WorldWideScience

Sample records for arterial tone effets

  1. Acute effects of gamma irradiation on vascular arterial tone; Effets aigus d`une irradiation gamma sur le tonus vasculaire arteriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourlier, V.; Diserbo, M.; Multon, E.; Verdetti, J.; Fatome, M.

    1995-12-31

    In rat aortic rings, we showed an increase in arterial tone during irradiation. This effect is acute reversible. This effect is only observed on pre-contracted rings and needs the integrity of vascular endothelium. The molecular mechanism of this effect is discussed. (author). 4 refs.

  2. Umbilical artery tone in maternal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavey Siobhan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity constitutes a major health problem in obstetrics with implications for feto-maternal growth and wellbeing. This study investigated and compared the contractile properties of umbilical arteries excised from obese women, with those excised from women with a normal body mass index (BMI. Methods Sections of umbilical artery were obtained from umbilical cord samples immediately after delivery and mounted for isometric recording in organ tissue baths under physiological conditions. Cumulative additions of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and Prostaglandin F-2alpha (PgF2alpha were added in the concentration range of 1 nmol/L to 10 micromol/L. Control vessels were exposed to Krebs physiological salt solution (PSS only. The resultant effects of each drug addition were measured using the Powerlab hardware unit. Results 5-HT exerted a significant effect on human umbilical artery tone at concentrations of 100 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L in normal (n = 5; P 0.05. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that endogenous regulation of umbilical artery tone is altered in association with maternal obesity. This may be linked to the cardiovascular effects of secretory products of adipose tissue, with implications for the feto-maternal circulation.

  3. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  4. Regulation of Arterial Tone by Activation of Calcium-Dependent Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, Joseph E.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1992-04-01

    Blood pressure and tissue perfusion are controlled in part by the level of intrinsic (myogenic) vascular tone. However, many of the molecular determinants of this response are unknown. Evidence is now presented that the degree of myogenic tone is regulated in part by the activation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle. Tetraethylammonium ion (TEA^+) and charybdotoxin (CTX), at concentrations that block calcium-activated potassium channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from cerebral arteries, depolarized and constricted pressurized cerebral arteries with myogenic tone. Both TEA^+ and CTX had little effect on arteries when intracellular calcium was reduced by lowering intravascular pressure or by blocking calcium channels. Elevation of intravascular pressure through membrane depolarization and an increase in intracellular calcium may activate calcium-activated potassium channels. Thus, these channels may serve as a negative feedback pathway to control the degree of membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction.

  5. Increased arterial vascular tone during the night in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, A; Burkert, A; Mardanzai, K;

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent incidence of cardiovascular events points to an important role of chronobiology for arterial properties. To evaluate arterial properties in patients with essential hypertension, we assessed arterial vascular tone during sleep at night in patients with essential hypertension and...... significant increase of systemic arterial vascular tone in patients with essential hypertension during the first half of the night compared to normotensive control subjects....... was significantly higher in 31 patients with essential hypertension compared to 30 normotensive control subjects (30.0+/-0.2 vs 28.8+/-0.2; P=0.001). In patients with essential hypertension, the reflective index significantly increased from 30.0+/-0.2 in the first half (from 2301 to 0230) to 30...

  6. Blood Pressure Regulation VIII: Resistance Vessel Tone and Implications for a Pro-Atherogenic Conduit Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Fadel, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of the endothelium is proposed as the primary initiator of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, which occurs mainly in medium to large-sized conduit arteries of the lower extremities (e.g., iliac, femoral, popliteal arteries). In this review article, we propose the novel concept that conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype is determined, in part, by microvascular tone in skeletal muscle resistance arteries through both changes in arterial blood pressure as well as upstream...

  7. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases. PMID:25451691

  8. KCNQ Modulators Reveal a Key Role for KCNQ Potassium Channels in Regulating the Tone of Rat Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Shreena; Sedivy, Vojtech; Hodyc, Daniel; Herget, Jan; Gurney, Alison M

    2009-01-01

    Potassium channels are central to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone. The smooth muscle cells of pulmonary artery display a background K+ conductance with biophysical properties resembling those of KCNQ (KV7) potassium channels. Therefore, we investigated the expression and functional role of KCNQ channels in pulmonary artery. The effects of selective KCNQ channel modulators were investigated on K+ current and membrane potential in isolated pulmonary artery smoo...

  9. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers by...... direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients with...

  10. Role of Adenosine Receptor(s) in the Control of Vascular Tone in the Mouse Pudendal Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labazi, Hicham; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) has been implicated in the modulation of renal and cardiovascular systems, as well as erectile functions. Recent studies suggest that adenosine-mediated regulation of erectile function is mainly mediated through A2BAR activation. However, no studies have been conducted to determine the contribution of AR subtype in the regulation of the vascular tone of the pudendal artery (PA), the major artery supplying and controlling blood flow to the penis. Our aim was to characterize the contribution of AR subtypes and identify signaling mechanisms involved in adenosine-mediated vascular tone regulation in the PA. We used a DMT wire myograph for muscle tension measurements in isolated PAs from wild-type, A2AAR knockout, A2BAR knockout, and A2A/A2BAR double-knockout mice. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of the AR subtypes. Data from our pharmacologic and genetic approaches suggest that AR activation-mediated vasodilation in the PA is mediated by both the A2AAR and A2BAR, whereas neither the A1AR nor A3AR play a role in vascular tone regulation of the PA. In addition, we showed that A2AAR- and A2BAR-mediated vasorelaxation requires activation of nitric oxide and potassium channels; however, only the A2AAR-mediated response requires protein kinase A activation. Our data are complemented by mRNA expression showing the expression of all AR subtypes with the exception of the A3AR. AR signaling in the PA may play an important role in mediating erection and represent a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26718241

  11. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte;

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression of...... voltage-operated calcium (Ca(V)) channels Ca(V)3.1 (T-type), Ca(V)3.2 (T-type), and Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) in cremaster arterioles (n = 3 rats). Amplification products were observed only in the presence of reverse transcriptase and cDNA. Concentration-response curves of the relatively specific L-type blocker......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P <0.05, basal vs. K(+)]. These data suggest that T-type calcium channels are expressed and involved in maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  12. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almukhtar, H; Garle, M J; Smith, P A; Roberts, R E

    2016-08-15

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced a slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. PMID:27343404

  13. Chronic deficit in nitric oxide elicits oxidative stress and augments T-type calcium-channel contribution to vascular tone of rodent arteries and arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howitt, Lauren; Kuo, Ivana Y; Ellis, Anthie;

    2013-01-01

    /L) significantly increased the T-type, but not the L-type, channel contribution to vascular tone in vitro and in vivo, and altered the smooth muscle expression of the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type channels. In pressurized mesenteric arteries of Cav3.1ko and Cav3.2ko mice, acutely treated with l-NAME, the contribution...... of T-type channels relative to L-type channels was significantly reduced, compared with arteries from wild-type mice.Chronic l-NAME treatment (40 mg/kg/day; 14-18 days) increased blood pressure, vascular superoxide, and the contribution of T-type channels to vascular tone in vivo. The latter was......, by regulating the bioavailability of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase. Our data provide evidence for a novel causal link between nitric oxide deficit, oxidative stress, and T-type calcium channel function....

  14. Age-dependent impact of CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    The myogenic response and flow-mediated vasodilatation are important regulators of local blood perfusion and total peripheral resistance, and are known to entail a calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), respectively. CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channels a......-mediated vasomotor responses to prevent excess arterial tone, protect against cardiovascular disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. The role of endothelium in postradiation modification of alpha-adrenergic regulation mechanism of tone of arterial vessels at early stage of ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature male rats were exposed to acute irradiation (dose rate 9*10-4 Gy/s) and chronic irradiation (dose rate 2.3*10-7 Gy/s). Investigations were made on 10, 30 and 90th days after irradiation. The analysis of results showed that postradiation changes of alpha-adrenergic regulation of tone of arterial vessels lie in modification of sensitiveness and density of receptor structures and activity of synthesis process of endotheliomal NO

  16. The effect of urapidil, an alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, on the vascular tone of the porcine coronary and pulmonary arteries, the rat aorta and the human pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Claire; Auger, Cyril; Diemunsch, Pierre; Schini-Kerth, Valérie

    2016-05-15

    Urapidil (Eupressyl(®)) an antihypertensive drug acting as an α1 antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, may be of special interest in the treatment of hypertension associated with preeclamptic toxaemia and hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction. However, the effect of urapidil on vascular tone has been poorly investigated. Vascular reactivity was evaluated using pulmonary and coronary arteries from 36 pigs, aortae from 22 rats and 9 human pulmonary artery samples suspended in organ chambers. Concentration-relaxation curves either to urapidil, 5-HT, or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT were constructed after pre-contraction of rings. Pig pulmonary and coronary artery rings were contracted with U46619, a thromboxane mimetic, rat aortic rings with either endothelin-1 or phenylephrine, and human pulmonary artery rings with U46619 or phenylephrine. Urapidil markedly inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions in rat aortic rings with and without endothelium with a more pronounced effect observed in rings without endothelium. Both 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT failed to induce relaxation in rat aortic rings with an intact endothelium. 5-HT, but not urapidil and 8-OH-DPAT, induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary and pulmonary artery rings with an intact endothelium (P<0.05). 5-HT and phenylephrine but not urapidil caused concentration-dependent contractions in human pulmonary artery rings. The present findings, while confirming that urapidil is a potent inhibitor of α1-adrenoceptor-induced contraction, do not support the role of 5-HT1A receptor activation in the control of the vascular tone of the different types of arteries tested in response to urapidil. In addition, they indicate that urapidil seems to preferentially target arteries with endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26957055

  17. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone and an...... exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market...

  18. Redox signaling via oxidative inactivation of PTEN modulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone in rat middle cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available The present study examined the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and roles of inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in response to an increase in intramural pressure-induced myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. Step increases in intraluminal pressure of cannulated cerebral arteries induced myogenic constriction and concomitant formation of superoxide (O2 (.- and its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as determined by fluorescent HPLC analysis, microscopic analysis of intensity of dihydroethidium fluorescence and attenuation of pressure-induced myogenic constriction by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4,hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine1-oxyl (tempol or Mito-tempol or MitoQ in the presence or absence of PEG-catalase. An increase in intraluminal pressure induced oxidation of PTEN and activation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PTEN activity potentiated pressure-dependent myogenic constriction and caused a reduction in NPo of a 238 pS arterial KCa channel current and an increase in [Ca(2+]i level in freshly isolated cerebral arterial muscle cells (CAMCs, responses that were attenuated by Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate an increase in intraluminal pressure induced increase in ROS production triggered redox-sensitive signaling mechanism emanating from the cross-talk between oxidative inactivation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that involves in the regulation of pressure-dependent myogenic cerebral arterial constriction.

  19. Peripheral Arterial Tonometry to Measure the Effects of Vardenafil on Sympathetic Tone in Men with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Francomano; Donini, Lorenzo M.; Andrea Lenzi; Antonio Aversa

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether adrenergic overtone is involved in the pathophysiology of men with lifelong (LL) premature ejaculation (PE), we investigated differences in reactive hyperemia index (RHI) responses by using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). 20 men with LL-PE (18–40 years) were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study and compared with 10 age-matched controls without LL-PE. Primary endpoints were PAT modifications induced by vardenafil 10 mg on demand. Se...

  20. Raynaud's phenomenon in arterial obstructive disease of the hand demonstrated by locally provoked cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nobin, B A; Hirai, M;

    1978-01-01

    indicates an increase of digital arterial tone. In all three groups, digital arterial tone increased more than in normals during finger cooling. Patients with Raynaud's disease showed a pathological increase in arterial tone at 23.5 degrees C with closure of the digital arteries at a mean temperature of 18...... pathological arterial tone in Raynaud's disease vs. a normal arterial tone in obliterative diseases acting on a narrow vessel....

  1. Les effets environnementaux des particules

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    En dehors de leur effet sur la santé humaine, les particules interviennent dans de nombreuses problématiques environnementales, dont le changement climatique, la formation d'ozone troposphérique, la réduction de la visibilité, et les régimes hydrologiques. L'effet des particules en termes de changement climatique est complexe et emprunte plusieurs voies. Il se traduit par des effets opposés de réchauffement ou de refroidissement de l'atmosphère, notamment selon la composition chimique des par...

  2. Are Tones Phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Ciocca, Valter; Schoknecht, Colin; Kasisopa, Benjawan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2011-01-01

    The psycholinguistic status of lexical tones and phones is indexed via phonological and tonological awareness (PA and TA, respectively) using Thai speech. In Experiment 1 (Thai participants, alphabetic script and orthographically explicit phones/tones), PA was better than TA in children and primary school-educated adults, and TA improved to PA…

  3. Automated tone transcription

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, S

    1994-01-01

    In this paper I report on an investigation into the problem of assigning tones to pitch contours. The proposed model is intended to serve as a tool for phonologists working on instrumentally obtained pitch data from tone languages. Motivation and exemplification for the model is provided by data taken from my fieldwork on Bamileke Dschang (Cameroon). Following recent work by Liberman and others, I provide a parametrised F_0 prediction function P which generates F_0 values from a tone sequence, and I explore the asymptotic behaviour of downstep. Next, I observe that transcribing a sequence X of pitch (i.e. F_0) values amounts to finding a tone sequence T such that P(T) {}~= X. This is a combinatorial optimisation problem, for which two non-deterministic search techniques are provided: a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, two implementations---one for each technique---are described and then compared using both artificial and real data for sequences of up to 20 tones. These programs ...

  4. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  5. Tones for Profoundly Deaf Tone-Language Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa

    A study assessed the practical use of the simplified speech pattern approach to teaching lipreading in a tone language by comparing performance using an acoustic hearing-aid and a Sivo-aid in a tone labelling task. After initial assessment, subjects were given training to enhance perception of lexically contrastive tones, then post-tested. The…

  6. Change of tone

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  7. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  8. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  9. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Shimojo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hypertensive (SH, sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO, and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO. Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv. Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg, as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm. Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05. The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  10. Effet placebo, effet nocebo: comment la science explique les guérions miraculeuses

    OpenAIRE

    Quertemont, Etienne

    2002-01-01

    L’effet placebo est habituellement considéré comme l’ensemble des réponses psychologiques et physiologiques des patients à une substance inerte. On parle d’effet placebo lorsque cette réponse constitue un effet bénéfique pour la santé et d’effet nocebo lorsque les conséquences sont néfastes. Cependant, les phénomènes placebo/nocebo recouvrent plus largement tous les effets du contexte environnemental qui ne résultent pas spécifiquement du traitement médical administré. Une partie de ce qu’on ...

  11. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  12. Is dialysis hypotension caused by an abnormality of venous tone?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John R.; Evans, David B; Gore, Sheila M; Cowley, Alan J

    1988-01-01

    The role of peripheral vascular tone in the development of hypotension induced by dialysis was investigated in eight patients undergoing haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate buffered fluid. Each patient had two sessions of dialysis with acetate fluid and two with bicarbonate fluid in the order acetate, bicarbonate, bicarbonate, acetate or bicarbonate, acetate, acetate, bicarbonate. Mean arterial blood pressure fell at a mean rate of 3·9 mm Hg/hour during dialysis with acetate fluid and 1...

  13. Oxidative Stress in Hypobaric Hypoxia and Influence on Vessel-Tone Modifying Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline Renée; Sonntag, Denise; Hefti, Urs; Risch, Lorenz; Schoch, Otto D; Turk, Alexander J; Hess, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E; Maggiorini,Marco; Merz, Tobias Michael; Weinberger, Klaus M.; Huber, Andreas R

    2013-01-01

    Increased pulmonary artery pressure is a well-known phenomenon of hypoxia and is seen in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases, and also in mountaineers on high altitude expedition. Different mediators are known to regulate pulmonary artery vessel tone. However, exact mechanisms are not fully understood and a multimodal process consisting of a whole panel of mediators is supposed to cause pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that increased hypoxemia is associated with an ...

