced after PTA again; the other 1 underwent amputation, Average value of ABI was 0.70. Conclusions: Inferior arterial endoluminal angioplasty for the treatment of severe limb ischemia with application of the DEEP balloon catheter show high successful rate and short-term encouraging clinical results but mid-term and long-terms follow up should be undertaken for further investigation. (authors)

  3. Endoluminal MR imaging of the rectum and anus: technique, applications, and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.; Zwamborn, A. W.; Schouten, W. R.; Laméris, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Anorectal diseases (e.g., fecal incontinence, perianal and anovaginal fistulas, anorectal tumors) require imaging for proper case management. Endoluminal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important part of diagnostic work-up in such cases. Optimal endoluminal MR imaging requires careful

  4. Clinical value of endoluminal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of rectovaginal fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hao-Qiang; Wang, Chen; Peng, Xin; Xu, Fang; Ren, Ya-Juan; Chao, Yong-Qing; Lu, Jin-Gen; Wang, Song; Xiao, Hu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) refers to a pathological passage between the rectum and vagina, which is a public health challenge. This study was aimed to explore the clinical value of endoluminal biplane ultrasonography in the diagnosis of rectovaginal fistula (RVF). Thirty inpatients and outpatients with suspected RVF from January 2006 to June 2013 were included in the study, among whom 28 underwent surgical repair. All 28 patients underwent preoperative endoluminal ultrasonography, and the obtained diagnostic results were compared with the corresponding surgical results. All of the internal openings located at the anal canal and rectum of the 28 patients and confirmed during surgery were revealed by preoperative endosonography, which showed a positive predictive value of 100 %. Regarding the 30 internal openings located in the vagina during surgery, the positive predictive value of preoperative endosonography was 93 %. The six cases of simple fistulas confirmed during surgery were revealed by endosonography; for the 22 cases of complex fistula confirmed during surgery, the positive predictive value of endosonography was 90 %. Surgery confirmed 14 cases of anal fistula and 14 cases of RVF, whereas preoperative endoluminal ultrasonography suggested 16 cases of anal fistula and 12 cases of RVF, resulting in positive predictive values of 92.3 and 93 %, respectively. The use of endoluminal biplane ultrasonography in the diagnosis of RVF can accurately determine the internal openings in the rectum or vagina and can relatively accurately identify concomitant branches and abscesses located in the rectovaginal septum. Thus, it is a good imaging tool for examining internal and external anal sphincter injuries and provides useful information for preoperative preparation and postoperative evaluation

  5. A Benchmark for Endoluminal Scene Segmentation of Colonoscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vázquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, the standard approach to reduce CRC-related mortality is to perform regular screening in search for polyps and colonoscopy is the screening tool of choice. The main limitations of this screening procedure are polyp miss rate and the inability to perform visual assessment of polyp malignancy. These drawbacks can be reduced by designing decision support systems (DSS aiming to help clinicians in the different stages of the procedure by providing endoluminal scene segmentation. Thus, in this paper, we introduce an extended benchmark of colonoscopy image segmentation, with the hope of establishing a new strong benchmark for colonoscopy image analysis research. The proposed dataset consists of 4 relevant classes to inspect the endoluminal scene, targeting different clinical needs. Together with the dataset and taking advantage of advances in semantic segmentation literature, we provide new baselines by training standard fully convolutional networks (FCNs. We perform a comparative study to show that FCNs significantly outperform, without any further postprocessing, prior results in endoluminal scene segmentation, especially with respect to polyp segmentation and localization.

  6. Dosimetry in high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Kotaka, Kikuo; Itami, Jun

    1994-01-01

    In endoluminal brachytherapy for the tracheobronchial tree, esophagus, and bile duct, a reference point for dose calculation has been often settled at 1 cm outside from the middle of source travel path. In the current study, a change in the ratio of the reference point dose on the convex to concave side (Dq/Dp) was calculated, provided the source travel path bends as is the case in most endoluminal brachytherapies. Point source was presumed to move stepwise at 1 cm interval from 4 to 13 locations. Retention time at each location was calculated by personal computer so as to deliver equal dose at 1 cm from the linear travel path. With the retention time remaining constant, the change of Dq/Dp was assessed by bending the source travel path. Results indicated that the length of the source travel path and radius of its curve influenced the pattern of change in Dq/Dp. Therefore, it was concluded that the difference in reference dose on the convex and concave side of the curved path is not negligible under certain conditions in endoluminal brachytherapy. In order to maintain the ratio more than 0.9, relatively greater radius was required when the source travel path was decreased. (author)

  7. Endoluminal MR imaging of porcine gastric structure in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Hayato; Morita, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Yuichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several new endoscopic instruments have been developed. However, even with the full use of current modalities, the safety of endoscopic surgery is not guaranteed. Information regarding factors such as fibrosis and the blood vessels under the mucosa is very important for avoiding procedure-related complications. The aim of this study was to define the detailed anatomy of the gastric wall structure in vivo using original endoluminal radiofrequency coils for safer endoscopic therapy. Swine were used as the subjects and controlled with general anesthesia. Anatomical images were obtained with T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1FSE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2FSE). Dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was also obtained with three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-DMRA) following the injection of hyaluronic acid sodium into the submucosal layer. Porcine gastric wall structure was visualized, and four layers were discriminated in the T1FSE and T2FSE images. The vascular structure was clearly recognized in the submucosa on 3D-DMRA. Endoluminal MR imaging was able to visualize the porcine stomach with similar quality to endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Additionally, it was possible to visualize the vascular structures in the submucosal layer. This is the first report to show that blood vessels under the gastric mucosa can be depicted in vivo. (author)

  8. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  9. Bariatric Surgery and Endoluminal Procedures: IFSO Worldwide Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L; Santonicola, A; Iovino, P; Vitiello, A; Zundel, N; Buchwald, H; Scopinaro, N

    2017-09-01

    Several bariatric surgery worldwide surveys have been previously published to illustrate the evolution of bariatric surgery in the last decades. The aim of this survey is to report an updated overview of all bariatric procedures performed in 2014.For the first time, a special section on endoluminal techniques was added. The 2014 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) survey form evaluating the number and the type of surgical and endoluminal bariatric procedures was emailed to all IFSO societies. Trend analyses from 2011 to 2014 were also performed. There were 56/60 (93.3%) responders. The total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures performed in 2014 consisted of 579,517 (97.6%) surgical operations and 14,725 (2.4%) endoluminal procedures. The most commonly performed procedure in the world was sleeve gastrectomy (SG) that reached 45.9%, followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (39.6%), and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) (7.4%). The annual percentage changes from 2013 revealed the increase of SG and decrease of RYGB in all the IFSO regions (USA/Canada, Europe, and Asia/Pacific) with the exception of Latin/South America, where SG decreased and RYGB represented the most frequent procedure. There was a further increase in the total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures in 2014 and SG is currently the most frequent surgical procedure in the world. This is the first survey that describes the endoluminal procedures, but the accuracy of provided data should be hopefully improved in the next future. We encourage the creation of further national registries and their continuous updates taking into account all new bariatric procedures including the endoscopic procedures that will obtain increasing importance in the near future.

  10. Endoluminal MR imaging of the rectum and anus: technique, applications, and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stoker (Jacob); E. Rociu (Elena); A.W. Zwamborn; W.R. Schouten (Ruud); J.S. Lameris

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAnorectal diseases (e.g., fecal incontinence, perianal and anovaginal fistulas, anorectal tumors) require imaging for proper case management. Endoluminal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important part of diagnostic work-up in such cases.

  11. Fracture of an endoluminal nitinol stent used in the treatment of tracheal collapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleman, Elise; Weisse, Chick; Mehler, Stephen J; Lee, Justine A

    2004-10-15

    A 5-year-old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated because of severe dyspnea and coughing, and a diagnosis of complete, static collapse of the trachea at the thoracic inlet was made. After failure to improve with medical management alone, an endoluminal tracheal stent was placed, which resulted in resolution of signs. Ten weeks after stent placement, the dog underwent tracheal resection and anastomosis because the stent had fractured at the level of the thoracic inlet. One year after surgery, the dog was doing well and required treatment with hydrocodone infrequently. Compared with other surgical treatment options, placement of an endoluminal tracheal stent is a relatively noninvasive intervention that can provide effective relief from the clinical signs associated with tracheal collapse in dogs. Implantation of endoluminal tracheal stents may be associated with complications; therefore, the procedure may best be regarded as a salvage procedure for dogs with end-stage disease that are refractory to appropriate medical management, have extensive collapse of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea, or are poor candidates for surgery.

  12. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.

  13. Innovative Design of a Laparoscopic Probe for Non-Invasive Intraoperative Detection of Small Endoluminal Digestive Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mocan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the design methodology, the prototype development and the ex-vivo testing of a sensing laparoscopic probe that could be used by surgeons and by surgeon’s assistive robotic systems for detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours. The proposed design framework guides the decision-makers towards a superior balance between quality, efficiency and surgical procedure issues in medical instruments development. A prototype of the sensitive laparoscopic probe for non-invasive intraoperative detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours was developed. The prototype was tested in ex-vivo experimental conditions – open and laparoscopic surgery. The results reveals that the developed prototype is easy to use, adequate and efficient in precise detection of small endoluminal digestive tumours in-between 60÷85% of cases.

  14. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany); Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  15. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael; Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  16. Origem anômala da artéria circunflexa da artéria pulmonar direita Anomalous origin of circunflex artery from the right pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos R Iglézias

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available É relatado, pela primeira vez na literatura, o caso de paciente adulto de 35 anos, com queixa de dor precordial aos esforços desde há 17 anos e que, após ter sido submetido a correção de coarctação de aorta, foi investigado e teve como diagnóstico: origem anômala da artéria circunflexa. No intra-operatório, constatou-se que a mesma tinha origem na artéria pulmonar direita. Foi realizada a sutura do óstio anômalo e um enxerto livre da artéria torácica interna direita para a coronária circunflexa. Além da raridade da lesão, são possíveis considerações fisiopatológicas relacionadas com a coarctação da aorta, neste caso específico.A case never described in adults before is here reported. A 35-year-old patient who had referred precordial pain in effort for seventeen years was investigated after having been submitted to correction of coarctation of the aorta, and had the following diagnosis: anomalous origin of the circunflex artery. In the intraoperatory, the latter was found to proceeed from the right pulmonary artery. The anomalous ostio was sutured and a free graft was made, from the right internal thoracic artery to the circunflex coronary. In addition to the unusualness of such pathology, some physiopatologic considerations related to the coarctation of the aorta may be made, in this particular case.

  17. State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

  18. Neurological Complications Following Endoluminal Repair of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J. P.; Taylor, P. R.; Bell, R. E.; Chan, Y. C.; Sabharwal, T.; Carrell, T. W. G.; Reidy, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Open surgery for thoracic aortic disease is associated with significant morbidity and the reported rates for paraplegia and stroke are 3%-19% and 6%-11%, respectively. Spinal cord ischemia and stroke have also been reported following endoluminal repair. This study reviews the incidence of paraplegia and stroke in a series of 186 patients treated with thoracic stent grafts. From July 1997 to September 2006, 186 patients (125 men) underwent endoluminal repair of thoracic aortic pathology. Mean age was 71 years (range, 17-90 years). One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated electively and 58 patients had urgent procedures. Anesthesia was epidural in 131, general in 50, and local in 5 patients. Seven patients developed paraplegia (3.8%; two urgent and five elective). All occurred in-hospital apart from one associated with severe hypotension after a myocardial infarction at 3 weeks. Four of these recovered with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. One patient with paraplegia died and two had permanent neurological deficit. The rate of permanent paraplegia and death was 1.6%. There were seven strokes (3.8%; four urgent and three elective). Three patients made a complete recovery, one had permanent expressive dysphasia, and three died. The rate of permanent stroke and death was 2.1%. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic disease is an attractive alternative to open surgery; however, there is still a risk of paraplegia and stroke. Permanent neurological deficits and death occurred in 3.7% of the patients in this series. We conclude that prompt recognition of paraplegia and immediate insertion of a CSF drain can be an effective way of recovering spinal cord function and improving the prognosis

  19. PCA-induced respiratory depression simulating stroke following endoluminal repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

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    Ahmad Javed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To report a case of severe respiratory depression with PCA fentanyl use simulating stroke in a patient who underwent routine elective endoluminal graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA Case presentation A 78-year-old obese lady underwent routine endoluminal graft repair for AAA that was progressively increasing in size. Following an uneventful operation postoperative analgesia was managed with a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA device with fentanyl. On the morning following operation the patient was found to be unusually drowsy and unresponsive to stimuli. Her GCS level was 11 with plantars upgoing bilaterally. A provisional diagnosis of stroke was made. Urgent transfer to a high-dependency unit (HDU was arranged and she was given ventilatory support with a BiPap device. CT was performed and found to be normal. Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis showed respiratory acidosis with PaCO2 81 mmHg, PaO2 140 mmHg, pH 7.17 and base excess -2 mmol/l. A total dose of 600 mcg of fentanyl was self-administered in the 16 hours following emergence from general anaesthesia. Naloxone was given with good effect. There was an increase in the creatinine level from 90 μmol/L preoperatively to 167 μmol/L on the first postoperative day. The patient remained on BiPap for two days that resulted in marked improvement in gas exchange. Recovery was complete.

  20. Endoluminal pharmacologic stimulation of the upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Jørn Skibsted

    2013-05-01

    The experiments performed in this PhD thesis were conducted at the Institute of Experimental Surgery, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark and at the Laboratory of Animal Science, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The thesis is based on 3 peer review articles published in international journals and a review. Diagnostic or therapeutic endoscopic upper urinary tract procedures are usually characterised as minimal invasive procedures and associated with a low complication rate. Most often fever or pain are seen and sometimes septicaemia. However, mucosa lesion or even ureteric ruptures are known complications. Research has suggested that high renal pelvic pressures generated during these procedures, might contribute to per-/postoperative complications seen, and even possible renal parenchymal damage. Nevertheless, local administration (endoluminal) of a relaxant drug has not previously been tried in order to lower renal pelvic pressure. The purposes of this thesis were to examine the effect of local administration (endoluminal) of the nonspecific β-adrenergic agonist ISOproterenol (ISO) on: 1) The normal pressure flow relation in porcine ureter, 2) The effect of endoluminal ISO perfusion during flexible ureterorenoscopy, 3) The pressure flow relation during semirigid ureterorenoscopy and 4) The cardiovascular system. Among other receptor-types β-adrenergic receptor are located in the upper urinary tract and the activation thereof mediates smooth muscle relaxation. We have shown - in an animal experimental model - that ISO added to the irrigation fluid had significant impact on the renal pelvic pressures generated during upper urinary tract endoscopy. ISO significantly and dose dependently reduced the normal pressure flow relations by approximately 80% without concomitant cardiovascular side effects or measurable plasma levels of ISO. During flexible ureterorenoscopy 0.1 µg/ml ISO added to the irrigation fluid significantly reduced renal pelvic pressure during

  1. Antireflux Endoluminal Therapies: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Chao Yew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle of antireflux procedures employing endoscopic intervention aims to create a mechanical barrier to prevent primary pathophysiology in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. We review, highlight, and discuss the past and present status of endoluminal therapy. Currently, there are 3 commonly employed anti-reflux endoluminal procedures: fundoplication or suturing techniques (EndoCinch, NDO, and EsophyX, intramural injection or implant techniques (enhancing lower esophageal sphincter (LES volume and/or strengthening compliance of the LES-Enteryx and Gatekeeper, and radiofrequency ablation of LES and cardia. EndoCinch plication requires further study and modification of technique before it can be recommended because of durability issues. Esophynx, the transoral incisionless fundoplication, may reduce hiatal hernias and increase LES length. Preliminary studies have shown promising reduction in symptoms and medication use but evidence concerning safety and long-term durability is still pending. The safety issue with injection technique is the main concern as evident from the incidences of implant withdrawals after reported major adverse events. Future research with cautious monitoring is required before any new implant material can be recommended for commercial application. Radiofrequency ablation therapy is regaining popularity in treating refractory symptoms despite PPI use due to improved efficacy, durability, and safety after years of refinement of protocol.

  2. State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases are perfo......This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases...

  3. Safety of Perioperative Aprotinin Administration During Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Insights From the ART (Arterial Revascularization Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Umberto; Altman, Douglas G; Gerry, Stephen; Gray, Alastair; Lees, Belinda; Angelini, Gianni D; Flather, Marcus; Taggart, David P

    2018-03-03

    There is still uncertainty about the safety of aprotinin for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The ART (Arterial Revascularization Trial) was designed to compare survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. Many of the ART patients (≈30%) received perioperative aprotinin. We investigated the association between perioperative aprotinin administration and short-term (in-hospital) and long-term outcomes by performing a post hoc analysis of the ART. Among patients enrolled in the ART (n=3102) from 2004 to 2007, we excluded those who did not undergo surgery (n=18) and those with no information about use of perioperative aprotinin (n=9). Finally, 836 of 3076 patients (27%) received aprotinin. Propensity matching was used to select 536 pairs for final comparison. Aprotinin was also associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality (9 [1.7%] versus 1 [0.2%]; odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-72.2; P =0.03), intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (37 [6.9%] versus 17 [3.2%]; odds ratio, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.26-4.07; P =0.006), and acute kidney injury (102 [19.0%] versus 76 [14.2%]; odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03-1.97; P =0.03). Aprotinin was not associated with a lower incidence of transfusion (37 [6.9%] versus 28 [5.2%]; odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.23; P =0.25) and reexploration (26 [4.9%] versus 19 [3.5%]; hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.76-2.53; P =0.28). At 5 years, all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the aprotinin group (56 [10.6%] versus 38 [7.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.0-2.28; P =0.045). In the present post hoc ART analysis, aprotinin was associated with a significantly increased risk of early and late mortality. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN46552265. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Endoluminal norepinephrine inhibits smooth muscle activity of the pig pyeloureter by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors without side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens; Holst, Uffe; Jacobsen, Jørn Skibsted

    2008-01-01

    of pyeloureter and to reveal possible side effects on cardiovascular and renal functions. Renal pelvis was perfused, while pelvic pressure, cardiovascular and renal functional parameters were recorded. In group A, a pelvic pressure increase was examined during pressure flow studies with norepinephrine solutions......It has been demonstrated in pigs that endoluminal administration of norepinephrine reduces the increase in renal pelvic pressure during perfusion. The purposes were to describe concentration-response relationship and receptor mechanism of the effect of norepinephrine on muscle function...... a renal pelvis pressure increase to perfusion in a dose-related way without side effects. Endoluminal norepinephrine is safe in pigs and may be useful under endoscopy of the pyeloureter....

  5. Antiphospholipid Syndrome during pregnancy: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Fosca A. F.; Valenti, Oriana; Hyseni, Entela; Giorgio, Elsa; Faraci, Marianna; Renda, Eliana; De Domenico, Roberta; Monte, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Obstetric complications are the hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome. Recurrent miscarriage, early delivery, oligohydramnios, prematurity, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal distress, fetal or neonatal thrombosis, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, arterial or venous thrombosis and placental insufficiency are the most severe APS-related complication for pregnant women. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes and platelets, causing an overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. These factors, associated with the typical changes in the hemostatic system during normal pregnancy, result in a hypercoagulable state. This is responsible of thrombosis that is presumed to provoke many of the pregnancy complications associated with APS. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with the association between aspirin and heparin. This review aims to deter- mine the current state of the art of APS by investigating the knowledge achievements of recent years, to provide the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic management for pregnant women suffering from this syndrome. PMID:22439075

  6. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy. Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The findings summarized in this report are intended to shed light on what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, why it is necessary and important to cultivate this demand, and what state arts agencies (SAAs) and other arts and education policymakers can do to help. The research considered only the benchmark arts central to public policy:…

  7. Support for Arts Education. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Supporting lifelong learning in the arts is a top priority for state arts agencies. By supporting arts education in the schools, state arts agencies foster young imaginations, address core academic standards, and promote the critical thinking and creativity skills essential to a 21st century work force. State arts agencies also support…

  8. CT colonography: comparison of a colon dissection display versus 3D endoluminal view for the detection of polyps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchems, Markus S.; Pauls, Sandra; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Aschoff, Andrik J.; Fleiter, Thorsten R.; Schmidt, Stefan A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, and postprocessing time of a colon dissection approach to regular 3D-endoluminal workup of computed tomography (CT) colonography for the detection of polypoid lesions. Twenty-one patients who had received conventional colonoscopy after CT colonography were selected; 18 patients had either colon polyps or colon cancer and three had no findings. CT colonography was performed using a 4-channel multi-detector-row (MDR) CT in ten cases and a 16-channel MDR-CT in 11 cases. A blinded reader retrospectively evaluated all colonographies using both viewing methods in a randomized order. Thirty-seven polyps were identified by optical colonoscopy. An overall per-lesion sensitivity of 47.1% for lesions smaller than 5 mm, 56.3% for lesions between 5 mm and 10 mm, and 75.0% for lesion larger than 10 mm was calculated using the colon dissection approach. This compared to an overall per-lesion sensitivity of 35.3% ( 10 mm) using the endoluminal view. The average time consumption for CT colonography evaluation with the colon dissection software was 10 min versus 38 min using the endoluminal view. A colon dissection approach may provide a significant time advantage for evaluation of CT colonography while obtaining a high sensitivity. It is especially superior in the detection of lesions smaller than 5 mm. (orig.)

  9. State Arts Agency Fact Sheet: Support for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This national overview of state arts agency grants and services for arts education includes summary statistics and geographic distribution. The fact sheet uses data from Final Descriptive Reports of state arts agency grant-making activities submitted annually to the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) and the National Endowment for…

  10. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  11. State of the States 2016: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The "State of the States 2016" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or administrative code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based on a comprehensive search of state education statute and codes on each state's relevant websites. Complete results from this review are available in…

  12. Endoscopic gastric pouch plication – a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virk CS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 10-40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.

  13. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, Magalie [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220 - INSERM U1044, INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon-Saint-Etienne, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etienne (France); Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  14. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallon, Magalie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven; Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva; Merlini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  15. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    There is a large body of experience in high luminosity data taking in fixed target research. We try to consider a wide variety of high rate experiments which were limited by the detector (not by available beam) to a preset number of collisions per second. We then attempt to translate these state-of-the-art experiments to effective collider experiments. To this end, we extend the chosen detector to a comparison 4π collider detector operating near 1 TeV. There are several issues: (1) effective solid angle must be translated to approx. = 4π, (2) environments may be quite different, e.g., beam dump near fixed target or beam halo muons vs. collider backgrounds, (3) the multiplicity varies over the experiments selected and (4) we have to treat open vs closed geometries. The large variety of experiments selected is designed to average over the causes for detector limitation. Finally we chose detectors which have produced physics in order to gauge the state of the art

  16. The Art of the Renaissance Capitalist State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Vidrih

    2007-12-01

    This article also highlights the fact that the concept of art developed in Florence – a city-state that played an important role in the early-capitalist world of the Renaissance, but never assumed a leading role like Venice and Genoa. »Art« was thus created through Florence’s efforts to demonstrate its equality and importance and, although it failed to achieve this in the field of the (capitalist economy, it at least succeeded in the field of the (absolutist state that was subordinate to this economy.

  17. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Y K; Rogers, I M

    1999-09-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made.

  18. Endo-luminal grafting for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weiguo; Wang Yuqi; Chen Fuzhen; Ye Jianrong; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Cheng Jiemin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary clinical results of endovascular procedures for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in a prospective study. Methods: Six patients (average age 70 years, range 56 to 78) with infrarenal AAA were enrolled in Shanghai Zhongshan hospital from February 1998 to February 1999. Computed tomography and angiography were done in every patient for measurement of the length, diameter, and angulation of the proximal and distal AAA necks, aneurysm sac, and common and external iliac arteries. The average diameter of the aneurysm was 6.3 cm (range 4.6 cm to 8.0 cm). The mean proximal neck diameter was 2.0 cm (range 1.8 cm to 2.2 cm) and proximal neck length was 3.0 cm (range 2.5 cm to 3.5 cm). All patients were treated with the endo-luminal grafting for exclusion of AAA. Results: Two tubular and 4 bifurcated endo-grafts were used. All endo-graft procedures were completed successfully. One patient died of renal failure 72 hours after the procedure because of the prolonged operative time and excessive contrast medium. Aortography after the procedure showed the AAA were excluded by endo-graft and no endo-leak in the proximal or distal connections was detected. The patients could take meal and were ambulatory on the first and second postoperative day, respectively. Clinical success (aneurysm exclusion with no death or endo-leak) at 30 days was 83.3%. In the 24 months follow-up in 5 cases, no migration, endo-leak, and increasing aneurysm size were detected with spiral CT or color Duplex ultrasound. Conclusion: Based on initial results and a short term mean follow-up period of 24 months, the endovascular treatment of AAA with stent-graft system is feasible and safe. Further study will be required to observe the long term result in the exclusion of AAA

  19. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  20. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  1. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in

  2. Fuel cells: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Casalegno, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features at present state-of-the-art fuel cell and hybrid cycle technologies, discussing their actual performance, possible applications, market entry perspectives and potential development [it

  3. Heteronomy in the arts field: state funding and British arts organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Victoria D

    2018-03-01

    For Bourdieu, the field of cultural production is comprised of an autonomous and a heteronomous sector. A heteronomous sector is one that is interpenetrated by the commercial field. I discuss an arena that, until recently, was part of the relatively autonomous sector in the field of cultural production - the supported arts sector in the United Kingdom - and argue that it became more heteronomous, due to the penetration by the state. Heteronomy due to the commercial field is present but secondary to, and driven by, the actions of the state. Political parties' attempts to diffuse and legitimate a particular economic ideology have led to state demands that arts institutions adopt neoliberal business practices in exchange for funding. Government giving to the arts, previously at arm's length, proved to be a Faustian bargain that demanded significant repayment in the form of lost autonomy. Coercive pressures from the state, enacted over time, show how the domination of one field over another can occur, even when the domination is resisted. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. State of the art undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem......Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem...

  5. Where is your state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Gaona, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Beyond the purposes of publishing, questioning and/or hypothesizing, every research has the noble aim to quench the constant human need of pushing farther away the boundaries of knowledge, may such frontier exist. The state of the art is the generic expression coined to limit the whereabouts of any particular knowledge. We use it just like a compass, it tells us how far we are, what has been done and where we should go. Take for instance quantum field theory, the state of the art in particle physics will tell you that everything that exists in this universe is made of bosons, quarks and leptons. What!?. Hold on, I was taught (and luckily maybe you weren't) that the fundamental particles were electrons, neutrons and protons, right?. Indeed, that is the state of the art but from almost one century ago. So, if I may ask... where is your state of the art? This is not about quantum physics; it is not even about hydrology; it is about everything. Today, everybody doing or not a PhD fiercely believes that their research is important, extremely unique, life changing (and help us God if we are wrong); but how can you be so sure that what you do, isn't already done?. We live in a modern world, cool environmental scientists now have tagged this era as the Anthropocene; globalization is everywhere and of course knowledge has not escaped to it. Not only knowledge is now global but is totally diversified, any crazy idea you can think of (or actually you can't) it is very likely that somebody already has his/hers hands on it. Nevertheless, this is a good thing, isn't it?. Well, that is the whole point. Every time I should write my research's state of the art, I always get overwhelmed because it actually is pretty difficult to establish, and later when I think I get it, it seems that I am solving issues that somebody already bothered to solve 30 years ago. Therefore, does it really have some purpose to be swimming in a huge pool of knowledge, not knowing where exactly I am? or

  6. Utilização da artéria radial como segundo enxerto arterial em pacientes acima de 70 anos The use of the radial artery as the second choice for arterial graft in patients over 70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fredric Whitaker

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo para avaliar a morbi-mortalidade e a evolução hospitalar em pacientes com idade superior a 70 anos, submetidos à operação de revascularização do miocárdio com utilização da artéria radial como segundo enxerto arterial. MÉTODO: No período de agosto de 1994 a dezembro de 2002, foram realizadas 2487 cirurgias de revascularização do miocárdio no Instituto do Coração de Juiz de Fora. Dentre os pacientes operados, 476 tinham idade superior a 70 anos, sendo que em 36 (Grupo II foi utilizada a artéria radial como 2º enxerto arterial. O mesmo tipo de cirurgia foi realizado em 142 pacientes com idade inferior a 70 anos (Grupo I. Não foram incluídas neste estudo reoperações, cirurgias sem CEC ou com procedimentos associados. RESULTADOS: A média de idade do Grupo II foi 72,5 anos, a mortalidade hospitalar neste grupo de pacientes foi 6,0%, a incidência de complicações também foi baixa, comparável à observada no mesmo tipo de operação realizada em pacientes com idade inferior a 70 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Diante destes resultados, os autores acreditam que a artéria radial possa ser usada com segurança como 2º enxerto arterial em pacientes acima de 70 anos, criteriosamente selecionados, apesar do maior risco de co-morbidades associadas nesta faixa etária.OBJECTIVE: Retrospective study eveluating the morbid-mortality and hospital behaviour in patients over 70-years -od patients submitted to myocardial revascularization involving the radial artery as the second arterial graft. METHOD: During the period of August 1994 to December 2002, 2487 cases of myocardial revascularization were performed by the group of the Juiz de Fora Heart Institute, 476 of whom were 70 years of age or older and 36 (Group II received the radial artery as the second arterial graft. The same type of surgery was performed in 142 patients under 70-year-old (Group I. Reoperations, off-pump operations (OPCAB or associated procedures

  7. State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD. Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD.

  8. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  9. The state-of-the-art of ART sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-03-01

    Sealing caries-prone pits and fissure systems is an effective caries-preventive measure. There are basically two types of sealant materials: glass-ionomer and resin-based materials. Low- and medium-viscosity glass-ionomers were initially used and showed a low level of retention. With the advent of the ART approach in the mid-nineties, high-viscosity glass-ionomers were introduced as sealant material and the retention rate of ART sealants increased substantially. As the effectiveness of a sealant is measured by its capacity to prevent (dentine) carious lesion development, sealant retention is considered a surrogate endpoint. The ART sealant protocol is described. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis covering low- medium- and high-viscosity glass-ionomer (ART) sealants have concluded that there is no evidence that either glass-ionomer or resin-based sealants prevent dentine carious lesions better. The annual dentine carious lesion development in teeth with high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants over the first three years is 1%. These ART sealants have a high capacity of preventing carious lesion development. Because no electricity and running water is required, ART sealants can be placed both inside and outside the dental surgery. High-viscosity glass-ionomer ART sealants can be used alongside resin-based sealants.41:119-124

  10. State of the art in video system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The closed circuit television (CCTV) system that is onboard the Space Shuttle has the following capabilities: camera, video signal switching and routing unit (VSU); and Space Shuttle video tape recorder. However, this system is inadequate for use with many experiments that require video imaging. In order to assess the state-of-the-art in video technology and data storage systems, a survey was conducted of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) products. The performance of the state-of-the-art solid state cameras and image sensors, video recording systems, data transmission devices, and data storage systems versus users' requirements are shown graphically.

  11. The state-of-the-art of ART restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E

    2014-04-01

    ART is less anxiety- and pain-provoking than traditional restorative treatments; administration of local anaesthesia is rarely required. Systematic reviews have provided evidence of the high level of effectiveness of high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restoration in restoring single-surface cavities, both in primary and permanent posterior teeth, but its survival rates in restoring multiple-surface cavities in primary posterior teeth needs to be improved. Insufficient information is available regarding the survival rates of multiple-surface ART restorations in permanent teeth. Evidence from these reviews indicates no difference in the survival rates of single-surface high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations and amalgam restorations in primary and permanent posterior teeth. Where indicated, high-viscosity glass-ionomer ART restorations can be used alongside traditional restorations. ART provides a much more acceptable introduction to dental restorative care than the traditional 'injection, drill and fill'.

  12. One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivetrain | News | NREL One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain One Step Closer to the Marketplace for State-of-the-Art Wind Turbine Drivetrain April 1, 2016 modeling, and testing in state-of-the-art facilities designed to put the drivetrain through its paces

  13. Histologic assessment of biliary obstruction with different percutaneous endoluminal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giampiero

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the sophisticated cross sectional image techniques currently available, a number of biliary stenosis or obstructions remain of an uncertain nature. In these pathological conditions, an "intrinsic" parietal alteration is the cause of biliary obstruction and it is very difficult to differentiate benign from malignant lesions using cross-sectional imaging procedures alone. We evaluated the efficacy of different endoluminal techniques to achieve a definitive pathological diagnosis in these situations. Methods Eighty patients underwent brushing, and or biopsy of the biliary tree through an existing transhepatic biliary drainage route. A subcoort of 12 patients needed balloon-dilatation of the bile duct and the material covering the balloon surface was also sent for pathological examination (balloon surface sampling. Pathological results were compared with surgical findings or with long-term clinical and instrumental follow-ups. Success rates, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, confidential intervals, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the three percutaneous techniques in differentiating benign from malignant disease were assessed. The agreement coefficient of biopsy and brushing with final diagnosis was calculated using the Cohen's "K" value. Results Fifty-six patients had malignant strictures confirmed by surgery, histology, and by clinical follow-ups. Success rates of brushing, balloon surface sampling, and biopsy were 90.7, 100, and 100%, respectively. The comparative efficacy of brushing, balloon-surface sampling, and biopsy resulted as follows: sensitivity of 47.8, 87.5, and 92.1%, respectively; specificity of 100% for all the techniques; accuracy of 69.2, 91.7 and 93.6%, Positive Predictive Value of 100% for all the procedures and Negative Predictive Value of 55, 80, and 75%, respectively. Conclusions Percutaneous endoluminal biopsy is more accurate and sensitive than percutaneous bile duct

  14. Aneurisma da Artéria Renal: caso clínico Renal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Moreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o caso clínico de um doente com volumoso aneurisma da artéria renal esquerda. Do sexo masculino, de 22 anos de idade, com lombalgia à esquerda com algumas semanas de evolução. Recorreu ao médico assistente que solicitou estudo imagiológico por ecografia abdominal. Detectada imagem sugestiva de aneurisma da aorta abdominal. Este achado motivou a transferência para o nosso Hospital onde foi admitido consciente e orientado, hemodinamicamente estável, apresentando uma massa pulsátil epigástrica, com frémito e sopro sistólico à auscultação. Angio-TC revelou um aneurisma da artéria renal esquerda com 16 cm de diâmetro. Dada a estabilidade clínica e topografia lesional optou-se por tentar embolizar, sem sucesso, o tronco da artéria renal esquerda antes da abordagem cirúrgica. O doente foi então submetido a Nefrectomia total esquerda por via toraco-abdominal. Pós-operatório sem complicações, locais ou sistémicas. Alta ao 8ºdia, mantendo boa função renal e com níveis normais de hemoglobina. Diagnóstico de aneurisma da artéria renal confirmado por estudo anátomo-patológico da peça operatória.One case of a large left renal artery aneurysm in a young patient 22 years old is presented. He appealed to his assistant physician a few weeks after development of left back pain. Abdominal ultrasound imaging study has been requested. Suggestive abdominal aortic aneurysm was detected. This finding led to the transfer to our hospital where he was admitted conscious and hemodynamically stable. A pulsatile epigastric mass with a systolic murmur on auscultation and thrill were detected. Angio-CT scan revealed a left renal artery aneurysm, 16 cm in diameter. Given the clinical stability and lesional topography we decide a previous embolization of left renal artery, unsuccessfully. The patient underwent then left total nephrectomy, through thoraco-abdominal incision. No local or systemic complications in the postoperative

  15. MRI-guided therapeutic ultrasound: Temperature feedback control for extracorporeal and endoluminal applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomir, Rares

    2005-09-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is a mini-invasive and promising tool for in situ ablation of non-resectable tumors in uterus, breast, esophagus, kidney, liver, etc. Extracorporeal, endoluminal, and interstitial applicators have been successfully tested to date. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the only available technique providing non-invasive temperature mapping, together with excellent contrast of soft tissue. Coupling of these two technologies offers the advantage of both: (1) on line spatial guidance to the target region, and (2) thermal dose control during the treatment. This talk will provide an overview of the author's experience with automatic, active feedback control of the temperature evolution in tissues, which has been demonstrated with MRI compatible extracorporeal transducers (focused beam) or endoluminal applicators (plane waves). The feedback loop is based on fast switching capabilities of the driving electronics and real time data transfer out of the MR scanner. Precision of temperature control was typically better than 1°C. This approach is expected to improve the efficacy of the treatment (complete tumor ablation) and the thermal security of the critical regions crossed by the acoustic beam. It also permits one to reach an under-lethal heating regime for local drug delivery using thermosensitive liposomes or gene expression control based on hsp promoters.

  16. The State of Comic Art Bibliography in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rhode

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the past two decades, several American bibliographies of comic art have been published to aid in research on comics and cartooning. Professor John Lent’s ten-volume Comic Art Bibliographies is one of the largest such projects and he began it with a self-published volume in 1986. Librarian Randy Scott published The Comic Art Collection Catalog: An Author, Artist, Title and Subject Catalog Of The Comic Art Collection, Special Collections Division, Michigan State University Libraries, whi...

  17. State of the art in microfabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper the state of the art in microfabrication is presented. The focus is on trends in integrated circuit fabrication by mainstream industrial players. The article starts with Moore’s Law, describing its inception as well as the evolution of Moore’s metric of the number of components

  18. Aneurisma idiopático de artéria radial: relato de caso Idiopathic radial artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Meira Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas da artéria radial são extremamente raros. Em sua maioria, consistem de pseudoaneurismas pós-traumáticos. Os aneurismas da artéria radial verdadeiros podem ser idiopáticos, congênitos, pós-estenóticos ou associados a patologias, tais como vasculites e doenças do tecido conjuntivo. Foi relatado um caso de aneurisma idiopático de artéria radial em uma criança de três anos, que, após completa investigação diagnóstica complementar, foi submetida à ressecção cirúrgica.Radial artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms are the vast majority. True radial artery aneurysms can be idiopathic, congenital, poststenotic, or associated with some pathologies, such as vasculitis and conjunctive tissue diseases. We report a case of an idiopathic aneurysm of the radial artery in a three-year-old child who was submitted to surgical resection after a complete diagnostic approach.

  19. State-of-the-art of home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Popov, M.

    2012-01-01

    To introduce the Symposium on "Indoor Optical Networks: a Promising Way to a Converged Service Delivery", this presentation will give a brief overview of state-of-the-art home networking architectures, technologies and applications covering both technical and techno-economic aspects.

  20. New simulators from old - achieving state-of-the-art simulation without state-of-the-art costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmeier, H.J.; Rosser, R.M.; Fyffe, K.L.; Gaerttner, G.F.; Chulick, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving a state-of-the-art simulator for operator training requires neither the expensive remodeling of old simulators nor the acquisition of very expensive new machines. In this paper the authors present two distinct cases where older training simulators have been upgraded to meet training requirements with a minimum of inexpensive hardware additions, including plug-in/-out panels, and software changes

  1. 14 CFR 1203.403 - State-of-the-art and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-of-the-art and intelligence. 1203.403... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 State-of-the-art and intelligence. A logical... available from intelligence sources is known or is available to others. It is also important to consider...

  2. How the United States Funds the Arts. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The infrastructure for arts and cultural support in the United States is complex and adaptive. Citizens who enjoy the arts can choose from a wide array of drama, visual and media arts, dance, music, and literature available in formal and informal settings--theaters, museums, and concert halls, but also libraries, schools, places of worship,…

  3. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath, Y; Rogers, I

    1999-01-01

    Complete knee dislocation is a rare injury and an associated incidence of popliteal artery damage ranges from 16-60% of cases. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury. We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein byp...

  4. Platelet kinetics: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A. duP

    1984-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the state of the art of platelet kinetics 1982 is presented. The subjects considered include a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of some of the many radionuclide platelet labels, viz 51 Cr, 111 In, focussing briefly on models for analysis of platelets survival. (Auth.)

  5. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  6. The Arts and State Governments: At Arm's Length or Arm in Arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Julia F.; Ondaatje, Elizabeth Heneghan

    2006-01-01

    Even though a majority of Americans claim to support public funding of the arts, state government spending on the arts is minimal--and may be losing ground relative to other types of state expenditures. Moreover, most state arts agencies, or SAAs, have not succeeded in convincing state government leaders that the arts should be integral to their…

  7. 77 FR 5281 - State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket ID: NRC-2012-0022] State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence... release of Draft NUREG-1935, ``State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) Report,'' for public... offsite radiological health consequences for potential severe reactor accidents for the Peach Bottom...

  8. State Arts Policy: Trends and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    State arts agencies (SAAs)--key players within the U.S. system of public support for the arts--face growing economic, political, and demographic challenges to the roles and missions they adopted when founded in the mid-1960s. This report, the fourth and final in a multiyear study, looks at state arts agencies' efforts to rethink their roles and…

  9. Diagnóstico clínico diferencial entre oclusão da artéria carótida interna e da artéria cerebral média A comparative symptomatological study of internal carotid artery occlusion and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Melaragno

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo comparativo entre o quadro clínico inicial de 61 casos de oclusão da artéria carótida interna e o de 23 casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média, diagnosticados pela angiografia cerebral e/ou pela necropsia em pacientes submetidos ou não à cirurgia vascular. Os autores comparam a idade dos pacientes, o sexo, o modo de início da afecção, a existência ou não de convulsões e/ou cefaléias, a ocorrência do acidente cerebral durante o sono ou em vigília, a existência de ictos prévios, os níveis de pressão arterial, o grau de consciência, a força muscular, os achados eletrencefalográficos, a palpação e ausculta das carótidas em nível cervical. Os resultados são demonstrados em índices percentuais, pelos quais os autores inferem que não há significância estatística nesses elementos com três exceções: a maior ocorrência de convulsões nas oclusões da artéria cerebral média em relação às da carótida, a oftalmodinamometria e a sintomatologia carotídea cervical. A oftalmodinamometria revela valores significantemente menores nas pressões da artéria central da retina, no mesmo lado da trombose da carótida em 70,0% dos casos, enquanto que medidas normais e simétricas verificaram-se em todos os casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média em que o exame foi realizado. No que concerne a sinais arteriais no pescoço, havia anormalidades palpatórias e auscultatórias em 52,4% dos pacientes com trombose da carótida e em 8,6% dos casos com oclusão da cerebral média. Concluem os autores, portanto, que apenas a angiografia cerebral permite um diagnóstico seguro entre ambas as sedes da oclusão.A comparative study of the early clinical picture in 61 cases of internal carotid artery occlusion and 23 cases of middle cerebral artery occlusion, diagnosed by cerebral angiography and/or necropsy in patients who were either submitted to surgery or not operated upon is reported. The authors had

  10. Ascertaining the international state of the art of PSA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, J. von

    1998-01-01

    Plant-specific PSAs, to be performed within the framework of the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants require further development of the methodology. For that purpose foreign PSA-guidelines and PSA-reviewes as well as relevant literature are examined and appropriate insights are adopted within task A.2 of project SR 2096. The main goal of these activities is to achieve a comparison of the state of the art of PSA-methodologies applied abroad and in Germany. The German state of the art refers to the extent as is documented in the German PSA Guide (Leitfaden Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse /PSUe97/) which has to be used for the Periodic Safety Review of German Nuclear Power Plants. The structure for the evaluation is based on the working steps of a PSA. In total, according to the objectives of the Periodic Safety Review the German approach for plant-specific PSAs based on the German PSA Guide is conform to the state of the art abroad. Identified deviations in some details are evaluated reflecting the view of GRS. Particular aspects resulting from the evaluation should be considered for further development of the German PSA Guide. (orig.) [de

  11. Trombose aguda de aneurisma de artéria femoral isolado: relato de caso Acute thrombosis of isolated femoral artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hideo Motoki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aneurismas de artéria femoral são raros, porém são o segundo tipo mais freqüente de aneurismas periféricos, sendo o aneurisma de artéria poplítea o mais comum. Normalmente, são de etiologia aterosclerótica. As complicações deste aneurisma são representadas por embolia, trombose e, mais raramente, a rotura. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de um paciente com 59 anos, masculino, com queixa de dor súbita em membro inferior esquerdo associado à frialdade, palidez e ausência de pulsos. O ecocolordoppler evidenciou a presença de aneurisma trombosado da artéria femoral comum. O paciente foi submetido, com sucesso, à ressecção do aneurisma, com reconstrução do leito arterial.Common femoral artery aneurysms are rare; however, they are the second most frequent type of peripheral aneurysm, popliteal artery aneurysms being the most common. They usually have atherosclerotic ethiology. The complications of this aneurysm are thromboembolism and, more rarely, rupture. This article aimed at reporting the case of a 59-year-old male patient with complaint of sudden pain in his left leg associated with coldness, paleness and absence of pulses. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a thrombosed aneurysm of the common femoral artery. The patient was successfully submitted to aneurysm resection with reconstruction of the arterial bed.

  12. State of the art magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    In less than a decade Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has evolved from a laboratory demonstration to a safe and effective technique for clinical diagnosis. This evolutionary process continues. At this time 2-D and 3-D imaging of the head and body is firmly established in clinical use. Surface coil imaging, two-component chemical shift imaging, in-vivo spectroscopy and flow imaging are currently in various stages of development. The present state of the art of MRI is a function of an array of technologies: magnet, Rf coil, Rf pulse amplifier, gradient coil and driver, pulse programmer, A/D converter, computer system architecture, array processors and mass storage (both magnetic and optical). The overall product design is the result of a complex process which balances the advantages and disadvantages of each component for optimal system performance and flexibility. The author discusses the organization of a state-of-the-art MRI system. Several examples of the kinds of system interactions affecting design choices are given. (Auth.)

  13. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  14. Origem anômala de uma artéria pulmonar da aorta ascendente: resolução da hipertensão arterial pulmonar com a correção cirúrgica Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta: surgical repair resolving pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Enfatizar a possibilidade diagnóstica da origem anômala de uma artéria pulmonar da aorta ascendente, em lactentes com quadro de insuficiência cardíaca clinicamente intratável e sem defeito estrutural intracardíaco. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em quatro lactentes com insuficiência cardíaca intratável, submetidos a estudo ecocardiográfico bidimensional com cortes subcostal, supraesternal e paraesternal, e a estudo hemodinâmico e angiocardiográfico na projeção ântero-posterior. RESULTADOS: Três dos quatro lactentes tinham a artéria pulmonar direita originando-se da aorta ascendente, como diagnóstico principal. No quarto paciente a artéria pulmonar esquerda originava-se da aorta ascendente associada à ampla comunicação interventricular. Os lactentes tinham pressão em ambas artérias pulmonares em nível sistêmico. Todos foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico que consistiu na translocação da artéria pulmonar anômala da aorta. Não houve óbitos cardíacos imediatos ou tardios. CONCLUSÃO: Uma vez estabelecido o diagnóstico de origem anômala de artéria pulmonar da aorta ascendente, na forma isolada, a correção cirúrgica deverá ser prontamente realizada, não só pelo desenvolvimento de doença vascular pulmonar, como pelos excelentes resultados cirúrgicos atualmente obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the diagnostic possibility of the anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta in infants with clinically refractory heart failure and no intracardiac structural defect. METHODS: Retrospective study of 4 infants with refractory heart failure undergoing 2-dimensional echocardiographic study with subcostal, suprasternal, and parasternal views, and hemodynamic and angiocardiographic study in the anteroposterior projection. RESULTS: Three of the 4 infants had their right pulmonary artery originating from the ascending aorta as their major diagnosis. In the fourth patient, the left pulmonary

  15. The "State of Art" of Organisational Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…

  16. Contemporary Romanian Art in the United States1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Dana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the recent international interest in contemporary Romanian art and its growth in market share, with a focus on the United States. The theme is followed thorough in numerous museum exhibitions, increased collector following, art fair presence, gallery representation and auction activity initially in Europe and the United States. The phenomenon is discussed both in the context of the larger international movement conducive to the contemporary art price bubble, and in that of the local socio-economic changes. My chief interest lies in the factors leading up to the entry of post 1989 Romanian art in the global arena as a manifestation of market forces in the field. The analysis follows its grass roots local emergence through non-profit institutions, individual artists, small publications, low budget galleries, as well as the lack of contribution (with few notable exceptions of state institutions, while pointing out the national context of increasing deregulation of social support systems resulting in lack of focus on cultural manifestations. The conclusion is that the recent ascent of contemporary Romanian art (and coincidentally, the award winning contemporary Romanian cinematography is a fortuitous convergence of various factors, among which, increased international mobility and sharing. At the same time, it is also the result of the evolution of various individual artists that pursued a form of art rooted in Romanian artistic tradition but with a focus on the symbolic figurative. The result is a personal semiotics of raising the mundane to extraordinary levels that reconfigured the anxiety of entering a new system into an unmistakable and lasting visual language.

  17. Mission Accomplished: Working with State Arts Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Johanna Misey

    2005-01-01

    Most everyone involved professionally in the non-profit arts comes in contact with a state arts agency. A person may be on the Teaching Artist roster, works for a grantee organization, or has directly received a grant or fellowship. The work that one does in the school is probably funded by the state arts agency. Or, at a more basic level, the…

  18. For What Purpose the Arts? An Analysis of the Mission Statements of Urban Arts High Schools in Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; Nicholls, Rachael; Arráiz-Matute, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    While general arts programs have declined in many schools across the United States and Canada, the number of specialized art programs in public secondary schools has swelled since the 1980s. While this increase is often celebrated by arts educators, questions about the justification of specialized arts programs are rarely raised, and their value…

  19. State of the social responsibility art

    OpenAIRE

    Varela López, Leidy Viviana; Universidad de San Buenaventura Cali.

    2015-01-01

    From the eighties, it has been addressing the issue of corporate social responsibility, specifically toward the defense of human rights and climate change. However, although they have applied corporate social responsibility principles in some of the existing institutions, it is still very small the work being done around the specific activity of solid waste management. Some works have been compiled to build a state of the art for understanding in depth the concept of corporate social responsi...

  20. State of the art report on design for X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Andersen, Poul; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2009-01-01

    The present State of the Art report aims at defining and reviewing the curent state of the ship design process in the frame of a holistic approach, accounting for various objectives and constraints. The report addresses mainly the design of transportation carriers, though some covered aspects...

  1. A State of the Art Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    The first EHV composite cross-arms have been used since late 1990's in Switzerland. It was the first step to the compaction of towers sizes. Since then, significant advances have been made in composite cross-arms technology while the lattice construction technique has not been seriously challenged...... of EHV composite cross-arms and lightning protection methods are reviewed based on the state of the art review and subsequently some solutions are presented to overcome the two main challenges....

  2. Intracranial intrasellar kissing carotid arteries: case report Artérias carótidas intracranianas intra-selares "que se beijam": relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur de Azambuja Pereira Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial "kissing" carotid arteries are a rare variant of the carotid arteries, where both internal carotid arteries deviate medially and touch each other near the midline within the sphenoid sinus or the sphenoid bone, including the sella. This anomaly is particularly important since it may cause or mimic pituitary disease and also may complicate transsphenoidal surgery. We report a rare case of intracranial intrasellar kissing carotid arteries in a 57-years-old woman that was submitted to a computed tomography angiography during investigation of a sudden headache, and to discuss the clinical relevance of this radiological finding.Artérias carótidas intracranianas "que se beijam" representam rara variação da anatomia arterial, onde ambas as artérias carótidas internas desviam-se medialmente e tocam-se próximo à linha media dentro do seio esfenoidal ou do osso esfenóide, incluindo a sela túrcica. Essa anomalia é particularmente importante, pois pode causar ou simular doença pituitária e ainda pode complicar uma cirurgia transesfenoidal. Relatamos um raro caso de artérias carótidas intracranianas "que se beijam" em mulher de 57 anos, a qual foi investigada por angiotomografia por quadro de cefaléia súbita. Discutimos a relevância clínica desse achado radiológico.

  3. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Graham, William C; Gersoff, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation has evolved over the years to provide a state-of-the-art technique for the sports medicine surgeon to utilize in preserving contact mechanics and function of the knee in irreparable meniscal pathology. However, this procedure continues to spark considerable debate on proper tissue processing techniques, acceptable indications, methods of implantation, and potential long-term outcomes.

  4. Espessamento médio-intimal na origem da artéria subclávia direita como marcador precoce de risco cardiovascular Intima-media thickness in the origin of right subclavian artery as an early marker of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2006-11-01

    EMI na origem da artéria subclávia direita pode ser considerado um marcador mais precoce para avaliação de risco cardiovascular.OBJECTIVE: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT is considered a factor of cardiovascular risk and an early marker of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to investigate the existence of a correlation between IMT in the carotid arteries and at the origin of the right subclavian artery, as well as to evaluate IMT in the subclavian artery as an earlier marker of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: One hundred and six consecutive patients, 52 males and 54 females, average age 51 years, underwent color Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate carotid and right subclavian arteries. The relationship between carotid IMT and right subclavian IMT was assessed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and a 95% confidence interval. Reliability of right subclavian artery IMT measurement for the diagnosis of early thickening (considering a > 0.8 mm carotid thickness as reference was described as to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. Cut-off values for the right subclavian IMT were indicated by the ROC curve, and p values 0.8 mm. The mean IMT value for the carotid artery was 0.87 mm (SD = 0.23 and for the subclavian artery, 1.17 mm (SD = 0.46, with a 0.31 correlation coefficient (95% CI: 0.12; 0.47. The ROC curve analysis indicated a cut-off value of 0.7 mm for the right subclavian artery IMT, using as reference a 0.8 mm cut-off value for the carotid artery (91% sensitivity, 27% specificity, 66% PPV, 65% NPV, and 66% accuracy. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that carotid artery IMT correlates well with right subclavian artery IMT. With a 0.7 mm cut-off value, it is possible to detect IMT in the right subclavian artery earlier than in the carotid arteries. The IMT at the origin of the right subclavian artery can be considered an earlier marker for the assessment of cardiovascular

  5. Endoluminal isoproterenol reduces renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørn S; Jung, Helene U; Gramsbergen, Jan B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects on the pressure-flow relation of renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy and endoluminal perfusion of isoproterenol (ISO) 0.1 microg/mL, with emphasis on local effects and cardiovascular side-effects, as topically administered ISO effectively...... and dose-dependently causes relaxation of the upper urinary tract in pigs with no concomitant cardiovascular side-effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS In anaesthetized female pigs (60 kg), 16 macroscopically normal upper urinary tract systems were subjected to ureterorenoscopy. Via a subcostal incision a 6-F...... catheter was placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements, and a semirigid ureteroscope (7.8 F) was inserted retrogradely in the renal pelvis, through which the pelvis was perfused. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. The increase in renal pelvic pressure was examined with increasing...

  6. The reentry catheter: a second chance for endoluminal reentry at difficult lower extremity subintimal arterial recanalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etezadi, Vahid; Benenati, James F; Patel, Parag J; Patel, Rahul S; Powell, Alex; Katzen, Barry T

    2010-05-01

    From January 2005 to July 2008, a retrospective study was conducted at a single institution to investigate technical success of the use of a reentry device (Outback LTD reentry catheter) in aortoiliac and femoropopliteal artery recanalization in 34 patients (18 men; mean age +/- SD, 72 years +/- 11) in whom the conventional guide wires and catheters failed to reenter the true lumen. True lumen reentry was achieved in 87% (n = 23) and 91% (n = 11) of patients with femoropopliteal and aortoiliac occlusions, respectively. The overall technical success rate with the device was 88% (n = 34). The device success rate in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus II class D lesions was significantly lower than in lower lesion classes (71.4% vs 100%; P < .05). No procedure-related complications were encountered. In conclusion, the use of the reentry catheter enhances the likelihood of successful subintimal recanalization of chronic occlusions in femoropopliteal and aortoiliac arteries.

  7. EMERGENCY STATES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes in detail potential emergency states in patients with different stages of arterial hypertension with special attention to diagnosis and rational management of hypertensive crisis. Differentiated approach to management of different forms of hypertensive crisis is specified.

  8. Síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea: relato de caso Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bettega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome do aprisionamento da artéria poplítea caracteriza-se pela compressão desta artéria sendo a principal causa de claudicação intermitente em jovens. Homem, 18 anos, branco, apresentava parestesia, frialdade e palidez do pé direito, iniciada 24 horas após exercício físico. Em membro inferior direito, ausência de pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé. À flexão dorsal e flexão plantar forçadas, houve diminuição dos pulsos tibial posterior e dorsal do pé à esquerda. Tratado cirurgicamente, o paciente apresentou pulso em ambas as artérias. A síndrome é mais frequente em homens e a prevalência varia entre 0,16 e 3,5%. O aprisionamento da artéria poplítea tipo III é mais comum. A falta de tratamento pode levar à embolia, trombose e aneurismas pós-estenóticos. Esta síndrome deve ser lembrada como causa de dor na perna, especialmente em homens jovens e de prática esportiva intensa.Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is the compression of the popliteal artery and is the main cause of intermittent claudication in young patients. An 18-year-old man was admitted at our service complaining of right foot paresthesia, coldness, and pallor that appeared 24 hours after physical activity. Posterior tibial and dorsal artery of foot pulses were not present in right lower limb. Diminished posterior tibial and dorsal artery of the foot pulses were found in left lower limb at dorsal flexion and forced plantar flexion. After surgery, both pulses were present. This syndrome is more frequent in men and its prevalence varies between 0.16 and 3.5%. Popliteal artery entrapment type III is most common. Non-treated entrapment can lead to embolism, thrombosis and post-stenotic aneurysms. The syndrome must be considered as a cause of lower limb pain specially in young men with intense sport practice history.

  9. State of the art of solid state dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Susana O.; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; D'Errico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed

  10. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  11. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  12. The state-of-the-art of HSR in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this section of the workshop we present an overview based on mapping the current state-of-the-art concerning various fields of health services research, addressing the different levels of analysis in HSR. (1) HSR at the level of health care systems, being national or sometimes regional entities,

  13. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. State of the art in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of the art in cosmology is under discussion. The general picture of the Universe evolution is presented, and its main stages are outlined. The prooess of formation of the large scale Universe structure is considered. The possibility of investigation into the ''inflation'' period of the ''very-very early Universe'' from the view point of theoretical physics is sown. It is noted that cosmology will become a complete science only when physics gives an exhaustive answer to all issues raised by cosmology

  15. Aircraft wake vortices : a state-of-the-art review of the United States R&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    The report summarizes the current state-of-the-art understanding : of the aircraft wake vortex phenomenon and the results of the United : States program to minimize the restrictions caused by aircraft wake : vortices in the terminal environment. The ...

  16. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Chernobyl - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems

  18. As pesquisas denominadas "estado da arte" Research called "state of the art"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sandra de Almeida Ferreira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos quinze anos, no Brasil e em outros países, tem se produzido um conjunto significativo de pesquisas conhecidas pela denominação "estado da arte" ou "estado do conhecimento". Definidas como de caráter bibliográfico, elas parecem trazer em comum o desafio de mapear e de discutir uma certa produção acadêmica em diferentes campos do conhecimento, tentando responder que aspectos e dimensões vêm sendo destacados e privilegiados em diferentes épocas e lugares, de que formas e em que condições têm sido produzidas certas dissertações de mestrado, teses de doutorado, publicações em periódicos e comunicações em anais de congressos e de seminários. Neste artigo levanto e tento responder as seguintes questões: seria possível fazer um esforço de interrogar a história a produção acadêmica sobre determinada área do conhecimento, optando por ler apenas dados bibliográficos e resumos dos trabalhos? O que significa ler esse lugar (catálogos, instituição de divulgação dos trabalhos, tomando-o como fonte documental para um mapeamento da produção acadêmica, em pesquisas denominadas "estado da arte"?These last fifteen years, Brazil and other countries have seen the production of a significant set of research, known as "state of the art" or "state of knowledge". Defined as having a bibliographic feature, they seem to share the challenge of mapping and discussing a certain academic production in different fields of knowledge. They try to show which aspects and dimensions have been highlighted and privileged at different times and places. They also pinpoint how and in what conditions certain kinds of master's degree thesis and doctor's degree dissertations, publications in periodicals and communications in annals of congress and seminary were produced. In this article, I pose and try to answer the following questions: Is it worth making the effort of interrogating the history of the academic production about a given area

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system: present state of the art and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates high-resolution images of the cardiovascular system. Conventional MRI techniques provide images in six to ten minutes per tomographic slice. New strategies have substantially improved the speed of imaging. The technology is relatively expensive, and its cost-effectiveness remains to be defined in relation to other effective, less expensive, and noninvasive technologies, such as echocardiography and nuclear medicine. The ultimate role of MRI will depend on several factors, including the development of specific applications such as (1) noninvasive angiography, especially of the coronary arteries;(2) noninvasive, high-resolution assessment of regional myocardial blood flow distribution (e.g., using paramagnetic contrast agents); (3) characterization of myocardial diseases using proton-relaxation property changes; and (4) evaluation of in vivo myocardial biochemistry. The three-dimensional imaging capability and the ability to image cardiovascular structures without contrast material give MRI a potential advantage over existing noninvasive diagnostic imaging techniques. This report analyzes current applications of MRI to the cardiovascular system and speculates on their future

  20. The Impact of ART on Live Birth Outcomes: Differing Experiences across Three States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Sabrina; Sappenfield, William M; Kirby, Russell S; McKane, Patricia; Bernson, Dana; Zhang, Yujia; Chuong, Farah; Cohen, Bruce; Boulet, Sheree L; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown an association between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and adverse birth outcomes. We identified whether birth outcomes of ART-conceived pregnancies vary across states with different maternal characteristics, insurance coverage for ART services, and type of ART services provided. CDC's National ART Surveillance System data were linked to Massachusetts, Florida, and Michigan vital records from 2000 through 2006. Maternal characteristics in ART- and non-ART-conceived live births were compared between states using chi-square tests. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses and calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) to assess associations between ART use and singleton preterm delivery (birth. ART use in Massachusetts was associated with significantly lower odds of twins as well as triplets and higher order births compared to Florida and Michigan (aOR 22.6 vs. 30.0 and 26.3, and aOR 37.6 vs. 92.8 and 99.2, respectively; Pinteraction order gestations per cycle was lower in Massachusetts, which may be due to the availability of insurance coverage for ART in Massachusetts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  2. The LIFE Laser Design in Context: A Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.; Bayramian, A.J.; Erlandson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The current point design for the LIFE laser leverages decades of solid-state laser development in order to achieve the performance and attributes required for inertial fusion energy. This document provides a brief comparison of the LIFE laser point design to other state-of-the-art solid-state lasers. Table I compares the attributes of the current LIFE laser point design to other systems. the state-of-the-art for single-shot performance at fusion-relevant beamline energies is exemplified by performance observed on the National Ignition Facility. The state-of-the-art for high average power is exemplified by the Northrup Grumman JHPSSL laser. Several items in Table I deal with the laser efficiency; a more detailed discussion of efficiency can be found in reference 5. The electrical-to-optical efficiency of the LIFE design exceeds that of reference 4 due to the availability of higher efficiency laser diode pumps (70% vs. ∼50% used in reference 4). LIFE diode pumps are discussed in greater detail in reference 6. The 'beam steering' state of the art is represented by the deflection device that will be used in the LIFE laser, not a laser system. Inspection of Table I shows that most LIFE laser attributes have already been experimentally demonstrated. The two cases where the LIFE design is somewhat better than prior experimental work do not involve the development of new concepts: beamline power is increased simply by increasing aperture (as demonstrated by the power/aperture comparison in Table I), and efficiency increases are achieved by employing state-of-the-art diode pumps. In conclusion, the attributes anticipated for the LIFE laser are consistent with the demonstrated performance of existing solid-state lasers.

  3. The job demands-resources model : state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to give a state-of-the art overview of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model Design/methodology/approach - The strengths and weaknesses of the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being

  4. Origem anômala da artéria pulmonar direita em aorta ascendente (hemitruncus Anomalous origin of right pulmonary artery from ascending aorta (hemitruncus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A origem da artéria pulmonar direita em aorta ascendente é uma anomalia congênita rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Descrevemos dois casos desta malformação, um associado à interrupção de arco aórtico tipo B. Em ambos, o diagnóstico foi realizado mediante ecocardiografia bidimensional, com confirmação angiográfica em um. A origem da artéria pulmonar direita era próxima à valva aórtica, anomalia patogeneticamente diferente da origem perto da artéria inominada.The origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare congenital anomaly, with very few reports in the literature. We describe two cases of this rare malformation, one of them, associated with interruption of the aortic arch (type B. In both cases, the diagnosis was made by two-dimensional echocardiography, with angiographic confirmation in one of them. The origin of the right pulmonary artery was close to the aortic valve, anomaly pathogenetically distinct from the type that arises close to the innominate artery.

  5. Nickel-base superalloy powder metallurgy: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.M.; Athey, R.L.; Moore, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of powder metallurgical methods for fabrication of Ni-base superalloy turbine engine disks is reviewed. Background studies are summarized and current state-of-art is discussed for the F100 jet engine, advanced applications, and forging processes

  6. Symposium Connects Government Problems with State of the Art Network Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    Symposium Connects Government Problems with State-of-the- Art Network Science Research By Rajmonda S. Caceres and Benjamin A. Miller Network...the US Gov- ernment, and match these with the state-of-the- art models and techniques developed in the network science research community. Since its... science has grown significantly in the last several years as a field at the intersec- tion of mathematics, computer science , social science , and engineering

  7. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy and endoluminal HDR brachytherapy in esophageal cancer; Simultane Radiochemotherapie mit intraluminaler HDR-Brachytherapie des Oesophaguskarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patonay, P.; Naszaly, A.; Mayer, A. [Hauptstaedtisches Zentrum fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Budapest (Hungary)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: to study efficacy and toxicity of radiochemotherapy in esophageal cancer including initial endoluminal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Patients and methods: between 01/1995 and 06/2005, 61 patients with esophageal cancer were treated preoperatively with definitive and palliative intent. Treatment started with intraluminal HDR-BT for recanalization of the esophagus (single fraction size of 8 Gy in 0.5 cm depth, three times, q7d) followed by external-beam radiation therapy (50 Gy total dose, 5 x 2 Gy/week, 25 fractions in 5 weeks). Chemotherapy was started simultaneously with external irradiation (three courses of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, q21d). Results: swallowing function improved in 55/61 patients (dysphagia classification according to the RTOG), and worsened in 6/61 patients, respectively. Median duration of symptomatic improvement was 11 months, median follow-up 12 months (range 3-68 months). Following simultaneous radiochemotherapy, tumor resectability was achieved in 7/25 patients of the neoadjuvant group, and the histological specimen showed complete remission in 6/7 patients. Conclusion: these results indicate a favorable effect of simultaneous radiochemotherapy starting with endoluminal HDR-after-loading-(AL-)BT in esophageal cancer. (orig.)

  8. Flexible CO2 laser and submucosal gel injection for safe endoluminal resection in the intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Joyce T; Mittra, Arjun; Wong, Joyce; Carpenter, Susanne; Carson, Joshua; Haddad, Dana; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula; Patel, Snehal; Fong, Yuman

    2012-01-01

    The CO(2) laser's unique wavelength of 10.6 μm has the advantage of being readily absorbed by water but historically limited it to line-of-sight procedures. Through recent technological advances, a flexible CO(2) laser fiber has been developed and holds promise for endoluminal surgery. We examined whether this laser, along with injection of a water-based gel in the submucosal space, will allow safe dissection of the intestines and enhance the potential of this tool for minimally invasive surgery. Using an ex vivo model with porcine intestines, spot ablation was performed with the flexible CO(2) laser at different power settings until transmural perforation. Additionally, excisions of mucosal patches were performed by submucosal dissection with and without submucosal injection of a water-based gel. With spot ablation at 5 W, none of the specimens was perforated by 5 min, which was the maximum recorded time. The time to perforation was significantly shorter with increased laser power, and gel pretreatment protected the intestines against spot ablation, increasing the time to perforation from 6 to 37 s at 10 W and from 1 to 7 s at 15 W. During excision of mucosal patches, 56 and 83% of untreated intestines perforated at 5 and 10 W, respectively. Gel pretreatment prior to excision protected all intestines against perforation. These specimens were verified to be intact by inflation with air to over 100 mmHg. Furthermore, excision of the mucosal patch was complete in gel-pretreated specimens, whereas 22% of untreated specimens had residual islands of mucosa after excision. The flexible CO(2) laser holds promise as a precise dissection and cutting tool for endoluminal surgery of the intestines. Pretreatment with a submucosal injection of a water-based gel protects the intestines from perforation during ablation and mucosal dissection.

  9. Measuring the State-of-the-Art in Laser Cut Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pocorni, Jetro; Powell, John; Ilar, Torbjörn; Schwarz, A.; Kaplan, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy appropriate to investigating the state of the art of laser cutting from an industrial point of view. The importance of creating the samples in a high quality industrial environment is emphasised and preliminary results are presented.

  10. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries using a flow-directed balloon catheter in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, W.J.J. van; Heeten, G.J. den

    1992-01-01

    Selective intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IA-DSA) of the pulmonary vessels was performed in 70 patients suspected of acute pulmonary embolism. A flow-directed Swan-Ganz pulmonary angiography catheter was used. The spatial resolution of the equipment used was 3.3 lp/mm for DSA and 6.0 lp/mm for conventional pulmonary angiography (CPA). Image quality of the angiograms was assessed by determining the highest visible branching division of the main pulmonary artery. The mean visible branching division for IA-DSA was 4.71 (range 3-7). In 10 patients where IA-DSA and CPA were performed during the same procedure there was no difference in visualization of peripheral arteries (mean 4.70 visible or for both modalities). IA-DSA makes the procedure rapid, saves on films and contrast material and allows good visualization of areas where exposure is difficult. The spatial resolution of state-of-the-art equipment permits sufficient definition of subsegmental vessels. The use of the flow-directed balloon catheter makes the examination easy to perform and minimizes the risk of catheter induced cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [de

  11. Endoluminal brachytherapy in the palliative treatment of advanced esophageal cancer, first clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchali, A.; Dinges, S.; Ortner, M.; Schlenger, L.; Lochs, H.; Budach, V.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Dysphagia is the main problem in patients with advanced nonresectable esophageal cancer. Palliation can be achieved by several treatment ways. We want to evaluate the efficacy of endoluminal brachytherapy (BT) for improvement of dysphagia, performance status, time of local tumor progress, and survival time. Methods: 6 patients with esophageal cancer stage IV received a palliative treatment with 192 Ir HDR BT. The dose per fraction was 5 Gy, calculated 1 cm from the surface of the applicator, the total dose was 20 Gy (four weekly applications). Symptoms, performance status and life quality score were investigated before each application and each 4 weeks after treatment. The results were compared with 10 historical patients who were treated by implantation of nitinol stents (Ultraflex, Boston Scient. Inc.). Results: The tumor stages in the BT-group were T4, T3, T2 three, two and one, and in the stent group three, two and five, respectively. Dysphagia improved in median from grade 1.7 to grade 0.5 (BT group) and from grade 2.6 to grade 1.8 (stent group). Karnowski status improved in the BT group from 70 % to 85 %, but did not change in the stent group (75%). A strong correlation between improvement of dysphagia and life quality score could be found especially in patients with initial high grade dysphagia. The only side effect of BT mostly after the 3 rd application was esophagitis grade 1 in 3 patients and grade 2 in 1 patient. Relief of the esophagitis after conservative therapy could be achieved within 1 week. In the BT group 3 patients were alive without local progress after 20, 13 and 2 weeks. The other 3 patients died from local progress (2 patients, after 20, 20 weeks) or from metastasis (1 patient, after 11 weeks). All patients in the stent group died from local progress. The median survival time is 17 ± 5.2 weeks in BT group vs. 8.8 ± 8.6 weeks in the stent group. Conclusion: Endoluminal brachytherapy seems to be an effective and well tolerable

  12. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  13. Development of a state-of-the-art solid waste characterisation facility at JRC ISPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtiniemi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Hubert, P.; Vassallo, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will review the development and construction of a state-of-the-art waste characterisation facility that represents a fundamental element in the JRC's strategy to characterise radioactive wastes originating from four decades of nuclear research activities conducted at the Ispra Site. The state-of-the-art NDA measurement solution selected by JRC-Ispra will be presented in the light of special requirements imposed by applicable Italian legislation, norms and the qualities of the waste packages. The intended plant combines the state-of-the-art-measurement solution with comprehensive process automation in an industrial environment and is therefore of significant interest to the radioactive waste management community. (orig.)

  14. Revascularização da artéria coronária direita intra-atrial Revascularization of intracavitary right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Lourenção Júnior

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A artéria coronária direita, em seu trajeto no sulco atrioventricular direito, pode, em raras ocasiões, penetrar na cavidade atrial direita. Esta variação anatômica poderá modificar a tática cirúrgica em operações de revascularização miocárdica. No presente trabalho, relatamos o caso em que a ponte de veia safena para a artéria coronária direita foi realizada em posição intra-atrial direita.The right coronary artery, during your course in the right atrioventricular sulcus, can sometimes penetrate the right atrial cavity. This anatomical variety can modify the surgical tactics in aortocoronary by-pass surgery. In this paper we present a patient in whom the by-pass with saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery was made in right intracavitary position.