  14. Oxidative stress in hypobaric hypoxia and influence on vessel-tone modifying mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline; Sonntag, Denise; Hefti, Urs; Risch, Lorenz; Schoch, Otto D; Turk, Alexander J; Hess, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E; Maggiorini,Marco; Merz, Tobias M; Weinberger, Klaus M.; Huber, Andreas R

    2013-01-01

    Increased pulmonary artery pressure is a well-known phenomenon of hypoxia and is seen in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases, and also in mountaineers on high altitude expedition. Different mediators are known to regulate pulmonary artery vessel tone. However, exact mechanisms are not fully understood and a multimodal process consisting of a whole panel of mediators is supposed to cause pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that increased hypoxemia is associated with an incr...

  15. Two Innovations for Teaching Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Lev, Zev

    1991-01-01

    Presents a pair of innovations, originally developed and used for teaching Mandarin, that are now being applied to the teaching of Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Thai, involving a double system of representation to encourage easier pronunciation and long-term learning; and a special sequencing for presenting the tones. (36 references) (CB)

  16. The Myth of Tone Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazez, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The vague and virtually meaningless term "tone deaf" should be avoided because it encourages students to be incorrectly labeled as hopeless. If a student is oblivious to blatantly faulty intonation, and if his or her playing fails to improve after diligent practicing, a teacher should consider the possibility of diplacusis. (RM)

  17. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U;

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  18. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IsabellePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  19. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  20. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  1. Stercula setigera Del. : effet sur les cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhoum, Charles; Samba Arona Ndiaye Samba,; Ndour, Babou

    2001-01-01

    En zone soudano-sahélienne plusieurs espèces ligneuses sont maintenues dans les champs pour diverses raisons. Leur effet sur les cultures demeure cependant inconnu pour la plupart d'entre elles. Une étude menée au Sénégal a montré que la densité des cultures (arachide, mil et sorgho) augmente avec la distance au tronc de Sterculia setigera. La hauteur du sorgho, l'étalement de l'arachide, sa biomasse en gousses ainsi que les biomasses en épis et en tiges de mil et de sorgho augmentent égaleme...

  2. Setting the Tone for 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The government will focus on curbing inflation and preventing the economy from overheating The Central Economic Work Conference was held in Beijing on December 3-5,setting the tone for China’s economic development in 2008. Just say no:inflation and overheating Senior economist Zhang Yongjun with State Information Center stated the primary tasks next year would be two"preventions": preventing the already fast economic growth from becoming overheated,and pre- venting the price increases from creating real inflation.

  3. The increase of vasomotor tone avoids the ability of the dynamic preload indicators to estimate fluid responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchacourt, Juan P; Riva, Juan A; Grignola, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of vasoconstrictor can affect the dynamic indices to predict fluid responsiveness. We investigate the effects of an increase of vascular tone on dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness in a rabbit model of hemorrhage, and to examine the ability of the arterial pressure surrogates dynamic indices to track systolic volume variation (SVV) during hypovolemia under increased vasomotor tone. Methods Eighteen anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits were studied during n...

  4. FERTILITE ET PATHOGENES TELLURIQUES : EFFETS DU COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jacques G.

    2009-01-01

    Les cultures maraîchères mettent, de par leur intensivité, le sol à rude contribution. Ceci peut avoir des effets négatifs sur sa fertilité en général et en particulier causer une augmentation de la pression des maladies telluriques. Pour remédier à ces problèmes, le compost de qualité offre une alternative très intéressante. Son action positive sur la santé des plantes est indirecte (entre autres en apportant un mélange d’éléments fertilisants équilibré et en améliorant la structure du sol, ...

  5. Influence of String Stiffness on Piano Tone

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Lai-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Piano tones vary according to how pianist touches the keys. Many possible factors contribute to the relations between piano touch and tone. Focusing on the stiffness of string, we establish a model for vibration of a real piano string and derive a semi-analytical solution to the vibration equation.

  6. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  7. CONSTRUCTION SENSITIVITY IN PINGYAO TONE SANDHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-shan Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates tone sandhi phenomena in Pingyao, a Jin dialect spoken in Shanxi province in China. Pingyao tone sandhi is special in that tone sandhi in bi-syllabic strings is construction sensitive, but tone sandhi in tri-syllabic strings is not fully conditioned by construction types. Based on Optimality Theory (OT, this paper proposes analyses for bi-tonal and tri-tonal sandhi in Pingyao. We show that while bi-tonal sandhi can be accounted for by assuming that there are different grammars associated with different construction types, the lack of construction sensitivity in certain tri-syllabic strings suggests that the association between construction types and phonological grammars can be sacrificed to comply with a higher demand. In Pingyao, the higher demand is to avoid having a tri-tonal string with marked tone sandhi domain from being associated with conflicting grammars.

  8. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J. L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  9. Tone and prosodic organization in Cherokee nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Haag, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    Preliminary observations in the speech of one speaker of Cherokee led us to postulate three factors affecting tone in Cherokee. (1) Tone may be lexically specified with distinctive low, low fall, low rise, and high tones. (2) There is a metrically determined high fall pattern which may be distributed over not more than 2 syllables from the right edge of a prosodic domain. (3) Intonational domains may be associated with discourse functions, marked by high fall, or by pitch range upstep. This paper tests these observations in recordings of word lists and sentences produced by five additional speakers. The analysis we give, positing both lexical tone and metrical prosodic accent, is not unique in descriptions of language, but is different from the usual description of Cherokee. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Sleep physiology: setting the right tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S

    2013-09-23

    Humans prone to cataplexy experience sudden losses of postural muscle tone without a corresponding loss of conscious awareness. The brain mechanisms underlying this debilitating decoupling are now better understood, thanks to a new study using cataplectic mice. PMID:24070441

  11. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness) interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    OpenAIRE

    BarbaraTillmann; SebastienNguyen

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  12. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  13. General perceptual contributions to lexical tone normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyuan; Holt, Lori L

    2009-06-01

    Within tone languages that use pitch variations to contrast meaning, large variability exists in the pitches produced by different speakers. Context-dependent perception may help to resolve this perceptual challenge. However, whether speakers rely on context in contour tone perception is unclear; previous studies have produced inconsistent results. The present study aimed to provide an unambiguous test of the effect of context on contour lexical tone perception and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In three experiments, Mandarin listeners' perception of Mandarin first and second (high-level and mid-rising) tones was investigated with preceding speech and non-speech contexts. Results indicate that the mean fundamental frequency (f0) of a preceding sentence affects perception of contour lexical tones and the effect is contrastive. Following a sentence with a higher-frequency mean f0, the following syllable is more likely to be perceived as a lower frequency lexical tone and vice versa. Moreover, non-speech precursors modeling the mean spectrum of f0 also elicit this effect, suggesting general perceptual processing rather than articulatory-based or speaker-identity-driven mechanisms. PMID:19507980

  14. Regulation of peripheral vascular tone in patients with heart failure: contribution of angiotensin II

    OpenAIRE

    NEWBY, D.; Goodfield, N; Flapan, A; Boon, N.; Fox, K.; Webb, D

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To determine directly the contribution of angiotensin II to basal and sympathetically stimulated peripheral arteriolar tone in patients with heart failure.
Design—Parallel group comparison.
Subjects—Nine patients with New York Heart Association grade II-IV chronic heart failure, and age and sex matched controls.
Interventions—Forearm plethysmography, lower body negative pressure, local intra-arterial administration of losartan, angiotensin II, and noradrenaline, and estimation of pl...

  15. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  16. Estimation of cerebral vascular tone during exercise; evaluation by critical closing pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Brothers, R Matthew; Jeschke, Monica;

    2010-01-01

    . In addition, the increases in CCP were related to the increases in plasma noradrenaline concentrations (right, P = 0.001; left, P = 0.025) and decreases in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (right, P = 0.008; left, P = 0.086), but not to changes in mean arterial pressure (right, P = 0.......282; left, P = 0.564) or adrenaline concentrations (right, P = 0.138; left, P = 0.108). We consider that an exercise-induced increase in cerebral vascular tone serves to protect the blood-brain barrier from the exercise-induced hypertension....

  17. Contrastive Analysis of Intonation and Tone in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘田

    2014-01-01

    In English, intonation is the main research object of supra-segmental phonology, it refers to the changes of tone and pitch. English intonation is non-tone language which means the word meaning will not changed with the changing of the inde-pendent word’s tone, while Chinese is Tone language, in which tone often determinates the meaning of word, different tones are representative of different meanings. Chinese language function exerts differently in tone and intonation , and it is a bit com-plicated compared with English.

  18. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  19. Arterial Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Patient Information Series Arterial Catheterization An arterial catheter is a thin, hollow tube ... PHYSICIANS: AND COPY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ■ ...

  20. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  1. Perception of tones by infants learning a non-tone language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the perception of tones by non-tone-language-learning (non-tone-learning) infants between 5 and 18 months in a study that reveals infants' initial sensitivity to tonal contrasts, deterioration yet plasticity of tonal sensitivity at the end of the first year, and a perceptual rebound in the second year. Dutch infants in five age groups were tested on their ability to discriminate a tonal contrast of Mandarin Chinese as well as a contracted tonal contrast. Infants are able to discriminate tonal contrasts at 5-6 months, and their tonal sensitivity deteriorates at around 9 months. However, the sensitivity rebound sat 17-18 months. Non-tone-learning infants' tonal perception is elastic, as is shown by the influence of acoustic salience and distributional learning: (1) a salient contrast may remain discriminable throughout infancy whereas a less salient one does not; (2) a bimodal distribution in tonal exposure increases non-tone-learning infants' discrimination ability during the trough in sensitivity to tonal contrasts at 11-12 months. These novel findings reveal non-tone-learning infants' U-shaped pattern in tone perception, and display their perceptual flexibility. PMID:25128796

  2. Collaborative Documentation and Revitalization of Cherokee Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Dylan; Berardo, Marcellino; Feeling, Durbin; Hirata-Edds, Tracy; Peter, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Cherokee, the sole member of the southern branch of Iroquoian languages, is a severely endangered language. Unlike other members of the Iroquoian family, Cherokee has lexical tone. Community members are concerned about the potential loss of their language, and both speakers and teachers comment on the difficulty that language learners have with…

  3. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  4. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  5. A computerized method for objective measurement of muscle tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina A. Vasilieva; Gennadij V. Ganin; Julia S. Archangelskaja; Grant Hudson; Boris J. Gutnik; Paul Yielder

    2011-01-01

    This article is concentrated on the objective computerizing method of measuring of muscle tone using compressive and decompressive deformation of superficial skeletal muscle of wrist in vivo. Four indices were highly recommended for complex analysis of muscle tone.

  6. Constrained tone transformation technique for separation and combination of Mandarin tone and intonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jinfu; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirose, Keikichi

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses a classical but important problem: The coupling of lexical tones and sentence intonation in tonal languages, such as Chinese, focusing particularly on voice fundamental frequency (F1) contours of speech. It is important because it forms the basis of speech synthesis technology and prosody analysis. We provide a solution to the problem with a constrained tone transformation technique based on structural modeling of the F1 contours. This consists of transforming target values in pairs from norms to variants. These targets are intended to sparsely specify the prosodic contributions to the F1 contours, while the alignment of target pairs between norms and variants is based on underlying lexical tone structures. When the norms take the citation forms of lexical tones, the technique makes it possible to separate sentence intonation from observed F0 contours. When the norms take normative F0 contours, it is possible to measure intonation variations from the norms to the variants, both having identical lexical tone structures. This paper explains the underlying scientific and linguistic principles and presents an algorithm that was implemented on computers. The method's capability of separating and combining tone and intonation is evaluated through analysis and re-synthesis of several hundred observed F0 contours. PMID:16583918

  7. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  8. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms. Th...

  9. Stress and Tone in Indo-Aryan Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Rajdip Kaur

    2010-01-01

    The current work offers a comprehensive examination of stress and tone in ten Indo-Aryan languages, providing novel analyses within Optimality Theory. The languages are divided into three categories: those in which tone is attracted to stress; those in which stress is attracted to tone; and those in which no interaction between stress and tone…

  10. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries). The procedure is done as follows: The ... Arteries also have thicker walls and have more nerves. When the needle is inserted, there may be ...

  11. Sequential Grouping of Pure-Tone Percepts Evoked by the Segregation of Components from a Complex Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A sudden change applied to a single component can cause its segregation from an ongoing complex tone as a pure-tone-like percept. Three experiments examined whether such pure-tone-like percepts are organized into streams by extending the research of Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). Those authors found that listeners struggled to identify the…

  12. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    OpenAIRE

    SimoneDalla Bella

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,“ has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch pl...

  13. Congenital amusia in speakers of a tone language: association with lexical tone agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-09-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature. PMID:20685803

  14. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BarbaraTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  15. A Dynamic Treatment of Tone with Special Attention to the Tonal System of Igbo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary Morris

    An analysis of tone in language begins with the observation that the structural approach taken in segmental phonology, analyzing complex tones in terms of sequences of level tones, is not necessarily appropriate with tone languages. A different approach is proposed, a "dynamic-tone" theory that represents tone contours entirely in terms of two…

  16. KV 7.4 channels participate in the control of rodent renal vascular resting tone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, M.; Brasen, Jens Christian; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig;

    2015-01-01

    .2–5 stimulator flupirtine dose-dependently relaxed isolated rat interlobar arteries and increased (approx. 5%) RBF in vivo. The RBF responses to NE or Ang II administration were not affected by pre-treatment with XE991 or flupirtine. XE991 pre-treatment caused a minor augmentation of the acetylcholine......-induced increase in RBF, while flupirtine pre-treatment did not affect this response. Conclusion: It is concluded that KV7 channels, via nifedipine sensitive channels, have a role in the regulation of basal renal vascular tone. There is no indication that KV7 channels have an effect on agonist-induced renal...

  17. Leptin augments cerebral hemodynamic reserve after three-vessel occlusion: distinct effects on cerebrovascular tone and proliferation in a nonlethal model of hypoperfused rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Busch; S.H. Schirmer; M. Jost; S. van Stijn; S.L.M. Peters; J.J. Piek; C. Bode; I.R. Buschmann; G. Mies

    2011-01-01

    The adipocytokine leptin has distinct functions regulating vascular tone, inflammation, and collateral artery growth. Arteriogenesis is an inflammatory process and provides a mechanism to overcome the effects of vascular obstruction. We, therefore, tested the effects of leptin in hypoperfused rat br

  18. SpicyTones- A food blog production

    OpenAIRE

    Pennanen, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is written to demonstrate the learning outcome of the author in creating a food blog project, named SpicyTones. The goals of the thesis are to create a successful food blog, to educate the society about Asian food and encourage them to cook at home. The objectives of the thesis are to obtain at least 50 followers, to keep the blog running for at least 3 months and to share out 12 themed recipes onto the blog. In this thesis, figures and tables are used in order to support the find...