  15. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  17. [The state of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, A F; Iurtaeva, V R; Kotovskaia, Iu V; Kobalava, Zh D

    2012-01-01

    To study elastic properties of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined men aged 18-25 years (mean 21.1+/-0.14 years): 36 with normal blood pressure (BP), 123 with stable and 51 with unstable AH. Parameters studied comprised intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, their M-mode measured maximal systolic and minimal diastolic diameters (Ds and Dd), stiffness of common carotid artery (CCA) wall determined on the basis of analysis of elasticity and distensibility coefficients (CC and DC), Peterson's and Young's modules of elasticity (Ep and E), and index of flow deformation (CS). Compared with young men with normal BP and unstable AH patients with stable AH had abnormal elastic properties of CCA and increased IMT. Stable AH in young men is associated with signs of remodeling of CCA walls and increase of their rigidity.

  18. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is

  19. Leadership and Fairness: The state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, D.; de Cremer, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fairness, to assess the state of the art, and to identify a research agenda for future efforts in the field. The review shows that leader distributive, procedural, and especially interactional fairness...

  20. Nuclear Liability, State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Over fifty years ago states started to introduce legislation protecting the public against the potential magnitude and peculiarity of risks arising from the nuclear energy production. They did so trough a specific liability and compensation regime. Whether legislation was based on national initiatives or, as more frequently, related to international nuclear liability conventions, it was based on a number of principles being applied universally. Furthermore, it at the same time strived for not preventing the development of the nuclear industry because of an unbearable liability. This paper aims at explaining the broad outline of the above legislation, its development since its early years, the state of the art as regards its modernisation as well as the (alleged) problems underlying the delay in its introduction in a number of countries. When dealing with those problems it will be inevitable to touch upon a number of insurance related matters, which, as an insurer I am happy to tell, will lead me to familiar territory.(author).

  1. Chernobyl - state of the art; Chernobyl - o estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B. de; Vicente, Roberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Borges, Jessica F.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Souza, Carla D.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Benega, Marcos A.G.; Souza, Anderson S. de; Silva, Thais H. da, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@ipen.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: thaishunk@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to analyze what has been done so far in relation to damage caused by the accident and the state of art in Chernobyl, as well as the impact on radiation protection applied safety nuclear power plants. In the first part of the work a data survey was done through a bibliographic review and the in the second part data was collected during a visit, in June 2013 at the crash site, when was observed dose values in the affected areas and the works of repairs that have been made in the sarcophagus and surroundings as well as in official reports available through active international bodies. The main results indicate significant improvements in radiation protection systems.

  2. Paediatric thoracoscopy: State of the art | Van Niekerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many advanced procedures, including lobectomy, repair of tracheo-oesophageal fistula, excision of mediastinal tumours and diaphragmatic hernia repairs, are being done routinely in paediatric surgery centres around the world. This article reviews the state of the art of thoracoscopic surgery in children. The author selected ...

  3. The impact of dark chocolate intake on arterial elasticity in individuals with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrea Mariana Nunes da Costa; Luzia, Liania Alves; de Souza, Suelen Jorge; de Almeida Petrilli, Aline; Pontilho, Patrícia de Moraes; de Souza, Jose Maria Pacheco; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim; Efraim, Priscila; Picone, Camila de Melo; Rondo, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2017-06-21

    An increase in the frequency of cardiovascular diseases has been observed in the HIV/AIDS population. Studies involving healthy subjects or subjects with other diseases have shown benefits of chocolate supplementation on endothelial function and vasodilation. We evaluate the impact of chocolate consumption on arterial elasticity in people living with human immunodeficiency virus - PLHIV. A double-blind, crossover trial including 110 PLHIV (19 to 59 years) on antiretroviral therapy - ART for at least 6 months and with a viral load of chocolate or placebo with a 15-d washout period. Each participant received one of the two sequences: A (dark chocolate, placebo chocolate); B (placebo chocolate, dark chocolate). Arterial elasticity was measured using the HDI/PulseWave™ CR-2000 CardioVascular Profiling System®. Body composition, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also assessed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures using the Stata 11.0® program was used for cross-over analysis. Most subjects were men (59.0%) and Caucasian (46.1%) and the mean age was 44.6 ± 7.1 years. The mean time since diagnosis of HIV infection was 13.7 ± 5.3 years and the mean duration of ART was 12.9 ± 4.2 years. Chocolate consumption resulted in significant alterations in the large artery elasticity index - LAEI (p = 0.049) and the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.045). This is the first study to evaluate the effect of chocolate on arterial elasticity in PLHIV. The results showed that dark chocolate consumption for 15 days improved the elastic properties of the LAEI in PLHIV. These findings, added to the noninvasive method used, may expand the knowledge of CVDs in this population.

  4. State of the art: alumina ceramics for energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development

  5. Nuclear power plant decommissioning: state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief orientation to the state-of-the-art of nuclear power plant decommissioning discusses the related areas of experience, tools and techniques, and planning. There have been 68 nuclear reactor decommissionings to date, including 9 power plants, some of which were mothballed. The picture suggests that the term art may be misapplied since decommissioning is now more of a mature commercial industrial than a research and development endeavor. It also suggests that the nuclear industry has shown foresight by preparing for it before a crisis situation developed. Some of this has already influenced operators of coal power plants, especially where hazardous materials may be involved. 33 references, 1 table

  6. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  7. The state of the art in static and dynamic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Giovanni, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of the art in static and dynamic games (or inter-firm relationships). This research area has changed significantly over the last 25 years through the development of phenomena such as the supply chain and the progressive overcoming of

  8. The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.; Pak Lei Chong, G.; Liu, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global companies, through an analysis of the touring exhibition

  9. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais natomia e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae = Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cincoexemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004- Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida,aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemisunifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM.The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the branches

  10. A Snapshot of State Policies for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    It has been said that while history shapes the hand a state is dealt, public policy determines how the hand is played. State policy for K-12 education--and, by extension, for arts education--is shaped through the actions of various state governmental entities--governors, legislatures, courts, and commissioners and boards of education--in response…

  11. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  12. Laparoscopic primary repair and isoperistaltic endoluminal drain for Boerhaave's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Francesco; Pezzolla, Angela; Nitti, Paolo; Prete, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal rupture, also known as Boerhaave syndrome (BS), is a rare and potentially lethal pathological condition. BS recognition is difficult, while rapidity of diagnosis, along with extension of the lesion, affects type and outcome of treatment. BS was classically treated by thoracotomy, but laparoscopic (LS), thoracoscopic (TS) surgery, and nonsurgical procedures as endoscopic stent positioning or use of glues have been described. Still, there is no model treatment, and selection of the most appropriate therapeutic procedure is complex in the absence of standardised criteria. We successfully managed a patient affected with BS by LS approach and present our experience along with a review of treatment options so far described. Our treatment integrated positioning of an oesophageal isoperistaltic endoluminal drain (IED), that we routinely use in oesophageal sutures at risk of leakage, and of which there is no previous report in the setting of BS. A 68 year old man presented to our attention with true BS, suspected on chest-abdominal CT scan and confirmed by upper GI contrast swallow test, showing leakage of hydro-soluble contrast from the lower third of the oesophagus. Of note, pleural cavities appeared intact. We performed an urgent laparoscopy 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Laparoscopic toilet of the inferior mediastinum and dual layer oesophageal repair with pedicled omental flap were complemented by positioning of IED, feeding jejunostomy and two tubular drains. The patient had a slow but consistent recovery where IED played as a means of oesophageal suture protection, until he could be discharged home. We think that, when integrity of the pleura is documented, LS should be priority choice to avoid contamination of the pleural cavities. We have to consider every type of oesophageal repair in BS at risk of failure, and every means of protection of the suture is opportune. In our patient the oesophageal suture, covered with a flap of omentum

  13. State of the art Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OEI, H.-L.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of state-of-the-art ADA Advanced Driver Assistance systems is given. First a main structuring system for the ADA systems is presented, needed for purposes of relevancy, and consistency : the three phases in the accident process, i.e. pre-crash, crash and post-crash; the driving task at

  14. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  15. Text Generation: The State of the Art and the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; And Others

    This report comprises two documents which describe the state of the art of computer generation of natural language text. Both were prepared by a panel of individuals who are active in research on text generation. The first document assesses the techniques now available for use in systems design, covering all of the technical methods by which…

  16. Teacher Evaluation in the Arts Disciplines: Three State Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Karol; Hansen, Deb; Tuttle, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide insight into how state departments are implementing legislative requirements for educator evaluation, particularly the specific circumstances states encounter around arts education. Spotlights on Delaware, a first-round recipient of Race to the Top funding, and Colorado and Arizona, third-round recipients,…

  17. ANATOMIC VARIATIONS OF HEPATIC ARTERY: A STUDY IN 479 LIVER TRANSPLANTATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Lima, Heloise Caroline de Souza; Rabelo, Priscylla; Melo, Paulo Sérgio Vieira de; Amorim, Américo Gusmão; Lacerda, Cláudio Moura

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of anatomic variations of hepatic artery ranges from 20-50% in different series. Variations are especially important in the context of liver orthotopic transplantation, since, besides being an ideal opportunity for surgical anatomical study, their precise identification is crucial to the success of the procedure. To identify the anatomical variations in the hepatic arterial system in hepatic transplantation. 479 medical records of transplanted adult patients in the 13-year period were retrospectively analyzed, and collected data on hepatic arterial anatomy of the deceased donor. It was identified normal hepatic arterial anatomy in 416 donors (86.84%). The other 63 patients (13.15%) showed some variation. According to the Michels classification, the most frequently observed abnormalities were: right hepatic artery branch of superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=27, 5.63%); left hepatic artery branch of the left gastric artery (Type II, n=13, 2.71%); right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery associated with the left hepatic artery arising from the left gastric artery (Type IV, n=4, 0.83%). Similarly, in relation to Hiatt classification, the most prevalent changes were: right hepatic accessory artery or substitute of the superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=28, 6.05%)), followed by liver ancillary left artery or replacement of gastric artery left (Type II, n=16, 3.34. Fourteen donors (2.92%) showed no anatomical abnormalities defined in classifications, the highest frequency being hepatomesenteric trunk identified in five (01.04%). Detailed knowledge of the variations of hepatic arterial anatomy is of utmost importance to surgeons who perform approaches in this area, particularly in liver transplantation, since their identification and proper management are critical to the success of the procedure. A incidência das variações anatômicas da artéria hepática varia de 20-50% em diferentes casuísticas. Elas s

  18. PARA'04, State-of-the-art in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title ``State of the Art in Scientific Computing'', was held in Lyngby, Denmark, June 20-23, 2004. The PARA'04 Workshop was organized by Jack Dongarra from the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Kaj Madsen and J...

  19. The Brazilian state-of-the-art of hydrolysis; Estado da arte da hidrolise no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose Osvaldo Beserra; Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra de; Lal Arora, Harbans; Selvam, P.V. Pannir [Nucleo de Fontes Nao-Convencionais de Energia, Fortaleza, CE, (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents a study of the state-of-the-art of technologies developed for acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignin and cellulose materials in Brazil. The information collected leads us to conclude that Brazil has achieved a high level of technological development. However, the industrial projects for production of alcohol from cassava have not proved successful due mainly to lack of agricultural experience and its low productivity. (author) 26 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. State of the art of solid state dosimetry; Estado da arte em dosimetria do estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Susana O., E-mail: sosouza@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka University (Japan); D' Errico, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.derrico@yale.edu [Yale University, School of Medicine, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed.

  1. Supplier selection problem: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh R. Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global competitiveness and growing market environment, “Actual competition is not between firms against firm, than supplier against supplier”. Globally in the fastest market development world gets closer and closer. Consumers prefer fast delivery, economical product, excellent service and high quality product with desired service level. For successful management of this supply chain, supplier considered as the base source for all processes. Therefore, an efficient supplier selection and evaluation process needs to be incorporate. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive state-of-the-art literature review and critique of the studies related to various aspects of supplier selection problem over the past two decades. Research papers appearing in the reputed and leading international journals from 1991 to 2011 are gathered and analyzed. Primary focus is given on more than 200 published and unpublished works. It has been referred extensively to carry out state-of-the-art review for supplier selection problem. Finally, paper provides future perspective based on current research trends available in the published literature.

  2. Novel Therapeutic Targets for Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: current state-of-the-art on systemic arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B; Balarini, Camille M; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is well known, first for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary hypertension. The discovery that PDE5 is present in the systemic artery endothelium and smooth muscle cells led investigators to test the extra sexual effects of sildenafil, the first and most investigated PDE5 inhibitor, in diseases affecting the systemic arteries. Cumulative data from experimental and clinical studies have revealed beneficial effects of sildenafil on systemic arterial hypertension and its target organs, such as the heart, kidneys and vasculature. An important effect of sildenafil is reduction of hypertension and improvement of endothelial function in experimental models of hypertension and hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, in angiotensin-dependent hypertension, its beneficial effects on endothelial and kidney dysfunctions seem to at least in part be caused by its ability to decrease the levels of angiotensin II and increase angiotensin 1-7, in addition to improving nitric oxide bioavailability and diminishing reactive oxygen species. Another remarkable finding on the effects of sildenafil comes from studies in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis that closely resembles human atherosclerotic disease. In this review, we focus on the promising beneficial effects of sildenafil for treating systemic high blood pressure, especially resistant hypertension, and the endothelial dysfunction that is present in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  3. Some Aspects of the State-of-the-Arts in Biomedical Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: In the biomedical sciences, there is need to generate solutions for Africa's health and economic problems through the impact of university research. To guide organizational transformation, the author here presents some aspects of the state-of-the-arts of biomedical science research in advanced countries using a ...

  4. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  5. CMOS image sensors: State-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Albert J. P.

    2008-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of CMOS image sensors. The main focus is put on the shrinkage of the pixels : what is the effect on the performance characteristics of the imagers and on the various physical parameters of the camera ? How is the CMOS pixel architecture optimized to cope with the negative performance effects of the ever-shrinking pixel size ? On the other hand, the smaller dimensions in CMOS technology allow further integration on column level and even on pixel level. This will make CMOS imagers even smarter that they are already.

  6. Focal ischemia of the brain after neuroprotected carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Steffens, Johann C; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2003-09-17

    This study sought to assess the incidence of cerebral ischemia in nonselected patients undergoing neuroprotected carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) without preceding multiple-vessel diagnostic angiography. Protection devices to prevent distal embolization during CAS are presently under clinical investigation. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes recent ischemia of the brain and may aid in assessing the efficacy of protection devices. Elective CAS was performed in 42 consecutive patients (15 female, 27 male; mean age, 67 +/- 9 years) using six different types of cerebral protection systems. All patients underwent MRI of the brain before and after a total of 44 interventions. Placement and retrieval of the devices and stent deployment was achieved in all procedures. New ischemic foci were seen on postinterventional MRI in 10 cases (22.7%). One patient had sustained a major stroke, whereas no adverse neurological sequelae were associated with the other nine procedures. In the latter, one to three foci (maximum area 43.0 mm(2)) were detected in cerebral regions subtended by the ipsilateral carotid artery in eight cases and by the contralateral carotid artery in one case. In the stroke patient, 12 ischemic foci (maximum area 84.5 mm(2)) were exclusively located in the contralateral hemisphere. Follow-up MRI at 4.1 months (median, n = 7) identified residuals of cerebral ischemia only in this patient. Neuroprotected CAS is associated in about 25% of cases with predominantly silent cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest manipulation of endoluminal equipment in the supraaortic vessels to be a major risk factor for cerebral embolism during neuroprotected CAS.

  7. State of the art: two-phase flow calibration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear community faces a particularly difficult problem relating to the calibration of instrumentation in a two-phase flow steam/water environment. The rationale of the approach to water reactor safety questions in the United States demands that accurate measurements of mass flows in a decompressing two-phase flow be made. An accurate measurement dictates an accurate calibration. This paper addresses three questions relating to the state of the art in two-phase calibration: (1) What do we mean by calibration. (2) What is done now. (3) What should be done

  8. State-of-the-art Versus Time-triggered Object Tracking in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Koplin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most state-of-the-art driver assistance systems cannot guarantee that real-time images of object states are updated within a given time interval, because the object state observations are typically sampled by uncontrolled sensors and transmitted via an indeterministic bus system such as CAN. To overcome this shortcoming, a paradigm shift toward time-triggered advanced driver assistance systems based on a deterministic bus system, such as FlexRay, is under discussion. In order to prove the feasibility of this paradigm shift, this paper develops different models of a state-of-the-art and a time-triggered advanced driver assistance system based on multi-sensor object tracking and compares them with regard to their mean performance. The results show that while the state-of-the-art model is advantageous in scenarios with low process noise, it is outmatched by the time-triggered model in the case of high process noise, i.e., in complex situations with high dynamic.

  9. State-of-the-art report on the theoretical modeling of interfacial area concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Euh, Dong Jin

    1998-03-01

    Classical approaches based on experimental correlations and the mechanistic approaches based on the interfacial area concentration were reviewed. The study focuses on the state-of-the-art researches based on the mechanistic modeling of the interfacial area concentration. The investigation is performed by classifying the mechanistic modeling approaches into those using the number density transport equations supported with a simple algebraic relation for obtaining interfacial area concentration and those using the direct interfacial area transport equations. The modeling approaches are subdivided into one group and multi-group models. The state-of-the-art source terms of transport equations are also investigated for their applicability and limitations. (author). 62 refs., 6 tabs., 49 figs

  10. Braquiterapia endoluminal HDR no tratamento de tumores primários ou recidivas na árvore traqueobrônquica Endoluminal high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of primary and recurrent bronchogenic tree malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fortunato

    2009-03-01

    primários sintomáticos apresentam uma boa tolerância e um alívio sintomático associado a uma boa qualidade de vida. Apesar da reduzida amostra, os resultados demonstram as eventuais vantagens da BTE de HDR no tratamento paliativo/ curativo destes doentesIntroduction: Locally advanced tumours as the initial form of presentation of tumours in the bronchial tree are not a rare event. Bronchogenic recurrence is frequent in the natural history of some tumours. The choice of therapeutic options from the raft available depends on such variables as initial therapy, place of recurrence, symptoms and patient’s physical status. Aim: To demonstrate the advantages of endoluminal brachytherapy (EBT with high dose rate (HDR in primary and recurrent tumour of the bronchial tree. Material and methods: A retrospective study of seven patients (pts with primary tumours of the colon, trachea and lung. Tracheobronchial recurrence (trachea, two pts, bronchus, five pts occurred between March 2003 and September 2004. Patients under-went EBT with HDR for primary or recurrent therapy in association with external radiotherapy, laser therapy and chemotherapy with palliative or curative intention. EBT with HDR doses of 5 to 7 Gy in 2 to 4 fractions at 1 cm from the source axis were given. Treatment included endoluminal application of Ir192 with a French 6 catheter. Results: There was symptomatic relief related to reduction of tumour in six of the seven patients treated. In one of the six patients studied, there was progression of the local disease between the second and third fractions of the treatment (obstruction of the trachea. In a mean follow up of 17 (2-40 months between EBT and this study, three patients are alive, one has no evidence of disease while two have had bronchial recurrence, four patients have died, one after massive haemoptysis and three due to disease progression. Discussion and conclusions: Patients undergoing brachytherapy for symptomatic primary tumours or

  11. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  12. Orphan diseases: state of the drug discovery art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar, Claude-Henry; Wahlestedt, Claes; Brothers, Shaun P

    2017-06-01

    Since 1983 more than 300 drugs have been developed and approved for orphan diseases. However, considering the development of novel diagnosis tools, the number of rare diseases vastly outpaces therapeutic discovery. Academic centers and nonprofit institutes are now at the forefront of rare disease R&D, partnering with pharmaceutical companies when academic researchers discover novel drugs or targets for specific diseases, thus reducing the failure risk and cost for pharmaceutical companies. Considerable progress has occurred in the art of orphan drug discovery, and a symbiotic relationship now exists between pharmaceutical industry, academia, and philanthropists that provides a useful framework for orphan disease therapeutic discovery. Here, the current state-of-the-art of drug discovery for orphan diseases is reviewed. Current technological approaches and challenges for drug discovery are considered, some of which can present somewhat unique challenges and opportunities in orphan diseases, including the potential for personalized medicine, gene therapy, and phenotypic screening.

  13. State of the art on the probabilistic safety assessment (P.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devictor, N.; Bassi, A.; Saignes, P.; Bertrand, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is internationally increasing as a means of assessing and improving the safety of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. To support the development of a competence on Probabilistic Safety Assessment, a set of states of the art regarding these tools and their use has been made between 2001 and 2005, in particular on the following topics: - Definition of the PSA of level 1, 2 and 3; - Use of PSA in support to design and operation of nuclear plants (risk-informed applications); - Applications to Non Reactor Nuclear Facilities. The report compiled in a single document these states of the art in order to ensure a broader use; this work has been done in the frame of the Project 'Reliability and Safety of Nuclear Facility' of the Nuclear Development and Innovation Division of the Nuclear Energy Division. As some of these states of the art have been made in support to exchanges with international partners and were written in English, a section of this document is written in English. This work is now applied concretely in support to the design of 4. Generation nuclear systems as Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors and especially Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, that have been the subject of communications during the conferences ANS (Annual Meeting 2007), PSA'08, ICCAP'08 and in the journal Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations. (authors)

  14. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  15. Simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of the simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, J.; Vaillant, Herve; Moszkowicz, P.; Alimi Ichola, Ibrahim; Foret, Suzanne

    1997-02-01

    Industrial companies use and produce numerous substances which can induce a pollution of our environment and especially of soil and groundwater. Thus, it's necessary to estimate the risk of an environmental impact from an accidental or chronic, real or potential pollution. Modelling, which allow the simulation of pollutant migration, can be used as a decision support system, either for the pollution control and prevention of the resource, or for the monitoring of the remediation of polluted sites. In the first part of this study, we established a state of the art on modelling of pollutant migration in soils. In the second part, we focused on the main simulation tools currently available on the market, and on the main agencies or laboratories working on this subject, especially in France. At the end of this study, we drew some conclusions concerning modelling of pollutant migration in soils and the main points which will form the subject of further studies: - sensitivity analysis of model to input parameters and ranking of the main parameters, - achievement of a database on the state of the art of the results on modelling realized on case studies, - development of a mobility indicator of pollutant in soil, - application field and relevance of the models. (authors)

  16. Endoluminal embolization of bilateral atherosclerotic common iliac aneurysms with fibrin tissue glue (Beriplast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beese, Richard C.; Tomlinson, Mark A.; Buckenham, Timothy M.

    2000-01-01

    The standard surgical approach to nonleaking iliac aneurysms found at repair of a leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm is to minimize the operative risk by repairing the abdominal aorta only. This means that the bypassed iliac aneurysms may have to be repaired later. As this population of patients are usually elderly with coexisting medical problems, interventional radiology is being used to embolize these aneurysms, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality associated with further general anesthesia and surgery. Various materials and stents have been reported to be effective in the treatment of iliac aneurysms. We report the successful use of endoluminal fibrin tissue glue (Beriplast) to treat two large iliac aneurysms in a patient who had had a previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We discuss the technique involved and the reasons why we used tissue glue in this patient.

  17. Digital astrophotography the state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Ratledge, David

    2005-01-01

    The CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) has revolutionised optical astronomy during the past 20 years, and specialised astronomical CCD cameras are now even more affordable, colour is standard, and they provide spectacular results. "Digital Astrophotography: The State of the Art", provides some examples of the best images, and gives readers hints and tips about how to get the best out of this extraordinary technology. Experts in CCD astronomy from North America and Europe have contributed to this book, illustrating their help and advice with many beautiful colour images - the book is in full colour throughout. Techniques range from using simple webcams to highly technical aspects such as supernovae patrolling. Computer processing, stacking and image-enhancement are detailed, along with many hints and tips from the experts.

  18. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  19. Electron beam melting state-of-the-art 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakish, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1984 electron beam melting and refining appear poised for an important new growth phase. The driving force for this phase is improved production economics made possible by technological advances. There is also a new and exciting growth application for electron beam melting: its use for surface properties beneficiation. This article is based in part on the content of the Conference on Electron Beam Melting and Refining, The State-of-the-Art 1983, held in November 1983 in Reno, Nevada

  20. Aneurisma verdadeiro bilateral de artéria tibial posterior True bilateral aneurysm of the posterior tibial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Barros Marques

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, faz-se o relato de um caso de aneurisma verdadeiro bilateral da artéria tibial posterior em paciente de 57 anos. Os aneurismas surgiram em épocas diferentes. Os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos deste caso são discutidos. Este relato é importante, pois os autores não têm conhecimento de caso semelhante na literatura consultada.This article reports a case of true bilateral aneurysm of the tibial posterior artery in a 57 year-old patient. The aneurysms occurred at different times. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this case are discussed. This report is important because the authors did not find a similar description in the literature.

  1. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    This topical review on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is provided with the intent of describing the state of the art in terms of technology, results from recent clinical studies, advanced applications, and ongoing efforts to develop multimodality imaging systems that include DBT. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical studies. The observations of increase in cancer detection rates, particularly for invasive cancers, and the reduction in false-positive rates with DBT in prospective trials indicate its benefit for breast cancer screening. Retrospective multireader multicase studies show either noninferiority or superiority of DBT compared with mammography. Methods to curtail radiation dose are of importance. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26599926

  2. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active ...

  3. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: state of the art in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, G D; O'Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    2017-12-01

    Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Setting ART initiation targets in response to changing guidelines: The importance of addressing both steady-state and backlog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Catherine; Naidoo, Nicolette P; Venter, W D Francois; Jaffer, Ambereen; Barker, Pierre M

    2014-05-12

    Target setting is useful in planning, assessing and improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes. In the past 4 years, the ART initiation environment has been transformed due to the change in eligibility criteria (starting ART at a CD4+ count ART. To describe and illustrate the use of a target-setting model for estimating district-based targets in the era of an expanding ART programme and changing CD4+ count thresholds for ART initiation. Using previously described models and data for annual new HIV infections, we estimated both steady-state need for ART initiation and backlog in a North West Province district, accounting for the shift in eligibility. Comparison of actual v. targeted ART initiations was undertaken. The change in CD4+ count threshold adds a once-off group of newly eligible patients to the pool requiring ART - the backlog. The steady-state remains unchanged as it is determined by the annual rate of new HIV infections in previous years. The steady-state need for the district was 639 initiations/month, and the backlog was ~15,388 patients. After the shift in eligibility in September 2011, the steady-state target was exceeded over several months with some backlog addressed. Of the total backlog for this district, 72% remains to be cleared. South Africa has two pools of patients who need ART: the steady-state of HIV-infected patients entering the programme each year, determined by historical infection rates; and the backlog created by the shift in eligibility. The healthcare system needs to build long- term capacity to meet the steady-state need for ART and additional capacity to address the backlog.

  5. The origin of the inferior phrenic artery: a study in 32 South Indian cadavers with a review of the literature Origem da artéria frênica inferior: estudo em 32 cadáveres da Índia do Sul com revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejodhar Pulakunta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considering the paucity of information presently available concerning inferior phrenic arteries, a more definitive study seemed appropriate and necessary, both for its potential clinical applications and to provide additional data to contemporary anatomical literature. OBJECTIVE: Most anatomical textbooks of gross anatomy offer very little information concerning the anatomy and distribution of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA. For that reason, the origin of the IPA has been studied and the available literature has been reviewed. METHODS: Thirty-two human adult cadavers preserved in formalin obtained from the departments of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal and Mangalore were dissected and the origin of the IPA was studied. RESULTS: The IPA had its usual origin from the abdominal aorta in 28 cases but in the remaining four cases, two were arising from the celiac trunk, one from the left gastric artery and one from the right renal artery. CONCLUSION: The IPA usually originates from the aorta or celiac artery, and less frequently from the renal, hepatic or left gastric arteries. The IPA is a major source of collateral or parasitized arterial supply to hepatocellular carcinoma, second only to the hepatic artery. Literature on the IPA origin and clinical implications of variation in its origin have been reviewed in this article.CONTEXTO: Considerando a escassez de informações atualmente disponíveis sobre artérias frênicas inferiores, umestudo mais definitivo nos pareceu apropriado e necessário, tanto por suas potenciais aplicações clínicas quanto para fornecer dados adicionais à literatura anatômica contemporânea. OBJETIVO: A maioria dos livros-texto de anatomia oferece muito poucas informações referentes à anatomia e distribuição da artéria frênica inferior (AFI. Por este motivo, a origem da AFI foi investigada e a literatura disponível foi revisada. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois cadáveres humanos adultos

  6. PRA: an evaluation of state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    1985-01-01

    Some elements of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology can be characterized as mature and are even ready for some kind of a standardization effort. Other elements are still, however, in a rapid state of evolution. Questions are continuously being asked regarding maturity of PRA techniques vis-a-vis a regulatory decision-making process. Establishing a framework for evaluating state-of-the-art in any technological field is a challenging task. An implementation of a selected framework to a satisfactory conclusion is a monumental task. Of course, these types of issues can be discussed meaningfully only if they are tied to a particular application. The author's participation in the NSF-sponsored risk assessment project is discussed in the paper. The evaluation employed here makes use of the following five evaluation criteria: logical soundness, completeness, accuracy, acceptability, and practicality

  7. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Middle cerebral artery revascularization: anatomical studies and considerations on the anastomosis site Revascularização da artéria cerebral média: estudo anatômico e considerações sobre o local de sutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical management of skull base lesions and vascular diseases such as giant aneurysms, involvement of the internal carotid artery may require the resection or the occlusion of the vessel. The anastomosis of the external carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery with venous graft may be indicated to re-establish the blood flow. To determine the best suture site in the middle cerebral artery, an anatomical study was carried out. Fourteen cerebral hemispheres were analysed after the injection of red latex into the internal carotid artery. The superior and inferior trunk of the main division of the middle cerebral artery have more than 2 mm of diameter. They are superficial allowing an anastomosis using a venous graft. The superior trunk has a disadvantage, it gives rise to branches for the precentral and post-central giri. The anastomosis with the inferior trunk presents lower risk of neurological deficit even though the angular artery originates from it.No tratamento cirúrgico das lesões da base do crânio e patologias vasculares como aneurismas gigantes, a ressecção ou oclusão da artéria carótida interna pode ser necessária. A anastomose das artérias carótida externa e cerebral média com interposição de enxerto venoso pode ser utilizada para restabelecer o fluxo sangüíneo. Para determinar o melhor local de sutura na artéria cerebral média, realizou-se um estudo anatômico. Quatorze hemisférios cerebrais foram analisados depois da injeção de látex vermelho na artéria carótida interna. Os ramos superior e inferior da divisão principal da artéria cerebral média têm mais de 2 mm de diâmetro. Eles são superficiais e permitem uma anastomose utilizando um enxerto venoso. O tronco superior tem a desvantagem de dar origem aos ramos para os giros pré e pós-centrais. A anastomose com o tronca inferior apresenta menor risco de déficit neurológico, apesar da artéria angular ter origem desse vaso.

  9. Mining Tacitus: secrets of empire, nature and art in the reason of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Vera

    2012-06-01

    A new political practice, the 'reason of state', informed the ends and practices of natural study in the late sixteenth century. Informed by the study of the Roman historian Tacitus, political writers gathered 'secrets of empire' from both history and travel. Following the economic reorientation of 'reason of state' by Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), such secrets came to include bodies of useful particulars concerning nature and art collected by an expanding personnel of intelligencers. A comparison between various writers describing wide-scale collections, such as Botero, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Jakob Bornitz (1560-1625) and Matthias Bernegger (1582-1640), reveals that seventeenth-century natural intelligencers across Europe not only were analogous to political intelligencers, but also were sometimes one and the same. Those seeking political prudence cast themselves as miners, prying precious particulars from the recesses of history, experience and disparate disciplines, including mathematics, alchemy and natural philosophy. The seventeenth-century practice of combining searches for secrets of empire, nature and art contests a frequent historiographical divide between empirical science and Tacitism or reason of state. It also points to the ways political cunning shaped the management of information for both politics and the study of nature and art.

  10. State of art of nuclear telerobots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Oh, S C; Park, Y S; Kim, K S

    1997-03-01

    A state-of-the-art survey on telerobotics technology for nuclear applications is made with view to provide technical data base to interested users. Most of the information are gathered from G7 countries with some addition of Korean status of development. Although the bulk of information is focussed on mobile robots, graphic simulation for man-machine interface is also included in the survey. Examples of telerobotics application to nuclear work are investigated. (author). 108 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry: State-of-the-art and frontiers of future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the use of thermoluminescence for the measurement of energy imparted by ionizing radiation is discussed. Emphasis is on the advantages obtainable by the use of computerized glow curve analysis in (i) quality control, (ii) low dose environmental dosimetry, (iii) medical applications (especially precision) and microdosimetric applications, and (iv) mixed field ionization-density–dosimetry. Possible frontiers of future research are highlighted: (i) vector representation in glow curve analysis, (ii) combined OSL/TL measurements, (iii) detection of sub-ionization electrons, (iv) requirements for new TL materials and (v) theoretical subjects involving kinetic modeling invoking localized/delocalized recombination applied to dose response and track structure theory including creation of defects. - Highlights:: • State of the art in thermoluminescence dosimetry. • Benefits of computerized glow curve deconvolution. • Frontiers of future research:new materials, mixed-field dosimetry. • Localized/delocalized kinetic theory:ionization density dependence. • Kinetic theory:creation of defects:track structure theory

  12. Alternativa técnica no tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas da artéria poplítea A technical alternative for the endovascular treatment of popliteal artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O aneurisma de artéria poplítea é relativamente raro, porém representa cerca de 85% de todos os aneurismas arteriais periféricos. Apresenta-se geralmente com um quadro de complicação isquêmica e elevado risco de perda do membro acometido. Em função disso, preconiza-se seu tratamento eletivo, atualmente realizado com resultados satisfatórios pela técnica endovascular. Relatamos nossa experiência com a utilização do stent de nitinol auto-expansível revestido com PTFEe - Fluency (Bard, Alemanha, reforçado internamente com o stent de nitinol auto-expansível Zilver (Cook, EUA no tratamento de um aneurisma de artéria poplítea.Popliteal artery aneurysm is relatively rare, but represents around 85% of all peripheral arterial aneurysms. It is usually presented with ischemic complication and high risk of limb loss. For that reason, its elective treatment is indicated and currently carried through with satisfactory results using endovascular techniques. We describe our experience with the use of an ePTFE-covered nitinol self-expandable stent graft - Fluency (Bard, Germany, reinforced internally with the nitinol self-expandable Zilver stent (Cook, USA for the treatment of a popliteal artery aneurism.

  13. State of the art on bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisano, D.; De Bari, I.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cantarella, M.; Gallifuoco, A.

    2001-01-01

    The state of the art, deals with the ethanol production from current processes based on the use of sugar and starch as feedstock and those under development based on lignocellulosic biomass. In the first section are reported the commercially available processes together with hints to the newest technologies. As regard the ethanol production from lignocellulosics, it has been collected data on the biomass availability in Europe as energy crops, industrial crops, agricultural residues and domestic waste. It is provided a bibliographic study on the technologies and processes under development worldwide for the conversion of lignocellulosics into ethanol. Finally, a brief discussion on the economics highlights the near term viability of producing ethanol by this way [it

  14. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from the SWAFEA preliminary state of the art study. It covers trends in aspects of future air transport, potential candidate fuels and associated feedstock along with sustainability and economical issues relevant for alternative fuels in aviation..

  15. Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaras, Laura; Lowell, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    To shed light on the decline in demand for the nonprofit arts, the authors describe what it means to cultivate demand for the arts, examine how well U.S. institutions are serving this function, and discuss whether it is in the public interest to make such cultivation a higher priority than it has been in the past. The authors propose that a strong…

  16. Analysis and simulation of emergency departments: state of the art and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbrabant, Lien; Braekers, Kris; Ramaekers, Katrien

    2017-01-01

    This abstract gives a brief overview of the state of the art on the analysis and simulation of emergency departments in hospitals. Based on this, research opportunities which will be addressed during my PhD are identified.

  17. [Ultrastructure of the intima of human pial arteries in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Ultrastructure of the intima of human pial arteries obtained from 5 male cadavers of practically healthy individuals and from 8 cadavers of the patients with the intravitally diagnosed grade I arterial hypertension (AH) was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. AH was found to be associated with the remodeling of the intimal structural elements in the pial arteries. In most arteries, the changes were detected in the microrelief of the luminal surface and in the permeability of the vascular endothelial lining and of the subendothelial layer. During this remodeling, some endothelial cells were found in the state of structural and functional adaptation to the elevated arterial pressure, while the others were undergoing the dystrophic changes. The latter include the cells containing lipid inclusions, as well as the endothelial cells presumably in the state of apoptosis. The destruction of the intercellular junctions, the disturbances in the endothelium permeability contributed to the development of subendothelial layer edema, resulting in its significant thickening. This layer became looser and contained abundant collagen fibrils.

  18. Performance Measurement in Belgian Hospitals : a state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier; Rouhana, Rima; Santin, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This communication proposes a global state-of-the-art around the central question : "How is performance measured and controlled in Belgian hospitals. As a first step in a global research project dedicated to the use of Balanced ScoreCard in publics hospitals around the world, it is essentially focused on global economic aspects and on major macroeconomic statistics.

  19. Survey of the state of art in robotics and artificial intelligence, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, G; Lux, P; Knappmann, R J; Schmidt, U

    1981-07-01

    This survey presents the state of the art in robotics and AI with emphasis on control and intelligence. It gives an introduction and summary description of robots and AI, identifies main application areas in space and benefits of the new technologies. Basic methods and concepts are illustrated. The state of the art, evolution trends and problem areas are described for industrial robots and space systems. Two reference missions are used to identify space opportunities. The potential application of existing know-how to space usage is identified. Recommendations for future research and development are given to overcome the problem areas. The survey comprises inventories of relevant publications, firms and institutions and know-how.

  20. Dez anos de experiência com artéria torácica interna direita através do seio transverso na revascularização da artéria circunflexa e seus ramos Ten years of experience with the right thoracic internal artery through transversus sinus in the left circunflex artery and his branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto Gerola

    1993-12-01

    angioplastia, 7 apresentaram infarto do miocárdio não fatal e 1 paciente foi reoperado por oclusão das duas artérias torácicas internas. Foram realizados 69 cateterismos pós-operatórios, sendo 38 imediatos e 31 tardios, num período que variou de 3 a 120 meses (média de 51,6 meses. No período pós-operatório imediato, ATIE estava pérvia em 37 casos (97% e a ATID em 36 (95%. No reestudo tardio, a ATIE estava pérvia em 30 pacientes (97% e a ATID em 29 (92,7%. A análise atuarial mostrou que a percentagem de casos que apresentavam a ATIE pérvia foi de 97,6% em 1 ano e de 93,8% aos 5-10 anos de seguimento, enquanto que a incidência de casos em que a ATID estava pérvia foi de 92,1% em 1 ano e de 84,1% em 5 e 10 anos. Os resultados apresentados mostram que a revascularização de ramos da artéria coronária esquerda com as ATI E e ATI D proporciona aos pacientes uma boa evolução tardia, em decorrência da baixa incidência de eventos cardíacos durante o período estudado. A alta incidência de enxertos pérvios em 10 anos, com a utilização da ATID posicionada através do seio transverso, sugere que esta opção técnica deve ser sempre lembrada na revascularização da artéria circunflexa e seus ramos.From April 1983 to November 1993,185 patients were submitted to myocardial revascularization using bilateral thoracic internal artery. The left internal thoracic artery was used to left anterior descending artery and the right internal thoracic artery was used through transversus sinus to circunflex artery and his branches. We performed 38 angiographic studies during the late follow-up and demonstrated that the right internal thoracic artery was patent in 29 patients (92.7% and the left internal thoracic artery in 30 (97%. We conclude that myocardial revascularyzation should be performed using bilateral internal thoracic artery routinely.

  1. Clinical Trials of Blood Pressure Lowering and Antihypertensive Medication: is Cognitive Measurement State-Of-The-Art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Merrill F; Torres, Rachael V; Davey, Adam

    2018-02-22

    Randomized controlled trials of blood pressure (BP) lowering and antihypertensive medication use on cognitive outcomes have often been disappointing, reporting mixed findings and small effect sizes. We evaluate the extent to which cognitive assessment protocols used in these trials approach state-of-the-art. Overall, we find that a primary focus on cognition and the systematic selection of cognitive outcomes across trials take a backseat to other trial goals. Twelve trials investigating change in cognitive functioning were examined and none met criteria for state-of-the-art assessment, including use of at least 4 tests indexing 2 cognitive domains. Four trials investigating incident dementia were also examined. Each trial used state-of-the-art diagnostic criteria to assess dementia, although follow-up periods were relatively short, with only 2 trials lasting for at least 3 years. Weaknesses in each trial may act to obscure or weaken the positive effects of BP lowering on cognitive functioning. Improving trial designs in terms of cognitive outcomes selected and length of follow-up periods employed could lead to more promising findings. We offer logical steps to achieve state-of-the-art assessment protocols, with examples, in hopes of improving future trials.

  2. Current State-of-the-Art MRI for Comprehensive Evaluation of Potential Living Liver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kartik S; Guo, Lijun; Guimarães, Luís

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy. By using current state-of-the-art techniques, MRI can provide a one-stop-shop method for evaluation of the potential living liver donors.

  3. Exchange rate predictability and state-of-the-art models

    OpenAIRE

    Yeșin, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically evaluates the predictive performance of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) exchange rate assessments with respect to future exchange rate movements. The assessments of real trade-weighted exchange rates were conducted from 2006 to 2011, and were based on three state-of-the-art exchange rate models with a medium-term focus which were developed by the IMF. The empirical analysis using 26 advanced and emerging market economy currencies reveals that the "diagnosis" of ...

  4. Dissection of the V4 segment of the vertebral artery: clinicoradiologic manifestations and endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, 501-757Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea); Kim, Tae Sun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hospital, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea); Do, Huy M.; Jayaraman, Mahesh V.; Marks, Michael P. [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, California (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection has three clinical presentations: ischemia, hemorrhage, and mass effect. Imaging findings of intracranial VA dissections vary according to clinical presentation. Irregular stenosis or occlusion of the VA is the most common finding in patients with posterior fossa infarction, whereas a dissecting aneurysm is the main feature in those with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. A chronic, giant, dissecting aneurysm can cause mass effect on the brain stem or cranial nerves, as well as distal embolism. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detection of intramural hematomas and intimal flaps, both of which are diagnostic of VA dissection. Multidetector computed tomography angiography is increasingly used for diagnosis of VA dissection. Catheter angiography is still beneficial for evaluation of precise endoluminal morphology of the dissection before surgical or endovascular intervention. Endovascular treatment is now considered a major therapeutic option for patients with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm or a chronic dissecting aneurysm. Anticoagulation therapy is currently considered the initial treatment of choice in patients with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms. Endovascular treatment, such as stent-assisted angioplasty or coil occlusion at the dissection site, can be performed in selected patients with posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. (orig.)

  5. Dissection of the V4 segment of the vertebral artery: clinicoradiologic manifestations and endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Tae Sun; Do, Huy M.; Jayaraman, Mahesh V.; Marks, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection has three clinical presentations: ischemia, hemorrhage, and mass effect. Imaging findings of intracranial VA dissections vary according to clinical presentation. Irregular stenosis or occlusion of the VA is the most common finding in patients with posterior fossa infarction, whereas a dissecting aneurysm is the main feature in those with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. A chronic, giant, dissecting aneurysm can cause mass effect on the brain stem or cranial nerves, as well as distal embolism. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detection of intramural hematomas and intimal flaps, both of which are diagnostic of VA dissection. Multidetector computed tomography angiography is increasingly used for diagnosis of VA dissection. Catheter angiography is still beneficial for evaluation of precise endoluminal morphology of the dissection before surgical or endovascular intervention. Endovascular treatment is now considered a major therapeutic option for patients with a ruptured dissecting aneurysm or a chronic dissecting aneurysm. Anticoagulation therapy is currently considered the initial treatment of choice in patients with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms. Endovascular treatment, such as stent-assisted angioplasty or coil occlusion at the dissection site, can be performed in selected patients with posterior fossa ischemic symptoms. (orig.)

  6. The state-of-the-art in research on Science teaching for deaf students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Santos Santana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to highlight the state-of-the-art in research on Science teaching for deaf students from 2012 to 2017, in order to outline an overview of the latest studies in the area, as well as their trends and main considerations. For that, a state-of-the-art research was carried out and, for the construction of the data corpus, abstracts of papers published in scientific journals, course conclusion papers, Masters thesis and Doctoral dissertations were used. From the data analysis, categories were elaborated and trends and challenges in the field were made explicit. The results demonstrate that research in this field is in imminent growth and they are being articulated to the theoretical frameworks that underpin the teaching of Science for hearing students.

  7. State of the art survey of network operating systems development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the State-of-the-Art Survey of Network Operating Systems (NOS) performed for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. NOS functional characteristics are presented in terms of user communication data migration, job migration, network control, and common functional categories. Products (current or future) as well as research and prototyping efforts are summarized. The NOS products which are revelant to the space station and its activities are evaluated.

  8. State-of-the-Art Methods for Brain Tissue Segmentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Lingraj; Agrawal, Sanjay; Panda, Rutuparna; Abraham, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research areas in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection, and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depend merely on the performance of the segmentation method used. In this review, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research. The review also highlights the major challenges faced during tissue segmentation of the brain. An effective comparison is made among state-of-the-art brain tissue segmentation methods. Moreover, a study of some of the validation measures to evaluate different segmentation methods is also discussed. The brain tissue segmentation, content in terms of methodologies, and experiments presented in this review are encouraging enough to attract researchers working in this field.

  9. Endoluminal high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of primary and recurrent bronchogenic tree malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fortunato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Locally advanced tumours as the initial form of presentation of tumours in the bronchial tree are not a rare event. Bronchogenic recurrence is frequent in the natural history of some tumours. The choice of therapeutic options from the raft available depends on such variables as initial therapy, place of recurrence, symptoms and patient's physical status. Aim: To demonstrate the advantages of endoluminal brachytherapy (EBT with high dose rate (HDR in primary and recurrent tumour of the bronchial tree. Material and methods: A retrospective study of seven patients (pts with primary tumours of the colon, trachea and lung. Tracheobronchial recurrence (trachea, two pts, bronchus, five pts occurred betweenMarch 2003 and September 2004. Patients under-went EBT with HDR for primary or recurrent therapy in association with external radiotherapy, laser therapy and chemotherapy with palliative or curative intention. EBT with HDR doses of 5 to 7 Gy in 2 to 4 fractions at 1 cm from the source axis were given. Treatment included endoluminal application of Ir192 with a French 6 catheter. Results: There was symptomatic relief related to reduction of tumour in six of the seven patients treated. In one of the six patients studied, there was progression of the local disease between the second and third fractions of the treatment (obstruction of the trachea. In a mean follow up of 17 (2-40 months between EBT and this study, three patients are alive, one has no evidence of disease while two have had bronchial recurrence, four patients have died, one after massive haemoptysis and three due to disease progression. Discussion and conclusions: Patients undergoing brachytherapy for symptomatic primary tumours or endobronchial recurrence show good tolerance, important symptom relief and improved quality of life. Despite the small size of our sample, it is clear that EBT with HDR plays an important role in the palliative/curative treatment of these patients

  10. Link Prediction in Social Networks: the State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Xu, Baowen; Wu, Yurong; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    In social networks, link prediction predicts missing links in current networks and new or dissolution links in future networks, is important for mining and analyzing the evolution of social networks. In the past decade, many works have been done about the link prediction in social networks. The goal of this paper is to comprehensively review, analyze and discuss the state-of-the-art of the link prediction in social networks. A systematical category for link prediction techniques and problems ...

  11. Integrated Simulation for HVAC Performance Prediction: State-of-the-Art Illustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Clarke, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the current state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for performance prediction of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The

  12. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement: Current State of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkashkari, Wail; Alsubei, Amani; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2018-03-15

    The past couple of decades have brought tremendous advances to the field of pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (CHD). Percutaneous valve interventions are now a cornerstone of not just the congenital cardiologist treating patients with congenital heart disease, but also-and numerically more importantly-for adult interventional cardiologists treating patients with acquired heart valve disease. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) is one of the most exciting recent developments in the treatment of CHD and has evolved to become an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction. This review aims to summarize (1) the current state of the art for tPVR, (2) the expanding indications, and (3) the technological obstacles to optimizing tPVR. Since its introduction in 2000, more than ten thousands tPVR procedures have been performed worldwide. Although the indications for tPVR have been adapted earlier from those accepted for surgical intervention, they remain incompletely defined. The new imaging modalities give better assessment of cardiac anatomy and function and determine candidacy for the procedure. The procedure has been shown to be feasible and safe when performed in patients who received pulmonary conduit and or bioprosthetic valves between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. Fewer selected patients post trans-annular patch repair for tetralogy of Fallot may also be candidates for this technology. Size restrictions of the currently available valves limit deployment in the majority of patients post trans-annular patch repair. Newer valves and techniques are being developed that may help such patients. Refinements and further developments of this procedure hold promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations.

  13. Estudo anatômico do trajeto da artéria vertebral na coluna cervical inferior humana Anatomical study of the vertebral artery path in human lower cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Junitiro Kajimoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da utilização de novas técnicas e materiais de síntese para o tratamento cirúrgico de afecções da coluna cervical baixa foi acompanhado da crescente preocupação em relação às complicações que podem ocorrer. A técnica de fixação transpedicular, amplamente utilizada para os outros níveis da coluna vertebral, quando realizada na coluna cervical, apesar de conferir maior estabilidade quando comparada a outras técnicas, pode cursar com complicações graves como lesão da artéria vertebral, lesão de raiz nervosa, além de lesão da articulação facetária. A vértebra C7, no entanto, é considerada mais segura para a realização de tal procedimento, já que, na grande maioria das pessoas, segundo os estudos anatômicos disponíveis, esta não possui a artéria vertebral dentro de seu forame transverso, pois este vaso irá penetrar tal estrutura apenas na vértebra C6. Como hoje existem apenas estudos de imagem para avaliação do trajeto desta artéria e suas variações anatômicas, realizamos este estudo anatômico dissecando 40 artérias vertebrais de cadáveres para avaliar a incidência das variações anatômicas. Encontramos 3 casos onde a artéria vertebral penetrou o forame transverso já em C7 (7,5%, o que aumentaria o risco de uma técnica transpedicular neste nível. O restante das peças anatômicas possuíam anatomia habitual.The increasing use of new techniques and materials for surgical treatment of lower cervical spine conditions has come along with an increasing concern regarding potential complications that might occur. The transpedicular fixation technique, frequently used in other spine levels, is used on the cervical spine, while providing more stability than other techniques, it may cause serious complications such as vertebral artery injury, nervous root injury, or facet joint injuries. However, the C7 vertebra is considered safer for performing this procedure, since, in the vast majority of

  14. State-of-the-art computer technologies used to train nuclear specialists and to conduct research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.A.; Tikhonenko, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses innovative methods used in the process of training nuclear specialists and conducting research which are based on state-of-the-art computer technologies. The approach proposed makes wide use of mathematical modeling and state-of-the-art programming techniques. It is based on the development, improvement and application of problem-oriented computer codes to support the teaching process and to solve fundamental and applied problems of nuclear physics and nuclear engineering.

  15. State-of-the-art of biodegradable composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley, Ch.; Grohens, Y.; Pillin, I.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the market demand for environment friendly materials is in strong growth. The biodegradable composites (biodegradable fibres and polymers) mainly extracted from renewable resources will be a major contributor to the production of new industrial high performance products partially solving the problem of waste management. At the end of the lifetime, a structural bio-composite could be be crushed and recycled through a controlled industrial composting process. This the state-of-the-art report focuses on the biopolymers the vegetable fibres properties, the mechanisms of biodegradation and the examples of biodegradable composites. Eco-design of new products requires these new materials for which a life cycle analysis is nevertheless necessary to validate their environmental benefits. (authors)

  16. INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to compile relevant background and interpretive material and prepare a state-of-the-art report which would put the...to-person communications. Section III presents basic IS and R concepts and techniques. It traces the history of traditional librarianship through...the process of communication between the originators and users of information. Section V categorizes the information system operations required to

  17. Analysis of Respiratory Sounds: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reichert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Methods and material Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. Results The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… Conclusion The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  18. MRI Sequences in Head & Neck Radiology - State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner

    2017-05-01

    Background  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head & neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head & neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Method  Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head & neck MRI. Results and Conclusion  Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Menière's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head & neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality. Key Points:   · Understanding of MRI sequences is essential for the correct and reliable interpretation of MRI findings.. · MRI protocols have to be carefully selected based on relevant clinical information.. · Close collaboration with referring physicians improves the output obtained from the diagnostic possibilities of MRI.. Citation Format · Widmann G, Henninger B, Kremser C et

  19. Minimally invasive therapy of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk: application of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhammer, Frank; Steinhaus, Daniele; Cohnen, Mathias; Hoppe, Jonas; Mödder, Ulrich; Fürst, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin injection has been proven to be successful in postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. However, there are only a few reports on the treatment of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. We report our first experiences using a percutaneous as well as an endovascular access. Eight iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the trunk (aorta, n = 4; pulmonary artery, n = 1; gastroduodenal artery, n = 1; left gastric artery, n = 1, renal artery, n = 1) were treated either percutaneously using CT guidance (n = 3) or via an endovascular access (n = 5). Noninvasive control angiograms were performed at day 1 and weeks 1 and 3 by either CT or MR angiography. The total volume of the pseudoaneurysms was 31.2 +/- 23.1 ml on average, with a mean volume of the perfused aneurysmal lumen of 12.9 +/- 7.2 ml. The maximum diameter was 4.1 +/- 1.39 cm on average. In each case, the aneurysmal neck was not wider than 2 mm. One pseudoaneurysm occluded spontaneously following selective catheterization. The remaining pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated by injection of 765 +/- 438.1 IU thrombin. In one individual, a nontarget embolization occurred, as well as an intervention-associated rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. High-grade stenoses of the donor artery were found in a different case. Only once was the endoluminal access converted to a percutaneous one. Thrombin injection might be a future first-line treatment of vascular lesions such as pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. In our experience both percutanous and endoluminal access are technically feasible and safe. However, further experiences are mandatory, especially concerning the question of dosage and long-term results.

  20. art and culture administration in Edo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    its environment the social, political, economic, aesthetic and religious norms and .... December, 2009, the Ministry of Arts, Culture and Tourism did organize a well ... and Social Welfare Departments and the mass media in the state so that the ...

  1. Laser Beam Machining (LBM), State of the Art and New Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the state of the art of laser beam machining in general with special emphasis on applications of short and ultrashort lasers. In laser welding the trend is to apply optical sensors for process control. Laser surface treatment is mostly used to apply corrosion and wear

  2. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  3. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  4. Endoluminal ultrasound applicators for MR-guided thermal ablation of pancreatic tumors: Preliminary design and evaluation in a porcine pancreas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Matthew S.; Diederich, Chris J.; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D.; Plata-Camargo, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Pauly, Kim Butts; Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea; Bouley, Donna M.; Chen, Hsin-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. Methods: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3.2 MHz planar; or 8 × 10 × 20 mm radius of curvature 3.3 MHz curvilinear geometries) at the distal end of a meter long flexible catheter assembly, were designed and fabricated. Transducers and circulatory water flow for acoustic coupling and luminal cooling were contained by a low-profile polyester balloon covering the transducer assembly fixture. Each applicator incorporated miniature spiral MR coils and mechanical features (guiding tips and hinges) to facilitate tracking and insertion through the GI tract under MRI guidance. Acoustic characterization of each device was performed using radiation force balance and hydrophone measurements. Device delivery into the upper GI tract, adjacent to the pancreas, and heating characteristics for treatment of pancreatic tissue were evaluated in MR-guided ex vivo and in vivo porcine experiments. MR guidance was utilized for anatomical target identification, tracking/positioning of the applicator, and MR temperature imaging (MRTI) for PRF-based multislice thermometry, implemented in the real-time RTHawk software environment. Results: Force balance and hydrophone measurements indicated efficiencies of 48.8% and 47.8% and −3 dB intensity beam-widths of 3.2 and 1.2 mm for the planar and curvilinear transducers, respectively. Ex vivo studies on whole-porcine carcasses revealed capabilities of producing ablative temperature rise

  5. Endoluminal ultrasound applicators for MR-guided thermal ablation of pancreatic tumors: Preliminary design and evaluation in a porcine pancreas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Matthew S., E-mail: matt.adams@ucsf.edu; Diederich, Chris J. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, S341, San Francisco, California 94115 and The UC Berkeley - UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States); Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D. [Thermal Therapy Research Group, University of California, San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, S341, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States); Plata-Camargo, Juan; Sommer, Graham; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea; Bouley, Donna M. [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chen, Hsin-Yu [The UC Berkeley - UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Endoluminal ultrasound may serve as a minimally invasive option for delivering thermal ablation to pancreatic tumors adjacent to the stomach or duodenum. The objective of this study was to explore the basic feasibility of this treatment strategy through the design, characterization, and evaluation of proof-of-concept endoluminal ultrasound applicators capable of placement in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen for volumetric pancreas ablation under MR guidance. Methods: Two variants of the endoluminal applicator, each containing a distinct array of two independently powered transducers (10 × 10 mm 3.2 MHz planar; or 8 × 10 × 20 mm radius of curvature 3.3 MHz curvilinear geometries) at the distal end of a meter long flexible catheter assembly, were designed and fabricated. Transducers and circulatory water flow for acoustic coupling and luminal cooling were contained by a low-profile polyester balloon covering the transducer assembly fixture. Each applicator incorporated miniature spiral MR coils and mechanical features (guiding tips and hinges) to facilitate tracking and insertion through the GI tract under MRI guidance. Acoustic characterization of each device was performed using radiation force balance and hydrophone measurements. Device delivery into the upper GI tract, adjacent to the pancreas, and heating characteristics for treatment of pancreatic tissue were evaluated in MR-guided ex vivo and in vivo porcine experiments. MR guidance was utilized for anatomical target identification, tracking/positioning of the applicator, and MR temperature imaging (MRTI) for PRF-based multislice thermometry, implemented in the real-time RTHawk software environment. Results: Force balance and hydrophone measurements indicated efficiencies of 48.8% and 47.8% and −3 dB intensity beam-widths of 3.2 and 1.2 mm for the planar and curvilinear transducers, respectively. Ex vivo studies on whole-porcine carcasses revealed capabilities of producing ablative temperature rise

  6. Avaliação da anastomose de artéria torácica interna esquerda com artéria interventricular anterior pela ecodopplercardiografia Evaluation of left internal thoracic artery anastomosis with left anterior descending coronary artery by Doppler echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Arruda

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor do ecocardiograma Doppler(ECO transtorácico na identificação de perviabilidade da anastomose entre artéria torácica interna esquerda (ATIE e interventricular anterior, realizada pela técnica de revascularização miocárdica pela minitoracotomia sem circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se os primeiros 12 pacientes, consecutivos, no período de pós-operatório intra-hospitalar pelo ECO, utilizando-se transdutores de 5MHz, pela via paraesternal esquerda, preferencialmente. Foram analisadas velocidades máximas e integrais de velocidade dos componentes sistólico e diastólico das curvas espectrais de fluxo Doppler. Todos pacientes foram submetidos à cinecoronariografia, enquanto hospitalizados. RESULTADOS: O ECO foi exeqüível em 93% dos pacientes. Nos com anastomose pérvia (6/7, observou-se ao estudo Doppler amplo componente diastólico (padrão A. Naqueles com anastomose obstruída (4/4 o padrão observado foi de predomínio sistólico (padrão B (p=0,003*. CONCLUSÃO: O ECO da ATIE anastomosada com a artéria interventricular anterior, após cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica pela técnica de minitoracotomia, permitiu caracterizar precocemente, com precisão, a perviabilidade da anastomose.PURPOSE: To study the value of Doppler echocardiography as a tool for the evaluation of left internal thoracic artery graft (LITAG patency in patients who underwent coronary revascularization using minimally invasive bypass surgery without extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: The first 12 consecutive patients were studied after coronary artery bypass surgery using a 5MHz Doppler transducer. Doppler signals for the systolic and diastolic flow velocities were preferably obtained in the second intercostal space. All patients underwent coronary angiography while hospitalized. RESULTS: The exam was feasible in 93% of patients. Doppler flow pattern was predominantly diastolic (pattern A in patients with patent

  7. State-of-the-art methodology of forest inventory: a symposium proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon J. LaBau; Tiberius Cunia

    1990-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of forest inventory methodology, being closely integrated with the fast-moving, high technology computer world, has been changing at a rapid pace over the past decade. Several successful conferences were held during the 1980s with the goal and purpose of staying abreast of such change. This symposium was conceived, not just with the idea of helping...

  8. FIPRED state of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, D.; Meleg, T.; Dumitrescu, I.; Benga, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the FIPRED (Fission Product Release from Debris Bed) Project state of art (UO 2 sintered pellets oxidation). The FIPRED Project is dedicated to the study of the fission products released from irradiated pellets present in debris bed. The fission product release is produced by oxidative self disintegration of sintered pellets at air ingress and it depends on temperature. The experimental program covered experiments of 300-1400 deg. C in air diluted with nitrogen at different concentrations of oxygen and different steam-air mixture. The experiments were performed using the SETARAM thermo-gravimetric equipment and the FIPRED EQ equipment designed and manufactured especially for this type of experiment. The powders (fragments), resulted from UO 2 pellets self disintegration, were characterized by sieving and SEM. The self disintegration mechanism was demonstrated using the experimental result obtained and thermodynamically data of uranium oxides. (authors)

  9. Native American Arts and Crafts of the United States. Bibliography 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC.

    The selected readings listed in this annotated bibliography are suggested as an introduction to the varied arts and crafts created from prehistoric to modern times by Native American peoples of the United States. The publications are organized by culture area to encompass major media practiced by Native American artists and craftsmen of these…

  10. Sistematização da origem, da distribuição e dos territórios da artéria cerebral caudal na superfície do encéfalo em gatos Systematization of the origin, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the encephalon in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 26 encéfalos de gatos, adultos, sem diferenciação de sexo, sem raça definida, corados com látex e fixados por solução aquosa de formaldeído. As artérias cerebrais caudais, direita e esquerda, apresentaram-se únicas em 96,1 e 88,4% dos casos, respectivamente. Em 69,2% dos casos no antímero direito e 80,8% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou-se pela anastomose entre o ramo caudal da artéria carótida interna, com maior contribuição, e o ramo terminal da artéria basilar. Em 88,4% dos casos no antímero direito e em 84,6% no esquerdo, a artéria cerebral caudal originou a artéria tectal rostral e um ramo caudal. O ramo caudal bifurcou-se e vascularizou os colículos rostrais e caudais dos corpos quadrigêmeos e em alguns casos contribuiu na formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo. A artéria tectal rostral seguiu ventralmente ao lobo piriforme e durante seu trajeto liberou ramos para o hipocampo e, no antímero esquerdo, supriu a superfície dorsal do tálamo, contribuindo para a formação do plexo coroide do terceiro ventrículo.In this study were used 26 brains of adult cats, without sex differentiation and definable race, colored with latex and fixed in formaldehyde aqueous solution. The right and left caudal cerebral arteries were single in 96.1% and 88.4% of the sample, respectively. In 69.2% of the samples on the right side and 80.8% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery fin from the anastomosis behind the caudal branch of the internal carotid artery, with a large contribution, and the basal artery terminal branch. In 88.4% of the samples on the right side and 84.6% on the left, the caudal cerebral artery showed the tectal rostral artery and one caudal branche. The caudal branch forked in two branches that supplied the rostral and caudal colliculis of the quadruplet bodies and formed the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. The tectal rostral artery followed ventrally to the

  11. Entrepreneurship Education: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sánchez García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Job uncertainty and ambiguity is a reality in many current societies, therefore, the idea of self-employment has taken a more active role, not only out of necessity, but also because it brings innovation and development to societies. In view of this situation, the following question arises: how can we strengthen the entrepreneurial spirit of our students? This article has the objective to collect theoretical information of the state of the art on entrepreneurship education: what it has been, what it is, and what can it be, in order to present the current condition of the topic, both in the psychological and pedagogical field. To achieve this objective, information from 108 research sources, mainly from scientific articles and books was collected, concluding that, although generally, entrepreneurship education has significantly contributed to the creation of businesses, developing countries, specifically, those in Latin America, still require extra effort to fully implement entrepreneurship topic in the curriculums, particularly because of challenges such as political instability, technology and international competition.

  12. State Arts Agencies 1965-2003. Whose Interests to Serve?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowell, Julia

    2004-01-01

    ... (referred to as state arts agencies, or SAAs). In fiscal year (FY) 2003, a record 43 of 56 SAAs reported year-over-year declines in the general fund appropriations budgeted to them by their state legislatures...

  13. State-of-the-art report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed

  14. Pragmatics: The State of the Art: An Online Interview with Keith Allan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Keith; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This interview was conducted with Professor Keith Allan with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the state of the art of pragmatics. In providing answers to the interview questions, Professor Allan begins with a definition of pragmatics as it is practiced today, i.e., the study of the meanings of utterances with attention to…

  15. State of the art in power cable design, failure mechanisms and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, H.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation describes state of the art in power cable design, failure mechanisms and testing. It gives a history of cable usage and design of cables, describes different cable types, assessment of the condition of cables, aging and failures, testing and diagnostics

  16. Pulmonary hypertension-"state of the art" management in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition of small pulmonary arteries, characterised by vascular proliferation and remodelling. The pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance progressively rise, leading to right heart failure and death. Pulmonary artery hypertension may be secondary to various conditions, or it may be idiopathic where no underlying cause is identifiable. Earlier, only symptomatic treatment was available for such patients which did not change the natural history of the disease. However, over the years, improvement in understanding the pathogenesis has resulted in the development of targeted approaches to the treatment of PAH. Survival advantage has also been shown with some of the pharmacologic agents. This review article discusses the current management strategy for PAH with special emphasis on an idiopathic variety, in an Indian context. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Macro-defect free cements. State of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, J.N.F.; Povoa, G.E.A.M.; Souza, G.P.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prevent a state of art about macro-defect-free cement pastes (MDF cement ) of high mechanical strength. This new type of cement paste is obtained through addition of a water-soluble polymer, followed by intense shear mixing and application of low compacting pressure. It is presented fundamental aspects related to the processing of this MDF paste, as well as its main properties and applications are discussed. (author)

  18. Aneurisma de artéria ilíaca interna roto: relato de caso Ruptured internal iliac artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Toledo Afonso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aneurismas isolados da artéria ilíaca interna são raros, acometem 0,1% da população e correspondem a 1% dos aneurismas aorto-ilíacos. Na maioria das vezes, os pacientes são assintomáticos, mas podem apresentar dor abdominal, massa pulsátil no hipogástrio ou na fossa ilíaca, sintomas compressivos urinários, gastrointestinais ou neurológicos. Podem ocasionar quadro de abdome agudo, principalmente quando há ruptura. O diagnóstico precoce dos aneurismas isolados de artéria ilíaca interna é incomum, sendo identificados quando mais volumosos ou rotos, o que aumenta significativamente sua morbimortalidade e torna seu prognóstico mais reservado. Dessa forma, representam um desafio terapêutico. A ligadura cirúrgica tem sido o tratamento mais comum, entretanto a cirurgia endovascular tem mostrado bons resultados, inclusive nos aneurismas rotos. É relatado caso de aneurisma de artéria ilíaca interna isolado roto diagnosticado durante laparotomia para abordagem de abdome agudo.Isolated internal iliac artery aneurysms are rare. They affect 0.1% of the population, and account for 1% of aortoiliac aneurysms. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, yet they can have abdominal pain, pulsatile mass in the hypogastrium or iliac fossa, or urinary, gastrointestinal or neurological compressive symptoms. Such aneurysms are likely to course with an acute abdomen, especially when ruptured. Early diagnosis of isolated internal iliac artery aneurysms is difficult, as they are more easily detected when larger or ruptured, which significantly raises their morbidity and mortality rate and determines a poor prognosis. Therefore, they are a therapeutic challenge. Surgical ligation has been the most common treatment; however, the endovascular approach has presented good outcomes, even in the event of ruptured aneurysms. A case of ruptured isolated iliac artery aneurysm diagnosed during a laparotomy (acute abdomen approach is reported.

  19. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant - others:EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  20. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  1. An Inquiry of How Art Education Policies Are Reflected in Art Teacher Preparation: Examining the Standards for Visual Arts and Art Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungeun

    2017-01-01

    Policy changes influence various aspects of art education such as K-12 art education curricula, state licensure systems, and contexts of art teacher preparation. Despite strong relationships between art education policy and practical fields, few studies have attempted to understand art education from the perspective of policy analysis. This study…

  2. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. Hist...

  3. Tratamiento endoluminal de la aorta. Implicaciones en la enfermedad de la aorta torácica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Josa García-Tornel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el tratamiento quirúrgico endoluminal de la enfermedad de la aorta (EVAR, endovascular aortic repair se ha convertido en una opción terapéutica en un espectro amplio de pacientes. EVAR es una técnica relativamente fácil, menos agresiva y con aparente menor riesgo con respecto a la cirugía convencional de la aorta. La evidente presión de la industria, a menudo combinada con el lógico interés por su desarrollo por parte de muchos grupos clínicos y el factor moda, tan en boga en nuestros tiempos, han dado a la cirugía endoluminal de la aorta abdominal un desarrollo muy rápido que se está extendiendo en la actualidad a segmentos de la aorta torácica. Aunque los resultados publicados parecen avalar un papel importante de EVAR en algunos grupos específicos de pacientes, su uso en muchos otros grupos es muy controvertido. Su alto coste y los resultados a medio plazo parecen poner en tela de juicio la tendencia a la generalización que existe hoy día. La aplicación a la aorta torácica está asociada con un mayor número de interrogantes. Estudios rigurosos y mejoras técnicas ayudarán, sin duda, a definir mejor su indudable aplicabilidad en el tratamiento de la aorta tanto abdominal como torácica, pero en la actualidad su uso debe estar regulado por un cumplimiento estricto de indicaciones basadas en evidencias clínicas y alejadas de otros intereses, y su práctica debe reducirse a grupos de multiespecialidad preparados en todos los aspectos de la cirugía cardiovascular.

  4. Correlation between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis in acid-base unbalance state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Lee Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base unbalance is most common problem in severe ill patient, especially in condition of abnormal renal function state. Acid-base unbalances are respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis is frequently appeared in clinical state. Arterial blood gas analysis is considered as a basic test to the intensive care unit patient and emergency state. Recently some researches were done, comparing with arterial blood gas analysis and venous blood gas analysis. Because of venous blood sampling is safer than arterial blood gas analysis, and beside not so different among them for detecting pH, pCO2, HCO3, except pO2 measuring. This research was done in emergency room, and for explaining no different between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis result in acid-base unbalance state patient. Especially in kidney functions decreased state. : The study was done from March, 2010 to January, 2011. The object was 89 peoples who came to emergency room for treating internal medicine problem. (Women 53, average age: 66.7±12.1 Then compare between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis. Result: The mean arterial minus venous difference for pH, pCO2, and bicarbonate was −0.0170, 2.6528, and 0.6124. Bland-Altman plot was done for predicting agreement of two groups, and the scale was pH −2.95 to 4.17, pCO2 −4.45 to 9.76, bicarbonate −2.95 to 4.16, in 95% relative. Conclusion: The peripheral blood gas pH, pCO2, bicarbonate level is almost same as arterial blood gas analysis results. And enough to measuring acid-base unbalance state, in absent of arterial blood testing.

  5. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging

  6. Nuclear scanning microprobe: state of the art, applications and progress trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The physical principles of nuclear scanning microprobe are considered. The analysis of state of the art of the microprobe setup from point of view of its spatial resolution and sensitivity of microanalysis techniques is given. The regions of nuclear microprobe applications are reviewed. The ways of spatial resolution and data acquisition system improvement under consideration of microprobe setup progress trends are considered. (authors)

  7. Doplervelocimetria das artérias oftálmica e central da retina em gestantes normais Dopplervelocimetry of ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz

    2005-04-01

    evaluate ophthalmic and retinal central artery Doppler indices during the second and third trimesters of normal pregnancy and to compare the right with left eye Doppler indices of normotensive women. METHODS: a cross-sectional study which evaluated central retinal and ophthalmic artery Doppler velocimetry values of 51 normal pregnant women, in the 20th to 38th week of gestation. The following values were analyzed: pulsatility and resistance indexes (PI, RI, peak systolic and end-diastolic flow velocity (PSV, EDFV and peak velocity ratio (PVR. The Doppler indices in the right and left eyes were studied by the median. The paired Student's t test was used to confront the right and left eye values and the Pearson linear correlation analysis was performed to study the value changes throughout the gestation, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Doppler velocimetry indices of ophthalmic and central retinal arteries (median values were, respectively: PI=1.83; RI=0.78; PSV=34.20; EDFV=6.80; PVR=0.48 and PI=1.34; RI=0.70; PSV=7.40; EDFV=2.10. There was no significant difference between the right and left side Doppler values. Linear correlation analysis showed no association between the arterial values and pregnancy age. CONCLUSION: the unilateral analysis of ophthalmic and central retinal artery Doppler velocimetry values can be used in systemic maternal disease. There is no significant change in ophthalmic and central retinal artery Doppler velocimetry values throughout normal pregnancy.