  19. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  20. Changes in Vascular Tone Occur Early During Hemodialysis Treatments Independently of Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Albert; Charitaki, Evangelia; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Hypotension commonly occurs during hemodialysis (HD). Hypotension can result from an absolute reduction in plasma volume following excessive ultrafiltration or from a reduction in vascular tone. We hypothesized that changes in vascular tone could occur during dialysis. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured in 197 HD patients, mean age 63.3 ± 16.6 years, 62% male, 49% diabetic, during a single HD session. aPWV did not change (9.6 ± 2.2 vs. 9.6 ± 2.2 m/s) with HD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined from 151 ± 31 to 147 ± 32 after 20 min and to 140 ± 36 mm Hg on completion of HD (P area (DRA) increased from 36.7 (27.9-46.3) to 40.4 (32.2-51) after 20 min and 47.1 (34.2-60.5) on completion of HD, P < 0.05. We report changes in arterial tone within 20 min of starting HD, when minimal ultrafiltration has occurred, suggesting that volume changes may not be the only predisposing cause of intradialytic hypotension. The combination of a fall in SBP and a rise in DRA would suggest a reduction in coronary blood flow in keeping with reports of "myocardial stunning" during HD. PMID:26496182

  1. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  2. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26903419

  3. Correlation dimension of woodwind multiphonic tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, D H; Laden, B

    1991-10-01

    A multiphonic is a regime of oscillation of woodwind musical instruments that is perceived as two or more simultaneously sounding pitches. The frequencies fl,m of the line spectral components of a measured woodwind multiphonic tone fit a biperiodic spectrum at low- to mid-playing levels. For the saxophone and clarinet multiphonics investigated, the two basis frequencies of the biperiodic spectrum are phase locked, that is, their ratio is equal to a ratio of small integers. A broadband spectrum is present in multiphonic spectra that exceeds instrumentation noise and window leakage associated with signal processing. The correlation dimension D of P. Grassberger and I. Procaccia [Physica D 9, 189-208 (1983)] is measured by embedding a single measured time series in higher-dimensional space, so as to reconstruct the phase space of the dynamical system. The time delay used in the dimensional reconstruction is chosen using information theory. For the particular multiphonics analyzed, the correlation dimension ranges from 2.5 to 2.9 for the saxophone and from 1.3 to 2.2 for the clarinet. One clarinet multiphonic shows possible additional dynamical complexity at small length scales in the embedding space, with a correlation dimension of 3.3. These results give quantitative evidence that some, but not all, multiphonic tones possess a strange attractor. PMID:1960272

  4. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  5. Compatibility between tones, head movements, and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    The study tests the hypothesis of an embodied associative triangle among relative tone pitch (i.e., high or low tones), vertical movement, and facial emotion. In particular, it is tested whether relative pitch automatically activates facial expressions of happiness and anger as well as vertical head movements. Results show robust congruency effects: happiness expressions and upward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with high rather than low tones, while anger expressions and downward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with low rather than high tones. The results add to the growing evidence favoring an embodiment account that emphasizes multimodal representations as the basis of cognition, emotion, and action. PMID:21604874

  6. Auditory pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-jun; CAO Ke-li; WEI Chao-gang; LIU Yong-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Chinese tones are considered important in Chinese discrimination.However,the relevant reports on auditory central mechanisms concerning Chinese tones are limited.In this study,mismatch negativity (MMN),one of the event related potentials (ERP),was used to investigate pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones,and the differences between the function of oddball MMN and that of control MMN are discussed.Methods Ten subjects (six men and four women) with normal hearing participated in the study.A sequence was presented to these subjects through a loudspeaker,the sequence included four blocks,a control block and three oddball blocks.The control block was made up of five components (one pure tone and four Chinese tones) with equiprobability.The oddball blocks were made up of two components,one was a standard stimulus (tone 1) and the other was a deviant stimulus (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4).Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded when the sequence was presented and MMNs were obtained from the analysis of the EEG data.Results Two kinds of MMNs were obtained,oddball MMN and control MMN.Oddball MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by standard stimulation (tone 1) from that elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4) in the oddball block; control MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by the tone in control block,which was the same tone as the deviant stimulation in the oddball block,from the ERP elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4)in the oddball block.There were two negative waves in oddball MMN,one appeared around 150 ms (oddball MMN 1),the other around 300 ms (oddball MMN 2).Only one negative wave appeared around 300 ms in control MMN,which was corresponding to the oddball MMN 2.We performed the statistical analyses in each paradigm for latencies and amplitudes for oddball MMN 2 in discriminating the three Chinese tones and reported no significant differences.But the latencies and amplitudes

  7. Effet Hall quantique fractionnaire dans des systèmes multicomposantes

    OpenAIRE

    Papic, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    Nous étudions un certain nombre de manifestations de l'effet Hall quantique fractionnaire dans les bicouches d'effet Hall quantique, des puits quantiques larges ou le graphène, dans lesquels les degrés de liberté multicomposantes produisent des phénomènes physiques insolites. Dans la bicouche d'effet Hall quantique du remplissage total nu=1, nous examinons les fonctions d'onde mixtes des bosons composites et fermions composites afin de décrire la destruction de la suprafluidité excitonique au...

  8. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  9. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  10. When does a sung tone start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Bauer-Huppmann, Julia

    2007-05-01

    Although the consonant is mostly considered as the start of a syllable in phonetics and orthography, musicians generally agree that the vowel onset in singing should be synchronized with the beat. As a test of this assumption, the current investigation analyzes the time interval between vowel onsets and piano accompaniment onsets in a set of songs performed by international vocal artists and published on commercial CD recordings. The results show that, most commonly, the accompanists synchronized their tones with the singers' vowel onsets. Nevertheless, examples of lead and lag were found, probably made for expressive purposes. The lead and lag varied greatly between songs, being smallest in a song performed in a fast tempo and longest in a song performed in a slow tempo. PMID:16564674

  11. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  12. Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Lai-Mei

    2010-01-01

    In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

  13. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  14. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  15. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...

  16. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  17. Improving Tone Recognition with Nucleus Modeling and Sequential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siwei

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese and many other tonal languages use tones that are defined as specific pitch patterns to distinguish syllables otherwise ambiguous. It had been shown that tones carry at least as much information as vowels in Mandarin Chinese [Surendran et al., 2005]. Surprisingly, though, many speech recognition systems for Mandarin Chinese have…

  18. Slide rule-type color chart predicts reproduced photo tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Slide rule-type color chart determines the final reproduced gray tones in the production of briefing charts that are photographed in black and white. The chart shows both the color by drafting paint manufacturers name and mixture number, and the gray tone resulting from black and white photographic reproduction.

  19. Tone Gestures and Constraint Interaction in Sierra Juarez Zapotec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines floating tones and tone gesture deactivation in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (SJZ), and provides an Optimality Theoretic account of tonal spreading and placement using insights from Articulatory Phonology. While the data portion of the dissertation is drawn from SJZ, the approach has broader implications for theories of tonal…

  20. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  1. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  2. A computerized method for objective measurement of muscle tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Vasilieva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is concentrated on the objective computerizing method of measuring of muscle tone using compressive and decompressive deformation of superficial skeletal muscle of wrist in vivo. Four indices were highly recommended for complex analysis of muscle tone.

  3. Effet du sentiment de discrimination sur les trajectoires professionnelles

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Olivier; Lemière, Séverine; Lizé, Laurence; Rousset, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cette recherche porte sur les individus qui estiment avoir été victimes de discrimination, c'est-à-dire avoir subi un traitement inégal, de manière intentionnelle ou non, en raison de leur origine étrangère et/ou de leur couleur de peau. L'objectif est de s'intéresser au sentiment de discrimination et de chercher à évaluer son effet sur les parcours professionnels sept ans après la sortie du système éducatif. A partir de l'enquête Génération 98 du Céreq à 7 ans, nous avons utilisé la méthode ...

  4. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  5. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  6. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  7. The effect of SRS on pilot-tone detection technique in DWDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo Gao(高志国); Minghua Chen(陈明华); Hongwei Chen(陈宏伟); Shizhong Xie(谢世钟)

    2004-01-01

    A math model that can describe the effect of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) on pilot-tone detection technique is proposed. Thrugh numerical simulation, it is shown that the effect of SRS could produce ghost-tones. The power of ghost-tones was larger for the channels separated further from the real-tone.The power ratio between real-tone and ghost-tones increases linearly with the increase of transmission length when propagation distance longer than 300 km.

  8. Effects of histamine and the histamine antagonists mepyramine and cimetidine on human coronary arteries in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Godfraind, Theophile; Miller, R C

    1983-01-01

    The effects of histamine have been studied on human isolated coronary artery preparations taken from hearts ranging in age from 9 to 73 years. Histamine in large concentrations (100 microM) contracted arteries which were without tone or spontaneous activity and sometimes induced rhythmic contractile activity. If spontaneous rhythmic activity was present it was enhanced by histamine. The contractile effects of histamine were inhibited by mepyramine but not by cimetidine. Arteries which were co...

  9. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range of...... 6-tone complexes, were highly correlated with those from the other tasks. Simulation of these experiments using a model of loudness perception [Moore and Glasberg, J. Hear Res. 188 (70-88)] yielded weights for these stimuli that were highly correlated with specific loudness, but the observed weights...

  10. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2011-01-01

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range of SPL or SL values was tested. Both tasks used two-interval forced-choice trials, with level “jitter” introduced by selecting the level of each tone from a normal distribution with specified mean leve...

  11. Auditory two-tone suppression from a subcritical Hopf cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, R.; Steeb, W.-H.; Gallas, J. C.; Kern, A.

    2005-06-01

    Cochlear two-tone suppression is the dominant contrast-sharpening phenomenon of hearing and provides a decisive test for the correct implementation of hearing nonlinearities in models of the cochlea. Although critically tuned Hopf amplifiers were shown recently to be fruitful models of intricate phenomena in the physiology of the human ear, we find that only a model based on subcritical Hopf amplifiers is capable of reproducing physiologically measured two-tone suppression data adequately. In addition, we provide a detailed explanation of the two-tone suppression phenomenon, including its quantitative characterization.

  12. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  13. Changes in Oscillatory Brain Networks after Lexical Tone Training

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Keil; Edith Kaan; Ratree Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG) data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language) and native speakers of Mandar...

  14. Grey Component Replacement Research, Modelling Tone And Color Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Richard S.

    1990-06-01

    Four different scanning Color Electronic Pagination System (CEPS) devices were tested to study their conventional and Grey Component Replacement/Undercolor Addition (GCR/UCA) tone and color response in the 4 color Positive Acting Offset Lithographic printing process. A common transparency input and ganged printing output was used. Inter and intra machine differences are disclosed. A new depiction of the full tone reproduction characteristics is presented for several different levels of GCR/UCA and conventional printing.

  15. Tone-3 Accent Realization in Short Chinese Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wen; ZHANG Jinsong

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how a low tone (tone-3,T3) syllable in Chinese can be perceived to be focal ac-canted or not,a total of 156 sentences containing tone-3 words were synthesized and used as stimuli in a perceptual study.The sentences differed in the falling value between the two high pitches,and in the dura-tion and phonation types of the T3 syllables.Thirty-nine subjects were asked to judge where the focus or accent was for each sentence.The results show that at least three degrees of pitch drop are involved in the focus recognition: a big sized drop of about 10 semitones; a middle sized drop of about 6 semitones; a small sized drop of about 2 semitones.The results suggest that the three sizes of pitch drop have different indica-tions in Chinese intonation,depending on both the tone and the tone combination.In perception,there are various ways to realize tone-3 focus in the Tx-T3-Ty sentences series,but in production or for text-to-speech synthesis,the rule simply is making a middle sized pitch drop with a long and creaky T3 syllable.Similarly,to focus on the low tone syllable in the T3-Tx-Ty sentences,a creaky T3 syllable is essential.However,a long T3 syllable is a strong determinant for a low tone focus in the Tx-Ty-T3 sentences.

  16. Impaired learning of event frequencies in tone deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Loui, Psyche; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    Musical knowledge is ubiquitous, effortless, and implicitly acquired all over the world via exposure to musical materials in one’s culture. In contrast, one group of individuals who show insensitivity to music, specifically the inability to discriminate pitches and melodies, is the tone-deaf. In this study, we asked whether difficulties in pitch and melody discrimination among the tone-deaf could be related to learning difficulties, and, if so, what processes of learning might be affected in ...

  17. Examination of voicing onset time during Mandarin tone productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Ng, Manwa

    2005-04-01

    The voice onset time (VOT) of stop consonant is defined as the time interval between the release of a stop and the onset of the following vowel (Lisker and Abramson, 1964, 1970). Previous studies indicated that VOT could be used as a perceptual cue for identification of both voicing and place of articulation of stops (Kewley-Port, 1983; Ladefoged, 2001). Abramson (1977) suggested VOT could be interpreted as interrelated acoustic consequences of variation in the relative timing of glottal and oral gestures. This study will attempt to extend the probe on this suggestion by comparing the VOT values among different tones. Mandarin, which is a tone language, where a change in the tone of a syllable leads to a change in meaning, will be used in the study. There are four contrastive tones in Mandarin, each of which is realized by changing the vocal pitch during the course of the syllable production. The proposed study will determine if VOT values for each of the six stop sounds (/p,b,t,d,k,g/) will vary with the variation of different tones at which each of the following vowel sounds is produced. The interrelationship between VOT and tone production will be discussed.

  18. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  19. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 366-381, 2016. PMID:26517573

  20. Pulsating proton aurora caused by rising tone Pc1 waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Omura, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    We found rising tone emissions with a dispersion of ˜1 Hz per several tens of seconds in the dynamic spectrum of a Pc1 geomagnetic pulsation (Pc1) observed on the ground. These Pc1 rising tones were successively observed over ˜30 min from 0250 UT on 14 October 2006 by an induction magnetometer at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude 61.7°N). Simultaneously, a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms panchromatic (THEMIS) all-sky camera detected pulsations of an isolated proton aurora with a period of several tens of seconds, ˜10% variations in intensity, and fine structures of 3° in magnetic longitudes. The pulsations of the proton aurora close to the zenith of ATH have one-to-one correspondences with the Pc1 rising tones. This suggests that these rising tones scatter magnetospheric protons intermittently at the equatorial region. The radial motion of the magnetospheric source, of which the isolated proton aurora is a projection, can explain the central frequency increase of Pc1, but not the shorter period (tens of seconds) frequency increase of ˜1 Hz in Pc1 rising tones. We suggest that EMIC-triggered emissions generate the frequency increase of Pc1 rising tones on the ground and that they also cause the Pc1 pearl structure, which has a similar characteristic time.

  1. Arterial Stiffness and Dialysis Calcium Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Mac-Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is the major determinant of isolated systolic hypertension and increased pulse pressure. Aortic stiffness is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and general population. Hemodynamically, arterial stiffness results in earlier aortic pulse wave reflection leading to increased cardiac workload and decreased myocardial perfusion. Although the clinical consequence of aortic stiffness has been clearly established, its pathophysiology in various clinical conditions still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that have looked at the impact of dialysis calcium concentration on arterial stiffness. Overall, the results of small short-term studies suggest that higher dialysis calcium is associated with a transient but significant increase in arterial stiffness. This calcium dependant increase in arterial stiffness is potentially explained by increased vascular smooth muscle tone of the conduit arteries and is not solely explained by changes in mean blood pressure. However, the optimal DCa remains to be determined, and long term studies are required to evaluate its impact on the progression of arterial stiffness.

  2. The Case-Tone Factor in Igbo Nouns, with Special Reference to the Igbo Associative Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeruo, Michael J. C.

    Tone-based classification rules for Igbo nouns need modification because: (1) class 1 nouns (monosyllables with high tones) do not, as claimed, operate differently from other terminal high-tone nouns; and (2) class 6 nouns (di-syllabic with downstep tones) can be accounted for within class 2 and class 3 nouns known as HH and LH nouns). The proper…

  3. EFFETS DES AFFAISSEMENTS MINIERS SUR LES CONSTRUCTIONS DANS LE BASSIN HOUILLER DU ZONGULDAK-TURQUIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan EROL

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans les zones ou l'on effectue des travaux d'exploitation sous-jacente, il se cree des affaisemenets de surface par suite d'extraction de houille ainsi qu'ils sont aussi vus dans le Bassin Houiller de Zonguldak. En cet article, apres avoir reconnu brievement le Bassin Houiller du Zonguldak, les effets dus aux affaissements miniers sont expliques. Puis les dommages d'affaissements observes et l'etat existant de Bassin du Zonguldak du point de vue des effets sur les batiments d'affaissement minier sont examines. Ensuite les mesures de protection des batiments contre les effets d'affaissement et les propositions de solution qui interessent au Bassin de Zonguldak sont presentees.

  4. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. PMID:26638759

  5. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Also, it was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the distension of the airways from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity at both baseline (r = -0.49, P = 0.03) and after maximum bronchodilation (r = -0.51, P = 0.02) in the asthma, but not the healthy group. However, we did not find any relationship between intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma. PMID:27103654

  6. Dispositifs de formation hybrides : quels effets sur le développement professionnel des enseignants ?

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Bernadette; Lameul, Geneviève; Peltier, Claire; Borruat, Stéphanie; Mancuso, Giovanna; Burton, Réginald

    2012-01-01

    Cette contribution présente le cadre théorique, la méthodologie et les premiers résultats de la recherche Hy-Sup relatifs aux effets des dispositifs de formation hybrides sur le développement professionnel des enseignants. Plus précisément, notre analyse porte sur la perception de l’évolution des pratiques d’enseignement et de l’engagement professionnel d’enseignants impliqués dans l’expérimentation d’un dispositif hybride. Dans cette perspective, des effets différenciés selon le type de disp...