  8. Modelling and simulation SSM: latest state of the art technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jahajeeah, N

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available as one phase ? One Phase model ?Wider volume solid fraction 0 – 1 ? Implementation in Power Law Cut-Off Model (PLCO) of Procast Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Assumptions of the PLCO Model... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness Modelling and Simulation SSM Latest state of the art technology N Jahajeeah Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness BEHAVIOUR OF THIXOTROPIC...

  9. Anatomia do circuito arterial do encéfalo em Tamanduá-mirim Anatomy of encephalon arterial circuit in lesser anteater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lima

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O circuito arterial do encéfalo é de grande importância, pois é responsável pela vascularização do encéfalo, sendo este o principal órgão do sistema nervoso central e responsável por receber e processar informações. A espécie estudada foi escolhida por tratar-se de um mamífero pertencente à ordem Xenarthra e os integrantes dessa ordem são pouco estudados, devido à dificuldade de acesso a esses animais. Para desenvolver este trabalho, foram estudados cinco espécimes de Tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla. O material teve o sistema arterial injetado com látex Neoprene 650, corado em vermelho e fixado em solução aquosa de Formaldeído 10%, sendo posteriormente dissecados para sistematização dos vasos. O circuito arterial da base do encéfalo do tamanduá-mirim circunda o corpo mamilar, a fossa interpenduncular, o túber cinéreo, a hipófise e o quiasma óptico. A porção rostral desse circuito é caracterizada pelos ramos rostrais das artérias carótidas internas e a porção caudal é constituída pelas artérias comunicantes caudais e ramos caudais da artéria carótida interna. Esta espécie animal apresenta o tipo II de irrigação encefálica no qual existe a participação das artérias carótidas internas e do sistema vértebro-basilar para a formação do circuito arterial.The arterial circuit of the brain is of great importance because it is responsible for vascularization of the brain and this is the main organ of the central nervous system and responsible for receiving and processing information. The species was chosen because it is a mammal belonging to the Xenarthra order and the members of this order are little studied because of the difficulty of access to these animals. To develop this work were studied five specimens of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla. The material had the arterial system filled with Neoprene latex stained in red, fixed in aqueous solution of 10% paraformaldehyde and dissected

  10. State of art and perspectives of using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskij, B.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    State of art of renewable energy sources for the beginning of the nineties and perspectives up to 2020 are considered by the forecast of the European Commission. The program of the World Sun Summit up to 1996-2005 is presented

  11. Efeito do sulfato de magnésio sobre o índice de pulsatilidade das artérias uterinas, umbilical e cerebral média fetal de acordo com a persistência da incisura protodiastólica da artéria uterina na pré-eclâmpsia grave Effect of magnesium sulfate on pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries according to the persistence of bilateral diastolic notch of uterine arteries in patients with severe preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2009-02-01

    ção intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio nas pacientes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, ocorre uma diminuição da pressão arterial e do IP das artérias uterinas, umbilicais e cerebral média fetal, além de aumento da frequência cardíaca materna, não influenciada pela presença de incisura protodiastólica bilateral nas artérias uterinas.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of magnesium sulphate on the pulsatility index (PI of the uterine, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arteries, according to the persistency or not of the bilateral protodiastolic notch of the uterine arteries in severe pre-eclampsia. METHODS: a cohort study including 40 pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, 23 of them presenting bilateral protodiastolic notch, and 17, unilateral/absent notch. The patients were submitted to Doppler velocimetry before and 20 minutes after the intravenous administration of 6 g of magnesium sulphate. The examination was carried out with the patient in semi-Fowler position, the sonograms being obtained during fetal inactivity, in apnea and absent uterine contraction periods. All the exams were performed by two researchers, the average being considered as the final result. Wilcoxon's test was used to compare the PI, before and after magnesium sulphate in both groups. The difference between the two measurements (before and after magnesium sulphate was compared between the groups (bilateral incision and unilateral/absent incision using the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: there was a significant increase in the maternal heart rate (MHR and decrease in the maternal blood pressure, and in the PI medians of the two uterine arteries and in the fetal middle cerebral artery, after magnesium sulphate in both groups. There was a significant decrease in the PI of the left uterine artery and in the umbilical artery, only in the protodiastolic unilateral/absent notch group. Nevertheless, it was not found any significant difference regarding the PI of the right uterine artery, or the cerebral

  12. Effects of the use of assisted reproductive technologies and an obesogenic environment on resistance artery function and diabetes biomarkers in mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Ramirez-Perez

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers.

  13. Leadless Pacemakers: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Domenico G; Gianni, Carola; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Al-Ahmad, Amin

    2018-03-01

    Leadless pacemaker therapy is a new technology that aims at avoiding lead- and pocket-related complications of conventional transvenous and epicardial pacing. To date, 2 self-contained leadless pacemakers for right ventricular pacing have been clinically available: the Nanostim Leadless Pacemaker System and the Micra Transcatheter Pacing System. Additionally, a new multicomponent leadless pacemaker for endocardial left ventricular pacing has been proposed as an alternative choice for cardiac resynchronization therapy. In this review, we describe the state of the art of leadless pacing and compare the currently available devices with traditional transvenous leadless pacemakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally Invasive Therapy of Pseudoaneurysms of the Trunk: Application of Thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, Frank; Steinhaus, Daniele; Cohnen, Mathias; Hoppe, Jonas; Moedder, Ulrich; Fuerst, Guenter

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin injection has been proven to be successful in postcatheterization pseudoaneurysms. However, there are only a few reports on the treatment of pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. We report our first experiences using a percutaneous as well as an endovascular access. Eight iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms of the trunk (aorta, n = 4; pulmonary artery, n = 1; gastroduodenal artery, n = 1; left gastric artery, n = 1, renal artery, n = 1) were treated either percutaneously using CT guidance (n = 3) or via an endovascular access (n = 5). Noninvasive control angiograms were performed at day 1 and weeks 1 and 3 by either CT or MR angiography. The total volume of the pseudoaneurysms was 31.2 ± 23.1 ml on average, with a mean volume of the perfused aneurysmal lumen of 12.9 ± 7.2 ml. The maximum diameter was 4.1 ± 1.39 cm on average. In each case, the aneurysmal neck was not wider than 2 mm. One pseudoaneurysm occluded spontaneously following selective catheterization. The remaining pseudoaneurysms were successfully treated by injection of 765 ± 438.1 IU thrombin. In one individual, a nontarget embolization occurred, as well as an intervention-associated rupture of a pseudoaneurysm. High-grade stenoses of the donor artery were found in a different case. Only once was the endoluminal access converted to a percutaneous one. Thrombin injection might be a future first-line treatment of vascular lesions such as pseudoaneurysms of the trunk. In our experience both percutanous and endoluminal access are technically feasible and safe. However, further experiences are mandatory, especially concerning the question of dosage and long-term results

  15. The state of art of the methods for thermohydraulics design of LMFBR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1981-09-01

    The present (experimental and analytical) state of art of the methods for thermohydraulics design of LMFBR fuel elements is analyzed. A development program is suggested, in order to obtain a computer code for modelling the distribution of coolant enthalpy in reactor core. This computer code is in development. (Author) [pt

  16. State of the art in HGPT (Heuristically Based Generalized Perturbation) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1993-01-01

    A distinctive feature of heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) methodology consists in the systematic use of importance conservation concepts. As well known, this use leads to fundamental reciprocity relationships from which perturbation, or sensitivity, expressions can be derived. The state of the art of the HGPT methodology is here illustrated. The application to a number of specific nonlinear fields of interest is commented. (author)

  17. Opção técnica na tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária anômala: relato de casos Technical option on tetralogy of Fallot with abnormal coronary artery: cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Assumpção

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos dois casos um menino de 11 anos e uma menina de um ano e seis meses, portadores de tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária de origem anômala, cruzando a via de saída de ventrículo direito. O diagnóstico foi feito com ecocardiografia e cateterismo cardíaco. Utilizamos, na correção, um enxerto externo composto de pericárdio bovino e parede posterior da artéria pulmonar, entre o ventrículo direito e o tronco da artéria pulmonar. As crianças tiveram boa evolução pós-operatória, obtendo alta hospitalarassintomáticas. É mais uma opção técnica na correção da tetralogia de Fallot com artéria coronária anômala.Report on two children, one 11 year-male and another one year-six-month-female with tetralogy of Fallot associated with anomalous origin of coronary artery crossing the right ventricle outlet tract. Diagnosis was done by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. On surgical correction we used an external composite tubular pericardium bovine graft and posterior wall of the pulmonary artery between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery trunk. Patients had an uneventful post-operative period and were discharged asymptomatic. It is more an option on correction of tetralogy of Fallot with anomalous coronary artery.

  18. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis; Claireaux, Guy; Cooke, Steven J.; Corner, Richard A.; Boeck, De Gudrun; Domenici, Paolo; Guerreiro, Pedro M.; Hamer, Bojan; Jørgensen, Christian; Killen, Shaun S.; Lefevre, Sjannie; Marras, Stefano; Michaelidis, Basile; Nilsson, Göran E.; Peck, Myron A.; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Shiels, Holly A.; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Jon C.; Svendsen, Morten B.S.; Teal, Lorna R.; Meer, Van Der Jaap; Wang, Tobias; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Wilson, Rod W.; Metcalfe, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental

  19. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the ...

  20. Influence of iterative reconstruction on coronary calcium scores at multiple heart rates: a multivendor phantom study on state-of-the-art CT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, N R; Willemink, M J; Willems, T P; Greuter, M J W; Leiner, T

    2017-12-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction on coronary calcium scores (CCS) at different heart rates for four state-of-the-art CT systems. Within an anthropomorphic chest phantom, artificial coronary arteries were translated in a water-filled compartment. The arteries contained three different calcifications with low (38 mg), medium (80 mg) and high (157 mg) mass. Linear velocities were applied, corresponding to heart rates of 0,  75 bpm. Data were acquired on four state-of-the-art CT systems (CT1-CT4) with routinely used CCS protocols. Filtered back projection (FBP) and three increasing levels of iterative reconstruction (L1-L3) were used for reconstruction. CCS were quantified as Agatston score and mass score. An iterative reconstruction susceptibility (IRS) index was used to assess susceptibility of Agatston score (IRS AS ) and mass score (IRS MS ) to iterative reconstruction. IRS values were compared between CT systems and between calcification masses. For each heart rate, differences in CCS of iterative reconstructed images were evaluated with CCS of FBP images as reference, and indicated as small ( 10%). Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA tests. While subtle differences were found for Agatston scores of low mass calcification, medium and high mass calcifications showed increased CCS up to 77% with increasing heart rates. IRS AS of CT1-T4 were 17, 41, 130 and 22% higher than IRS MS . Not only were IRS significantly different between all CT systems, but also between calcification masses. Up to a fourfold increase in IRS was found for the low mass calcification in comparison with the high mass calcification. With increasing iterative reconstruction strength, maximum decreases of 21 and 13% for Agatston and mass score were found. In total, 21 large differences between Agatston scores from FBP and iterative reconstruction were found, while only five large differences were found between

  1. State-of-art report III/1984 (June 29 to November 27, 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The state-of-art report III/1984 gives a survey of the activities of the Nuclear Committee (KTA) and its panels and of KTA regulation projects in the period between the 35th and 36th KTA meeting. The state-of-art report is designed to give fast, synoptical, adequate information on the current state of KTA work. With regulation projects, data which are subject to miner variations only, for instance concerning the contents or organization of a regulation project, data on the flow of work, members of the panels, are included in the KTA manual. In case of alterations, the data in the KTA manual are updated by replacing the respective pages. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  3. Fine pitch thermosonic wire bonding: analysis of state-of-the-art manufacturing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasin, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    A comprehensive process characterization was performed at the Motorola plastic package assembly site in Selangor, Malaysia, to document the current fine pitch wire bond process capability, using state-of-the-art equipment, in an actual manufacturing environment. Two machines, representing the latest technology from two separate manufacturers, were operated one shift per day for five days, bonding a 132 lead Plastic Quad Flat Pack. Using a test device specifically designed for fine pitch wire bonding, the bonding programs were alternated between 107 micrometers and 92 micrometers pad pitch, running each pitch for a total of 1600 units per machine. Wire, capillary type, and related materials were standardized and commercially available. A video metrology measurement system, with a demonstrated six sigma repeatability band width of 0.51 micrometers , was utilized to measure the bonded units for bond dimensions and placement. Standard Quality Assurance (QA) metrics were also performed. Results indicate that state-of-the-art thermosonic wire bonding can achieve acceptable assembly yields at these fine pad pitches.

  4. Seismic response of buried pipelines: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, T.K.

    1999-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of the seismic response of buried pipelines is presented. The review includes modeling of soil-pipe system and seismic excitation, methods of response analysis of buried pipelines, seismic behavior of buried pipelines under different parametric variations, seismic stresses at the bends and intersections of network of pipelines. pipe damage in earthquakes and seismic risk analysis of buried pipelines. Based on the review, the future scope of work on the subject is outlined. (orig.)

  5. Radioactive waste management: State of the art in the world. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2001-01-01

    In the former number of this publication, the management of low and intermediate level wastes (LILW) was described as well as an overview of the state of art in the world. This report summarizes the strategies for high level waste management including final disposal. What is being done on an international basis in this field in different countries will be described in the next number of this review. (author)

  6. Blade root design a state of the art survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, O

    1988-06-01

    This report was conceived in the wake of recent blade root failures in several horizontal axis turbines. Ten blade root designs are presented. They are considered to represent the state of the art. The information was obtained partly from literature partly from a few important projects with little or no documentation. Suggestions are made how to proceed in the development of the bonded bolt type of root retention. Presently the conclusion is that this type of arrangement seems the most promising. Developments in this field should be closely monitored, however. For this type of very high cycle fatigue designs there is a need for two redundant design principles. (author).

  7. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Brownsword, R.; Kariniotakis, G.

    2003-08-01

    Based on an appropriate questionnaire (WP1.1) and some other works already in progress, this report details the state-of-the-art in short term prediction of wind power, mostly summarising nearly all existing literature on the topic. (au)

  8. The state-of-the-art in the rehabilitation of a PIONEER Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Bledea

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis about the state of stress in the girder of a PIONEER crane with a prescribed vertical loading of 0,75 tones belonging to the thermal power-station Timisoara. The analysis has been performed with a FEA software (COSMOS/M which is able to conduct to important results regarding the map of stress, especially in areas where high stress concentration are present. There have been automatically combined a wide range of finite elements: shell, brick, beam,truss-cable simulating the different zones of the girder. The combination of the most advanced standard components as well the implementation of the modular product concepts and the state-of-the-art regarding the design of cranes must be in a perfect agreement with the state of stress in the metallic structure. In the end, a comparison between the FEA results and the classical calculus with the strength of materials theory has been performed.

  9. Big-hole drilling - the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The art of big-hole drilling has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site since the start of underground testing in 1961. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary-drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. The current design of bits, cutters, and other big-hole-drilling hardware results from contributions of manufacturers and Test Site personnel. The dual-string, air-lift, reverse-circulation system was developed at the Test Site. Necessity was really the Mother of this invention, but this circulation system is worthy of consideration under almost any condition. Drill rigs for big-hole drilling are usually adaptations of large oil-well drill rigs with minor modifications required to handle the big bits and drilling assemblies. Steel remains the favorite shaft lining material, but a lot of thought is being given to concrete linings, especially precast concrete

  10. The emancipatory character of action research, its history and the present state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boog, B.

    2003-01-01

    Right from the start. action research was intended to be emancipatory research, and it still is. This article will underpin this by outlining its history and the present state of the art. Though a variety of action research approaches have developed along divergent theoretical pathways, it will be

  11. Stability of Carotid Artery Under Steady-State and Pulsatile Blood Flow: A Fluid–Structure Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17–23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo. PMID:25761257

  12. Stability of carotid artery under steady-state and pulsatile blood flow: a fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Khalafvand, Seyed; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that arteries may buckle into tortuous shapes under lumen pressure, which in turn could alter blood flow. However, the mechanisms of artery instability under pulsatile flow have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method. The artery wall was modeled as a nonlinear material with a two-fiber strain-energy function. FSI simulations were performed under steady-state flow and pulsatile flow conditions with a prescribed flow velocity profile at the inlet and different pressures at the outlet to determine the critical buckling pressure. Simulations were performed for normal (160 ml/min) and high (350 ml/min) flow rates and normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to determine the effects of flow rate and axial tension on stability. The results showed that an artery buckled when the lumen pressure exceeded a critical value. The critical mean buckling pressure at pulsatile flow was 17-23% smaller than at steady-state flow. For both steady-state and pulsatile flow, the high flow rate had very little effect (<5%) on the critical buckling pressure. The fluid and wall stresses were drastically altered at the location with maximum deflection. The maximum lumen shear stress occurred at the inner side of the bend and maximum tensile wall stresses occurred at the outer side. These findings improve our understanding of artery instability in vivo.

  13. State-of-the-art report of spent fuel management technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S. G.; Park, S. W.; Shin, Y. J. and others

    1998-06-01

    Essential technologies for a long-term management of domestic nuclear fuel have been described in this report. The technologies of interest are advanced processes for spent fuel management, spent fuel examination technology, evaluation of radiation effect on equipment, chemical characterization of spent fuel, and hot cell-related technology state of the art for the above-mentioned technologies has been reviewed and analyzed in detail. As a result, a future R and D direction that seems to be appropriate for us is drawn up in due consideration of in- and out-circumstances encountered with. (author). 304 refs., 28 tabs., 43 figs

  14. Overview of ACTYS project on development of indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, P.V.; Tadepalli, Sai Chaitanya; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Kanth, Priti; Srinivasan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous activation calculations are warranted for safer and efficient design of future fusion machines. Suitable activation codes, which yield accurate results with faster performance yet include all fusion relevant reactions are a prerequisite. To meet these, an indigenous project called ACTYS-Project is initiated and as a result, four state-of-art codes are developed so far. The goal of this project is to develop indigenous state-of-the-art code suites for nuclear activation analysis

  15. The fifth generation computer project state of the art report 111

    CERN Document Server

    Scarrott

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth Generation Computer Project is a two-part book consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The invited papers examine various aspects of The Fifth Generation Computer Project. The analysis part assesses the major advances of the Fifth Generation Computer Project and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in The Fifth Generation. This part provides a balanced and comprehensive view of the development in Fifth Generation Computer technology. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of The Fifth Generation.

  16. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The manufature of components in steel, aluminium and copper alloys by cold forging production has increased ever since the 1950's. Typical processes are forward rod extrusion and backward can extrusion, upsetting, ironing, tube extrusion and radial extrusion. The tribological conditions in cold...... forging are extremely severe due to large surface expansion and normal pressure in the tool/workpiece interface combined with elevated tool temperatures. Except for the more simple cold forging operations successful production therefore requires advanced lubrication systems. The present paper gives...... a detailed description of the state of art for lubricant systems for cold forging of C-steels and low alloy steels as well as aluminium alloys including all the basic operations such as cleaning of the slugs, application of eventual conversion coating and lubrication. As regards cold forging of steel...

  17. Assessment of resting-state blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries using trans-cranial doppler recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanrui; Sejdić, Ervin

    2013-12-01

    Trans-cranial Doppler (TCD) recordings are used to monitor cerebral blood flow in the main cerebral arteries. The resting state is usually characterized by the mean velocity or the maximum Doppler shift frequency (an envelope signal) by insonating the middle cerebral arteries. In this study, we characterized cerebral blood flow in the anterior cerebral arteries. We analyzed both envelope signals and raw signals obtained from bilateral insonation. We recruited 20 healthy patients and conducted the data acquisition for 15 min. Features were extracted from the time domain, the frequency domain and the time-frequency domain. The results indicate that a gender-based statistical difference exists in the frequency and time-frequency domains. However, no handedness effect was found. In the time domain, information-theoretic features indicated that mutual dependence is higher in raw signals than in envelope signals. Finally, we concluded that insonation of the anterior cerebral arteries serves as a complement to middle cerebral artery studies. Additionally, investigation of the raw signals provided us with additional information that is not otherwise available from envelope signals. Use of direct trans-cranial Doppler raw data is therefore validated as a valuable method for characterizing the resting state. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar water detoxification: state of the art of the research in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia Garcia, D.; Trevino Sanchez, A. C.; Berges Garcia, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT's Foresight and Technology Watch Unit, whose technology watch management system is certified by Aenor as per standards UNE 16006:2006, has developed this study in order to review the state of the art of national research on solar water detoxification. to reach this goal, data bases of scientific publications, research projects and patents have been used. The technology watch information management solution VICUBO, developed by E-intelligent, was used as support tool for the afore-mentioned standard. (Author) 3 refs.

  19. A state-of-the-art passive gamma-ray assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.; Parker, J.L.; Cowder, L.R.; Kern, E.A.; Garcia, D.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    We report details of the development of a high-accuracy, high-precision system for the non-destructive assay of 235 U in solution. The system can measure samples with concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 500 g 235 U/l using 200-ml samples at low concentrations, 30-ml samples at high concentrations, and 1000-s measurement times. The accuracy and precision goals of 0.1% were essentially attained for concentrations above 100 g/l. This at-line system, designed for a production plant environment, represents a significant improvement in the state of the art

  20. On the state of the art: risk communication to decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to decision-makers, with an emphasis on issues involved in communicating technical results. In particular, the paper discusses the treatment of uncertainty, variability, and dependence. It also reviews suggestions from the literature regarding the appropriate format of risk communication messages to decision-makers. Due to the lack of detailed empirical investigations and definitive results about this topic, the paper is not intended to be a comprehensive review, but rather as an exploration of key issues in this area

  1. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Draxl, C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Brownsword, R. (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Oxford (United Kingdom)); Kariniotakis, G. (ARMINES, Paris (France)); Denhard, M. (ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom))

    2011-01-15

    This Deliverable of ANEMOS.plus (Advanced Tools for the Management of Electricity Grids with Large-Scale Wind Generation) and SafeWind projects presents the state of the art in wind power forecasting. More than 380 references of journal and conference papers have been reviewed. (LN)

  2. CEN standards for solar thermal systems - State of the art and expectted impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der; Pauschinger, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1994, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee TC 312 has been active in producing European Standards for thermal solar energy systems and components. In this paper, an overview of the present State of the Art of the draft standards is presented. These standards

  3. Conference Report: The Hunt for the Nibelungen Treasure. BVM Conference: "Qualitative Market Research—State of the Art and Prospects"

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kühn

    2005-01-01

    On March 9th, 2005, a conference entitled "Qualitative Market Research—State of the Art and Prospects" was held in Frankfurt/M., organized by the Association of German Social and Market Researchers (BVM e.V.). Because of the great interest generated by the conference it was repeated on April 20th, 2005. The aim of the conference was to bring together market research professionals from the supply and demand sector to discuss the state of the art of qualitative market research in Germany. Withi...

  4. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  5. State of the art report on aging reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Han, Sang Hoon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2002-03-01

    The goal of this report is to describe the state of the art on aging analysis methods to calculate the effects of component aging quantitatively. In this report, we described some aging analysis methods which calculate the increase of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) due to aging by including the influence of aging into PSA. We also described several research topics required for aging analysis for components of domestic NPPs. We have described a statistical model and reliability physics model which calculate the effect of aging quantitatively by using PSA method. It is expected that the practical use of the reliability-physics model will be increased though the process with the reliability-physics model is more complicated than statistical model

  6. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  7. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  8. State of the Art in Pediatric Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2018-04-24

    Pediatric lung transplantation is a highly specialized therapy for end stage pulmonary disease in children, performed in only a handful of transplant centers around the world. Advancement in the field has been made on many fronts in recent years, including in public policy and organ allocation strategies, donor selection and management, emerging technologies for donor lung rehabilitation and bridge-to-transplant support of listed candidates, and ongoing refinement of surgical techniques. Despite this progress, children continue to suffer discrepant waitlist mortality and longer waiting times than their adult counterparts, and face special challenges of donor availability and size matching. Here we review the current state of the art in pediatric lung transplantation, reviewing progress made to date and further opportunities to improve care for this unique group of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Prevention of vascular dysfunction and arterial hypertension in mice generated by assisted reproductive technologies by addition of melatonin to culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhaj, Emrush; Pireva, Agim; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Allemann, Yves; Cerny, David; Dessen, Pierre; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) induce vascular dysfunction in humans and mice. In mice, ART-induced vascular dysfunction is related to epigenetic alteration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, resulting in decreased vascular eNOS expression and nitrite/nitrate synthesis. Melatonin is involved in epigenetic regulation, and its administration to sterile women improves the success rate of ART. We hypothesized that addition of melatonin to culture media may prevent ART-induced epigenetic and cardiovascular alterations in mice. We, therefore, assessed mesenteric-artery responses to acetylcholine and arterial blood pressure, together with DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter in vascular tissue and nitric oxide plasma concentration in 12-wk-old ART mice generated with and without addition of melatonin to culture media and in control mice. As expected, acetylcholine-induced mesenteric-artery dilation was impaired (P = 0.008 vs. control) and mean arterial blood pressure increased (109.5 ± 3.8 vs. 104.0 ± 4.7 mmHg, P = 0.002, ART vs. control) in ART compared with control mice. These alterations were associated with altered DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter (P culture media prevented eNOS dysmethylation (P = 0.005, vs. ART + vehicle), normalized nitric oxide plasma concentration (23.1 ± 14.6 μM, P = 0.002 vs. ART + vehicle) and mesentery-artery responsiveness to acetylcholine (P culture media prevents ART-induced vascular dysfunction. We speculate that this approach will also allow preventing ART-induced premature atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Comparação da perviedade entre artéria radial e veia safena em pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica com retorno dos sintomas Comparison of patency between radial artery and saphenous vein in a coronary artery bypass grafting post operative with return of the symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Coelho Hortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a perviedade da artéria radial e veia safena em pacientes com retorno dos sintomas após cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRVM. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo. No período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2005, foram realizadas 469 CRVMs com o uso da artéria radial dentre os enxertos, no Hospital Vera Cruz, em Belo Horizonte/MG. Destes, 94 pacientes apresentaram alterações isquêmicas no pós-operatório recente ou tardio e foram reestudados com cineangiocoronariografia. Os enxertos foram divididos em três grupos: artéria torácica interna (ATI, artéria radial (AR e veia safena (VS, e foram estratificados segundo a gravidade das lesões: sem lesão grave (OBJECTIVE: To compare the radial artery and saphenous vein's patency in patients with recurrence of symptoms in a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. METHODS: Retrospective study. From January 1998 to December 2005, 469 CABGs were performed using the radial artery as a graft, in Vera Cruz Hospital in Belo Horizonte/ MG. Among the patients who underwent those surgeries, 94 presented ischemic changes in early or late postoperative period, which led them to be re-evaluated by coronary angiography. The grafts were divided in three groups: internal thoracic artery (ITA, radial artery (RA and saphenous vein (SV, and they were stratified according to the severity of injury: uninjured or patent (< 70%, severe obstruction (70 to 99% and occlusion. RESULTS: For the 94 patients in the study, 86 grafts of ITA, 94 of RA and 111 of SV were used. For the 86 ITA grafts, 73 (84.88% were found patent. For the 94 RA grafts, 55 (58.51% were found patent, and for the 111 SV grafts, 73 (65.76% were uninjured. A statistically significant difference (P= 0.001 was found between RA and SV grafts, with a higher patency found for VS graft. For the RA grafts, women presented a worse result concerning the RA patency (65.7% and 40.7%, with P = 0.006. Concerning coronary

  13. State of the art of UO2 fuel fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Klemm, U.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from the need of UO 2 for thermal power reactors in the period from 1980 to 1990 and the role of UF 6 conversion into UO 2 within the fuel cycle, the state-of-the-art of the three established industrial processes - ADU process, AUC process, IDR process - is assessed. The number of process stages and requirements on process management are discussed. In particular, the properties of the fabricated UO 2 powders, their influence on the following pellet production and on operational behaviour of the fuel elements under reactor conditions are described. Hence, an evaluation of the three essential conversion processes is derived. (author)

  14. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  15. Celiac artery in New Zealand rabbit: anatomical study of its origin and arrangement for experimental research and surgical practice Artéria celíaca em coelhos Nova Zelândia: estudo anatômico de sua origem e arranjo para a pesquisa experimental e a prática cirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been used as an experimental model in many diseases and for the study of toxicology, pharmacology and surgery in many universities. However, some aspects of their macro anatomy need a more detailed description, especially the abdominal and pelvic arterial vascular system, which has a huge variability in distribution and trajectory. Thirty cadaveric adult New Zealand rabbits, 13 male and 17 female, with an average weight and rostrum-sacral length of 2.5 kg and 40cm, respectively, were used. The thoracic aorta was cannulated and the vascular system was filled with stained latex S-65. The celiac artery and its proximal branches were dissected and lengthened in order to evidence origin and proximal ramifications. The celiac artery emerged between the 12th and 13th thoracic vertebra in 11 (36.7% rabbits; at the level of the 13th thoracic vertebra in 6 (20% rabbits; between the 13th thoracic vertebra and the 1st lumbar vertebra in 12 (40% rabbits; and at the level of the 1st lumbar vertebra in only one (3.3% rabbit. The mean length of the celiac artery was 0.5cm. The celiac artery first branch was the lienal artery, the second branch was the left gastric artery and the hepatic artery arose from the left gastric artery in all the dissected rabbits. No relation was observed between the celiac artery length and the rostrum-sacral length in rabbits. The number of left gastric and lienal artery branches and the distribution of celiac artery origin are not gender dependent.Os coelhos têm sido usados como modelo experimental em diferentes patologias e para estudos de toxicologia, farmacologia e cirurgia em várias universidades. Entretanto apesar de sua grande utilização, muitos aspectos de sua macroanatomia, em especial os que se referem ao sistema vascular arterial que irrigam as viscerais abdomino-pélvicas ainda carecem de uma descrição mais detalhada, pois os vasos arteriais apresentam grande variabilidade na sua distribuição e

  16. Assisted Reproduction Techniques (Art): The State of the Art in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infertility has become a social stigma in our environment because of the erroneous belief that a childless marriage is a failed marriage. This has placed a lot of marriages under pressure. Therefore any solution to infertility is a welcome relief. This is where Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART) belongs.

  17. Airway clearance techniques in neuromuscular disorders: A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Michelle; Toussaint, Michel; Gonçalves, Miguel R; Sheers, Nicole; Mellies, Uwe; Gonzales-Bermejo, Jesus; Sancho, Jesus; Fauroux, Brigitte; Andersen, Tiina; Hov, Brit; Nygren-Bonnier, Malin; Lacombe, Matthieu; Pernet, Kurt; Kampelmacher, Mike; Devaux, Christian; Kinnett, Kathy; Sheehan, Daniel; Rao, Fabrizio; Villanova, Marcello; Berlowitz, David; Morrow, Brenda M

    2018-03-01

    This is a unique state of the art review written by a group of 21 international recognized experts in the field that gathered during a meeting organized by the European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) in Naarden, March 2017. It systematically reports the entire evidence base for airway clearance techniques (ACTs) in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). We not only report randomised controlled trials, which in other systematic reviews conclude that there is a lack of evidence base to give an opinion, but also include case series and retrospective reviews of practice. For this review, we have classified ACTs as either proximal (cough augmentation) or peripheral (secretion mobilization). The review presents descriptions; standard definitions; the supporting evidence for and limitations of proximal and peripheral ACTs that are used in patients with NMD; as well as providing recommendations for objective measurements of efficacy, specifically for proximal ACTs. This state of the art review also highlights how ACTs may be adapted or modified for specific contexts (e.g. in people with bulbar insufficiency; children and infants) and recommends when and how each technique should be applied. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  19. State of the ART: clinical efficacy and improved quality of life in the public antiretroviral therapy program, Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E; Van Loon, F; Van Rensburg, D; Meulemans, H

    2009-11-01

    The South African public-sector antiretroviral treatment (ART) program has yielded promising early results. To extend and reinforce these preliminary findings, we undertook a detailed assessment of the clinical efficacy and outcomes over two years of ART. The primary objective was to assess the clinical outcomes and adverse effects of two years of ART, while identifying the possible effects of baseline health and patient characteristics. A secondary objective was to address the interplay between positive and negative outcomes (clinical benefits versus adverse effects) in terms of the patients' physical and emotional quality of life (QoL). Clinical outcome, baseline characteristics, health status, and physical and emotional QoL scores were determined from clinical files and interviews with 268 patients enrolled in the Free State ART program at three time points (6, 12, and 24 months of ART). Age, sex, education, and baseline health (CD4 cell count and viral load) were all independently associated with the ART outcome in the early stages of treatment, but their impact diminished as the treatment progressed. The number of patients classified as treatment successes increased over the first two years of ART, whereas the proportion of patients experiencing adverse effects diminished. Importantly, our findings show that ART had strong and stable positive effects on physical and emotional QoL. These favorable results demonstrate that a well-managed public-sector ART program can be very successful within a high-HIV-prevalence resource-limited setting. This finding emphasizes the need to adopt treatment scale-up as a key policy priority, while at the same time ensuring that the highest standards of healthcare provision are maintained. Healthcare services should also target vulnerable groups (males, less-educated patients, those with low baseline CD4 cell counts, and high baseline viral loads) who are most likely to experience treatment failure.

  20. Radioindication of hemodynamics and functional state of parenchyma of the kidneys in stenosis of renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, O.N.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Kamynin, Yu.F.; Matveenko, E.G.; Buyuklyan, A.N.; Skoropad, L.S.; Syzgantseva, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hemodynamics and functional state of parenchyma of the kidney were studied in 39 patients with stenosis of the renal arteries by means of pertechnetate 99 Tc, hippuran 131 I and chlormerodrine 197 Hg. In patients with vasorenal hypertension the following changes in the stenosed kidney were revealed: a significant decrease in the renal blood flow, renal fraction, volume of maximal saturation, specific blood flow, systolic renal index; elevation of the intrarenal vascular resistance; and impairment of the functional state of the renal parenchyma. It was established that there was a direct dependence between the renal blood flow and the volume of maximal saturation and a reverse dependence between the renal blood flow and intrarenal vascular resistance. Hemodynamic changes in the stenosed kidney played an important role and led at first to a bias in renographic indices and then - to a decrease in accumulation of chlormerodrine 197 Hg in the kidneys. It was noted that changes in the functional state of the renal parenchyma tended to be dependent upon the level of the renal blood flow, and indices of the renal blood flow - upon the values of arterial pressure. From diagnostic point of view, methods of radioiangiography, as compared with renography and scintigraphy, were found to be the most informative

  1. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  2. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  3. Fast reactors in Russia: State of the art and trends of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.M.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Zverev, K.V.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Korol'kov, A.S.; Filin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    This status report contains the following: facts on nuclear power in Russia from 2001-2002; plans for further development of nuclear power; state of the art on operation of fast reactors in 2002, namely BN-600, experimental reactors BOR-60 and BR-10; construction of NPP BN-800; participation in activities on BN-350 reactor decommissioning; description of trends of design studies in the field of fast reactors and accelerator driven systems

  4. Alkali activated materials state-of-the-art report, RILEM TC 224-AAM

    CERN Document Server

    Deventer, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.

  5. Vicissitudes of Edo State Council for Arts and Culture Performing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The ding-dong charade of Edo State Council for Arts and Culture Performing Troupe (ESCFAACPT) cannot be divorced from the vacillating condition the establishment had been experiencing since its establishment. This condition is fore-grounded, first, on the cacophony of nomenclature that the council had been ...

  6. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne Sonne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  8. The function and the structural characteristics of the state-of-the-art concept in the provisions for damage required under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenhaus, W.; Kuckuck, B.

    1980-01-01

    The authors examine the function and the structural characteristcs of the state-of-the-art concept. It is described as a yardstick in judging the means to be employed to attain the goals of protection under Sec. 1, Subsec. 2 of the Atomic Energy Act. The concept was used to ensure that the advances in theoretical knowledge were met also by an adequate development of technical measures of protection so as to ensure a maximum of safety. The concept included a scientific and engineering state of the art, which allowed a sufficiently reliable forecast to be made of the technical feasibility of science-based concepts of safety and protection. The forecast constituted an obligation to monitor the progress of the state of the art by elucidating progressive developments in safety proposals and concerns. (HSCH) [de

  9. Uso do Verapamil em Gestantes Hipertensas Crônicas: análise do Fluxo das Artérias Uterinas e Umbilical Use of Verapamil in Chronic Hypertensive Pregnant Women: flow Analysis of Uterine Arteries and Umbilical Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jose do Amaral Vasconcellos

    2000-06-01

    patients were accompanied: study group (n = 61, submitted to verapamil 240 mg/day and control group (n = 62, submitted to placebo. These patients were randomized into groups of four women and treatment or placebo was given for thirty days. A flow examination of the uterine arteries and umbilical artery through doppler-velocimetry was recorded. The values of resistance (RI and pulsatility index (PI and of the systole/diastole ratio (S/D of the arteries were compared after the drug administration calculating means and standard deviations. Results: the verapamil group showed RI = 0.82 (0.28, PI = 1.06 (0.12 and S/D = 2.42 (0.51 in the uterine arteries. The placebo group showed RI = 0.75 (0.35, PI = 1.00 (0.18 and S/D = 2.30 (0.38. When we analyzed the umbilical artery, the verapamil group showed RI = 0.73 (0.12, PI = 1.04 (0.13 and S/D = 2.94 (0.32. The placebo group showed RI = 0.70 (0.14, PI = 1.03 (0.07 and S/D = 3.02 (0.78. The statistical analysis of the differences of the means by the F ratio showed that there was no difference between these two groups. Conclusion: this study indicates the use of verapamil for chronic hypertensive pregnants since it does not provoke damage to the uterine and fetal blood flow.

  10. Predictors of Long-Term Results After Treatment of Iliac Artery Obliteration by Transluminal Angioplasty and Stent Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funovics, M.A.; Lackner, B.; Cejna, M.; Peloschek, P.; Sailer, J.; Philipp, M.O.; Maca, T.; Ahmadi, A.; Minar, E.; Lammer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate initial and long-term success rate after percutaneous treatment of iliac artery occlusion with angioplasty and stent deployment. To investigate the influence of vascular comorbidity, lesion length, stent placement and lesion coverage as possible predictors of outcome. Methods: Between January 1994 and December 1999, 80 iliac recanalizations were performed on 78 patients, median age 61.1 ±11.5 (SD) years. All patients were followed up by clinical examinations, duplex ultrasound and intravenous digital subtraction angiography. Mean follow-up time was 2.0 ± 1.53 (SD) years.Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine the influence of cofactors on patency. Results: One, 2 and 4 years after recanalization, primary patency was 78.1%, 74.5% and 64.0%; secondary patency was 88.8%, 88.8% and 77.9%, respectively.Patients with shorter occlusions, complete lesion coverage and patent ipsilateral femoral arteries had significantly longer patency rates.Complications included inguinal hematoma (n=1), technical failure (n=3) aortic dissection (n=1), embolic occlusions (n=7), gluteal claudication (n=1) and genital necrosis after subsequent urethral surgery in one patient with contralateral occlusion and ipsilateral overstenting of the internal iliac artery with subsequent stenosis. Complications were of permanent clinical significance in seven of 78 (9%) of the patients. In 17 (22%) cases, percutaneous reintervention was performed with angioplasty in the stent (n=16) or deployment of a new stent (n=1). Conclusion: Endoluminal stent placement has its place in an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach as a viable therapeutic alternative to major transabdominal bypass surgery and can be performed with comparable complication rates. Patients with short occlusions, patent femoral arteries, and stents covering the entire occlusion have significant longer patency

  11. Thermal imagers: from ancient analog video output to state-of-the-art video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry

    2013-06-01

    The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.

  12. PERCEPTION OF PATIENTS ON ART ABOUT THE SERVICES AVAILED AT LINK ART CENTERS IN SELECTED STATES OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sogarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was attempted to assess the perception of patients on ART about the services availed at Link ART Centers (LAC in selected states of India. Methods: A total of 354 PLHAs were selected from 20 systematic randomly selected LACs from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Results: Study reveals that majority (97% of the patients seeking services from LACs made regular visits to the center. It was found that 57 percent of the patients had spent less than 100 rupees during the last visit. More than 95 percent of the clients reported waiting time less than 30 minutes for availing counseling and collection of drugs at LACs. The mean±SD score of patient’s level of satisfaction with the services availed at LACs is 4.7±0.5. Conclusions: Study concludes that while majority of the patients were satisfied with the services at LACs, there is need of strengthening the existing ‘package’ of services in these centers and expand the network across the country.

  13. PERCEPTION OF PATIENTS ON ART ABOUT THE SERVICES AVAILED AT LINK ART CENTERS IN SELECTED STATES OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sogarwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was attempted to assess the perception of patients on ART about the services availed at Link ART Centers (LAC in selected states of India. Methods: A total of 354 PLHAs were selected from 20 systematic randomly selected LACs from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Results: Study reveals that majority (97% of the patients seeking services from LACs made regular visits to the center. It was found that 57 percent of the patients had spent less than 100 rupees during the last visit. More than 95 percent of the clients reported waiting time less than 30 minutes for availing counseling and collection of drugs at LACs. The mean±SD score of patient’s level of satisfaction with the services availed at LACs is 4.7±0.5. Conclusions: Study concludes that while majority of the patients were satisfied with the services at LACs, there is need of strengthening the existing ‘package’ of services in these centers and expand the network across the country.

  14. State-of-the art for production of fertilizers with regard to the IPPC-directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the following section general and process-specific measures for the reduction of waste gas and waste water emissions as well as achievable emission levels for the production of fertilizers are summarized, which should be taken into account when considering state-of-the-art. As far as it is not explicitly noted, measures are applicable and emission levels are achievable for both new and existing plants. (author)

  15. Devising an endoluminal bimodal probe which combines autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy with high resolution MRI for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis: technique, feasibility and preliminary in-vivo (rabbit) results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgolam, A.; Sablong, R.; Bou-Saïd, B.; Bouvard, S.; Saint-Jalmes, H.; Beuf, O.

    2011-07-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) is the most widespread technique used today for colorectal cancer diagnosis and is considered as the gold standard when coupled to biopsy and histology. However for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis, which is very often characterised by flat adenomas, the use of WLE is quite difficult due to subtle or quasiinvisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Figures worldwide point out that diagnosing colorectal cancer in its early stages would significantly reduce the death toll all while increasing the 5-year survival rate. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where High spatial Resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is coupled to optical spectroscopy (autofluorescence and reflectance) in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe along with the preliminary results obtained with an organic phantom and in-vivo (rabbit) are presented and discussed.

  16. [State of the art diagnostic criteria of severe periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-09

    Periodontitis could be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to the severity of the disease. This categorizing system could also be used together with other classification systems. The present article introduced the status about the case definition of severe periodontitis, including the standard of case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the consensus report on the definition of periodontitis case for use in risk factor research by Europe workshop. A consensus on the state of the art definition of severe periodontitis for use in clinical work was gained base on the expertise of Chinese Society of Periodontology, Chinese Association of Stomatology. The background of this consensus and the significance of the criteria for the case definition were discussed.

  17. Dynamic Test of a Collision Post of a State-of-the-Art End Frame Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    In support of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) : Railroad Equipment Safety Program, a full-scale dynamic test : of a collision post of a state-of-the-art (SOA) end frame was : conducted on April 16, 2008. The purpose of the test was to : e...

  18. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  19. Treatment of Recurrent Bronchial Carcinoma: The Role of High-Dose-Rate Endoluminal Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Stoiber, Eva; Rochet, Nathalie; Lindel, Katja; Grehn, Christian; Becker, Heinrich D.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's aim was to assess outcome and toxicity of high-dose-rate endoluminal brachytherapy (HDREB) for recurrent bronchial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 2005, 41 patients were treated with HDREB for symptomatic recurrent bronchial carcinoma. All patients had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with a median dose of 56 Gy (range, 30-70 Gy). The median HDREB dose applied was 15 Gy (range, 5-29 Gy). The median time interval between primary EBRT and reirradiation was 9 months (range, 2-54 months). Results: After a median follow-up of 6.7 months, the 6-, 12-, and 24-month overall survival rates were 58%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The median overall survival time was 6.7 months. Local remission was achieved in 73% of patients (n = 30). A total of 24% of patients (n = 10) showed no response or progressive disease within 8 weeks after treatment. In 1 patient, treatment response was not documented. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month local control rates were 38%, 17%, and 3%, respectively. The median local progression-free survival time was 4 months (range, 1-23 months). Prognostic factors were a total dose of ≥15 Gy of HDREB (p = 0.029) and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥80% (p = 0.0012). The cause of death was locoregional progression in 27% of patients (n = 11), distant metastases in 24% of patients (n = 10), fatal hemorrhage in 15% of patients (n = 6), and other causes in 29% of patients (n = 12). None of the patients with locally controlled disease showed grade 3 or 4 late effects. Conclusions: Palliative treatment of symptomatic, locally recurrent bronchial carcinoma with HDREB can effectively relieve symptoms in the majority of patients while causing only few complications. Still, time to progression is short.

  20. Tratamento de aneurisma da artéria renal por embolização e técnica de remodelamento de colo: relato de caso Endovascular treatment of renal artery utilizing embolization and aneurism neck remodeling technique: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Mendes de Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento endovascular dos aneurismas de artéria renal tem sido descrito como alternativa à cirurgia convencional. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com um aneurisma de artéria renal complexo à direita que apresentava hipertensão arterial de difícil controle. O tratamento endovascular foi realizado com a técnica de remodelagem de colo (técnica de Moret, ou técnica de embolização assistida por balão. A paciente obteve normalização da pressão arterial após o procedimento sem recidiva dos sintomas ou necessidade do uso de drogas anti-hipertensivas.Endovascular treatment of renal artery aneurysms has been described as an alternative to conventional surgery. We report the case of a patient with complex renal artery aneurysm on the right kidney who had hard-to-control arterial hypertension. Endovascular treatment was performed with the aneurysm neck remodeling technique (Moret technique, or balloon-assisted coil embolization. The patient achieved blood pressure normalization after the procedure without recurrence of symptoms or need for antihypertensive drugs.

  1. State-of-the-art or the art of medicine? Transnational mobility and perceptions of multiple biomedicines among Nigerian physicians in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schühle, Judith

    2018-03-01

    Over the last 40 years, several thousand Nigerian-trained doctors have migrated to the U.S. to practice in what they regard as the state-of-the-art of global biomedicine. Based on interviews with Nigerian physicians, this article shows how their professional mobility, and their transition to the new professional environment of U.S. biomedicine, makes them aware of local differences in practicing medicine. Adapting to local ways of practicing in the U.S. creates a new sense of belonging and professional identity. Yet they also juxtapose highly technologised U.S. biomedicine with what they were trained to excel in within the medical profession in Nigeria - namely the 'art of medicine' - that is, possessing profound clinical skills to diagnose with few investigative technologies. By stressing their competence in the art of medicine, which they see as lacking among their U.S.-trained colleagues, they negotiate their position in a global biomedical landscape and reconnect to a distinctly Nigerian way of practicing medicine. Their narratives thus shed light on perceptions of multiple biomedicines from the point of view of physicians moving from the global South to the global North, and how within a global biomedical landscape both ruptures and connectivities of competence are imagined.

  2. Renal sympathetic denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Catalina; González-Vélez, Miguel; Stilp, Erik; Ward, Charisse; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a major health problem worldwide. Treatment-resistant hypertension (trHTN) is defined as the failure to achieve target blood pressure despite the concomitant use of maximally tolerated doses of three different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. trHTN is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDn) is available and implemented abroad as a strategy for the treatment of trHTN and is currently under clinical investigation in the United States. Selective renal sympathectomy via an endovascular approach effectively decreases renal sympathetic nerve hyperactivity leading to a decrease in blood pressure. The Symplicity catheter, currently under investigation in the United States, is a 6-French compatible system advanced under fluoroscopic guidance via percutaneous access of the common femoral artery to the distal lumen of each of the main renal arteries. Radiofrequency (RF) energy is then applied to the endoluminal surface of the renal arteries via an electrode located at the tip of the catheter. Two clinical trials (Symplicity HTN 1 and Symplicity HTN 2) have shown the efficacy of RDn with a post-procedure decline of 27/17 mmHg at 12 months and 32/12 mmHg at 6 months, respectively, with few minor adverse events. Symplicity HTN-3 study is a, multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study currently under way and will provide further insights about the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in patients with trHTN.

  3. Enxerto venoso intercoronariano na revascularização de artéria coronária comprometida por dissecção de aorta tipo I Intercoronary venous graft in revascularization of the coronary artery involved by aortic dissection type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto C Abreu Filho

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 39 anos, portador de hipertensão arterial não controlada, submetido a cirurgia para tratamento de dissecção aguda de aorta tipo I. Devido ao grande envolvimento do óstio coronário direito pela dissecção aórtica, optou-se pela ressecção da porção comprometida do vaso, com interposição de tubo não valvulado de Dacron na aorta ascendente, suspensão da valva aórtica e ligadura do óstio da artéria coronária direita. Como não havia presença de aterosclerose no ramo interventricular anterior e na artéria coronária direita, decidimos realizar um enxerto venoso entre as artérias. O enxerto intercoronário apresentou bom funcionamento e todo o território dependente da coronária direita manteve boa contratilidade. O paciente recebeu alta hospitalar em boas condições clínicas, com função rniocárdica preservada.A thirty nine-year-old patient presenting arterial hypertension was operated upon for type I acute aortic dissection. Due to important alterations in the ascendent aorta with involvement of the right coronary ostium, the surgical procedure included resection of the segment of aorta containing the intimal tear and replacement with a Dacron prosthesis, suspension of the aortic valve and ligadure of the right coronary ostium. Technical difficulties brought the necessity of a different approach for the myocardium revascularization. Instead of the traditional described procedures, an intercoronary venous graft was put between the anterior interventricular artery (branch of the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The intercoronary graft presented a good flow since the begining, keeping a good myocardial contratility. Patient left the hospital in a good clinical condition, with preserved myocardial function. Intercoronary graft should be an efficient alternative for revascularization of a corohary artery involved by aortic dissections.

  4. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  5. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  6. ANGIOPLASTIA PERCUTÁNEA CON STENT EN EL TRONCO PRINCIPAL DE LA ARTERIA CORONARIA IZQUIERDA / Percutaneous angioplasty with stent in the left main coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Almeida Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenIntroducción y objetivos: La afectación significativa del tronco común izquierdo, es la más letal de las presentaciones de la enfermedad arterial coronaria. El tratamiento de elección, es la cirugía de derivación aorto-coronaria. En varios estudios multicéntricos, se sugiere la posibilidad de tratar la enfermedad de tronco mediante el intervencionismo coronario percutáneo con implantación de prótesis endoluminal o stent. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la angioplastia percutánea con stent en el tronco principal de la arteria coronaria izquierda. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 21 pacientes con angioplastia percutánea con stent en el tronco principal de la arteria coronaria izquierda, realizadas en el laboratorio de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista del Hospital "Hermanos Ameijeiras", entre enero 2010 y julio 2011. Resultados: No existió diferencia significativa en el sexo. Predominó el grupo de edad entre 50-64 años (47,6 % y el color de la piel blanca (76,19 %. El factor de riesgo cardiovascular más encontrado fue la HTA (85,71 %, seguido de dislipidemia (47,61 %. El diagnóstico más observado fue la angina de esfuerzo estable, 14 casos (66,66 %. La lesión en el cuerpo del tronco (12 pacientes, 57,1 %, fue la más encontrada, seguida de la ostial (8 casos. El tipo de stent más utilizado fue el liberador de fármacos (61,9 %, y solamente 4 pacientes presentaban troncos protegidos quirúrgicamente. Conclusiones: La mayor cantidad de casos fueron electivos, con predominio de los troncos no protegidos. El factor de riesgo coronario más encontrado fue la HTA. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la diabetes mellitus y la localización ostial de la lesión tratada. / AbstractIntroduction and Objectives: Significant impairment of the left main coronary artery is the most lethal presentation of coronary artery disease. The treatment of choice

  7. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portofolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. With the increasing penetration of wind power, WPF is quickly becoming an important topic for the electric power industry. System operators (SOs), generating companies (GENCOs), and regulators all support efforts to develop better, more reliable and accurate forecasting models. Wind farm owners and operators also benefit from better wind power prediction to support competitive participation in electricity markets against more stable and dispatchable energy sources. In general, WPF can be used for a number of purposes, such as: generation and transmission maintenance planning, determination of operating reserve requirements, unit commitment, economic dispatch, energy storage optimization (e.g., pumped hydro storage), and energy trading. The objective of this report is to review and analyze state-of-the-art WPF models and their application to power systems operations. We first give a detailed description of the methodologies underlying state-of-the-art WPF models. We then look at how WPF can be integrated into power system operations, with specific focus on the unit commitment problem.

  8. Mathematical E-Learning: State of the Art and Experiences at the Open University of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, A.; Huertas, A.; Steegmann, C.; Corcoles, C.; Serrat, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a review of the state of the art in mathematical e-learning and some personal experiences on this area developed during the last eleven years at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), a completely online university located in Spain. The article discusses important aspects related to online mathematics courses offered in…

  9. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  10. State of the art on construction automation and robotic system in domestic and foreign construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Seo, Yong Chil; Jung, Seung Ho; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo

    2007-08-01

    In this report, we review the existing concept of construction automation and also survey the state of the art on construction automation and robotic system in domestic and foreign construction industry. On the basis of the result of review and survey, we want to suggest an applicable robotic technology to construction industry and points to be duly considered for activating construction automation. We investigate the state of the art on construction automation and robotic system in domestic and foreign construction industry and also applicable area and direction of domestic construction automation and robotic system. We hope that construction automation and robotic technology, which are improved rapidly nowadays, can contribute to the growth of construction industry

  11. Radioactive waste management: State of the art in the world. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Phahissa, Marta H. de

    2001-01-01

    A summary of current management plans in the world for high level wastes and spent fuel is presented in this paper. Countries have programs in different development stages. Some of them formally begun the sitting process, others have underground laboratory projects in progress either as part of the site selection process (site characterization) or as REtD demonstrations. Besides the safety related requirements, various political, social, legal and environmental considerations are taken into account. Lessons learned can be drawn from the analysis of the state of art described in this paper. (author)

  12. Subliminal Priming—State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elgendi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of different priming experiments that have measured affective (emotional and cognitive responses. Finally, very recent approaches and findings are described to summarize and emphasize state-of-the-art methods and potential future directions in research marketing and other commercial applications.

  13. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2A. Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blümel, Ernst; Haghighat, Fariborz; Li, Yuguo

    This report resumes and presents the activity done in Subtask A of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” concerning the state of the art review of Responsive Building Elements. It is based on the contributions from the participating countries...... at researchers in the field and gives an overview of how these elements work together with available performance data. It is hoped, that this report will be helpful for researchers in their search for new solutions to the problem of designing and constructing sustainable buildings....

  14. Malformação ílio-femoral Iliofemoral arterial malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangala M. Pai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante uma dissecção de rotina realizada em um cadáver do sexo masculino com 65 anos de idade foi constatada malformação arterial iliofemoral. A aorta abdominal estava consideravelmente deslocada lateralmente e também bifurcava em nível mais alto. A artéria ilíaca comum dividia-se uma vértebra acima do nível normal e a artéria femoral dava origem à artéria femoral profunda aproximadamente l,2 cm abaixo do ligamento inguinal, o que é consideravelmente proximal ao seu nível normal. Aqui nós apresentamos uma breve revisão de literatura e base embriológica dessas anomalias.During routine dissection, an Iliofemoral arterial malformation was noticed in a 65 year old male cadaver. The abdominal aorta was considerably laterally displaced and also bifurcated higher up. The common iliac artery divided one vertebral level higher and the femoral artery gave the profunda femoris artery about 1.2 cm below the inguinal ligament, which is considerably proximal to its usual level of origin. A brief review of literature and embryological basis of the anomalies are discussed.

  15. Stored energy calculation: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Lanning, D.D.; Olsen, A.R.; Williford, R.E.; Hann, C.R.

    1978-05-01

    The report is the result of an investigation to determine the current state of the art of fuel temperature, gap conductance, and stored energy calculations. Major emphasis was placed on the propagation of input and model uncertainties. To support this study a comparison was made to the observed variability of experimental data for fuel centerline temperature and gap conductance values. The uncertainty analysis was performed by identifying major thermal models and collecting them into an abstract of a thermal performance code. Uncertainties in the calculations were determined using the method of propagation of uncertainties with a first order Taylor series approximation to the nonlinear functions. Output uncertainty results are presented for the beginning of fuel life, the end of life, and throughout a typical power history. Also presented is an influence and importance analysis for the input parameters. It is concluded that the relative uncertainty in stored energy is approximately +-20 percent at beginning of fuel life, and increases to +-25 to 40 percent contact. The foregoing are 3 sigma (99.9 percent) confidence intervals. The most important contributors to stored energy uncertainty are linear heat rating and fuel thermal conductivity

  16. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Denoising of Microscopy Images: A Review of the State-of-the-Art, and a New Sparsity-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiniel, William; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Angelini, Elsa D

    2018-08-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in denoising methods for biological microscopy images and introduces a new and original sparsity-based algorithm. The proposed method combines total variation (TV) spatial regularization, enhancement of low-frequency information, and aggregation of sparse estimators and is able to handle simple and complex types of noise (Gaussian, Poisson, and mixed), without any a priori model and with a single set of parameter values. An extended comparison is also presented, that evaluates the denoising performance of the thirteen (including ours) state-of-the-art denoising methods specifically designed to handle the different types of noises found in bioimaging. Quantitative and qualitative results on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method outperforms the other ones on the majority of the tested scenarios.

  18. Theory and state-of-the-art technology of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Norio

    1999-11-01

    Since FY 1997 , the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been conducting a project , Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems. As part of the project , the methodologies and tools to improve software reliability were reviewed in order to examine the theory and the state-of-the-art technology in this field. It is surmised, as results from the review, that computerized software design and implementation tool (CASE tool), algebraic analysis to ensure the consistency between software requirement framework and its detailed design specification, and efficient test method using the internal information of the software (white-box test) at the validation phase just before the completion of the development will play a key role to enhance software reliability in the future. (author)

  19. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig

  20. [Health professionals facing hand hygiene improvement: state-of-the-art strategies versus extended strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Usagre, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Vázquez-Vázquez, Marta; Santana-López, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The hand hygiene (HH) is one of the preventive practices more .widely and effectively implemented in the control of healthcare associated infections. However, there are several barriers to compliance. To assess which strategy, state-of-the-art strategies (availability of alcohol-based preparations, posters, instructions and training) or extended strategies (feedbacks, formal and informal leadership), are seen as more effective to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Analytical study using a self-completed questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. 2,068 questionnaires, completed by healthcare professionals (HP) in Andalusia (Spain), were received from 2010 to 2012. Analytical technique: Structural equation modeling and multi group measurement invariance. Once the reliability of the proposed constructs was achieved (Cronbach α=0.73, 0.84, 0.70), it was found that those HP working in centers with the highest level of commitment with HH are those who see extended strategies as more effective (χ2=298.3, df=39, CFI=0.972, TLI=0.961, RMSEA=0.057, SRMR=0.028). Our results have shown that hospitals' HP, compared to primary care HP, see state-of-the-art strategies as more effective, as well as they give less importance to HH, meanwhile nurses, compared to physicians, see effective both strategies. HP contemplate the combination of state-of-the-art and extended strategies as an effective way to improve the HH compliance. In addition, extended strategies are considered more effective amongst the most "advanced" healthcare settings in terms of their commitment to HH. The results highlight the need for commitment at management, collective and individual level in order to maintain patient safety.

  1. State of the art and prospects for the future of nuclear-medical in-vitro diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.

    1984-01-01

    Following a bried outline of the history of the radioimmunoassay, the current state of the art and the range of application of RIAs in clinical routine examinations are summarized. The recently developed ''non-isotopic immunoassays'' (NIIA) are compared with the more conventional RIA techniques, their range of application is discussed, and an outlook is given on future developments. (MG) [de

  2. Electric automation history and state of the art; Historia da automacao eletrica e estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, M.F. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Eletronica e Sistemas de Controle], E-mail: mendes@ieee.org; Jardini, J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PEA/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mail: jardini@pea.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The article summarizes the history of electric systems automation, used in hydroelectric power plants, since the rise to the present day. Technologies are presented employed at various times, developments, the difference and the reasons for evolution. The emphasis is on today's modern systems technology, covering: communication, standardization, hardware, software, architecture, maintenance, operation and challenges. This work pretend to give subsidies for the design and implementation of automation systems electricity using state of the art. The scope are the new plants as well as those being modernized. Knowledge of history is important to investigate, to plan and evaluate the costs and benefits of automation systems for new electric plants and those that are undergoing processes technological upgrading.

  3. Prevalência da estenose aterosclerótica do tronco celíaco e da artéria mesentérica superior na arteriopatia oclusiva dos membros inferiores Prevalence of atherosclerotic stenosis of celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery in occlusive arteriopathy of lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenes Pereira Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: A eventual relação entre a aterosclerose das artérias dos membros inferiores com a aterosclerose das artérias intestinais foi pouco estudada. Objetivo: Avaliar pela ecografia vascular (Doppler presença de lesões com estenose 70% na artéria mesentérica superior e/ou tronco celíaco em doentes com arteriopatia obstrutiva crônica dos membros inferiores. Método: Foram estudados dois grupos, cada um com 60 doentes (40 homens e 20 mulheres. O grupo-caso foi composto por doentes com arteriopatia obstrutiva crônica dos membros inferiores, claudicação intermitente limitante ou dor de repouso e/ou lesões tróficas de extremidade, sem queixas gastrintestinais. O grupo-controle foi constituído por enfermos sem doença arterial obstrutiva dos membros inferiores e sem queixas gastrintestinais. Consideraram-se fatores de risco presença de diabetes melito, hipertensão arterial, obesidade, angina/infarto, tabagismo e dislipidemia. Todos os doentes foram submetidos a ecografia vascular do tronco celíaco e da artéria mesentérica superior. Os doentes do grupo-caso foram separados pela presença de claudicação intermitente limitante (N = 12 ou lesão trófica e/ou dor de repouso (N = 48. Resultados: Houve associação significante entre idade (p = 0,04 e cardiopatia isquêmica (p = 0,04 com aterosclerose da artéria mesentérica superior. Os fatores de risco não mostraram associação significante com presença de estenose do tronco celíaco. Observou-se associação significante entre arteriopatia dos membros inferiores e lesão estenótica da artéria mesentérica superior (p = 0,006 e do tronco celíaco (p Background: The occasional relationship between arterial atherosclerosis of lower limbs and atherosclerosis of intestinal arteries has not been fully studied yet. Objective: To assess the presence of lesions with ≥ 70% stenosis in the superior mesenteric artery and/or in the celiac trunk in patients with chronic obstructive

  4. Natural language processing: state of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

    2013-10-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. State-of-the-art management of low back pain in athletes: Instructional lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Nagamachi, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we describe "state of the art" on the diagnosis and treatment for low back pain in athletes. Lumbar motion that induces specific pain would be a clue to the exact diagnosis. In the flexion pain group, lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus is the most common disorder. Discogenic pain and type 1 Modic endplate inflammation may also cause flexion pain; however, the diagnosis is sometimes difficult. In children and adolescents, apophyseal ring fracture is prevalent. In the extension pain group, lumbar spondylolysis is very common, especially in pediatric athletes. In adults, facet pain due to overloading would be the pathology, while low back pain with trunk rotation is not common. However, throwing athletes, such as pitchers and hammer throwers, may experience this kind of pain; facet arthritis contralateral to the throwing arm would be the origin of the pain. Low back pain on lumbar lateral bending is rare, but we experienced some cases in golfers in whom type 1 Modic change at the lateral corner was the source of pain. In this article, we explained strategies for state-of-the-art diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alisa R.; Bullock, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Physical education teachers are expected to implement the English language arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in their instruction. This has proved to be challenging for many physical educators. The purpose of this article is to provide developmentally appropriate examples of how to incorporate the ELA CCSS into physical education,…

  7. State of the art in crystal oscillators - Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, V. J.; Filler, R. L.; Schodowski, S. S.; Vig, J. R.

    It is pointed out that most military communication, navigation, surveillance and IFF systems which are currently under development require stable oscillators for frequency control and/or timing. Examples of such systems are the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS), MILSTAR, the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Combat Identification System (CIS), and several radar systems. In 1981, a survey and evaluation program was initiated with the aim to determine the state-of-the-art of both TCXOs (temperature compensated crystal oscillators) and OCXOs (oven controlled crystal oscillators). This program is continuing. The results obtained to date are considered because they can provide useful guidance to system users on the availability of stable oscillators.

  8. State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2008-06-01

    Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

  9. The state of the art of the impact of sampling uncertainty on measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V. J.; Oliveira, E. C.

    2018-03-01

    The measurement uncertainty is a parameter that marks the reliability and can be divided into two large groups: sampling and analytical variations. Analytical uncertainty is a controlled process, performed in the laboratory. The same does not occur with the sampling uncertainty, which, because it faces several obstacles and there is no clarity on how to perform the procedures, has been neglected, although it is admittedly indispensable to the measurement process. This paper aims at describing the state of the art of sampling uncertainty and at assessing its relevance to measurement uncertainty.

  10. State of the art in marketing hospital foodservice departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C W; Shanklin, C W

    1985-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the state of the art relative to the utilization of marketing techniques within hospital foodservice departments throughout the United States and to determine whether any relationships existed between the degree of utilization of marketing techniques and selected demographic characteristics of the foodservice administrators and/or operations. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 600 randomly selected hospital foodservice administrators requesting information related to marketing in their facilities. Forty-five percent of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed for frequency of response and significant relationship between variables. Chi-square was used for nominal data and Spearman rho for ranked data. Approximately 73% of the foodservice administrators stated that marketing was extremely important in the success of a hospital foodservice department. Respondents (79%) further indicated that marketing had become more important in their departments in the past 2 years. Departmental records, professional journals, foodservice suppliers, observation, and surveys were the sources most often used to obtain marketing data, a responsibility generally assumed by the foodservice director (86.2%). Merchandising, public relations, and word-of-mouth reputation were regarded as the most important aspects of marketing. Increased sales, participation, good will, departmental recognition, and employee satisfaction were used most frequently to evaluate the success of implemented marketing techniques. Marketing audits as a means of evaluating the success of marketing were used to a limited extent by the respondents.

  11. Independent component analysis applied to pulse oximetry in the estimation of the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) - a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Duun, Sune Bro; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We examine various independent component analysis (ICA) digital signal processing algorithms for estimating the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) as measured by a reflective pulse oximeter. The ICA algorithms examined are FastICA, Maximum Likelihood ICA (ICAML), Molgedey and Schuster ICA (ICAMS......), and Mean Field ICA (ICAMF). The signal processing includes pre-processing bandpass filtering to eliminate noise, and post-processing by calculating the SpO2. The algorithms are compared to the commercial state-of-the-art algorithm Discrete Saturation Transform (DST) by Masimo Corporation...

  12. State of the art on the probabilistic safety assessment (P.S.A.); Etat de l'art sur les etudes probabilistes de surete (E.P.S.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devictor, N.; Bassi, A.; Saignes, P.; Bertrand, F

    2008-07-01

    The use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is internationally increasing as a means of assessing and improving the safety of nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. To support the development of a competence on Probabilistic Safety Assessment, a set of states of the art regarding these tools and their use has been made between 2001 and 2005, in particular on the following topics: - Definition of the PSA of level 1, 2 and 3; - Use of PSA in support to design and operation of nuclear plants (risk-informed applications); - Applications to Non Reactor Nuclear Facilities. The report compiled in a single document these states of the art in order to ensure a broader use; this work has been done in the frame of the Project 'Reliability and Safety of Nuclear Facility' of the Nuclear Development and Innovation Division of the Nuclear Energy Division. As some of these states of the art have been made in support to exchanges with international partners and were written in English, a section of this document is written in English. This work is now applied concretely in support to the design of 4. Generation nuclear systems as Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors and especially Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, that have been the subject of communications during the conferences ANS (Annual Meeting 2007), PSA'08, ICCAP'08 and in the journal Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations. (authors)

  13. Seismic design spectra for nuclear power plants, state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalopoulos, A.P.; Shukla, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art of nuclear power plant design involves the use of design response spectra together with a modal analysis of a mathematical idealization of the actual structure. The design response spectra give the maximum response to ground shaking for a family of single degree-of-freedom viscously damped oscillators. These spectra are usually described as an accelerogram giving ground acceleration as a function of time. The definition of a 'standard' design response spectra is reviewed and illustrated by data relevant to 'hard' or rock sites. Finally, the paper recommends a set of design response spectra applicable to rock sites

  14. The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Sterbentz, R.A.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses is reviewed and a comparative study is made of several models which have been developed in nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy, ground water hydrology, petroleum engineering, and other geologic fields. The general review is followed by individual summaries of each model and the main characteristics of its governing equations, numerical solutions, computer codes, validations, and applications

  15. Dose Reduction and Dose Management in Computed Tomography - State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Dominik; Marcus, Roy; Othman, Ahmed E; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Flohr, Thomas; Notohamiprodjo, Mike

    2018-03-13

     For years, the number of performed CT examinations has been rising. At the same time, computed tomography became more dose efficient. The aim of this article is to give an overview about the state of the art in dose reduction in CT and to highlight currently available tools in dose management.  By performing a literature research on Pubmed regarding dose reduction in CT, relevant articles were identified and analyzed.  Technical innovations with individual adaptation of tube current and voltage as well as iterative image reconstruction enable a considerable dose reduction with preserved image quality. At the same time, dedicated software tools are able to handle huge amounts of data and allow to optimize existing examination protocols.   · CT examinations are increasingly performed and contribute considerably to non-natural radiation exposure.. · A correct indication is crucial for each CT examination.. · The examination protocol has to be tailored to the medical question and patient.. · Multiple technical innovations enable considerable dose reduction with constant image quality.. · Dose management with dedicated software tools gains importance.. · Zinsser D, Marcus R, Othman AE et al. Dose reduction and dose management in computed tomography - State of the art. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-101261. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Anatomia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines, Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680 Vascular anatomy of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis Schweigger, 1812 (Testudines-Pelomedusidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árthur Paulino Sanzo Kaminishi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de enriquecer o conhecimento sobre a morfologia vascular das artérias renais e gonadais de Podocnemis unifilis, facilitando o entendimento da fisiologia clínica e cirúrgica destes animais. Foram utilizados cinco exemplares machos de Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá, coletados segundo a Licença nº 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. A artéria carótida esquerda e a veia femoral direita foram canuladas e, pelas mesmas, foi introduzida solução fisiológica para lavagem do sistema vascular; em seguida, aplicou-se solução de Neoprene Látex “450” corada com pigmento específico (Globo S/A Tintas e Pigmentos. O material foi fixado em solução de Formol tamponado a 10% por um período mínimo de 96h. Uma abertura central e de formato quadrangular foi feita na metade caudal do plastrão e casco, de forma a expor os ramos da artéria aorta que irrigam os rins e as gônadas. Observou-se que as artérias renais se originam da face ventral da artéria aorta dorsal, em número de dois pares para cada rim e, em um único exemplar, elas originaram uma artéria renal direita e duas esquerdas. A artéria gonadal surgiu a partir da artéria renal, e apenas um par penetrou pela face dorsal de cada gônada.This work was developed with the aim of enriching knowledge on the vascular morphology of renal and gonadal arteries of Podocnemis unifilis, thus increasing the understanding of the clinical and surgical physiology of these animals. Five Podocnemis unifilis males were used, collected according to license no. 066/2004-Ibama/RAM. The left carotid artery and right femoral vein were cannulated, and a serum solution was introduced to remove obstructions from the vascular system. A solution of Neoprene Latex “450” dye was injected. The material was fixed in a solution of 10% formaldehyde for a period of 96 hours. Next, a square-shaped central opening was made in the caudal end of the plastron and bridge, exposing the

  17. Groundwater movements around a repository. Phase 1, State of the art and detailed study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.