  7. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a “turbo-per-tone equalization” structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  8. Evaluation of HEXORR Tone Assistance Mode Against Spring Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Robots are a promising tool for rehabilitation, and research suggests combining assistance with subject participation to maintain motivation and engagement. In this study, we compare two different types of robotic assistance for hand rehabilitation: Tone, a novel method designed to directly compensate for the user's hypertonia, and Spring, a commonly used method simulating a spring-like force attracting the subject to the target position. Eight chronic stroke subjects played a Gate Game, where they guide a ball through a sweeping, on-screen gate. Each subject was exposed to 5 modes: unassisted, assisted by the Spring and Tone modes, and "delay" modes where the assistance was provided after a period without assistance. Compared to unassisted trials, subjects produced less positive work and more negative work with all types of assistance but also reached a larger ROM and scored higher on the game. Notably, subjects produced more positive work overall with Tone compared to Spring. Further, subjects produced positive work over a significantly shorter range with Spring compared to Unassisted, while there was no difference between Tone and Unassisted. While both modes were effective at enabling the training of a larger workspace, these results suggest Tone assistance maintains a greater level of subject engagement and participation, likely making it a useful tool for hand rehabilitation. PMID:25667355

  9. SBS mitigation with 'two-tone' amplification: a theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, T. J.; Shay, T. M.; Dajani, I.; Gavrielides, A.; Robin, C. A.; Lu, C. A.

    2008-02-01

    A new technique for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated with a model that reduces to solving an 8×8 system of coupled nonlinear equations with the gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FMW) incorporated into the model. This technique uses two seed signals, or 'two-tones', with each tone reaching its SBS threshold almost independently and thus increasing the overall threshold for SBS in the fiber amplifier. The wavelength separation of these signals is also selected to avoid FWM, which in this case possesses the next lowest nonlinear effects threshold. This model predicts an output power increase of 86% (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1064nm seed. The model is also used to simulate an SBS-suppressing fiber amplifier to test the regime where FWM is the limiting factor. In this case, an optimum wavelength separation of 3nm to 10nm prevents FWM from reaching threshold. The optimum ratio of the input power for the two seed signals in 'two-tone' amplification is also tested. Future experimental verification of this 'two-tone' technique is discussed.

  10. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  11. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  12. Phonology in the Lexical Processing of Chinese: Priming Tone Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    Using both visual-visual and auditory-visual priming lexical decision tasks, this study investigated phonological processing in reading logographic Chinese. Compound words sharing segmental templates but differing in lexical tones were used as primes and targets while their relative frequency was manipulated. It was found that tone neighbours did not prime each other significantly and the SOA of 100 msec in visual-visual priming. When the SOA was increased to 357 msec, or when primes were presented auditorily, the processing of target words was significantly delayed by their tone neighbours. Larger inhibitory effects were observed for low frequency targets with high frequency primes. It was argued that although phonological information is automatically activated and this activation affects access to semantics in reading Chinese,phonological mediation is not the only or the main ~urce of constraints on semantic activation.

  13. Changes in Oscillatory Brain Networks after Lexical Tone Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Keil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (a tone language, before and after a two-day laboratory training. Native English speakers showed a larger gamma-band power and stronger alpha-band synchrony across EEG channels than the native Chinese speakers, especially after training. This is compatible with the view that forming new speech categories on the basis of unfamiliar perceptual dimensions involves stronger gamma activity and more coherent activity in alpha-band networks than forming new categories on the basis of familiar dimensions.

  14. Changes in oscillatory brain networks after lexical tone training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Wayland, Ratree; Keil, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG) data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language) and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (a tone language), before and after a two-day laboratory training. Native English speakers showed a larger gamma-band power and stronger alpha-band synchrony across EEG channels than the native Chinese speakers, especially after training. This is compatible with the view that forming new speech categories on the basis of unfamiliar perceptual dimensions involves stronger gamma activity and more coherent activity in alpha-band networks than forming new categories on the basis of familiar dimensions. PMID:24961423

  15. On the origin of impinging tones at low supersonic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Impinging compressible jets may cause deafness and material fatigue due to immensely loud tonal noise. It is generally accepted that a feedback mechanism similar to the screech feedback loop is responsible for impinging tones. The close of the loop remained unclear. One hypothesis hold up in the literature explains the emanated sound with the direct interaction of vortices and the wall. Other explanations name the standoff shock oscillations as the origin of the tones. Using direct numerical simulations (DNS) we were able to identify the source mechanism for under-expanded impinging jets with a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 2.15 and a plate distance of 5 diameters. We found two different types of interactions between vortices and shocks to be responsible for the generation of the impinging tones. They are not related to screech.

  16. The influence of pipe organ reed curvature on tone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plitnik, George R; Angster, Judit

    2012-11-01

    Although organ flue pipes have been widely studied, the same claim cannot be made for pipe organ reed stops. Given certain design constraints, such as the type of reed stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, the reed voicer must use consummate skill to curve the reed tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone as well as to guarantee that each pipe blends with its neighbors. The amount and type of curve given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound but also the attack. There are two fundamentally different types of curvature that can be given to a reed tongue, the trompette (chorus reed) curve (which gives a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for clarinet pipes. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone (as assessed by professionals) on reed tongues of both types. Two F2 (8'F, 87.3 Hz) pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with differently curved tongues to produce a variety of tones. The vibration of the reed tongue was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-quarter inch microphones, and the pipe's sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined, the extreme sensitivity of tone to reed curvature was demonstrated, and a recently proposed theory of reed vibration was shown to be more accurate than the standard model. PMID:23145630

  17. Lexical tone awareness in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, WS; Ho, CSH

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that ...

  18. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, DP; George, SE; Zeng, FG

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100Hz), and ...

  19. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S

    1995-11-01

    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  20. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  1. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  2. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus;

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  3. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  4. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  5. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  6. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  7. Consonance perception of complex-tone dyads and chords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marc; Santurette, Sébastien; MacDonald, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Sensory consonance and dissonance are perceptual attributes of musical intervals conveying pleasant- ness, tension, and harmony in musical phrases. For complex-tone dyads, corresponding to two musical notes played simultaneously, consonance is known to vary with the ratio in fundamental frequency...... for a potential role of frequency selectivity for consonance perception of dyads, might not hold for chords...

  8. The correlated track receiver of tone track circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, K. V.

    2011-01-01

    The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.

  9. THE CORRELATED TRACK RECEIVER OF TONE TRACK CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.

  10. Increased resting bronchial tone in normal subjects acclimatised to altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C.; Bakewell, S; M. Miller; Hart, N; McMorrow, R; BARRY, P.; Collier, D; Watt, S; Pollard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects frequently experience troublesome respiratory symptoms when acclimatised to altitude. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms.

  11. Positive Feedback Regulation of Agonist-Stimulated Endothelial Ca2+ Dynamics by KCa3.1 Channels in Mouse Mesenteric Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xun; Francis, Michael; Köhler, Ralf;

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate and small conductance KCa channels IK1 (KCa3.1) and SK3 (KCa2.3) are primary targets of endothelial Ca(2+) signals in the arterial vasculature, and their ablation results in increased arterial tone and hypertension. Activation of IK1 channels by local Ca(2+) transients from internal ...

  12. Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas Howard

    This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are

  13. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue...... basilar and middle cerebral arteries using quantitative real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Western blotting, respectively. In the perfusion system, we found no significant responses after luminal application of three K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In...... arteries. Densitometric measurements of the Western blot signals further showed higher expression levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B proteins in rat middle cerebral arteries than was found in rat basilar arteries. In conclusion, our in vitro pharmacological studies showed no evidence for functional endothelial K...

  14. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  15. Characterization of the thoracodorsal artery: morphology and reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W.; Straub, Adam C.; Parpaite, Thibaud; Johnstone, Scott R.; Isakson, Brant E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the histological and contractile properties of the thoracodorsal artery (TDA), which indirectly feeds the spinotrapezius muscle. Our results demonstrate that the TDA is composed of approximately one-two layers of smooth muscle cells, is highly innervated with adrenergic nerves, and develops spontaneous tone at intraluminal pressures above 80 mmHg. The reactivity of the TDA in response to various contractile agonists such as phenylephrine, noradrenaline, angiotensin ...

  16. Effects of production training and perception training on lexical tone perception--A behavioral and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith

    2015-10-22

    The present study recorded both behavioral data and event-related brain potentials to examine the effectiveness of a perception-only training and a perception-plus-production training procedure on the intentional and unintentional perception of lexical tone by native English listeners. In the behavioral task, both the perception-only and the perception-plus-production groups improved on the tone discrimination abilities after the training session. Moreover, the participants in both groups generalized the improvements gained through the trained stimuli to the untrained stimuli. In the ERP task, the Mismatch Negativity was smaller in the post-training task than in the pre-training task. However, the two training groups did not differ in tone processing at the intentional or unintentional level after training. These results suggest that the employment of the motor system does not specifically benefit the tone perceptual skills. Furthermore, the present study investigated whether some tone pairs are more easily confused than others by native English listeners, and whether the order of tone presentation influences non-native tone discrimination. In the behavioral task, Tone2-Tone1 (rising-level) and Tone2-Tone4 (rising-falling) were the most difficult tone pairs, while Tone1-Tone2 and Tone4-Tone2 were the easiest tone pairs, even though they involved the same tone contrasts respectively. In the ERP task, the native English listeners had good discrimination when Tone2 and Tone4 were embedded in strings of Tone1, while poor discrimination when Tone1 was inserted in the context of Tone2 or Tone4. These asymmetries in tone perception might be attributed to the interference of native intonation system and can be altered by training. PMID:26206301

  17. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  18. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An in Vivo Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…

  19. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  20. Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…

  1. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  2. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ting Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  3. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  4. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  5. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  6. Translating register, style and tone in dubbing and subtitling

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Zoë

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the manner in which the translators of a selection of subtitled and dubbed versions (English-French) approach the style and tone of the source text in relation to language register. Stylistic effects inform the viewer about the speaker. Emotions can be expressed and social relationships portrayed through the use of particular forms of language. The audiovisual translator has to sift through the multiple layers of meaning within the context of the verbal, non-verbal, aur...

  7. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors fail to cause relaxation, but couple via Gi/Go to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in carotid artery smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Michael; Challiss, R. A. John; Standen, Nicholas B.; Boyle, John P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize which cannabinoid receptors, if any, are present on rat carotid artery smooth muscle. Additionally, the effects of cannabinoids on carotid artery tone, on cyclic AMP accumulation and on forskolin-induced relaxation were examined in the same tissue.Stimulation of carotid arteries with forskolin (10 μM) significantly increased cyclic AMP accumulation, an effect that was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the cannabinoid receptor ago...

  8. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  9. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C

    2015-10-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module. PMID:26265553

  10. Effet de taille sur la capacité portante des fondations superficielles

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, J.

    2003-01-01

    Il y a plus d'un demi siècle que les premières preuves expérimentales de l'effet de la taille sur la portance des fondations ont été apportées et des données nouvelles sont régulièrement produites. De nombreuses théories ont été avancées pour rendre compte de cet effet. Elles sont présentées et comparées dans cet article et des conclusions sont tirées tant pour la prévision de la portance des fondations que pour la conduite d'essais sur ouvrages en semi-grandeur ou sur modèles réduits. Siz...

  11. Les émissions de CO2 et autres gaz à effets de serre

    OpenAIRE

    François Durand-Dastès

    2010-01-01

    Cette note envisage les composantes explicatives des émissions de Gaz à effet de serre : coefficient d’émission par habitant et par unité monétaire de PNB, effets des masses de population et de production. La part de ces derniers est parfois curieusement sous estimée dans la littérature, et il semble nécessaire d’insister sur leur rôle majeur. Après une présentation cartographique et graphique de quelques données essentielles, on se livre à une expérimentation prospective à partir de ces donn...

  12. Des effets du divorce et du non divorce sur les enfants

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The issue of divorce and its effets on children has repeatedly been raised since the 18th century. This article synthesize the main findings of current international reserach and condider the effects of non-divorcing for couples who fall out of love and experience conflict. What happens to couples who decide not to divorce for the children's sake. What about the live together apart couples? Cet article propose de revenir sur les principales conclusions des recherches internationales sur le...

  13. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  14. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  15. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  16. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  17. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  18. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  19. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  20. Nitric Oxide Contributes to Vasomotor Tone in Hypertensive African Americans Treated With Nebivolol and Metoprolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Robert B; Hayek, Salim S; Poole, Joseph C; Rahman, Ayaz; Menon, Vivek; Kavtaradze, Nino; Polhemus, David; Veledar, Emir; Lefer, David J; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is more prevalent in African Americans (AAs) compared with whites. The authors hypothesized that nebivolol, a selective β1 -antagonist that stimulates nitric oxide (NO), will improve endothelial function in AAs with hypertension when compared with metoprolol. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 19 AA hypertensive patients were randomized to a 12-week treatment period with either nebivolol 10 mg or metoprolol succinate 100 mg daily. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using plethysmography at rest and after intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside to estimate endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation, respectively. Physiologic vasodilation was assessed during hand-grip exercise. Measurements were repeated after NO blockade with L-N(G) -monomethylarginine (L-NMMA) and after inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) with tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA). NO blockade with L-NMMA produced a trend toward greater vasoconstriction during nebivolol compared with metoprolol treatment (21% vs 12% reduction in FBF, P=.06, respectively). This difference was more significant after combined administration of L-NMMA and TEA (Pmetoprolol treatment. There were significantly greater contributions of NO and EDHF to resting vasodilator tone and of NO to exercise-induced vasodilation with nebivolol compared with metoprolol in AAs with hypertension. PMID:26285691

  1. Focal ischaemia caused by instability of cerebrovascular tone during attacks of hemiplegic migraine. A regional cerebral blood flow study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Roland, P E; Lassen, N A

    cerebral vessels (arterioles) alternating with a normal calibre for these vessels and/or short periods of vasodilatation. It isconsidered to be a primary pathological condition of the vessels. When vasoconstriction was present the blood flow decreased to values consistent with ischaemia, which was probably......During the course of hemiplegic migraine in 3 patients, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were recorded by the intracarotid 133Xe method and a 254 multidetector camera covering one hemisphere. The rCBF measurements were performed in conjunction with cerebral angiography. During...... patients developed transient motor and/or sensory deficits and subsequently severe headache. No signs of arterial occlusion were found. In the over and underperfused regions blood flow fluctuated rapidly because of instability of cerebrovascular tone, defined as transient constriction of the smallest...

  2. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Gerbino; Salvatore Provenzano; Maria Buscemi; Annamaria Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin...

  3. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    Modern physiologically based binaural models employ internal delay lines in the pathways from left and right peripheries to central processing nuclei. Various models apply the delay lines differently, and give different predictions for the detection of dichotic pitches, wherein listeners hear a virtual tone in the noise background. Two dichotic pitch stimuli (Huggins pitch and binaural coherence edge pitch) with low boundary frequencies were used to test the predictions by two different models. The results from five experiments show that the relative dichotic pitch strengths support the equalization-cancellation model and disfavor the central activity pattern (CAP) model. The CAP model makes predictions for the lateralization of Huggins pitch based on interaural time differences (ITD). By measuring human lateralization for Huggins pitches with two different types of phase boundaries (linear-phase and stepped phase), and by comparing with lateralization of sine-tones, it was shown that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli is similar to that of the corresponding sine-tones, and the lateralizations of Huggins pitch stimuli with the two different boundaries were even more similar to one another. The results agreed roughly with the CAP model predictions. Agreement was significantly improved by incorporating individualized scale factors and offsets into the model, and was further unproved with a model including compression at large ITDs. Furthermore, ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees, were consistently lateralized on the left or right based on individual asymmetries---which introduces the concept of "earedness". Interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural time difference (ITD) are two different forms of temporal cues. With varying frequency, an auditory system based on IPD or ITD gives different quantitative predictions on lateralization. A lateralization experiment with sine tones tested whether human auditory system is an

  4. An isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone of free plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chasman, L M

    2010-01-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  5. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chasman, L M

    2010-01-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  6. Contractile responses to ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in the perfused middle cerebral artery of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Edvinsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The vasomotor effects of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats were studied using the pressurised arteriography method and in vitro myographs. MCAs from Sprague–Dawley rats were mounted on two glass micropipettes using the arteriograph, pressurised to 85 mmHg and luminally perfused. All vessels used attained spontaneous contractile tone (34.9±1.8% of resting tone) and responded to luminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with dilatation (24.1±4.0%), wh...