    1977-02-01

    The report was prepared as the first phase of a study of the groundwater movements around a repository for spent nuclear fuel in the precambrian bedrock of Sweden. The objectives of these studies are to provide a state of the art review of groundwater slow in the region of a repository in granitic rock, in order to provide a basis for long term containment assessments and to prepare a detailed study plan for the continuation of the project. The different processes affecting the groundwater situation for containment are given. A state of the art review of the fluid flow, geochemical, heat transfer and rock mechanics processes as they relate to containment is presented. A detailed study plan to provide a comprehensive assessment of the hydrogeological regime around the repository during its lifetime is also presented. The groundwater flow fields will provide a basis for subsequent long term containment studies. (L.B.)

  18. State-of-the-art technologies of gallium oxide power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Kuramata, Akito; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2017-08-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2 O3 ) has gained increased attention for power devices due to its superior material properties and the availability of economical device-quality native substrates. This review illustrates recent advances in Ga2 O3 device technologies, beginning with an overview of the social circumstances that motivate the development of new-generation switching devices. Following an introduction to the material properties of Ga2 O3 from the viewpoint of power electronics, growth technologies of Ga2 O3 bulk single crystals and epitaxial thin films are discussed. The fabrication and performance of state-of-the-art Ga2 O3 transistors and diodes are then described. We conclude by identifying the directions and challenges of Ga2 O3 power device development in the near future.

  19. Erectile dysfunction and pcsychoemotional state in ischemic heart disease patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Pomeshkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of erectile dysfunction on psychoemotional state of patients undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery was evaluated. The International Index of Erectile Function, postcompression cavernous artery dilation test, nocturnal penile tumescence recording and psychophysiological exam were used. It was found that ischemic heart disease patients have higher incidence of associated psychoemotional and erectile dysfunctions.

  20. Correção endovascular de aneurisma da artéria esplénica: caso clínico Endovascular correction of splenic artery aneurysm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Almeida Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas da artéria esplénica, embora sejam os aneurismas esplâncnicos mais frequentes, cursam com uma prevalência de apenas 0,01%. Neste contexto os autores apresentam um caso clínico de uma doente de 41 anos com aneurisma da artéria esplénica de 20x29mm, tratada através da colocação de um stent coberto auto-expansível (Gore®, Viabahn®. É realizada uma revisão da literatura, das possíveis complicações e feita referência às várias hipóteses de tratamento, dando particular ênfase às novas técnicas endovasculares.Splenic artery aneurysms, although they are the most common splanchnic aneurysms, they have a prevalence of only 0,01%. In this context the authors present a case report of a 41 years female patient with a splenic artery aneurysm of 20x29mm, treated by deployment of a covered self-expandable stent (Gore® Viabahn®. It is performed a literature review of the pathology in question, possible complications and made reference to the various treatment options, with particular emphasis on the new endovascular techniques.

  1. Aneurisma sacular da artéria radial: a propósito de um caso clínico Sacular aneurysm of the radial artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Duarte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas da artéria radial são raros e esporádicos, sendo que os pseudoaneurismas são mais frequentes do que os aneurismas verdadeiros e maioritariamente de configuração sacular. A etiologia é variada e diferenciam-se de outros diagnósticos pela pulsação e frémito. Raramente se complicam de ruptura, sendo a trombose e embolização as principais complicações. Dos casos publicados sobre aneurismas verdadeiros da artéria radial, apenas um está descrito como sendo secundário a lesão ocupacional repetitiva, sendo a maioria de causa idiopática. Os autores descrevem um caso de uma mulher de 63 anos, referenciada à consulta de Cirurgia Vascular por crescimento de massa pulsátil na tabaqueira anatómica da mão esquerda. O estudo por eco-doppler e angiografia, confirmaram o diagnóstico de aneurisma sacular da artéria radial, com 20 mm de maior eixo, arcada palmar permeável e sem sinais de embolização distal. Foi submetida a aneurismectomia parcial com laqueação dupla proximal e distal e endoaneurismorrafia. A cirurgia e pós-operatório decorreram sem complicações, nomeadamente complicações isquémicas. A propósito desde caso clínico, discute-se a abordagem diagnóstica e opções terapêuticas.Radial artery aneurysms are sporadic and rare, pseudoaneurysms are more common than true aneurysms, mainly in saccular configuration. The etiology is varied and difference from other diagnostics is done by the presence of pulse and thrill. Thrombosis and embolization are the main complications, while rupture is rare. From the reported cases of true aneurysms of the radial artery, only one is described as being secondary to repetitive occupational injury, the majority being idiopathic. The authors describe the case of a 63 year old woman, referred to a Vascular Surgery consultation because of a growing pulsatile mass in the anatomical snuffbox of the left hand. The Doppler and Angiography studies confirmed the diagnosis of

  2. Fluidelastic vibration of cylinder arrays in axial and cross flow--state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paidoussis, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    A critical assessment of the state of the art for flow-induced vibrations of cylinder arrays in cross and axial flow is presented. An historical review highlights the contributions which advanced understanding of the flow-induced vibration phenomena involved and/or predictive ability. In the case of axial-flow-induced vibration, the absence of separated flow regions has contributed towards the development of analytical predictive tools. The designer may predict the onset of fluidelastic instabilities, which generally occur at very high flow velocities, with greater confidence. In contrast, in the case of cross-flow-induced vibration, the complexity of the flow has encouraged more heuristic approaches to be adopted. The state of the art in this case is discussed with the aid of a new classification of the flow-induced vibration phenomena involved, to unify and clarify the contradictory claims facing the designer. It is concluded that, although the physical understanding of cross-flow-induced vibration phenomena is not good, useful design guidelines do exist. These are capable of predicting vibration characteristics to within a factor of 2 to 10. A comprehensive bibliography is included. 115 refs

  3. State of the art of parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliachs, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this state of the art on parallel scientific visualization applications on PC clusters, we deal with both surface and volume rendering approaches. We first analyze available PC cluster configurations and existing parallel rendering software components for parallel graphics rendering. CEA/DIF has been studying cluster visualization since 2001. This report is part of a study to set up a new visualization research platform. This platform consisting of an eight-node PC cluster under Linux and a tiled display was installed in collaboration with Versailles-Saint-Quentin University in August 2003. (author)

  4. Segmentos anátomo-cirúrgicos arteriais do rim de cutia (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Anatomical-surgical arterial segments of the kidney in agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A.M. Carvalho

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 20 pares de rins decutias (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831, com o objetivo de descrever os segmentos anátomo-cirúrgicos arteriais. As artérias renais foram injetadas com solução de Vinilite corada, e os rins foram submetidos à corrosão ácida para a obtenção dos moldes vasculares. Observou-se que as artérias renais da cutia, sempre únicas, dividiram-se em artéria setorial ventral e artéria setorial dorsal, caracterizando dois setores renais separados por plano avascular. As artérias setoriais penetraram no hilo renal (100% dos casos. Estes vasos deram origem aos ramos segmentares responsáveis pela irrigação de territórios independentes em cada setor, os segmentos arteriais renais. No rim direito foram observados 3 (60%, 4 (35% e 5 segmentos (5% no setor arterial ventral e 3 (30%, 4 (45%, 5 (20% e 6 (5% segmentos no setor dorsal e, à esquerda, 2(10%, 3 (55% e 4 (35% segmentos no setor ventral e 3 (25%, 4 (50% e 5 (25% no dorsal. Com base na distribuição arterial nos rins de cutia, observaram-se setores e segmentos arteriais independentes, sendo possível, desta forma, a realização de setoriectomia e segmentectomia nesta espécie.Twenty pairs of agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831 kidneys were studied to describe the arterial anatomical-surgical segments. The renal arteries were injected with stained acetate vinyl, followed by procedures of acid corrosion in order to obtain vascular casts. It was found that the renal artery is always single and bifurcated into ventral and dorsal sectorial arteries. The sectorial arteries reached the kidneys (100% of the cases through the hilus. These vessels gave origin to segmental branches responsible for kidney irrigation. At the right kidney, the ventral sectorial arteries gave origin to 3 (60% of the cases, 4 (35% and 5 (5% segmental branches; the dorsal sectorial arteries gave origin to 3 (30%, 4 (45%, 5 (20% and 6 (5% segmental arteries separated by a

  5. Security of embedded automotive networks: state of the art and a research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Studnia , Ivan; Nicomette , Vincent; Alata , Eric; Deswarte , Yves; Kaâniche , Mohamed; Laarouchi , Youssef

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Embedded electronic components are nowadays a prominent part of a car's architecture. Moreover, modern cars are now able to communicate with other devices through many wired or wireless interfaces. As a consequence, the security of embedded systems in cars has become a main concern for the manufacturers. This paper aims at 1) presenting a short overview of the current attacks already known and experimented against vehicles as well as the current state of the art of the...

  6. State-of-the-Art Techniques in Treating Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Carrie A; Kung, Theodore A; Brown, David L; Cederna, Paul S; Kemp, Stephen W P

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a major clinical concern, as they often lead to chronic disability and significant health care expenditures. Despite advancements in microsurgical techniques to enhance nerve repair, biological approaches are needed to augment nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes after injury. Presented herein is a review of the current literature on state-of-the-art techniques to enhance functional recovery for patients with nerve injury. Four categories are considered: (1) electroceuticals, (2) nerve guidance conduits, (3) fat grafting, and (4) optogenetics. Significant study results are highlighted, focusing on histologic and functional outcome measures. This review documents the current state of the literature. Advancements in neuronal stimulation, tissue engineering, and cell-based therapies demonstrate promise with regard to augmenting nerve regeneration and appropriate rehabilitation. The future of treating peripheral nerve injury will include multimodality use of electroconductive conduits, fat grafting, neuronal stimulation, and optogenetics. Further clinical investigation is needed to confirm the efficacy of these technologies on peripheral nerve recovery in humans, and how best to implement this treatment for a diverse population of nerve-injured patients.

  7. Contribuição à anatomia arterial do cólon sigmóide aplicável a operações de abaixamento Contribution to arterial anatomy of the sigmoid colon useful for colon lowering down techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Lana Siqueira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A vascularização do sigmóide apresenta variações que podem ser importantes no uso daquele segmento nas operações de intestino grosso. OBJETIVOS: Realizou-se investigação anatômica da vascularização arterial do colón sigmóide para se obter um parâmetro que possa ser aplicado a raciocínio tático nas operações de abaixamento do cólon sigmóide ao períneo, após a ressecção alargada do reto-ânus e seus esfíncteres na neoplasia maligna retoanal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Analisou-se o mesocólon sigmóide de 33 cadáveres formolizados, 22 do sexo masculino e 11 do feminino, através de dissecções destes com os intestinos in situ. Para isso, cateterizou-se a artéria mesentérica inferior, sendo esta contrastada com solução de aguarrás, thinner, látex de cor vermelha e policloreto de vinil. RESULTADOS: A artéria mesentérica inferior originou-se, na maioria dos casos, na face anterior esquerda da aorta abdominal, a uma distância média de 4,3 cm do seu ângulo inferior de bifurcação; a artéria cólica esquerda, em 25 cadáveres, originou-se diretamente da artéria mesentérica inferior. O número de artérias sigmóideas variou de um a cinco. Verificou-se um plano arterial principal que iniciaria na ligadura da artéria mesentérica inferior, abaixo da origem da artéria cólica esquerda, sendo o sigmóide abaixado ao períneo. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento da vascularização do colón sigmóide e sua observação no transoperatório poderiam orientar a tática e técnica cirúrgica na operação de abaixamento cólico ao períneo e colostomia perineal.BACKGROUND: An anatomic study about the arterial vascularization of the sigmoid was performed in order to obtain guidelines for the surgical treatment of rectal carcinoma. AIM: In the proposed technique, the sigmoid is brought down to the perineum, after radical anal-rectal resection, including sphincterectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three anatomical pieces

  8. Mature results of a randomized trial comparing two fractionation schedules of high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy for the treatment of endobronchial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M; Pöllinger, Barbara; Niyazi, Maximilian; Corradini, Stefanie; Manapov, Farkhad; Belka, Claus; Huber, Rudolf M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-BT) for the treatment of centrally located lung tumors, two different fractionation schedules were compared regarding local tumor response, side effects and survival. Mature retrospective results with longer follow-up and more patients were analyzed. Initial results were published by Huber et al. in 1995. 142 patients with advanced, centrally located malignant tumors with preferential endoluminal growth were randomized to receive 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (time interval: 1 week, n = 60, group I) or 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy (time interval: 3 weeks, n = 82, group II) endobronchial HDR-BT. Age, gender, tumor stage, Karnofsky Performance Score and histology were equally distributed between both groups. Local tumor response with 2 fractions of 7.2 Gy was significantly higher as compared to 4 fractions of 3.8 Gy (median 12 vs. 6 weeks; p ≤ 0.015). Median survival was similar in both groups (19 weeks in the 4 fractions group vs. 18 weeks in the 2 fractions group). Fatal hemoptysis was less frequent following irradiation with 2 × 7.2 Gy than with 4 × 3.8 Gy, although the difference did not achieve statistical significance (12.2% vs. 18.3%, respectively. p = 0,345). Patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma were at higher risk of bleeding compared to other histology (21.9% vs. 9%, p = 0,035). Multivariate analysis with regard to overall survival, revealed histology (p = 0.02), Karnofsky Performance Score (p < 0.0001) and response to therapy (p < 0.0001) as significant prognostic factors. For patients showing complete response the median survival was 57 weeks, while for patients with progressive disease median survival time was 8 weeks, p < 0.0001. The KPS at the start of the treatment was significantly correlated with survival. Patients presenting with a KPS ≤ 60 at the start had a significantly (p = 0,032) shorter survival time (10 weeks) than patients with a KPS > 60 (29 weeks). Moreover

  9. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  10. State of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Tsang, C.F.; Sterbentz, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses is reviewed and a comparative study is made of several models which have been developed in nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy, ground-water hydrology, petroleum engineering, and other geologic fields. The general review is followed by separate summaries of the main characteristics of the governing equations, numerical solutions, computer codes, validations, and applications for each model

  11. Bio-aggregates based building materials state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 236-BBM

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The work of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC -236 BBM) was dedicated to the study of construction materials made from plant particles. It considered the question whether building materials containing as main raw material recyclable and easily available plant particles are renewable. This book includes a state-of-the-art report and an appendix. The state-of-the-art report relates to the description of vegetal aggregates. Then, hygrothermal properties, fire resistance, durability and finally the impact of the variability of the method of production of bio-based concrete are assessed. The appendix is a TC report which presents the experience of a working group. The goal was to define testing methods for the measurement of water absorption, bulk density, particle size distribution, and thermal conductivity of bio aggregates. The work is based on a first round robin test of the TC-BBM where the protocols in use by the different laboratories (labs) are compared. .

  12. The new science of moral cognition: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivera La Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for multidisciplinary approaches to the scientific study of human nature is a widely supported academic claim. This assumption has proved to be especially successful in the field of moral psychology. Although studies of moral topics have been ubiquitous in both humanities and social sciences, it is not until the integration of different scientific disciplines in the convergent science of moral psychology that the study of morality seems to start its flourishing age. Thus, in the last ten years, a growing body of research from cognitive sciences, experimental philosophy, primatology, clinical and developmental psychology, economy and anthropology have made possible a "new era" on the study of morality. In this paper, we review the most striking findings that constitute the "state of the art' of moral psychology, with the aim to facilitate a better understanding of how the mind functions in the moral domain.

  13. Solid Waste Processing. A State-of-the-Art Report on Unit Operations and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Richard B.

    The importance and intricacy of the solid wastes disposal problem and the need to deal with it effectively and economically led to the state-of-the-art survey covered by this report. The material presented here was compiled to be used by those in government and private industry who must make or implement decisions concerning the processing of…

  14. The Fine Art of Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Clarke

    2015-01-01

    A three page interview with Bob and Roberta Smith including images of his artwork Bewildered by former Minister of State for Schools Michael Gove's inexorable undermining of art education, not to mention his successor MP Nicky Morgans's jaw-dropping pronouncement about 'the arts holding kids back', Patrick Brill, better known as artist Bob and Roberta Smith, has decided to stand for parliament as an independent in Gove's Surrey Heath seat, on an 'all schools should be art schools' ticket. ...

  15. The Eugenics Movement and Its Impact on Art Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Doniger, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the eugenics movement has had three major influences on education in the United States, and reveals how these influences have had an impact on visual arts education in particular. The first influence began with a debate between John Dewey and David Snedden that resulted in a two-tiered tracking system that separated…

  16. The New Nomads: Art Life, and Lore of Migrant Workers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Mary Arnold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Migrant farm workers are the concern and theme of this special serial issue. Migrant farm workers arrange much of their social and economic life around seasonal changes as they follow jobs up the eastern migrant stream to its northenmost part in New York state, then south to Florida. The education, health, and folk arts program at the Board of…

  17. Survey of the state-of-the-art in aging of electronics with application to nuclear-power-plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Thome, F.V.; Craft, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present results of a study to evaluate the state-of-the-art and outline needed research on aging of electronics in nuclear power plants. The emphasis is on aging of electronics (e.g., semiconductors, capacitors, resistors) used in safety-related Class 1E instrumentation, particularly those used in harsh environments. Some attention is also given to encapsulants, printed circuit boards and bonds (e.g., solder joints) since they are integral parts of circuits. Four major tasks were addressed in this study and are the subject of this report. These include (1) selecting candidate electronic components for study and review; (2) defining the aging environment and initiating an effort to determine the state-of-the-art in aging degradation; (3) recommending follow-on investigations and research; and (4) outlining the first steps in defining a program on accelerated aging

  18. Panel session on the state of the art in nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1977-01-01

    The state of the art in the technology of pressure vessels and piping of the primary cooling circuit of nuclear steam supply systems is discussed. Design and analysis are considered in the frame of the two types of nuclear reactor retained in France (PWR and the pool type LMFBR). Designing nuclear pressure vessels asks for some more specific Codes and Standards than for conventional vessels, and the stress analysis complementing by a direct comparison between operating loads and failure loads is a mandatory practice in France. As for pool type LMFBR, the structural problems of the nuclear vessel are essentially due to component shape, small thickness, and large stress range

  19. State-of-the-art report for solar water heaters in the Netherlands 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.; Blezer, I.

    2009-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report addresses the implementation of solar heat in the Netherlands. The main appliance is the solar boiler for production of warm tap water in households. Other appliances are production of warm tap water in large buildings (e.g. homes for the elderly), heating of dwellings and heating of swimming pools. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the market and techniques for this technology. Emphasis will be put on solar boilers, but other appliances will also be addressed [nl

  20. Imaging Acute Appendicitis: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the state of the art in imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Relevant publications regarding performance and advantages/disadvantages of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis in different clinical situations were reviewed. Articles were extracted from a computerized database (MEDLINE with the following activated limits: Humans, English, core clinical journals, and published in the last five years. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked manually to identify additional, related articles. Ultrasound (US examination should be the first imaging test performed, particularly among the pediatric and young adult populations, who represent the main targets for appendicitis, as well as in pregnant patients. A positive US examination for appendicitis or an alternative diagnosis of possible gastrointestinal or urological origin, or a negative US, either showing a normal appendix or presenting low clinical suspicion of appendicitis, should lead to a final diagnosis. A negative or indeterminate examination with a strong clinical suspicion of appendicitis should be followed by a computed tomography (CT scan or alternatively, a magnetic resonanace imaging (MRI scan in a pregnant patient. A second US examination in a patient with persistent symptoms, especially if the first one was performed by a less experienced imaging professional, is a valid alternative to a CT.

  1. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-01-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO 2 emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO 2 emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Coats, Joel; Duke, Stephen O; Gross, Aaron D

    2014-12-03

    The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer synthetics. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight promising new biopesticide research and development (R&D), based upon recently published work and that presented in the American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium "Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities," as well as the authors' own perspectives. Although the focus is on biopesticides, included in this Perspective is progress with products exhibiting similar characteristics, namely those naturally occurring or derived from natural products. These are target specific, of low toxicity to nontarget organisms, reduced in persistence in the environment, and potentially usable in organic agriculture. Progress is being made, illustrated by the number of biopesticides and related products in the registration pipeline, yet major commercial opportunities exist for new bioherbicides and bionematicides, in part occasioned by the emergence of weeds resistant to glyphosate and the phase-out of methyl bromide. The emergence of entrepreneurial start-up companies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fast track for biopesticides, and the availability of funding for registration-related R&D for biorational pesticides through the U.S. IR-4 program provide incentives for biopesticide development, but an expanded effort is warranted both in the United States and worldwide to support this relatively nascent industry.

  3. State of the art in perceptual design of hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brent W.; van Tasell, Dianne J.

    2002-05-01

    Hearing aid capabilities have increased dramatically over the past six years, in large part due to the development of small, low-power digital signal processing chips suitable for hearing aid applications. As hearing aid signal processing capabilities increase, there will be new opportunities to apply perceptually based knowledge to technological development. Most hearing loss compensation techniques in today's hearing aids are based on simple estimates of audibility and loudness. As our understanding of the psychoacoustical and physiological characteristics of sensorineural hearing loss improves, the result should be improved design of hearing aids and fitting methods. The state of the art in hearing aids will be reviewed, including form factors, user requirements, and technology that improves speech intelligibility, sound quality, and functionality. General areas of auditory perception that remain unaddressed by current hearing aid technology will be discussed.

  4. Optical spectroscopy combined with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging for digestive wall assessment: endoluminal bimodal probe conception and characterization in vitro, on organic sample and in vivo on a rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgolam, Anoop; Sablong, Raphaël; Lafarge, Lionel; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Beuf, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major health issue worldwide. Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) coupled to histology is considered as the gold standard today and is the most widespread technique used for colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, during the early stages, colorectal cancer is very often characterized by flat adenomas which develop just underneath the mucosal surface. The use of WLE, which is heavily based on the detection of morphological changes, becomes quite delicate due to subtle or quasi-invisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where high spatial resolution MRI is combined with autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information, respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe are detailed and the promising preliminary results obtained in vitro (home-built phantom containing eosin and rhodamine B), on an organic sample (the kiwi fruit) and in vivo on a rabbit are presented and discussed.

  5. On the impact of optimisation models in maintenance decision making: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, Rommert; Scarf, Philip A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the state of the art in applications of maintenance optimisation models. After giving a short introduction to the area, we consider several ways in which models may be used to optimise maintenance, such as case studies, operational and strategic decision support systems, and give examples of each of them. Next we discuss several areas where the models have been applied successfully. These include civil structure and aeroplane maintenance. From a comparative point of view, we discuss future prospects

  6. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  7. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  8. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  9. The Art of John Biggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2010-01-01

    In their 2005 exhibit of John Biggers' work, the New Orleans Museum of Art described it as being inspired by "African art and culture, the injustices of a segregated United States, the stoic women in his own family, and the heroes of everyday survival." In this article, the author describes how her students reinterpreted Biggers' work.…

  10. State of the art metrics for aspect oriented programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel; Allen, Gary

    2018-04-01

    The quality evaluation of software, e.g., defect measurement, gains significance with higher use of software applications. Metric measurements are considered as the primary indicator of imperfection prediction and software maintenance in various empirical studies of software products. However, there is no agreement on which metrics are compelling quality indicators for novel development approaches such as Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). AOP intends to enhance programming quality, by providing new and novel constructs for the development of systems, for example, point cuts, advice and inter-type relationships. Hence, it is not evident if quality pointers for AOP can be derived from direct expansions of traditional OO measurements. Then again, investigations of AOP do regularly depend on established coupling measurements. Notwithstanding the late reception of AOP in empirical studies, coupling measurements have been adopted as useful markers of flaw inclination in this context. In this paper we will investigate the state of the art metrics for measurement of Aspect Oriented systems development.

  11. CORRELATION OF VOLUME BLOOD CIRCULATION IN THE HEPATIC ARTERY AND THE STATE OF MICROCIRCULATORY BLOODSTREAM OF THE TRANSPLANTED LIVER AFTER ITS REVASCULIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Granov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: optimization of the surgical treatment policy with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT depending on the results of intraoperative fl owmetry and the state of intrahepatic microcirculatory bloodstream according to immunohistochemical (IHC study of microspecimens of the donor’s liver.Materials and methods. 60 patients are included in the study. Group I (n = 30 comprised of patients for whom it was not necessary to perform any additional interventions on the bloodstream in the hepatopancreatobiliary area during OLT. Group II (n = 30 had patients with insuffi cient arterial blood supply for the graft in the intraoperative stage where it was needed to perform additional and/or repeated interventions in the arteries of the hepatopancreatobilliary area. Intraoperative fl owmetry with assessment of the volume blood circulation (VBC in the hepatic artery (HA was carried out in the both studied groups. Reference value of VBC was 100 ml/min and higher. Before and after reperfusion in the liver biopsy material we performed immunohistochemical study with the use of endothelial marker CD 31 with subsequent morphometric estimation of the specifi c square of the microvascular bloodstream.Results. In both groups there was no change in the specifi c square in the areas of portal tract and central vein before and after restoring blood fl ow. In the second group, an 8 times increase of the specifi c square of sinusoids was observed after restoring blood fl ow (р < 0,01.Conclusion. Intraoperative fl owmetric control of the blood fl ow allows in due time to perform surgical correction of the graft arterial blood supply during OLT, and it reduces the risk of thrombosis up to 0%. The value of VBC in the hepatic artery (HA has reliable dependence upon the state of microcirculatory bloodstream of cadaveric donor’s liver after reperfusion.

  12. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-01-01

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector

  13. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  14. The state of the art of wind energy conversion systems and technologies: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ming; Zhu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems. • Different types of common wind energy conversion systems are classified and compared. • The four most popular MPPT control methods are reviewed and compared. • The latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced. • Future trends of the wind energy conversion technologies are discussed. - Abstract: This paper gives a comprehensive review of the state of the art of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and technologies, with an emphasis on wind power generator and control. First, different types of common WECSs are classified according to their features and drive train types. The WECSs are compared on the basis of the volume, weight, cost, efficiency, system reliability and fault ride through capability. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, which aims to make the generator speed meet an optimum value to ensure the maximum energy yield, plays a key role in the variable speed WECSs. A comprehensive review and comparison of the four most popular MPPT control methods are carried out and improvements for each method are presented. Furthermore, the latest development of wind energy conversion technologies is introduced, such as the brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG), the stator permanent magnet synchronous generators, the magnetic-geared generators, dual power flow WECS with the electrical variable transmission (EVT) machine, and direct grid-connected WECS. Finally, the future trends of the technologies are discussed

  15. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  16. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  17. Optimizing the use of the "state-of-the-art" performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Streichert, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The organizers of the first EFLM Strategic Conference "Defining analytical performance goals" identified three models for defining analytical performance goals in laboratory medicine. Whereas the highest level of model 1 (outcome studies) is difficult to implement, the other levels are more or less based on subjective opinions of experts, with models 2 (based on biological variation) and 3 (defined by the state-of-the-art) being more objective. A working group of the German Society of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (DGKL) proposes a combination of models 2 and 3 to overcome some disadvantages inherent to both models. In the new model, the permissible imprecision is not defined as a constant proportion of biological variation but by a non-linear relationship between permissible analytical and biological variation. Furthermore, the permissible imprecision is referred to the target quantity value. The biological variation is derived from the reference interval, if appropriate, after logarithmic transformation of the reference limits.

  18. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-01

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities

  19. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of a Safety Assessment and a Radioactivity Exposure Assessment for the Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Kang, Young Ae; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Jung, Chong Hun

    2007-09-15

    This report is to provide the reference contents of research and development for technologies of radioactivity exposure and safety assessment for development of the decommissioning technology for nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows: - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a radioactivity exposure assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities - Analyzing and discussing on state-of-the-art technologies of a safety assessment of a decommissioning for nuclear facilities.

  20. The state-of-the-art Model M-2 Maintenance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Martin, H.L.; Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Jelatis, D.G.; Jennrich, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Model M-2 Maintenance System is part of an ongoing program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to improve remote manipulation technology for future nuclear fuel reprocessing and other remote applications. Techniques, equipment, and guidelines which can improve the efficiency of remote maintenance are being developed. The Model M-2 Maintenance System, installed in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Facility at ORNL, provides a complete, integrated remote maintenance system for the demonstration and development of remote maintenance techniques. The system comprises a pair of force-reflecting servomanipulator arms, television viewing, lighting, and auxiliary lifting capabilities, thereby allowing manlike maintenance operations to be executed remotely within the remote cell mockup area in the IET. The Model M-2 Maintenance System incorporates an upgraded version of the proven Central Research Laboratories' Model M servomanipulator. Included are state-of-the-art brushless dc servomotors for improved performance, remotely removable wrist assemblies, geared azimuth drive, and a distributed microprocessor-based digital control system

  1. State-of-the-Art Materials for Ultrasound-Triggered Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsi, Shashank; Borden, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a unique and exciting theranostic modality that can be used to track drug carriers, trigger drug release and improve drug deposition with high spatial precision. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of interaction between drug carriers and ultrasound waves, including cavitation, streaming and hyperthermia, and how those interactions can promote drug release and tissue uptake. We then discuss the rational design of some state-of-the-art materials for ultrasound-triggered drug delivery and review recent progress for each drug carrier, focusing on the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. These materials include nanocarrier formulations, such as liposomes and micelles, designed specifically for ultrasound-triggered drug release, as well as microbubbles, microbubble-nanocarrier hybrids, microbubble-seeded hydrogels and phase-change agents. PMID:24389162

  2. State of art in FE-based fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Fuel performance codes approximate this complex behavior using an axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial representation to save computation cost. However, the need for improved modeling of PCMI and, particularly, the importance of multidimensional capability for accurate fuel performance simulation has been identified as safety margin decreases. Finite element (FE) method that is reliable and proven solution in mechanical field has been introduced into fuel performance codes for multidimensional analysis. The present state of the art in numerical simulation of FE-based fuel performance predominantly involves 2-D axisymmetric model and 3-D volumetric model. The FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN own 1.5-D and 2-D FE model to simulate PCMI and cladding ballooning. In 2-D simulation, the FALCON code, developed by EPRI, is a 2-D (R-Z and R-θ) fully thermal-mechanically coupled steady-state and transient FE-based fuel behavior code. The French codes TOUTATIS and ALCYONE which are 3-D, and typically used to investigate localized behavior. In 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing multidimensional (2-D and 3-D) nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. In this paper, the current state of FE-based fuel performance code and their models are presented. Based on investigation into the codes, requirements and direction of development for new FE-based fuel performance code can be discussed. Based on comparison of models in FE-based fuel performance code, status of art in the codes can be discussed. A new FE-based fuel performance code should include typical pellet and cladding models which all codes own. In particular, specified pellet and cladding model such as gaseous swelling and high burnup structure (HBS) model should be developed to improve accuracy of code as well as consider AC condition. To reduce computation cost, the approximated gap and the optimized contact model should be also developed

  3. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  4. Nuclear Waste State-of-the-Art Report 2007 - responsibility of current generation, freedom of future generations. Main report from the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The state-of-the-art report presented by the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) in 2007 is of a slightly different character than the state-of-the-art reports published previously. This year KASAM felt the need to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all its assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. The purpose of this main report to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all our assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. Another purpose is to describe in general terms the course of events within which these assessments were made in order to contribute to a fundamental understanding of the complexity of managing the nuclear waste issue

  5. A state of the art review of vitrification of high level waste in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimerl, W.

    This paper gives a review of the state-of-the-art of the development and demonstration of vitrification processes for high level radioactive waste solutions on an industrial scale in four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium). Historical development, experiences and operations present status and future plans are presented. Three of the processes which seem to be of major importance are described (AVM-France, HARVEST-United Kingdom, PAMELA Germany/Belgium). (author)

  6. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances.

  7. Coupled thermohydraulic-neutronic instabilities in boiling water nuclear reactors: a review of the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; Rey, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current state of the art on the topic of coupled neutronic-thermohydraulic instabilities in boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs). The topic of BWR instabilities is of great current relevance since it affects the operation of a large number of commercial nuclear reactors. The recent trends towards introduction of high efficiency fuels that permit reactor operation at higher power densities with increased void reactivity feedback and decreased response times, has resulted in a decrease of the stability margin in the low-flow, high-power region of the operating map. This trend has resulted in a number of 'unexpected' instability events. For instance, United States plants have experienced two instability events recently, one of them resulted in an automatic reactor scram; in Spain, two BWR plants have experienced unstable limit cycle oscillations that required operator action to suppress. Similar events have been experienced in other European countries. In recent years, BWR instabilities has been one of the more exciting topics of work in the area of transient thermohydraulics. As a result, significant advances in understanding the physics behind these events have occurred, and a 'new and improved' state of the art has emerged recently. (authors). 6 figs., 57 refs., 1 appendix

  8. Approach to a State of the Art of Traditional and Popular Medicinal Practices in Hispano-American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alberto Garzón Chirivi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios157.168 This article presents a state of the art of academic production concerning traditional and popular medicine in Latin America. It analyzes the relation between studies on chamanismo (the art of medicine men in indigenous communities in some Spanish-speaking countries (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Spain and studies on curanderismo (the art of healers in urban contexts and evidences recurring elements of a magical, religious and medical kind in their therapeutic practices. Likewise, it shows the changes in the understanding of these systems of treatment and assistance to health and sickness, their permanence and incidence on collective practices associated to spirituality, as well as the construction of alternatives of individual and social health and the interdisciplinary character of the existing research studies. This article, too, proposes the existence of an analytical vacuum regarding gender, class and ethnic group in the studies on traditional and popular medicine.

  9. Tática para cirurgia de correção da coarctação da artéria pulmonar sem uso de circulação extracorpórea Approach for surgical correction of pulmonary artery coarctation without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoel Marcelino de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A coarctação de artéria pulmonar é comum em pacientes com atresia pulmonar. A correção tem sido com CEC e no período neonatal, quando influencia o desenvolvimento das artérias pulmonares e o prognóstico. Foram corrigidos três pacientes por esternotomia mediana com atresia pulmonar dependentes do ducto arterioso (PCA sem uso de CEC. O PCA mantinha a saturação durante a confecção do Blalock Taussig na artéria pulmonar contralateral. Arterioplastia foi realizada com sutura de pericárdio autólogo com PDS 7-0 e saturação mantida pelo Blalock. Todos pacientes tiveram boa evolução e alta hospitalar com avaliação de controle demonstrando bom alargamento da área coarctada.Pulmonary artery coarctation often happens in patients with pulmonary atresia. The correction has been usually performed using cardiopulmonary bypass and during the neonatal period, influencing pulmonary artery development and prognosis. Three patients with pulmonary atresia with PDA underwent correction using median sternotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The PDA maintained the arterial saturation during Blalock Taussig anastomoses upon the contralateral pulmonary artery. Arterioplasty was performed using an autologous pericardium with 7-0 PDS running suture and saturation was maintained by Blalock shunt. All patients presented good follow-up and where discharged with good enlargment of coarctation area.

  10. State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, Martin; Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan; Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore

    2012-01-01

    As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure–property relations not only the question “Which atom is where?” but also the question “Which fields are around?” has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for—also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: ► Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. ► Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. ► Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. ► A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. ► Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.

  11. Preface: 2nd Workshop on the State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Dufour, M.; Sparenberg, J.-M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd workshop on the "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics" (SOTANCP2) took place on May 25-28, 2010, at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Brussels, Belgium). The first workshop of this series was held in Strasbourg (France) in 2008. The purpose of SOTANCP2 was to promote the exchange of ideas and to discuss new developments in Clustering Phenomena in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Astrophysics both from a theoretical and from an experimental point of view

  12. Modular robotics overview of the 'state of the art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Hamel, W.R.

    1996-08-01

    The design of a robotic arm processing modular components and reconfigurable links is the general goal of a modular robotics development program. The impetus behind the pursuit of modular design is the remote engineering paradigm of improved reliability and availability provided by the ability to remotely maintain and repair a manipulator operating in a hazardous environment by removing and replacing worn or failed modules. Failed components can service off- line and away from hazardous conditions. The desire to reconfigure an arm to perform different tasks is also an important driver for the development of a modular robotic manipulator. In order to bring to fruition a truly modular manipulator, an array of technical challenges must be overcome. These range from basic mechanical and electrical design considerations such as desired kinematics, actuator types, and signal and transmission types and routings, through controls issues such as the need for control algorithms capable of stable free space and contact control, to computer and sensor design issues like consideration of the use of embedded processors and redundant sensors. This report presents a brief overview of the state of the art of technical issues relevant of modular robotic arm design. The focus is on breadth of coverage, rather than depth, in order to provide a reference frame for future development

  13. Electric road vehicles. Technology, state of the art, applications. Elektrische Strassenfahrzeuge. Technik, Entwicklungsstand und Einsatzbereiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naunin, D [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Elektronik; Bader, C [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.); Driehorst, F A; Kalberlah, A [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany, F.R.); Fischer, W [Asea Brown Boveri AG, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Kiehne, H A [Zweckverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie e.V. (ZVEI), Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Fachverband Batter

    1989-01-01

    The book discusses (1) economic and traffic policy aspects; (2) new battery systems; (3) different motor concepts; (4) possibilities and problems of serial production; (5) present applications in spas and chances for future applications. The latest state of the art and of the current discussion are presented. (orig./HP) With 139 figs.

  14. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E.; Auglaire, M.; Boeck, B. de; Braillard, O.; Eckardt, B.; Ferroni, F.; Moffett, R.; Van Goethem, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  15. Primary system fission product release and transport. A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art

  16. Primary system fission product release and transport: A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art

  17. Primary system fission product release and transport: A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art.

  18. Fatigue of Nitinol: The state-of-the-art and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, M J; Shamsaei, Nima; Mitchell, M R

    2015-10-01

    Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, has been considered for a wide range of applications including medical and dental devices and implants as well as aerospace and automotive components and structures. The realistic loading condition in many of these applications is cyclic; therefore, fatigue is often the main failure mode for such components and structures. The fatigue behavior of Nitinol involves many more complexities compared with traditional metal alloys arising from its uniqueness in material properties such as superelasticity and shape memory effects. In this paper, a review of the present state-of-the-art on the fatigue behavior of superelastic Nitinol is presented. Various aspects of fatigue of Nitinol are discussed and microstructural effects are explained. Effects of material preparation and testing conditions are also reviewed. Finally, several conclusions are made and recommendations for future works are offered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers for multigrasp prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Controzzi, Marco; Weir, Richard F ff; Cipriani, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A myoelectric controller should provide an intuitive and effective human-machine interface that deciphers user intent in real-time and is robust enough to operate in daily life. Many myoelectric control architectures have been developed, including pattern recognition systems, finite state machines, and more recently, postural control schemes. Here, we present a comparative study of two types of finite state machines and a postural control scheme using both virtual and physical assessment procedures with seven nondisabled subjects. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) was used in order to compare the effectiveness of the controllers during activities of daily living using a multigrasp artificial hand. Also, a virtual hand posture matching task was used to compare the controllers when reproducing six target postures. The performance when using the postural control scheme was significantly better (p state machines during the physical assessment when comparing within-subject averages using the SHAP percent difference metric. The virtual assessment results described significantly greater completion rates (97% and 99%) for the finite state machines, but the movement time tended to be faster (2.7 s) for the postural control scheme. Our results substantiate that postural control schemes rival other state-of-the-art myoelectric controllers.

  20. State of art survey for design of medium frequency high power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisambhayana, Sriram; Dincan, Catalin; Shuyu, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Medium and high frequency, high power transformers play an important role in footprint reduction along with their functions of galvanic isolation, and voltage transformation in all high power converters typically used in traction power systems, offshore wind plant power converters, and solid state...... transformer based distribution system grids. This state of art report analysis the various materials and design tradeoffs that govern the electromagnetic behavior and loss mechanisms of the medium frequency transformer applications. Typical winding and core geometries that have been reported extensively...

  1. Tratamento endovascular de aneurisma da artéria renal por embolização com micromolas preservando o fluxo sangüíneo renal: relato de caso Endovascular treatment of renal artery aneurysm using microcoil embolization and renal blood flow preservation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Cardozo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento endovascular da doença aneurismática da artéria renal tem sido, cada vez mais, aceito como uma alternativa à cirurgia convencional, especialmente em casos de aneurismas complexos intra-parenquimatosos ou que comprometam a bifurcação da artéria renal. Os autores relatam a experiência do tratamento endovascular de uma paciente com aneurisma sacular da bifurcação da artéria renal direita, associado à hipertensão renovascular de difícil controle. Foi realizada a cateterização seletiva da artéria renal, com a inserção de micromolas no saco aneurismático. O aneurisma foi completamente ocluído com preservação total do fluxo sanguíneo renal. A evolução clínica foi satisfatória com redução significativa das medicações anti-hipertensivas. A angio-tomografia de controle, após o oitavo mês do procedimento, confirmou o sucesso do tratamento.Endovascular treatment of renal artery aneurysmal disease has been increasingly accepted as an alternative to conventional surgery, especially in cases of renal artery bifurcation or complex intrarenal aneurysms. The authors report a case of endovascular treatment of a saccular aneurysm of the right renal artery bifurcation associated with poorly controlled renovascular hypertension. Selective catheterization of the renal artery was performed and microcoils were inserted into the aneurysmal sac. The aneurysm was completely obliterated with total preservation of renal blood flow. Clinical evolution was satisfactory with significant reduction in anti-hypertensive drugs. Control tomographic angiography, after eight months, confirmed treatment success.

  2. Curriculum vitae method in science policy and research evaluation: the state-of-the-art

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Cañibano; Barry Bozeman

    2009-01-01

    This is a state-of-the-art assessment for a small but burgeoning research approach, use of curricula vitae in research evaluation. The accumulated research remains sufficiently modest for us to consider nearly all published studies and the full range of research purposes to which CV analysis has been applied. CV analysis has been theory-driven, and theory and tools have increasingly converged. Advances in method and technique have been abetted especially by the push for a scientific and techn...

  3. Right coronary artery anatomy: anatomical and morphometric analysis Anatomia da artéria coronária direita: análises anatômicas e morfométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Ballesteros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is necessary knowing the large variability of right coronary (RCA artery specialty for its implications in surgical procedures and clinic events. This variability is usually related to the length, branches quantity, origin and irrigated territories. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate by direct examination the morphologic expression of RCA in Colombian people. METHODS: RCA were measured in 221 fresh hearts by RCA ostium canalization with polyester synthetic resin that was injected in their branches. RESULTS: The caliber of the RCA proximal segment and at the level of the acute angle of the heart was 3.42 ± 0.66 mm and 2.9 ± 0.50 mm, respectively. It ended between crux cordis and the left margin in 75.6% of specimens. Posterior interventricular artery (PIA reached the inferior third, or the apex, or the anterior interventricular sulcus in 149 (67.4% cases. Sinoatrial node artery (SNA originated in the right coronary in 134 (60.6% cases, 77 (34.9% from circumflex artery (CxA and from both in 10 (4.5%. Posterior right diagonal artery (PRDA was noted in 38 (17.2% hearts, but only 6% of the sample with long PIA, concomitantly presented the PRDA (P = 0.001. In right dominance SNA were originated from RCA in 54.7% and form CxA in 46.3% (P = 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: Caliber of the RCA and its branches is lesser than the majority of previous studies, while the PRDA frequency is slightly higher than the reported in literature. Clinical and pathological scenarios by these variations should be taken into account: hemodynamic procedures, cardiac surgery and arrhythmias from coronary occlusive disease.INTRODUÇÃO: É necessário conhecer a grande variabilidade da artéria coronária direita (ACD, especialmente por suas implicações nos procedimentos cirúrgicos e eventos clínicos. Esta variabilidade está geralmente relacionada à extensão, à quantidade de ramos, à origem e aos territórios irrigados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar por exame direto a expressão morfol

  4. Circulação coronária dependente do ventrículo direito na atresia pulmonar com septo interventricular íntegro. Ausência da origem das artérias coronárias da aorta Right ventricle-dependent coronary circulation in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. Absence of origin of the coronary arteries from the aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos clínicos, ecocardiográficos e angiográficos de um neonato de sexo masculino, com cinco dias de vida e diagnóstico de atresia pulmonar com septo interventricular íntegro. Tanto o ecocardiograma como a aortografia mostraram ausência da origem das artérias coronárias da aorta. O ecocardiograma bidimensional e, posteriormente, a ventriculografia direita identificaram as artérias coronárias, originando-se no ventrículo direito. Não houve contrastação retrógrada da aorta ou do tronco pulmonar quando contrastadas as artérias coronárias. Este é o primeiro caso relatado com diagnóstico ecocardiográfico pré angiografia, e é um exemplo da necessidade de se avaliar as artérias coronárias em pacientes com atresia pulmonar e septo ventricular íntegro.This report describes the clinical, echocardiographic and angiographic aspects of a five-day old boy with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. Both the echocardiogram and the aortography did not show any coronary arteries arising from the aorta. Two-dimensional echocardiography was able to identify the coronary arteries originating from the right ventricle and so did the right ventricular angiogram. No retrograde flow into the aorta or pulmonary trunk was identified after opacification of the coronary arteries. As far as we know this is the first case diagnosed by echocardiography, and is a vivid example of the necessity of identifying the coronary arteries in patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum.

  5. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  6. Testicular arteries systematization based on different levels of scrotal configuration in caprines Sistematização da artéria testicular em caprinos segundo a configuração escrotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Marco de Almeida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of testicular arterial vessels in caprines with different degrees of scrotal division. Scrotal configurations were classified as follows; Group I: scrotum without bipartition; Group II: scrotum showing a ventral division until the middle of the testis; and, Group III: scrotal separation extended beyond the middle of the testis. A colored vinyl acetate solution was injected into 60 testicular arteries (30 pairs. After, the samples were submitted to corrosion cast method to obtain tubular vascular models for macroscopic analysis. We observed that the testicular arteries emerge from the abdominal aorta, cross the inguinal canal to become coiled and involved by the pampiniform plexus. Close to the caudal extremity of the testis, the arteries become divided in cranial and caudal branches that emit collateral vessels to originate emerging branches. Testicles with intermediate level of scrotal division (group II showed a smaller amount of those branches than the others, being the most populated the ventrolateral and the dorsolateral quadrants. The origin, distribution and localization of the testicular arteries did not show any differences related to the degree of scrotal division in caprines.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição dos vasos arteriais nos testículos em caprinos com diferentes graus de divisão escrotal. A configuração escrotal foi classificada da seguinte forma: Grupo I: constituído por caprinos com escroto único, Grupo II: com escroto separado até a metade do testículo e Grupo III: com separação escrotal estendendo-se além da metade do testículos. As artérias foram injetadas e coradas com solução de acetado de vinil, sendo os orgãos (30 pares submetidos à corrossão para obtenção dos moldes vasculares. As artérias testiculares emergem da aorta abdominal, com trajeto retilíneo, atravessam o canal inguinal, apresentam-se espiraladas e

  7. Clinical cardiac positron emission tomography: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has evolved rapidly from a relatively esoteric research tool into clinical applications providing unique, quantitative information on myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and cell membrane function and having a potentially significant impact on cardiovascular medicine. Although there are many different positron radionuclides for imaging diverse myocardial behavior, three radionuclides have reached accepted clinical utility. Cardiac PET using nitrogen-13-ammonia, rubidium-82, and fluoro-18-deoxyglucose has proved accurate and definitive in multiple university and private-practice sites for diagnosing and assessing severity and location of coronary artery disease in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients, for identifying injured but viable myocardium potentially salvageable by revascularization, and for ruling out clinically significant coronary artery stenosis with a high specificity in patients who might otherwise undergo coronary arteriography to document the absence of significant disease. 89 references

  8. Efeitos da simpaticotomia endoscópica sobre as artérias carótidas e vertebrais na terapêutica cirúrgica da hiperidrose primária Effects of endoscopic sympathicotomy in carotid and vertebral arteries in the surgical treatment of primary hiperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlo F. Cavalcante

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar, em pacientes submetidos a simpaticotomia videotoracoscópica para tratamento da Hiperidrose Primária (HP, as conseqüências hemodinâmicas da desnervação vascular das artérias carótidas e vertebrais após a trans-secção cirúrgica da cadeia simpática torácica (simpaticotomia, através da mensuração de parâmetros ultra-sonográficos. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro pacientes portadores de HP submetidos a quarenta e oito simpaticotomias torácicas endoscópicas foram avaliados através da mensuração da velocidade de pico sistólico (VPS, velocidade de pico diastólico (VPD, índice de pulsatibilidade (IP e índice de resistência (IR nas artérias carótidas comuns, internas e externas, além da artéria vertebral bilateralmente usando o eco-doppler duplex scan. As avaliações foram realizadas antes da intervenção cirúrgica e trinta dias após o procedimento. O teste de Wilcoxon foi usado na análise das diferenças entre as variáveis antes e depois da simpaticotomia. RESULTADOS: A simpaticotomia no nível de T3 foi a trans-secção mais realizada (95,83%, seja isoladamente (25% ou associada a T4 (62,50% ou a T2 (8,33%. Houve aumento significativo no IR e no IP da artéria carótida comum bilateralmente (pPURPOSES: Analyze, in patients with primary hyperhidrosis (PH who was undergone to videothoracoscopic sympathicotomy, the degree of vascular denervation after surgical transection of the thoracic sympathetic chain by measuring ultrasonografic parameters in carotid and vertebral arteries. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with PH underwent forty-eight endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy and were evaluated by duplex eco-doppler measuring systolic peak velocity (SPV, diastolic peak velocity (DPV, pulsatility index (PI and resistivity index (RI in bilateral common, internal and external carotids, besides bilateral vertebral arteries. The exams were performed before operations and a month later. Wilcoxon test was used to

  9. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure......Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  10. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  11. Opinions of Artistically Talented Eminent Adults on Supports Provided by the State for Gifted Children in the Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Levent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine opinions of artists in music about state supports for students talented in music. Participants had state sup-ports in music when they were young. A phenomenological study was undertaken to interview the participants. They were interviewed face to face. Data was coded and content-analyzed and categorized by themes. The findings showed that all of the participants expressed that policies related to the education of gifted children in the field of arts in Turkey did not work anymore, losing functionality and effects and special services to be provided for artistically gifted students depended upon individuals who were in charge, showing that the policies were no longer useful. In addition, the participants stated that policies and practices have changed constantly as a result of changes in perceptions of educational politics and decision makers. Therefore, it is reasonable to claim that the greatest challenge in the education of students highly talented in the arts is the lack of a consistent and sustainable national policy

  12. Academic Computing: The State of the Art in Equipment, Organization, and the Trend to Terminal Use and Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, David M.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the methodology and results of a survey of 180 universities which assessed the state of the art of university computing with particular reference to the computing equipment being used and the growth of networking and how they are affected by student enrollment and the computer science curriculum. (EAO)

  13. Impact of state-of-the-art instrumentation on safety-related experimental studies proposed in containment studies facility (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gole, N.V.; Markandeya, S.G.; Subramaniam, K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conducting an experimental program for safety related studies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is an extremely laborious and time-consuming task due to several reasons. Requirement for frequent replacements, testing and recalibration of a large number of instruments is one of them. Off-line analysis leading to identification of errors is another. A particular test may have to be abandoned based on such analysis. Following the rapid advances in instrumentation, a larger number of options are now available, which make experimentation easy. CSF is one of the upcoming facilities wherein deployment of state-of-the art became inevitable. This paper discusses in detail the design intent of instrumentation, the state-of-the-art instrumentation provisions made to fulfill it the overall impact of this on successful experimentation

  14. Evaluating Art Studio Courses at Sultan Qaboos University in Light of the Discipline Based Art Education Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE), a theory developed in the USA, has been influential but also used in Art Education institutions world-wide. One of its stated goals was to develop the quality of teaching art education. Today, it is used as a theory for identifying and assessing good practices in the field of Art Education. The purpose of…

  15. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  16. State of the art and prospects of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.V.; Glushenkova, S.Z.

    1984-01-01

    State of the art and prospects of nuclear power development abroad except the COMECON countries and Yugoslavia, are considered. Both average electric power of power units and load factor (LF) are shown to increase. Data on both the total generating capacity and nuclear power generation in certain countries are given. The number of commissioned NPPs in the USA decreases but terms of their construction and licensing are reduced, program of fast breeder reactor construction is being realized, prohibition of nuclear fuel reprocessing in cancelled. France came to the second place in the world as regards the operating NPPs. The nuclear power generation in Japan makes up 13% of the total generating capacity in the country. The LF of the Japan NPPs with BWR and PWR in 1982 made up 70.7 and 69.8%, respectively. A higher reliability of NPPs, decrease in the time for periodical inspections and prolongation of the operating cycle have promoted an increase in the LF

  17. Zirconia powders production by precipitation: state-of-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Paula Almeida de; Torem, Mauricio Leonardo

    1994-01-01

    The important role played by zirconia in advanced ceramics can be attributed to its excellent wear and corrosion resistance and refractory character. The polymorphic nature of zirconia made the controlled addition of stabilizing oxides or the constraining effect of a dense ceramics matrix necessary to maintain high parameters had a significant influence on powder properties and on compacted powder behaviour in sintering. Particle shape and size, purity and crystalline structure were specially influenced by precipitation parameters. Therefore, this work presented a review of the state of the art in zirconia powder production and in the recent research on precipitation of that powder. (author)

  18. Wind turbine siting: A summary of the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    The process of siting large wind turbines may be divided into two broad steps: site selection, and site evaluation. Site selection is the process of locating windy sites where wind energy development shows promise of economic viability. Site evaluation is the process of determining in detail for a given site the economic potential of the site. The state of the art in the first aspect of siting, site selection is emphasized. Several techniques for assessing the wind resource were explored or developed in the Federal Wind Energy Program. Local topography and meteorology will determine which of the techniques should be used in locating potential sites. None of the techniques can do the job alone, none are foolproof, and all require considerable knowledge and experience to apply correctly. Therefore, efficient siting requires a strategy which is founded on broad based application of several techniques without relying solely on one narrow field of expertise.

  19. The anaerobic digestion of urban sludges: evaluation, state of the art; La digestion anaerobie des boues urbaines: etat des lieux, etat de l'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This presentation brings an evaluation and a state of the art of the sewage sludges channel, in terms of de-pollution efficiency as energy production. It gives also economical references which allow long dated arbitration. These data underline the necessity of taking into account the investments, the operating costs and also the induced profits: sludges volume reduction and the associated charges, complete or part energy autonomy... (A.L.B.)

  20. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  1. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff: state of the art in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Singh, Sanjay; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a painful shoulder disorder characterised by either single or multiple deposits in the rotator cuff tendon. Although the disease subsides spontaneously in most cases, a subpopulation of patients continue to complain of pain and shoulder dysfunction and the deposits do not show any signs of resolution. Although several treatment options have been proposed, clinical results are controversial and often the indication for a given therapy remains a matter of clinician choice. Herein, we report on the current state of the art in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff.

  2. Nanomedicine applications in women's health: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Parry, Oliver; Downing, Charlotte; Aleisaei, Eisa; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    State-of-the-art applications of nanomedicine have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a range of conditions and diseases affecting women's health. In this review, we provide a synopsis of potential applications of nanomedicine in some of the most dominant fields of women's health: mental health, sexual health, reproductive medicine, oncology, menopause-related conditions and dementia. We explore published studies arising from in vitro and in vivo experiments, and clinical trials where available, to reveal novel and highly promising therapeutic applications of nanomedicine in these fields. For the first time, we summarize the growing body of evidence relating to the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection, prevention, and treatment of significant diseases and conditions across the life course of a cisgender woman, from puberty to menopause; revealing the far-reaching and desirable theoretical impact of nanomedicine across different medical disciplines. We also present an overview of potential concerns regarding the therapeutic applications of nanomedicine and the factors currently restricting the growth of applied nanomedicine.

  3. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimerskirch André

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  4. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weimerskirch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  5. Ecological effects assessment: requirements vs state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-05-01

    Concerns for environmental quality, the ecologist's understanding of ecosystems, and the ability to quantitatively sample and evaluate hypotheses have contributed to current requirements and the state-of-the-art in ecological effects assessments in refard to nuclear power plants. The current cooling system approaches, data collection programs, and ecological effects assessments reflect these contributions. Over a decade of experience provides the basis for a timely review and evaluation of current proactice. The magnitude of economic and environmental resources being committed to cooling system alternatives mandates that the decision-making process result in as many optimal choices as possible. In addition, the resources being devoted to environmental data collection and integration provide considerable motivation for providing meaningful input to the decision-making process. It is maintained that the input should be as quantitative and as free from subjective content as is reasonably possible. An alternative viewpoint suggests that the past several decades of experience be considered but a first step, and the current task to be one of designing a second step

  6. Solar heating systems: state-of-the-art and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, U.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the development of the use of solar collectors over their past 30 years of history and describes today's state-of-the-art for solar installations that are used for hot water preparation and space heating. Advances made in storage technology, in the dimensioning of installations and in the operation of the systems are discussed in detail. The importance of low-flow operation for hot water installations is emphasised. Also, the integration of solar and conventional heating systems is looked at and questions regarding further factors such as those encountered in low-energy-consumption buildings are discussed. Future developments in the product and market areas are looked at, including new forms of storage as well as solar cooling and air-conditioning

  7. State-of-the-art Model M-2 Maintenance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Martin, H.L.; Satterlee, P.E. Jr.; Jelatis, D.G.; Jennrich, C.E.

    1984-04-01

    The Model M-2 Maintenance System is part of an ongoing program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to improve remote manipulation technology for future nuclear fuel reprocessing and other remote applications. Techniques, equipment, and guidelines which can improve the efficiency of remote maintenance are being developed. The Model M-2 Maintenance System, installed in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Facility at ORNL, provides a complete, integrated remote maintenance system for the demonstration and development of remote maintenance techniques. The system comprises a pair of force-reflecting servomanipulator arms, television viewing, lighting, and auxiliary lifting capabilities, thereby allowing manlike maintenance operations to be executed remotely within the remote cell mockup area in the IET. The Model M-2 Maintenance System incorporates an upgraded version of the proven Central Research Laboratories' Model M servomanipulator. Included are state-of-the-art brushless dc servomotors for improved performance, remotely removable wrist assemblies, geared azimuth drive, and a distributed microprocessor-based digital control system. 5 references, 8 figures

  8. An Overview of the State of the Art in Atomistic and Multiscale Simulation of Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erik; Yamakov, Vesselin; Phillips, Dawn R.; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    The emerging field of nanomechanics is providing a new focus in the study of the mechanics of materials, particularly in simulating fundamental atomic mechanisms involved in the initiation and evolution of damage. Simulating fundamental material processes using first principles in physics strongly motivates the formulation of computational multiscale methods to link macroscopic failure to the underlying atomic processes from which all material behavior originates. This report gives an overview of the state of the art in applying concurrent and sequential multiscale methods to analyze damage and failure mechanisms across length scales.

  9. Management of infected pancreatic necrosis: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rasslan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pancreatic necrosis occurs in 15% of acute pancreatitis. The presence of infection is the most important factor in the evolution of pancreatitis. The diagnosis of infection is still challenging. Mortality in infected necrosis is 20%; in the presence of organic dysfunction, mortality reaches 60%. In the last three decades, there has been a real revolution in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. However, the challenges persist and there are many unsolved questions: antibiotic treatment alone, tomography-guided percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, video-assisted extraperitoneal debridement, extraperitoneal access, open necrosectomy? A step up approach has been proposed, beginning with less invasive procedures and reserving the operative intervention for patients in which the previous procedure did not solve the problem definitively. Indication and timing of the intervention should be determined by the clinical course. Ideally, the intervention should be done only after the fourth week of evolution, when it is observed a better delimitation of necrosis. Treatment should be individualized. There is no procedure that should be the first and best option for all patients. The objective of this work is to critically review the current state of the art of the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction modeling of aneurysmal arteries under steady-state and pulsatile blood flow: a stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharzehee, Mohammadali; Khalafvand, Seyed Saeid; Han, Hai-Chao

    2018-02-01

    Tortuous aneurysmal arteries are often associated with a higher risk of rupture but the mechanism remains unclear. The goal of this study was to analyze the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of aneurysmal arteries under pulsatile flow. To accomplish this goal, we analyzed the buckling behavior of model carotid and abdominal aorta with aneurysms by utilizing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method with realistic waveforms boundary conditions. FSI simulations were done under steady-state and pulsatile flow for normal (1.5) and reduced (1.3) axial stretch ratios to investigate the influence of aneurysm, pulsatile lumen pressure and axial tension on stability. Our results indicated that aneurysmal artery buckled at the critical buckling pressure and its deflection nonlinearly increased with increasing lumen pressure. Buckling elevates the peak stress (up to 118%). The maximum aneurysm wall stress at pulsatile FSI flow was (29%) higher than under static pressure at the peak lumen pressure of 130 mmHg. Buckling results show an increase in lumen shear stress at the inner side of the maximum deflection. Vortex flow was dramatically enlarged with increasing lumen pressure and artery diameter. Aneurysmal arteries are more susceptible than normal arteries to mechanical instability which causes high stresses in the aneurysm wall that could lead to aneurysm rupture.

  11. Art=life? Deleuze, badiou and ontology of the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Andrija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the relation between art and life as becoming-life of art is a consequence of specific modern developments ranging from the Enlightenment to capitalism. This assemblage of thought and practice is present in one of the most dominant art forms today, and the task of this paper is to reassess the current state of affairs in art considering that the current state of affairs in art is a symptom of the global society of control. In order to be emancipatory art, on the one hand, Art presupposes de-substantialization and deessentialization of the biopolitically formed life and the category of Man, while on the other hand it also presupposes a new „generic in-humanum“ (in Badiou, that is, a people to come (in Deleuze as the basis of politicity. Hence, emancipatory art needs to break away with the human in order to reach that which is beyond the current democratic materialism.

  12. Base technology development enhances state-of-the-art in meeting performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Allen, G.C. Jr.; Luna, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has responsibility to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for baseline technology to support the design of radioactive material transportation packages. To fulfill this responsibility, SNL works with industry, government agencies, and national laboratories to identify and develop state-of-the-art technology required to design and test safe, cost-effective radioactive materials packages. Principal elements of the base technology program include: 1) analysis techniques, 2) testing, 3) subsystem and component development, 4) packaging systems development support, and 5) technical support for policy development. These program elements support a systems approach for meeting performance requirements and assure that there is a sound underlying technical basis for both transportation packaging design and associated policy decisions. Highlights from the base technology program included in this paper are testing, design and analysis methods, advanced materials, risk assessment and logistics models, and transportation package support

  13. Statistical dynamic image reconstruction in state-of-the-art high-resolution PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmim, Arman; Cheng, J-C; Blinder, Stephan; Camborde, Maurie-Laure; Sossi, Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Modern high-resolution PET is now more than ever in need of scrutiny into the nature and limitations of the imaging modality itself as well as image reconstruction techniques. In this work, we have reviewed, analysed and addressed the following three considerations within the particular context of state-of-the-art dynamic PET imaging: (i) the typical average numbers of events per line-of-response (LOR) are now (much) less than unity (ii) due to the physical and biological decay of the activity distribution, one requires robust and efficient reconstruction algorithms applicable to a wide range of statistics and (iii) the computational considerations in dynamic imaging are much enhanced (i.e., more frames to be stored and reconstructed). Within the framework of statistical image reconstruction, we have argued theoretically and shown experimentally that the sinogram non-negativity constraint (when using the delayed-coincidence and/or scatter-subtraction techniques) is especially expected to result in an overestimation bias. Subsequently, two schemes are considered: (a) subtraction techniques in which an image non-negativity constraint has been imposed and (b) implementation of random and scatter estimates inside the reconstruction algorithms, thus enabling direct processing of Poisson-distributed prompts. Both techniques are able to remove the aforementioned bias, while the latter, being better conditioned theoretically, is able to exhibit superior noise characteristics. We have also elaborated upon and verified the applicability of the accelerated list-mode image reconstruction method as a powerful solution for accurate, robust and efficient dynamic reconstructions of high-resolution data (as well as a number of additional benefits in the context of state-of-the-art PET)

  14. ARIA: Delivering state-of-the-art InSAR products to end users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agram, P. S.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Sacco, G. F.; Bue, B. D.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Liu, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Center for Natural Hazards aims to bring state-of-the-art geodetic imaging capabilities to an operational level in support of local, national, and international hazard response communities. ARIA project's first foray into operational generation of InSAR products was with Calimap Project, in collaboration with ASI-CIDOT, using X-band data from the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation. Over the last year, ARIA's processing infrastructure has been significantly upgraded to exploit the free stream of high quality C-band SAR data from ESA's Sentinel-1 mission and related algorithmic improvements to the ISCE software. ARIA's data system can now operationally generate geocoded unwrapped phase and coherence products in GIS-friendly formats from Sentinel-1 TOPS mode data in an automated fashion, and this capability is currently being exercised various study sites across the United States including Hawaii, Central California, Iceland and South America. The ARIA team, building on the experience gained from handling X-band data and C-band data, has also built an automated machine learning-based classifier to label the auto-generated interferograms based on phase unwrapping quality. These high quality "time-series ready" InSAR products generated using state-of-the-art processing algorithms can be accessed by end users using two different mechanisms - 1) a Faceted-search interface that includes browse imagery for quick visualization and 2) an ElasticSearch-based API to enable bulk automated download, post-processing and time-series analysis. In this talk, we will present InSAR results from various global events that ARIA system has responded to. We will also discuss the set of geospatial big data tools including GIS libraries and API tools, that end users will need to familiarize themselves with in order to maximize the utilization of continuous stream of InSAR products from the Sentinel-1 and NISAR missions that the ARIA project will generate.

  15. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  16. Digital radiography of the chest: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, M.; Malagari, K.S.; Tucker, D.; Tahoces, P.G.; Correa, J.; Benakis, V.S.; Roussos, C.; Strigaris, K.A.; Vidal, J.J.; Barnes, G.T.; Fraser, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Digital image acquisition possesses a number of advantages over conventional systems in radiographic examination of the chest, the most important of which is its greater dynamic range. In addition, once digital images are acquired, they can be processed by computer in ways that cannot be rivalled by conventional analog techniques. Finally, digital images can be stored, retrieved and transmitted to local or remote sites. Here the status of the different digital systems employed in chest radiology and commonly used image processing techniques are reviewed. Also discussed are the current clinical applications of integrating digital chest radiography with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) along with the difficulties typically encountered. Studies with a variety of digital techniques have been carried out on several fronts. Computed radiography based on photostimulable phosphor (CR) has replaced screen-film imaging in certain applications (i.e. bedside imaging). However, CR has limitations, namely its poor X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube voltages and sensitivity to scatter; therefore, it is not ideal for all applications. Recently, a dedicated digital chest unit with excellent X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube potentials has been introduced. On the basis of the state-of-the-art capabilities and research during the past decade, recommendations are made regarding the most desirable equipment specifications for dedicated and bedside digital chest radiography. (orig.)

  17. Percutaneous Endoluminal Stent-Graft Repair of an Old Traumatic Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, Renan; Elliott, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A stent-graft was custom made to close a high-flow traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the left superficial femoral artery, present for 30 years, in a 60-year-old man with congestive heart failure and ischemic ulceration in the left foot. A balloon expandable Palmaz stent (P394; 2.5 mm x 3.9 cm) was covered with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft and was inserted percutaneously through an 11 Fr vascular sheath. Follow-up Doppler ultrasound at 6 months demonstrated occlusion of the arteriovenous fistula, patency of the artery, and luminal integrity of the artery and vein

  18. IEC planning: eight state-of-the-art principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J

    1983-12-01

    Considerable experience and research has been accumulated in the last 20 years on the ways in which information/education/communication (IEC) programs can be effectively designed, implemented, and evaluated. Possibly more effort has focused on population and family planning IEC than on any other sectoral program of development communication. Several principles have emerged which, taken together, define the state of the art in the field. These principles provide a framework of experience which can guide the development of comprehensive IEC programs. They include: policy and resource assessment; audience analysis; strategy design; message research and pretesting; participation and feedback; management; evaluation; and collaboration. The nature of the national policy base for population and family planning programs will determine the goals and approaches of the IEC program. Strong policies of limitation on popultion growth lead to equally strong and pervasive IEC efforts designed to directly affect contraceptive behavior. Assessment of existing policy is an essential aspect of the design of an effective IEC program. Policies establish the rationale and boundaries for action. Population and family planning programs are concerned with some of the most intimate human behavior. Consequently, structured and sensitive audience analysis has become an integral part of the design of IEC programs. The design of communication strategy requires clearly stated objectives. Principles of human learning are used to structure information appropriately. Message research and pretesting have become integral components of the strategy design process. Small scale research on specific objectives is necessary to establish the basis for message design. Audience participation and feedback in remaining phases of program development and implementation are important. The management of an IEC program requires a specific combination of planning, flexibility, and creativity. Evaluation of program

  19. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  20. Massive parallel sequencing in sarcoma pathobiology: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenca, Monica; Maestro, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are an aggressive and highly heterogeneous group of mesenchymal malignancies with different morphologies and clinical behavior. Current therapeutic strategies remain unsatisfactory. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of these tumors is resulting in the breakdown of the classical histopathological categories into molecular subgroups that better define sarcoma pathobiology and pave the way to more precise diagnostic criteria and novel therapeutic opportunities. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the state-of-the-art on the exploitation of massive parallel sequencing technologies, also known as next generation sequencing, in the elucidation of sarcoma pathobiology and to discuss how these applications may impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these tumors.

  1. The state-of-the-art and prospects for the development of rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skundin, Aleksandr M; Efimov, Oleg N; Yarmolenko, Ol'ga V

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of investigations into the development and perfection of the most promising class of chemical power sources, namely, rechargeable lithium batteries, is considered. The main problems of designing the batteries with a metallic lithium electrode are formulated and the use of alternative negative electrodes is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the studies dealing with the principles of the performance of lithium-ion batteries as well as the key directions for the perfection of these devices, which mainly concern the elaboration of new materials for lithium-ion batteries. A separate section is devoted to the consideration of polymeric electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The bibliography includes 390 references.

  2. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  3. Near-infrared sub-bandgap all-silicon photodetectors: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Maurizio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Iodice, Mario; Rendina, Ivo; Sirleto, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  4. Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sirleto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  5. Coronary artery disease in Brazil: contemporary management and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, C A; Ribeiro, J P

    2009-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for 32% of total mortality in Brazil, mostly due to cerebrovascular and coronary artery disease. Epidemiological and socio-economical factors play a pivotal role on the distribution, severity and management of coronary artery disease, and the burden is greater in the southeast and south regions of the country, with a higher mortality in low-income populations. The Brazilian healthcare structure is divided into two complementary systems-public and private-but 75% of the population is covered exclusively by the public system. Some Brazilian institutions offer state-of-the-art care to patients with acute and chronic coronary artery disease, but regional inequalities in medical care are still significant. National policies will have to be implemented to fight risk factors, to ensure primary prevention strategies, including assistance on drugs with known protective effects, areas to be tackled by both the private and the public health sectors. Finally, large investments will have to be made to improve tertiary care, to reorganise systems of care for acute patients and mainly to ensure prompt access and continuity of cardiac care and secondary prevention strategies for the whole population.

  6. Flow-induced vibration in LMFBR steam generators: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1975-05-01

    This state-of-the-art review identifies and discusses existing methods of flow-induced vibration analysis applicable to steam generators, their limitations, and base-technology needs. Also included are discussions of five different LMFBR steam-generator configurations and important design considerations, failure experiences, possible flow-induced excitation mechanisms, vibration testing, and available methods of vibration analysis. The objectives are to aid LMFBR steam-generator designers in making the best possible evaluation of potential vibration in steam-generator internals, and to provide the basis for development of design guidelines to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibration

  7. The state-of-the-art and prospects of the oxidation titration method for the determination of uranium in geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiayan

    1986-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the oxidation titration method for the determination of uranium in geological samples is reviewed in some respects such as the prereduction of U(VI), oxidation of U(IV) and the detection of the end-point. Comments are also made on the prospects of further improvements of this method

  8. State of the Art of HVAC Technology in Europe and America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2015-01-01

    of energy sources and energy generators are very much similar. This paper will present state-of the art-off energy efficient systems that will provide a good indoor environmental quality at a decreased energy use. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling systems are an important requirement...... mechanisms and media to emit and remove heat or moisture from indoor spaces (e.g. hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, fan-coil units, and active beams). The main differences between HVAC systems in Europe, North America and other parts of the world are often the indoor terminal units. Type...... for increasing the energy efficiency of HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) systems and for increasing the amount of renewable energy used. Especially these types of systems are getting increasing attention in Europe and North-America. In the present study, operation characteristics, possibilities...

  9. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  10. Tratamento cirúrgico da artéria coronária direita intra-atrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos R. IGLÉZIAS

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A localização intracavitária da artéria coronária é rara. Segundo Ochsner & Mills (1, ela ocorreu com a artéria coronária direita em 0,9% e com o ramo interventricular em 0,2%. A localização da lesão e as condições patológicas relacionadas ao comprimento e diâmetro da coronária podem auxiliar na exposição da coronária intracavitária para uma revascularização apropriada. Freqüentemente os cirurgiões não estão habituados com a posição intracavitári