  7. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  8. Contrastive analysis on tone between Putonghua and Taiwan Mandarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dan; SHI Feng; L(U) Shinan

    2008-01-01

    The differences of the pitch and duration of Chinese syllables between Putonghua(PTH) and Taiwan Mandarin (TM) were studied. The speech materials to be used are not only isolated syllables, but also sentences. The results reveal that: For the isolated syllables, T1 and T2 in TM are influenced by Minnan dialect, therefore their pitch are lower than those in PTH. T3 is fall-rise in PTH, while it is fall in TM. Moreover, the syllable duration sequence for different tone is T3>T2>T1>T4 in PTH, while it is T1>T2>T3>T4 in TM. For the syllables in sentences, T2 is mid-rise in PTH, while it is mid-level in TM. And the T3 is longer than T4 but shorter than T1 or T2 in PTH, while it is the shortest in TM. Furthermore the effects of prosodic phrase boundary on duration for different tones are almost the same in PTH, but the lengthening part of T1 or T2 is longer than that of T3 or T4 in TM.

  9. Predicting the decay time of solid body electric guitar tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît

    2014-05-01

    Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers. PMID:24815284

  10. Vagal tone: effects on sensitivity, motility, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Pellissier, S

    2016-04-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation. A low vagal tone, as assessed by heart rate variability, a marker of the sympatho-vagal balance, is observed in functional digestive disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases. To restore a normal vagal tone appears as a goal in such diseases. Among the therapeutic tools, such as drugs targeting the cholinergic system and/or complementary medicine (hypnosis, meditation…), deep breathing, physical exercise, VN stimulation (VNS), either invasive or non-invasive, appears as innovative. There is new evidence in the current issue of this Journal supporting the role of VNS in the modulation of gastrointestinal functions. PMID:27010234

  11. Seeing pitch: Visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Trevor H.; Massaro, Dominic W

    2008-01-01

    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers’ neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head...

  12. On the design of tone-free ΣΔ modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Traditional one-bit ΣΔ modulators used for A/D and D/A conversion produce very predominant tones near half the sample rate which might intermodulate in the analog converter section and cause in-band tones. This paper demonstrates how the use of chaos can substitute dither as a means for...... extinguishing these tones. Especially, modulator feedback filters derived from noise transfer functions having an all-pass term seem very promising...

  13. Exploring the Impact of Skin Tone on Family Dynamics and Race-Related Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Gene H. Brody; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Granberg, Ellen M.; Melby, Janet N.

    2013-01-01

    Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism. Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research. Utilizing data from a longitudinal sample of African American families (N= 767), we assessed whether skin tone impacted experiences with discriminatio...

  14. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice;...

  15. Dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra are involved in the regulation of muscle tone.

    OpenAIRE

    Double, K L; Crocker, A D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to localize the dopamine receptors involved in the regulation of muscle tone. A strategy was used whereby the effects on muscle tone of injecting the irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) in discrete brain regions were assessed. Increases in muscle tone were measured as changes in electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and tibialis muscles of conscious, unrestrained rats. No increases in muscle...

  16. Phonological abstraction in processing lexical-tone variation: Evidence from a learning paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Mitterer, H.; Y. Chen; Zhou, X.(Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that the mental lexicon contains both abstract and word-specific acoustic information. To investigate their relative importance for word recognition, we tested to what extent perceptual learning is word specific or generalizable to other words. In an exposure phase, participants were divided into two groups; each group was semantically biased to interpret an ambiguous Mandarin tone contour as either tone1 or tone2. In a subsequent test phase, the perception of amb...

  17. L’effet de proximité supraconducteur dans les jonctions de graphène et nanofils de Bismuth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de cette thèse, on étudie les systèmes différents : graphène (une monocouche de carbone), graphène fonctionnalisé et les nanofils de Bismuth en induisant la supraconductivité par l’effet proximité. On montre que l’effet proximité fonctionne comme un probe sensible pour les effets des interactions, de couplage spin-orbite, etc.La structure de band de graphène a une relation dispersion linéaire au niveau de Fermi, et le band de conductance et le band de valence est lié aux six points d...

  18. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin’s assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  19. Improvement of Tone Intelligibility for Average-Voice-Based Thai Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tone intelligibility in speech synthesis is an important attribute that should be taken into account. The tone correctness of the synthetic speech is degraded considerably in the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis. The tying mechanism in the decision tree based context clustering without appropriate criterion causes unexpected tone neutralization. Incorporation of the phrase intonation to the context clustering process in the training stage was proposed early. However, the tone correctness is not satisfied. Approach: This study proposes a number of tonal features including tone-geometrical features and phrase intonation features to be exploited in the context clustering process of HMM training stage. Results: In the experiments, subjective evaluations of both average voice and adapted voice in terms of the intelligibility of tone are conducted. Effects on decision trees of the extracted features are also evaluated. By considering gender in training speech, two core experiments were conducted. The first experiment shows that the proposed tonal features can improve the tone intelligibility for female speech model above that of male speech model, while the second experiment shows that the proposed tonal features improve the tone intelligibility for gender dependent model than for gender independent model. Conclusion: All of the experimental results confirm that the tone correctness of the synthesized speech from the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis is significantly improved when using most of the extracted features.

  20. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  1. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue......, we studied the possible involvement of endothelial K(ATP) channels by pressurized arteriography after luminal administration of synthetic K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. Furthermore, we examined the mRNA and protein expression profile of K(ATP) channels to rat...... basilar and middle cerebral arteries using quantitative real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Western blotting, respectively. In the perfusion system, we found no significant responses after luminal application of three K(ATP) channel openers to rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In...

  2. Comment faut-il distribuer les quotas échangeables de gaz à effet de serre ?

    OpenAIRE

    Quirion, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Le système européen de quotas d'émissions échangeables de gaz à effet de serre, en place depuis 2005, fait l'objet d'une révision qui devrait en particulier modifier la manière dont les quotas sont distribués. Nous comparons deux modes de distribution : l'allocation forfaitaire, basée uniquement sur des informations passées, et l'allocation proportionnelle à la production courante. Nous identifions les avantages et les inconvénients de chaque mode d'allocation et concluons qu'il est important...

  3. Effet du flambage sur les pipes en composite stratifiés munis d’entailles

    OpenAIRE

    Chenine Halima; Ouinas Djamel; Mohamed Saadi; Djamal Beladam

    2014-01-01

    Dans l’industrie (aéronautiques, automobiles, …) les composites stratifiés se sont imposés pour la fabrication des pièces de structures primaires, grâce à leurs performances, leur qualité, légèreté et souplesse de forme. Cependant l’utilisation de ces matériaux est assujettie à la connaissance de leur comportement mécanique en statique comme en dynamique et également à la possibilité de le simuler. En effet, les matériaux composites ont un comportement particulier, et ceci est du essentiellem...

  4. Effet d’un tourbillon longitudinal sur le comportement d’un profil portant bidimensionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Prothin, Sebastien; Djeridi, Henda; Billard, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Une situation classique, dans l’agencement du système propulsif d’un navire, consiste à placer le safran de gouvernail à l’aval du propulseur, dans son sillage. Cette situation permet, en particulier, de tirer profit, dans les phases de manoeuvre, de l’effet de « coup de fouet » obtenu en augmentant brutalement la vitesse de rotation (ou le pas) du propulseur pendant une durée très brève. Les interactions qui existent entre le propulseur et le safran de gouvernail ont fait l’objet de diverses...

  5. Melodic Pitch Perception and Lexical Tone Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with

  6. Cortical Auditory Event Related Potentials (P300) for Frequency Changing Dynamic Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives P300 has been studied with a variety of stimuli. However, the nature of P300 has not been investigated for deviant stimuli which change its characteristics from standard stimuli after a period of time from onset. Subjects and Methods Nine young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The P300 was elicited using an oddball paradigm, the probability of standard and deviant stimuli was 80% and 20% respectively. Six stimuli were used to elicit P300, it included two pure-tones (1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz) and four tone-complexes (tones with frequency changes). Among these stimuli, 1,000 Hz tone served as standard while others served as deviant stimuli. The P300 was recorded in five separate blocks, with one of the deviant stimuli as target in each block. Electroencephalographic was recorded from electrode sites Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and Pz. Latency and amplitude of components of the cortical auditory evoked potentials were measured at Cz. Results Waveforms obtained in the present study shows that, all the deviant stimuli elicited obligatory P1-N1-P2 for stimulus onset. 2,000 Hz deviant tone elicited P300 at a latency of 300 ms. While, tone-complexes elicited acoustic change complex (ACC) for frequency changes and finally elicited P300 at a latency of 600 ms. In addition, the results showed shorter latency and larger amplitude ACC and P300 for rising tone-complexes compared to falling tone-complexes. Conclusions Tone-complexes elicited distinct waveforms compared to 2,000 Hz deviant tone. Rising tone-complexes which had an increase in frequency elicited shorter latency and larger amplitude responses, which could be attributed to perceptual bias for frequency changes. PMID:27144230

  7. Tone calibration technique: A digital signaling scheme for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    Residual carrier modulation is conventionally used in a communication link to assist the receiver with signal demodulation and detection. Although suppressed carrier modulation has a slight power advantage over the residual carrier approach in systems enjoying a high level of stability, it lacks sufficient robustness to be used in channels severely contaminated by noise, interference and propagation effects. In mobile links, in particular, the vehicle motion and multipath waveform propagation affect the received carrier in an adverse fashion. A residual carrier scheme that uses a pilot carrier to calibrate a mobile channel against multipath fading anomalies is described. The benefits of this scheme, known as tone calibration technique, are described. A brief study of the system performance in the presence of implementation anomalies is also given.

  8. Tone-Mapped Mean-Shift Based Environment Map Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Yang, Ying; Wan, Liang; Yu, Changguo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for environment map sampling, which is an effective and pragmatic technique to reduce the computational cost of realistic rendering and get plausible rendering images. The proposed approach exploits the advantage of adaptive mean-shift image clustering with aid of tone-mapping, yielding oversegmented strata that have uniform intensities and capture shapes of light regions. The resulted strata, however, have unbalanced importance metric values for rendering, and the strata number is not user-controlled. To handle these issues, we develop an adaptive split-and-merge scheme that refines the strata and obtains a better balanced strata distribution. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieves comparable and even better rendering quality in terms of SSIM, RMSE and HDRVDP2 image quality metrics. Experimental results further show that our approach is more robust to the variation of viewpoint, environment rotation, and sample number. PMID:26584494

  9. Multi-tone response of Nonlinear rf-SQUID metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    We study the multi-tone response over a broad microwave frequency range of a nonlinear superconducting meta-atom and a metamaterial composed of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf-SQUIDs). Nonlinearity in the SQUID metamaterial gives rise to large-range tunable resonance via dc/rf magnetic field and temperature, it also results in signal mixing through intermodulation distortion (IMD). Our metamaterial responds to multi-frequency signals and generates strong higher order intermodulation signals in a certain range of applied rf power. However, our meta-atom and metamaterial show a reduced third-order IMD generation around the resonance, which is unusual for typical nonlinear systems. The numerical simulation predicts the same IMD gap feature as in experiment. A comprehensive analytical model is applied to explain the phenomena, and methods to enhance, or reduce, intermodulation levels are explored. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through Grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  10. SBS mitigation with multi-tone amplification: a theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeringue, Clint; Dajani, Iyad; Bronder, T. Justin; Shay, Thomas; Robin, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Two approaches to two- and three-tone seeding of high power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers are investigated using a symbolic and numerical code that solves a two point boundary problem consisting of a 12×12 system of nonlinear differential equations. Optimization of amplifier action is considered in relation to the two most dominant nonlinear effects: stimulated Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. One approach uses a large wavelength separation among the input seed beams, while in the other approach the seeds are separated by precisely twice the Brillouin shift. It is found that for both techniques significant increase in amplifier output can be obtained, although for the latter case a substantial amount of power is generated in the four-wave mixing sidebands.

  11. The Study of Tone and Related Phenomena in an Amazonian Tone Language: Gavião of Rondônia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Denny; Meyer, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to study the tone and some related phenomena of the language of the Gavião of Rondônia, Brazil, which is part of the Mondé branch of the Tupi family. Whistling of words by indigenous informants was discovered to be a very effective method for obtaining phonetic accuracy in tone and length. Methods were devised…

  12. Intra-arterial papaverine and leg vascular resistance during in situ bypass surgery with high or low epidural anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E; Secher, N H

    1993-01-01

    In situ saphenous vein arterial bypass flow was studied in 16 patients with respect to level of epidural anaesthesia. Arterial pressure and electromagnetic flow were used to evaluate arterial tone by intra-arterial (i.a.) papaverine. Eight patients had a low epidural block (< or = Th. 10) and eight...... patients were operated during high epidural anaesthesia (> Th. 10). Flow increased and arterial pressure decreased after i.a. papaverine in all patients. When compared with patients operated during high epidural anaesthesia, flow increase and decrease in vascular resistance took place in patients operated...... during low epidural anaesthesia (P < 0.02). Increase in arterial flow after i.a. papaverine was not significantly different in patients operated in low epidural and general anaesthesia (n = 8). In eight patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had low epidural anaesthesia, the increase in...

  13. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  14. A Multinomial Model for Identifying Significant Pure-Tone Threshold Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Carney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Significant threshold differences on retest for pure-tone audiometry are often evaluated by application of ad hoc rules, such as a shift in a pure-tone average or in 2 adjacent frequencies that exceeds a predefined amount. Rules that are so derived do not consider the probability of observing a particular audiogram. Methods: A general…

  15. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  16. Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Fran Lang; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)

  17. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  18. Musically Tone-Deaf Individuals Have Difficulty Discriminating Intonation Contours Extracted from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Foxton, Jessica M.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Musically tone-deaf individuals have psychophysical deficits in detecting pitch changes, yet their discrimination of intonation contours in speech appears to be normal. One hypothesis for this dissociation is that intonation contours use coarse pitch contrasts which exceed the pitch-change detection thresholds of tone-deaf individuals (Peretz &…

  19. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  20. Tone and Syntax in Rutooro, a Toneless Bantu Language of Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction of tone and syntax in Rutooro, a Bantu language of Western Uganda. Rutooro has lost its lexical tone but retains a phrasally defined high pitch that appears on the penultimate syllable--the default position in Bantu. This high pitch can work grammatically and in fact distinguishes between the noun phrase vs.…

  1. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  2. Longitudinal relations between child vagal tone and parenting behavior: 2 to 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Rubin, Kenneth H; Hastings, Paul D; Maisel, Beth

    2004-07-01

    The longitudinal relations between physiological markers of child emotion regulation and maternal parenting practices were examined from 2 to 4 years of age. At Time 1, cardiac vagal tone was assessed for one hundred four 2-year-olds (54 females); their mothers completed an assessment of parenting styles. Two years later, at Time 2, 84 of the original participants were reassessed on measures of cardiac vagal tone and parenting style. Results indicated both baseline cardiac vagal tone and maternal parenting practices to be stable from 2 to 4 years of age. Children's cardiac vagal tone predicted specific parenting practices from the toddler to preschool years. Further, child cardiac vagal tone moderated maternal restrictive-parenting practices from 2 to 4 years of age; mothers of children who were highly or moderately physiologically dysregulated were more likely to report restrictive parenting practices at both 2 and 4 years of age. PMID:15229872

  3. Effect of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise on annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine annoyance to combinations of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise. A total of 240 sounds, containing tones in the range from 80 to 315 Hz, were rated by 108 test subjects in an anechoic chamber. The results indicated that tone penalties (defines as the failure of a noise metric to account for the presence of pure tones) are highly dependent on the choice of noise metric. A-weighted sound pressure level underpredicted annoyance by as much as the equivalent of 5 db and unweighted sound pressure level overpredicted by as much as the equivalent of db. Tone penalties were observed to be dependent on the shape of the turbulent boundary-layer noise spectrum.

  4. Chorionic plate arterial function is altered in maternal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, C.E.; Higgins, L.; Cowley, E.J.; Greenwood, S. l.; Mills, T.A.; Sibley, C. P.; Wareing, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise Chorionic Plate Artery (CPA) function in maternal obesity, and investigate whether leptin exposure reproduces the obese CPA phenotype in normal-BMI women. Study design CPA responses to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U46619 (pre/post leptin incubation), to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the occurrence of tone oscillations (pre/post leptin incubation) were assessed in 46 term placentas from women of normal (18.5–24.9) or obese (>30) Body Mass Index ...

  5. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and level of C-reactive protein, which is produced only when inflammation is present. ... people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease. Amputation of a limb may be necessary if ...

  6. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  7. On Renal Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eklöf, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potentially curable cause of hypertension and azotemia. Besides intra-arterial renal angiography there are several non-invasive techniques utilized to diagnose patients with suspicion of renal artery stenosis. Removing the stenosis by revascularization to restore unobstructed blood flow to the kidney is known to improve and even cure hypertension/azotemia, but is associated with a significant complication rate. To visualize renal arteries with x-ray technique...

  8. Effets du déficit hydrique sur les flux d’eau et la teneur en sucres dans les baies de raisin

    OpenAIRE

    Gambetta, Grégory; Goutouly, Jean-Pascal

    2014-01-01

    L’un des effets attendus du changement climatique est la raréfaction des ressources en eau. Cet article résume les processus physiologiques et moléculaires qui contrôlent l’accumulation d’eau et de sucres par les baies de raisin et les effets connus du stress hydrique sur ces processus. Le déficit hydrique réduit le rendement notamment en diminuant la taille et le nombre des baies. Ces deux effets sont séparés dans le temps et correspondent aux différentes étapes de la constitution de la baie...

  9. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or atherectomy may be used to help improve blood flow. What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? How is peripheral artery disease evaluated? How ... PAD are diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Most cases occur in ... is peripheral artery disease evaluated? Several imaging tests can be used to ...

  10. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery occlusion; Branch retinal artery occlusion; CRAO; BRAO Images Retina References Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  11. Spirit Examines Light-Toned 'Halley' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Stretching along 'Low Ridge' in front of the winter haven for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are several continuous rock layers that make up the ridge. Some of these layers form fins that stick out from the other rocks in a way that suggests that they are resistant to erosion. Spirit is currently straddling one of these fin-like layers and can reach a small bit of light-toned material that might be a broken bit of it. Informally named 'Halley,' this rock was broken by Spirit's wheels when the rover drove over it. The first analyses of Halley showed it to be unusual in composition, containing a lot of the minor element zinc relative to the soil around it and having much of its iron tied up in the mineral hematite. When scientists again placed the scientific instruments on Spirit's robotic arm on a particularly bright-looking part of Halley, they found that the chemical composition of the bright spots was suggestive of a calcium sulfate mineral. Bright soils that Spirit has examined earlier in the mission contain iron sulfate. This discovery raises new questions for the science team: Why is the sulfate mineralogy here different? Did Halley and the fin material form by water percolating through the layered rocks of Low Ridge? When did the chemical alteration of this rock occur? Spirit will continue to work on Halley and other light-toned materials along Low Ridge in the coming months to try to answer these questions. Spirit took this red-green-blue composite image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 820th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 24, 2006). The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil. It combines frames taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 430-nanometer filters. The middle of the imaged area has dark basaltic sand. Spirit's wheel track is at the left edge of the frame. Just to the right of the wheel track in the lower left are two types of brighter material

  12. Postiive tone resists based on network deploymerization of molecular resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Cheng, Jing; Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2013-03-01

    Conventional chemically amplified resists have several issues that can potentially limit their capability for sub-40 nm imaging. One of the major issues at this size scale is that the mechanical strength of positive tone CARs limits the amount of stress they can withstand during development, rinse, and drying, thus leading to problems with pattern collapse due to the high capillary forces generated during drying. This problem is exasperated by the fact that linear polymers show dramatically reduced modulus at sub-50 nm features sizes. To improve on this problem, we have made a positive tone resist based on network depolymerization of molecular resists. The resist thermally cross-links after being spin cast into thin film form through reactions between vinyl ether groups and carboxylic acid groups. By cross-linking the resist to form a dense three dimensional polymer network, the mechanical strength of the resist is greatly improved compared to linear polymers. The network is depolymerized using an acid catalyzed reaction to create development contrast that allows for patterning of the resist via development in either aqueous base or organic solvent. One drawback of the current resist design is that the free carboxylic acids on the resist molecule appear to react in solution at room temperature with both the vinyl ether groups on adjacent molecules and with any added base quencher. These reactions cause reduced effectiveness of the base quencher and produce a noticeable resist shelf life problem. Despite these limitations, the material was used to compare the effect of development in aqueous base versus organic solvent. The resist formulated in this work showed a DUV sensitivity of 7 mJ/cm2 and a contrast of 5.2 for development in either solvent or aqueous base. Under 100 keV e-beam imaging, the material showed 40 nm resolution for both development types. In standard 0.26 N TMAH, the dose-to-size was 84 μC/cm2 with 3σ LER of 14.2 nm. Using methyl isobutyl ketone

  13. Increased rhythmicity in hypertensive arterial smooth muscle is linked to transient receptor potential canonical channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Shuangtao;

    2010-01-01

    Vasomotion describes oscillations of arterial vascular tone due to synchronized changes of intracellular calcium concentrations. Since increased calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been associated with variances of transient receptor...... potential canonical (TRPC) channels, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased vasomotion in hypertension is directly linked to increased TRPC expression. Using a small vessel myograph we observed significantly increased norepinephrine-induced vasomotion in mesenteric arterioles from SHR...... vasomotion in hypertension....

  14. Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases main pulmonary artery stiffness and adventitial remodeling in fetal sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, R. Blair; Morgan, Matthew R.; Galambos, Csaba; Hunter, Kendall S.; Abman, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by high pulmonary vascular resistance due to changes in lung vascular growth, structure, and tone. PPHN has been primarily considered as a disease of the small pulmonary arteries (PA), but proximal vascular stiffness has been shown to be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in other diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective of this study is to characteriz...

  15. Endothelial 5-HT receptors mediate relaxation of porcine pulmonary arteries in response to ergotamine and dihydroergotamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Glusa, E; Roos, A. (Anna)

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether antimigraine ergot compounds may act at endothelial 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors which trigger the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Changes in tone of porcine isolated pulmonary arteries were measured isometrically. The integrity of the endothelium was assessed by the bradykinin-induced relaxation of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha, 3 microM)-precontracted vessels. 2. The ergot derivatives ergotamine, ...

  16. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  17. Effects of native language experience on perceptual learning of Cantonese lexical tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian

    2001-05-01

    In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.

  18. Training for learning Mandarin tones: A comparison of production and perceptual training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2005-04-01

    Mandarin Chinese lexical tones pose difficulties for non-native speakers whose first languages contrast or do not contrast lexical tones. In this study, both tone language and non-tone language speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese were trained for three weeks to identify the four Mandarin lexical tones. One group took the production training with both visual and audio feedback using Kay Sona Speech II software. The target tones produced by native Mandarin speakers were played back through a pair of headphones and the pitch contours of the target tones were displayed on the computer screen on the top window to be compared with the trainees productions which appear in real time in the bottom window. Another group of participants took the perceptual training only with four-way forced choice identification tasks with immediate feedback. The same training tokens were used in both training modes. Pretest and post test data in perception and production were collected from both groups and were compared for effectiveness of training procedures.

  19. The molecular basis of the genesis of basal tone in internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Keaney, John F; Fogarty, Kevin E; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca(2+)]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca(2+)]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932

  20. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. PMID:25182403

  1. New postage stamp design with tone gradation in Infraredesign technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of new steganographic methods in postage stamp printing technology with the goal of securing them against counterfeiting. Postage stamp designs are presented which contain double information in the visible and in the infrared spectrum area. New methods include printing with process printing inks that have a continuous response in the infrared area of the spectrum. The infrared Z image cannot be produced with conventional CMYK separation in such a way that the hidden picture does not show through when looking at the print. This is the reason for introducing CMYKIR separation, with mathematical relations that respect printing ink characteristics in the RGB to CMYKIR system conversion.A mathematical model with targeted separation characteristics is proposed, with seven independent variables. It has been created as the result of optimal regression model developed on the basis of colour tone measuring for the visual and infrared spectrum. A technological procedure has been elaborated for producing and printing based on such designs. It is possible to detect the infrared image with the help of a device – the infrared ZRGB camera. Counterfeiting is impossible due to the irreversible conversion of the CMYKIR separation into the RGB system applied in contemporary scanners or cameras.

  2. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  3. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  4. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  5. Duplication of hepatic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

  6. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  7. Optique quantique électronique dans les canaux de bord de l'effet Hall quantique

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquillon, Erwann

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse est consacrée à la manipulation d'excitations mono-électroniques dans un conducteur quantique balistique, par l'implémentation d'expériences d'optique quantique électronique avec la résolution d'une charge élémentaire. Une capacité mésoscopique produit à la demande des excitations monoélectroniques dans le canal de bord externe de l'effet Hall quantique. Nous mesurons les fluctuations de courant après partitionnement des excitations sur une lame séparatrice électronique, dans un a...

  8. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  9. Bruit thermique et effets quantiques dans une cavité optique de grande finesse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, T.; Briant, T.; Heidmann, A.; Pinard, M.

    2006-10-01

    Nous nous intéressons aux bruits dans les mesures optiques de très grande sensibilité et aux limites associées. Une des limitations fondamentales des mesures interférométriques, telles que les détections d'ondes gravitationnelles, est liée aux fluctuations de la pression de radiation exercée par la lumière sur les miroirs. Celle-ci induit des corrélations quantiques entre la position des miroirs et les fluctuations de la lumière. L'observation de ces effets quantiques ouvrirait de nombreuses perspectives: étude de la limite quantique standard, production d'états comprimés, réalisation d'une mesure quantique non destructive ldots

  10. Effets oculaires de la tranquilisation avec le buthorphanol chez le chien

    OpenAIRE

    Dongay, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Le butorphanol est utilisé en médecine vétérinaire pour ses propriétés analgésiques et sédatives dans divers protocoles anesthésiques L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les effets oculaires de la sédation au butorphanol lors d’un examen ophtalmologique de routine. Vingt-deux beagles sans anomalie oculaire ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol à la dose de 0,2 mg/kg. Des examens cliniques répétés ont été effectués 20 minutes avant et juste avant l’administration puis 10,...

  11. Effets associes a la mutation "coquille blanche" chez la caille japonaise

    OpenAIRE

    Monvoisin, Jean Louis; Merat, P; Coquerelle, Gerard; Costa da Silva, Jose

    1989-01-01

    Nous avons recherché les effets directs ou maternels sur diverses performances associés à un gène autosomal récessif (we), responsable de l’absence de pigmentation des coquilles d’oeufs chez la caille japonaise. A partir d’animaux des deux sexes de même origine, respectivement de génotype hétérozygote We+ we et homozygote récessif wewe, les croisements réciproques ♂ we we x ♀ We+ we et ♂ We+ we X ♀ we we ont été réalisés deux années consécutives. Ces croisements donnaient tous deux des...

  12. Effets de la pratique des jeux vidéo sur le vieillissement cognitif

    OpenAIRE

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-01-01

    L'avancée en âge s'accompagne de nombreux déclins cognitifs, mais reste cependant un phénomène très hétérogène. En effet, plusieurs facteurs extrinsèques semblent moduler l'impact du vieillissement sur la cognition. Récemment, une série d'études a mis en évidence que la pratique des jeux vidéo pouvait engendrer de nombreux bénéfices en faveur du maintien de la vitalité cognitive des seniors. Cette revue de littérature vise donc à établir un état des lieux précis de la relation entre les diffé...

  13. Seeing pitch: visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H; Massaro, Dominic W

    2008-04-01

    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers' neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head, and mouth, and this information can be effectively used after a short training session. PMID:18397038

  14. Problems of Analyzing Consonant-tone Interaction in Thai: A Reply to Ruangjaroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ying Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between the distribution of tones and syllable types in Thai has been found to be interesting. The absence of the rising contour tone on CVO and CVVO supports the argument that syllables with shorter phonetic duration are bad licensers for the rising contour tone (Zhang 2002. The distributional gaps on CVO and CVVO are also found to be correlated with syllable-final glottalization (Moren & Zsiga 2006. Furthermore, Ruangjaroon (2006 argues that there is the consonant-tone interaction in Thai and analyzes it under the framework of OT. However, I will indicate both theoretical and analytical problems faced by analyses in Ruangjaroon (2006 in this paper.

  15. Growth rate of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness as a function of tone location within the noise spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute magnitude estimation methods were used to investigate the relation between the overall perceived magnitude of noise tone complexes and the location of the tone within the spectrum. In contrast to 'noisiness', loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship of the single tones added to low- and high-pass noises in these tests, and to the spectral shape of the noise. Tones centered in noise produce nonmonotonic loudness and annoyance growth functions, while those added to the noise skirt produce power functions. Although a tone correction for annoyance is warranted for certain noise-tone configurations, none of the calculation procedures proposed can take all of the variables relevant to the perceived annoyance of tonal components into account. Complex auditory interactions generated by the simultaneous presentation of noise and tone can substantially account for the effects observed.

  16. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez, Mario F.; Joshi, Aditi; Daianu, Madelaine; Jimenez, Elvira; Thompson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other frontally-predominant disorders. Objective To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs), an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it is not. Method...

  17. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  18. Stream segregation in the perception of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (f(modA)) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (Δf(mod)). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, f(modA), Δf(mod), carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and Δf(mod) that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger Δf(mod) at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of Acute Low-Tone Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Byeong Il; Son, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although acute low-tone hearing loss has been associated with cochlear hydrops or early stage Meniere's disease, its prognosis in the short-term has been reported to be better than sudden hearing loss. However, recurrence of hearing loss and possible progression to Meniere's disease remain important concerns in the clinical setting. This study aims to investigate the long-term audiological outcomes of acute low-tone hearing loss. Subjects and Methods A retrospective ...

  20. Effects of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese tone word learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Angela Kanita

    2010-01-01

    Adult non-native perception is subject to influence from a variety of factors, including linguistic experience as well as other cognitive functions such as musical experience. The present research examines how these two factors influence non-native tone perception and word learning. Native Thai and English listeners, subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in a perceptual training program. They learned words distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also complet...

  1. Detection of Modulated Tones in Modulated Noise by Non-human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan

    2014-01-01

    In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experim...

  2. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  3. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  4. Coeliac artery compression syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    OKTAY, Özgür; MEMİŞ, Ahmet; Parildar, Mustafa; Oran, İsmail

    2003-01-01

    Celiac artery compression syndrome, also called median arcuate ligament compression syndrome, causes gastrointestinal ischemia secondary to compression of the proximal portion of the celiac artery just beyond its origin by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. This syndrome is frequently demonstrated on aortography performed in patients without complaints of intestinal angina. Isolated stenosis or even occlusion of the celiac artery is always compensated for by collateral circul...

  5. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. PMID:19354413

  6. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm is presented. The algorithm performs a mixture of both global and local compression on colored WDR images. An automatic parameter selector has been proposed for the tone mapping algorithm in order to achieve good tone-mapped images without manual reconfiguration of the algorithm for each WDR image. Both algorithms are described in Verilog and synthesized for a field programmable gate array (FPGA. The hardware architecture employs a combination of parallelism and system pipelining, so as to achieve a high performance in power consumption, hardware resources usage and processing speed. Results show that the hardware architecture produces images of good visual quality that can be compared to software-based tone mapping algorithms. High peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity (SSIM scores were obtained when the results were compared with output images obtained from software simulations using MATLAB.

  7. The influence of reed curvature on the tone quality of lingual organ pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plitnik, G. R.; Angster, J.

    2002-11-01

    Given certain design constraints, such as the type of stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, reed voicers must use consummate skill to curve each tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone, as well as maintaining a consistent tone quality across an entire rank of pipes. The curvature given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound, but also the attack. Two fundamentally different types of curvature are typically employed, the chorus reed (trompette) curve (which yields a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for solo reeds such as the clarinet. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone of reed tongues of both types. Two F2 pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with 6 different tongues each to produce a variety of tones. The reed's vibration was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-eighth inch microphones and the emitted sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined.

  8. Optimizing swept-tone protocols for recording distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in adults and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Luo, Ping; Shera, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are routinely used in the audiology clinic and research laboratory, are conventionally recorded with discrete tones presented sequentially across frequency. However, a more efficient technique sweeps tones smoothly across frequency and applies a least-squares-fitting (LSF) procedure to compute estimates of otoacoustic emission phase and amplitude. In this study, the optimal parameters (i.e., sweep rate and duration of the LSF analysis window) required to record and analyze swept-tone DPOAEs were tested and defined in 15 adults and 10 newborns. Results indicate that optimal recording of swept-tone DPOAEs requires use of an appropriate analysis bandwidth, defined as the range of frequencies included in each least squares fit model. To achieve this, the rate at which the tones are swept and the length of the LSF analysis window must be carefully considered and changed in concert. Additionally, the optimal analysis bandwidth must be adjusted to accommodate frequency-dependent latency shifts in the reflection-component of the DPOAE. Parametric guidelines established here are equally applicable to adults and newborns. However, elevated noise during newborn swept-tone DPOAE recordings warrants protocol adaptations to improve signal-to-noise ratio and response quality. PMID:26723333

  9. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  10. Effet ventriloque pour des sources sonores variant simultanément en azimut et elévation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, Etienne; Paquier, Mathieu; Koehl, Vincent; PALACINO, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Lorsque l'on présente a un sujet des stimuli audio et visuel temporellement coïncidents mais spatialement disparates, les sujets perçoivent parfois le stimulus sonore au même endroit que le stimulus visuel. On appelle ce phénomène l'effet ventriloque car il rappelle l'illusion créée par le ventriloque lorsque sa voix semble plutôt provenir de sa marionnette que de sa propre bouche. Cet effet a été très largement étudié en azimut, mais beaucoup moins en élévation. Dans cette étude, des séquenc...

  11. Modèle de diélectrique associant les effets Poole-Frenkel et Maxwell-Wagner

    OpenAIRE

    Pillonnet, Alain; Ongaro, Roger; Garoum, Mohammed

    1992-01-01

    Le modèle présenté associe les effets Poole-Frenkel (PF) et Maxwell-Wagner (MW) dans la détermination de la conductivité équivalente σ d'un diélectrique plan à deux couches. L'effet PF y est introduit sous sa forme usuelle (statistique de Boltzmann), puis sous une forme plus générale (statistique de Fermi-Dirac). Les courbes log σ en fonction du champ électrique $(\\sqrt{F})$ présentent généralement une ou deux parties linéaires, la pente en bas champs étant toujours supérieure à la pente en h...

  12. Les gaz à effet de serre en élevage bovin : évaluation et leviers d'action

    OpenAIRE

    Dollé, Jean-Baptiste; Agabriel, Jacques; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Faverdin, Philippe; Manneville, Vincent; Raison, Christelle; Gac, Armelle; Le Gall, André

    2011-01-01

    Le contexte environnemental actuel, tant politique (objectifs de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre) que sociétal (information du consommateur), nécessite de préciser les impacts de l'activité d'élevage bovin en matière de changement climatique. L'enjeu est de connaître précisément les niveaux d'émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) et de stockage de carbone, des différents modes de production. Pour cela, une évaluation basée sur la méthodologie de l'Analyse du Cycle de Vie (AC...

  13. Appreciation simple de la maturite des composts urbains en relation avec leurs effets sur la production vegetale

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolardot, Bernard; Chaussod, R.; Morel, Jean-Louis; Guckert, Armand; Benistant, D.; Catroux, Gerard; Germon, J Claude

    1986-01-01

    Des composts prélevés dans différentes usines après divers temps de maturation ont été éprouvés sur végétaux (laitue, ray-grass). Par rapport à la quantité de matière sèche produite par le ray-grass sur le sol seul, on observe un effet dépressif marqué lorsque le sol est additionné de composts jeunes, puis cet effet s’atténue et devient même positif après plusieurs mois de maturation. Des observations identiques ont été effectuées sur laitue avec les produits d’une même usine : la product...

  14. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  16. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, Francis

    2010-06-01

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

  17. THE EFFETS OF EDUCATIONAL TOYS TRANINIG DESIGNED TO DEVELOP VISUAL PERCEPTION SKILLS ON THE SKILLS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    DERELİ, Esra; Emine Gülriz AKAROĞLU

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effets of educational toys traninig designed to develop visual perception skills on the skills of visual perception in children were investigated. The educational toys are designed in accordance with the five visual perception steps determined by Frostig. The research was carried out with a sample of 103 preschool students [35 (34 %) experimental group, 33 (32 %) control group and 35 (% 34) placebo group]. For 14 weeks, three session per week, thirty five-forty five minutes...

  18. Split SR-RLS for the Joint Initialization of the Per-Tone Equalizers and Per-Tone Echo Cancelers in DMT-Based Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysebaert Geert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.

  19. Effet du flambage sur les pipes en composite stratifiés munis d’entailles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenine Halima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’industrie (aéronautiques, automobiles, … les composites stratifiés se sont imposés pour la fabrication des pièces de structures primaires, grâce à leurs performances, leur qualité, légèreté et souplesse de forme. Cependant l’utilisation de ces matériaux est assujettie à la connaissance de leur comportement mécanique en statique comme en dynamique et également à la possibilité de le simuler. En effet, les matériaux composites ont un comportement particulier, et ceci est du essentiellement à deux facteurs. Le premier facteur résulte du comportement anisotrope du matériau utilisé dans la couche. Le deuxième facteur dérive de la stratification qui consiste à l’empilement de plusieurs couches, ce qui favorise l’effet de cisaillement transversal. Les structures minces en composites qui sont abondamment utilisées, deviennent instables lorsqu'elles sont sollicitées à des chargements de nature mécanique ou thermique conduisant au flambement. La principale cause de ce phénomène complexe, est le caractère aléatoire des imperfections initiales (en termes de géométrie, de matériau, ou de conditions aux limites de la structure. Dans ce papier, l’analyse du flambage a été effectuée sur des pipes en composite stratifiés avec et sans entaille carrée, en ayant recours a la simulation numérique a l’aide de la MEF. Le pipe stratifié comporte plusieurs couches alternées de la manière suivante (Θ/-Θ5. La résistance au flambage des pipes est mise en évidence en fonction de l’orientation des fibres. Les résultats montrent que la charge de flambage est plus grande pour les plus petits diamètres, et surtout pour les orientations (20°/-20°, ce qui augmente le risque de la rupture. Et pour la distribution des contraintes de Von mises, la concentration la plus importante est pour les orientations (20°/-20° et les plus faibles au niveau de l’orientation 90°. Donc l’ampleur des contraintes d

  20. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  1. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  2. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  3. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  4. Analysis of audio-vestibular assessment in acute low-tone hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gi Jung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrated excellent hearing recovery following the combined treatment of diuretic and oral steroid, and electrocochleography (ECoG) was significantly higher than normal side. This study reports characteristics of acute low-tone hearing loss (ALHL) that show the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG, and excellent recovery, even-though low-tone hearing loss is worse, which can be different compared with sudden deafness. Objective To analyze ALHL without vertigo, this study compared the ALHL group with all patients exhibiting low-tone hearing loss and ear fullness. Hearing changes and vestibular functions were analyzed. Materials and methods ALHL was defined as a mean hearing loss of ≥ 30 dB at 125, 250, and 500 Hz, and ≤ 20 dB at 2, 4, and 8 kHz. From 156 cases of low-tone hearing loss of more than 10 dB without vertigo, 31 met the ALHL criteria and were subjected to audio-vestibular assessments including PTA, ECoG, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing, and caloric testing. Results In ALHL, low-tone hearing loss was 42.7 ± 9.5 dB, and 83.9% of ALHL significantly recovered by more than 10 dB. The ECoG in ALHL was 0.334 ± 0.11 (higher than 0.25 ± 0.08 on the normal side) and ECoG abnormality was 35.5% (the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG value). PMID:26963446

  5. Peripheral Arterial Tonometry to Measure the Effects of Vardenafil on Sympathetic Tone in Men with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Francomano

    2013-01-01

    vardenafil (0.6 ± 0.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.1 min, when compared with placebo. STAI-X1 and STAI-X2 scores fell within the normal range after treatment with vardenafil (. Vardenafil was an effective treatment in men with LL-PE; improvements of IELT may be due to increased NO production which is able to reduce adrenergic overactivity and anxiety levels.

  6. Comportement instationnaire des thermoéléments à effet Peltier multi-étages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchoux, F.; Zély, D.; Cordier, A.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of thermoelectric phenomena is possible based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Integration of the thermal balance equation leads to an analytical solution for the non-stationnary behaviour. The influence to Thomson effect is commmented. The model, introduced in the complete software TRNSYS, permits the modelling of complex systems including such elements in their thermal regulation. La thermodynamique des processus irréversibles permet l'analyse des phénomènes thermoélectriques. Par intégration de l'équation de bilan thermique, on a obtenu une solution analytique pour le régime non stationnaire donnant la température en tous points et le flux absorbé. On a analysé l'influence de l'effet Thomson. Le modèle a été inclu dans le code plus général TRNSYS qui permet la modélisation de systèmes complexes.

  7. KCNA5 gene is not confirmed as a systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary arterial hypertension genetic susceptibility factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeón, Carmen P.; Beretta, L; Broen, Jasper C.; Vonk, Madelon C; Callejas-Rubio, J. L.; Carreira, P; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; García-Portales, Rosa; González-Gay, M. A.; Castellví, I.; Camps, M T; Tolosa, Carlos; Vicente-Rabaneda, Esther; Egurbide, M V

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Potassium voltage-gated channel shaker-related subfamily member 5 (KCNA5) is implicated in vascular tone regulation, and its inhibition during hypoxia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Recently, a protective association of the KCNA5 locus with systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was reported. Hence, the aim of this study was to replicate these findings in an independent multicenter Caucasian SSc cohort. Methods: The 2,343 SSc cases...

  8. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject. PMID:25996699

  9. Positive tone cross-linked resists based on photoacid inhibition of cross linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Chun, Jun Sung; Neisser, Mark; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2014-03-01

    A resist imaging design that utilizes photoacid inhibition of cationic polymerization and cross-linking during a postexposure bake step has been studied. The key to the design approach is the use of two different polymerization catalysts/initiators: (1) a photoacid produced from a photoacid generator (PAG) upon exposure of the resist that can result in polymerization and cross-linking of the resist matrix and (2) a thermal cross-linking catalyst (TCC) designed to thermally catalyze epoxide-phenol cross-linking. The TCC can be chosen from a variety of compounds such as triphenylphosphine (TPP) or imidazole. When only one of these catalysts (e.g TPP or photoacid) is present in an epoxide and phenol containing resist matrix, it will individually catalyze cross-linking. When they are present together, they effectively quench one another and little to no cross-linking occurs. This approach can be used to switch the tone of a resist from negative (photoacid catalyzed) to positive (TCC catalyzed and photoacid inhibited). The effect of the ratio of TCC:PAG was examined and the optimal ratio for positive tone behavior was determined. Resist contrast can be modified by optimization of epoxide:phenol ratio in the formulation. Dual tone behavior with positive tone at low dose and negative tone at higher doses can be observed in certain formulation conditions. Initial EUV patterning shows poor results, but the source of the poor imaging is not yet understood.

  10. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts. PMID:27250144

  11. What the [bleep]? Enhanced absolute pitch memory for a 1000Hz sine tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2016-09-01

    Many individuals are able to perceive when the tuning of familiar stimuli, such as popular music recordings, has been altered. This suggests a kind of ubiquitous pitch memory, though it is unclear how this ability differs across individuals with and without absolute pitch (AP) and whether it plays any role in AP. In the present study, we take advantage of a salient single frequency - the 1000Hz sine tone used to censor taboo words in broadcast media - to assess the nature of this kind of pitch memory across individuals with and without AP. We show that non-AP participants are accurate at selecting the correct version of the censor tone among incorrect versions shifted by either one or two semitones, though their accuracy was still below that of an AP population (Experiment 1). This suggests a benefit for AP listeners that could be due to the use of explicit note categories or greater amounts of musical training. However, AP possessors still outperformed all non-AP participants when incorrect versions of the censor tone were shifted within a note category, even when controlling for musical experience (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that AP listeners did not appear to possess a category label for the censor tone that could have helped them differentiate the censor tones used in Experiment 2. Overall, these results suggest that AP possessors may have better pitch memory, even when divorced from pitch labeling (note categories). As such, these results have implications for how AP may develop and be maintained. PMID:27289485

  12. The effects of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonhee

    Building mechanical equipment often generates prominent tones because most systems include rotating parts like fans and pumps. These tonal noises can cause unpleasant user experiences in spaces and, in turn, lead to increased complaints by building occupants. Currently, architectural engineers can apply the noise criteria guidelines in standards or publications to achieve acceptable noise conditions for assorted types of spaces. However, these criteria do not apply well if the noise contains perceptible tones. The annoyance thresholds experienced by the general population with regards to the degree of tones in noise is a significant piece of knowledge that has not been well-established. Thus, this dissertation addresses the relationship between human perception and noises with tones in the built environment. Four phases of subjective testing were conducted in an indoor acoustic testing chamber at the University of Nebraska to achieve the research objective. The results indicate that even the least prominent tones in noises can significantly decrease the cognitive performance of participants on a mentally demanding task. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance of test results have proven that tonality has a crucial influence on working memory capacity of subjects, whereas loudness levels alone did not. A multidimensional annoyance model, incorporating psycho-acoustical attributes of noise in addition to loudness and tonality, has been proposed as a more accurate annoyance model.

  13. Ouabain-induced increases in resting tone of human hyperplastic prostate following repeated noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Guh, J. H.; Ko, F. N.; Chueh, S. C.; Lai, M.K.; Teng, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of ouabain on contractions to repeated noradrenaline stimulation and electrical field stimulation of human hyperplastic prostate was examined. Ouabain (1 microM) did not induce contractile response per se but progressively increased the resting tone (i.e., the tone between one noradrenaline stimulation, or electrical field stimulation, and the following) of human hyperplastic prostate. 2. The increased tone by ouabain following repeated noradrenaline stimulations or electrical f...

  14. Patterned Tone Sequences Reveal Non-Linear Interactions in Auditory Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Inferior Colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    BRIMIJOIN, W. OWEN; O'Neill, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Linear measures of auditory receptive fields do not always fully account for a neuron's response to spectrotemporally-complex signals such as frequency-modulated sweeps (FM) and communication sounds. A possible source of this discrepancy is cross-frequency interactions, common response properties which may be missed by linear receptive fields but captured using two-tone masking. Using a patterned tonal sequence that included a balanced set of all possible tone-to-tone transitions, we have her...

  15. The effect of taurine on high potassium-and noradrenaline-induced contraction in rabbit ear artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Franconi, F.; Giotti, A.; Manzini, S.; Martini, F.; Stendardi, I.; Zilletti, L.

    1982-01-01

    1 Intraluminal administration of taurine (40 mM) did not affect the contractile tone of rabbit isolated ear artery 2 Taurine (10-80 mM) exerted a powerful concentration-dependent, vasodilator action in arteries contracted with high potassium medium. 3 In the same experimental conditions, the taurine analogues beta-alanine and homotaurine, had no effect. 4 Taurine (40-80 mM) did not affect in a significant manner the tonic component of the noradrenaline (5x10(-6 M)-induced contraction. 5 When ...

  16. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  17. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  18. Effects of thrombin, PAR-1 activating peptide and a PAR-1 antagonist on umbilical artery resistance in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott John T

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-thrombotic effects of thrombin in cardiovascular tissues, as mediated via the protease activated receptors (PARs, and particularly PAR-1, have been the focus of much recent research. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of thrombin, a specific PAR-1 activating peptide (PAR1-AP, and a PAR-1 antagonist on human umbilical artery tone in vitro. Methods Human umbilical artery samples were obtained from 17 women at term. Arterial rings were suspended under physiologic conditions for isometric recording. The in vitro effects of thrombin (0.5 units/mL to 3 units/mL, PAR1-AP TFLLR-NH2 [10(-9 to 10(-6 M], and PAR-1 antagonist (N-trans cinnamoyl- p-fluoroPhe-p-guanidinoPhe-Leu-Arg-Orn-NH2 [10(-9 M to 10(-5 M] on umbilical artery tone were measured. Results Both thrombin and TFLLR-NH2 exerted a potent cumulative vasodilatory effect on human umbilical artery resistance (P 0.05. Conclusion These findings highlight a potential role for thrombin and PAR-1 receptors in vascular regulation of feto-placental blood flow in normal pregnancy, and in association with the vascular lesions associated with IUGR and pre-eclampsia.

  19. Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on elevated arterial compliance and low systemic vascular resistance in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2001-01-01

    beta-blockers, but the effect of this treatment on arterial compliance has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the effects of propranolol on the arterial compliance of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty patients with cirrhosis underwent a haemodynamic......) of 17.8 mmHg, and responded to beta-blocker treatment with a significant reduction in the HVPG (-16%; P < 0.001). Arterial compliance was elevated (1.27 versus controls 1.01 ml/mmHg; P < 0.001), but remained almost unchanged during beta-adrenergic blockade (1.27 versus 1.29 ml/mmHg, +2%, ns), whereas...... beta-blockers increases small vessel (arteriolar) vascular tone towards the normal level, but does not affect the elevated compliance of the larger arteries in patients with cirrhosis....

  20. Tone model integration based on discriminative weight training for Putonghua speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao; ZHU Jie

    2008-01-01

    A discriminative framework of tone model integration in continuous speech recognition was proposed. The method uses model dependent weights to scale probabilities of the hidden Markov models based on spectral features and tone models based on tonal features.The weights are discriminatively trahined by minimum phone error criterion. Update equation of the model weights based on extended Baum-Welch algorithm is derived. Various schemes of model weight combination are evaluated and a smoothing technique is introduced to make training robust to over fitting. The proposed method is ewluated on tonal syllable output and character output speech recognition tasks. The experimental results show the proposed method has obtained 9.5% and 4.7% relative error reduction than global weight on the two tasks due to a better interpolation of the given models. This proves the effectiveness of discriminative trained model weights for tone model integration.

  1. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  2. IBM-JSR 193-nm negative tone resist: polymer design, material properties, and lithographic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kaushal S.; Lawson, Margaret C.; Varanasi, Pushkara Rao; Medeiros, David R.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Brock, Phillip J.; DiPietro, Richard A.; Nishimura, Yukio; Chiba, Takashi; Slezak, Mark

    2004-05-01

    It has been previously proposed that negative-tone resist process would have an intrinsic advantage for printing narrow trench geometry. To demonstrate this for 193nm lithography, a negative resist with performance comparable to a leading positive resist is required. In this paper we report the joint development of a hexafluoroalcohol containing, 193nm, negative-tone, chemically amplified resist based on the crosslinking approach. Lithographic performance is presented which includes the ability of the negative-tone resist to print 90nm line/space and isolated trenches with standard resist processing. The impact of the fluorinated polymer on etch performance is also quantified. Finally, key resist characteristics and their influence on performance and limiting factors such as microbridging are discussed.

  3. Problems in Mandarin Tone Acquisition by American Students--The Interference of American English Intonation Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chao Gui

    2000-01-01

    It is intended in this paper to discuss the common patterns of American intonation that interfere the tone acquisition by American students. Similar to the linguistic phenomenon that nonnative speakers of English speak the language with foreign accent due to the influence and linguistic constraints of their own mother tongue, American students face interference from the intonation patterns of American English in their acquisition of tones in the study of Mandarin Chinese. The syntactic structure that most clearly reflects this fact is the two-syllable Chinese word groups. After a close study of the most common mistakes made by American students in .their study of Mandarin tones, some general patterns are observed. It is concluded that the major causes of these mistakes could be attributed to English intonation pattems on the same level of syntactic structure

  4. The affective tone of narration and posttraumatic growth in organ transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that positive affective tone of narratives is connected to the experience of posttraumatic growth among transplant patients. Kidney transplant patients (N = 51 and liver transplant patients (N = 48 participated in the study. In the first stage, about 10 weeks after transplant, the participants told two stories about important, freely chosen events from their lives. During the second meeting 10-12 months later we measured posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that the affective tone of narratives about past events was associated with the level of post-traumatic growth measured 10-12 months later. This proves that the affective tone of narratives about life, understood as a relatively constant individual characteristic, promote posttraumatic growth.

  5. Detection of time-varying harmonic amplitude alterations due to spectral interpolations between musical instrument tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B; Beauchamp, James W; So, Richard H Y

    2009-01-01

    Gradated spectral interpolations between musical instrument tone pairs were used to investigate discrimination as a function of time-averaged spectral difference. All possible nonidentical pairs taken from a collection of eight musical instrument sounds consisting of bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, and violin were tested. For each pair, several tones were generated with different balances between the primary and secondary instruments, where the balance was fixed across the duration of each tone. Among primary instruments it was found that changes to horn and bassoon [corrected] were most easily discriminable, while changes to saxophone and trumpet timbres were least discriminable. Among secondary instruments, the clarinet had the strongest effect on discrimination, whereas the bassoon had the least effect. For primary instruments, strong negative correlations were found between discrimination and their spectral incoherences, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting time-varying alterations such as spectral interpolation. PMID:19173434

  6. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate

    2016-08-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. PMID:27135168

  7. Copper Induces Vasorelaxation and Antagonizes Noradrenaline -Induced Vasoconstriction in Rat Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA and high K+ induced vasoconstriction. Methods: The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Results: Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Copper did not blunt high K+-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K+-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Conclusion: Copper blunted NA but not high K+-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO, but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms.

  8. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations. PMID:26502754

  9. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  10. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  12. Carotid artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have had a stroke or TIA, a nervous system (neurological) exam will show other problems. You may also have the following tests: Blood cholesterol and triglycerides test Blood sugar (glucose) test Ultrasound of the carotid arteries ( carotid ...

  13. Generation of tone burst laser ultrasonic waves and its acoustic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical system for generating tone burst ultrasonic wave is introduced and the actual waveform is demonstrated. 4 high power pulse lasers were used for excitation and the stabilized Michelson laser interferometer was used as detection. On the other hand, we tried to investigate the nonlinear acoustic effect of the generated tone burst laser ultrasonic wave. In thermo-elastic region, the nonlinearity did not appear because the absolute amplitude of ultrasonic wave was so small less than 0.5 nm. Whereas, in ablation region, fairly strong nonlinearity appeared because the absolute amplitude of receiving signal was quite large up to about 2 nm.

  14. Overtone and combination tone bands in the DRIFT spectra of molecular sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Ch.; Splett, Ch.

    1993-03-01

    The DRIFT spectra of molecular sieves of type A, X, ZSM-5 and SAPO are measured. It is demonstrated that in some cases the overtone and combination tone bands of the lattice vibrations may be used for characterizing the structure of molecular sieves. For instance crystal phase transition due to thermal or hydrothermal treatment, can easily be studied in the region between 2500 and 1500 cm -1. In general the variations in the spectra of the samples due to structural distortion are less significant in the overtone and combination tone bands than in fundamental ones.

  15. Dark-toned dunes in the western Medusae Fossae Formation: Characteristics, distribution, and source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D. M.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Brown, A. J.; Qualls, F. B.; Michaels, T. I.; Chojnacki, M.

    2010-12-01

    Aeolian bedforms are nearly ubiquitous on Mars but the origin of the sediments remains unidentified. Dark-toned Martian sand may originate as volcaniclastic sediment (Edgett and Lancaster 1993). The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) has been hypothesized to be a volcaniclastic deposit. The two lobes of the western-most MFF (westMFF) host dark -toned sediments (Fig. 1) categorized here as aeolian based on morphologies, surface textures, and locations within lows. These sediments are bright in both day and night infrared (IR) images, indicating a large grain size and low albedo, and are concentrated along the westMFF southern margin, below the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) scarp. Indications of an MFF origin for this dark-toned dune sediment include: 1) gradation of tone: the dark sediments frequently grade into lighter toned MFF slope materials. 2) morphology and location: The dark dune morphologies indicate emplacement by a northerly (toward the south) wind regime (Fig. 1), for which the westMFF immediately to the north provides a sediment origin. 3) composition: Limited spectral data of the dark dunes indicate an olivine-poor composition, in contrast to the olivine-rich spectra of dunes in southern highland (SH) and Cerberus plains (Cp) craters, indicating a different source for those SH or Cp dunes than for the westMFF dunes. Thus, while minor amounts of sediment have likely been contributed from elsewhwere, we hypothesize that the dark-toned dunes in the westMFF originate(d) from the breakdown of MFF sediments, winnowing of bright fines, and concentration of dark, coarse sand into dunes. Given the putative origin of the MFF as volcaniclastic, this identification of the origin of the westMFF dark-toned dunes supports the paradigm of dark aeolian sediments on Mars originating as volcaniclastic material. Portion of P07_003769_1742_XN_05S209W, showing gradation between lighter- and dark-toned sediments (upper portion of image), and echo dune morphology (white oval

  16. Active noise control to reduce the blade tone noise of centrifugal fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, G. H.; Neise, W.; Chen, W.

    1988-07-01

    An active noise control method for suppressing the blade tones of centrifugal fans is presented which uses two secondary sound sources mounted into the cutoff region of the fan casing. Experiments were conducted for centrifugal fans with impeller diameters between 280 and 710 mm using two different designs for the secondary sources. The results indicate that the sound field inside the casing is dominated by the rotor locked pressure field, and that the blade tone noise measured in the far-field is generated by the unsteady pressures at the cutoff, which in turn are produced by the flow leaving the impeller.

  17. EXISTE-T-IL UN EFFET P.E.R. REALISE ET PREVISIONNEL ? : Évidence empirique sur la Bourse de Paris de 1991 à 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Thi-Thanh, Huyen

    2005-01-01

    Plusieurs études récentes mettent en évidence la présence d'un effet PER sur les grands marchés boursiers dans le monde. Cependant, certaines études les contredisent. Dans cet article, nous présentons l'évidence qu'il existe bien un effet PER réalisé à la Bourse de Paris durant la période récente de 1991 à 2001. Par contre, l'existence d'un effet engendré par les PER anticipés est moins certaine parce que les mesures de performance standard donnent des résultats contradictoires. Enfin, nous m...

  18. Contractile responses to ergotamine and dihydroergotamine in the perfused middle cerebral artery of rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Edvinsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The vasomotor effects of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats were studied using the pressurised arteriography method and in vitro myographs. MCAs from Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted on two glass micropipettes using the arteriograph, pressurised to 85...... mmHg and luminally perfused. All vessels used attained spontaneous contractile tone (34.9+/-1.8% of resting tone) and responded to luminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with dilatation (24.1+/-4.0%), which showed functioning endothelium. Luminally added ergotamine or DHE induced maximal contractions...... of 16.8+8% and 22.4+/-0.9%, respectively, compared to the resting diameter, with a pEC(50) of 8.7+/-0.1 for ergotamine and 9.0+/-0.1 for DHE. Abluminal application of ergotamine and DHE also caused concentration-dependent contractions of the perfused MCA by 21.4+/-2.1% and 23.1+/-7.0%, respectively...

  19. Limits on Monolingualism? A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Abilities to Integrate Lexical Tone in Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Poh, Felicia L. S.; Fu, Charlene S. L.

    2016-01-01

    To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English–Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12–13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12–13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17–18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  20. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children’s performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults’ performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants’ difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts’ similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  1. L’impact des biocarburants sur l’effet de serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poitrat Etienne

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Selon les statistiques de l’Observatoire de l’Énergie [1], la France a consommé 267 Mtep (tonnes équivalent pétrole d’énergie primaire en 2001, ou 269 Mtep avec correction climatique. Cette consommation comprend 145,6 Mtep sous forme d’énergie fossile (tableau 1. Les émissions corrigées du seul CO2 correspondant à l’énergie primaire consommée ont été entre août 2001 et juillet 2002, de 109 Mt de carbone par an [2]. Les énergies renouvelables (EnR totales utilisées en France sont d’environ 28 Mtep/an, dont 16,1 tep sont produits par les grands barrages hydro-électriques. Les autres EnR sont les bioénergies (11,9 Mtep/an et les énergies restantes, sont la géothermie, le solaire, l’éolien et la petite hydraulique [3]. En Europe, la France occupe la 5e place avec 11,5 % d’énergie renouvelable consommée après la Suède (26,7 %, l’Autriche (23,3 %, la Finlande (20,9 % et le Portugal (16,9 % [4]. D’autre part, la réserve mondiale prouvée des énergies fossiles représente au rythme actuel de consommation, qui est de 77 % de l’énergie totale consommée (tableau 2, environ 45 ans pour le pétrole, 60 ans pour le gaz et 220 à 250 ans pour le charbon. Afin de réduire les émissions de carbone fossile issues de la combustion des 77 % des énergies fossiles utilisées, il est nécessaire de réduire les consommations d’énergie par des économies et l’amélioration des rendements, de développer les énergies renouvelables et les technologies de séquestration du carbone. En France, les transports dépendent à plus de 95 % des hydrocarbures, non renouvelables, dont l’utilisation a une part déterminante (24 % dans l’émission des gaz à effet de serre. Le transport routier représente 81 % de la consommation énergétique du secteur. L’effet de serre se manifeste par un réchauffement de la température de l’air (+ 0,5 °C/100 ans et des océans (+ 0,3 °C/30 ans, avec une augmentation de la

  2. The Moessbauer effect and its applications in chemistry; L'effet Mossbauer et ses applications a la chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    When certain emitting and absorbing nuclei are embedded in identical crystal lattices, resonant absorption of gamma photons, emitted during a nuclear spin transition, takes place. Part of the emission and absorption of gamma photon becomes recoilless. The width of the spectral lines are normal (about 10{sup -8} eV). A relative movement of the source and the absorber changes the frequency (Doppler effect) and allows, by searching the resonance, to show very small changes in the levels of nuclear energy due to: - the electronic environment (isomeric shift); - the action of an internal electric field (quadrupolar splitting); - the action of a magnetic field (nuclear Zeeman effect). This introductory study of the Moessbauer effect formulates a simplified theory of the phenomenon and its applications to chemistry through a few examples. (author) [French] L'absorption resonnante des photons gamma, emis au cours d'une transition de spin nucleaire est realisable lorsque certains noyaux emetteurs et absorbeu.rs se trouvent prisonniers de reseaux cristallins identiques. Une fraction de l'emission et de l'absorption des photons gamma s'effectue alors 'sans recul'; les raies spectrales possedent alors leur largeur naturelle (voisine de 10{sup -8} eV). Un deplacement relatif de la source et de l'absorbeur provoque un glissement de frequence par effet DOPPLER et permet, en recherchant la resonance, d'enregistrer des variations extremement faibles des niveaux d'energie nucleaires dues: - a l'environnement electronique (deplacement isomerique); - a l'action d'un champ electrique interne (decomposition quadrupolaire); - a l'action d'un champ magnetique (effet ZEEMAN nucleaire). Cette introduction a l'etude de l'effet MOSSBAUER presente une theorie simplifiee du phenomene et illustre par quelques exemples les applications de cette decouverte recente a la chimie. (auteur)

  3. Les effets géographiques des éruptions volcaniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Lavigne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les méthodes de réflexion géographique permettent d’appréhender efficacement les jeux d’échelles et les temporalités multiples des effets induits par les éruptions volcaniques. L’objectif de cette synthèse est ainsi de comprendre les espaces volcaniques en tant qu’objets géographiques, en replaçant les impacts des éruptions au cœur d’une étude spatiale et temporelle. Les impacts de tels événements imposent des recompositions spatiales à l’échelle du volcan lui-même, et, dans le cas d’éruptions de plus grande magnitude, peuvent avoir des conséquences à l’échelle régionale voire mondiale. Les divers exemples abordés ici mettent l’accent sur les risques, la vulnérabilité et la résilience des populations vivant sur ces espaces marqués par les aléas volcaniques.The purpose of this paper aims to study the volcanic areas as geographical objects. Geographical analyses help to understand at different scales the levels of impacts induced by volcanic eruptions. Impacts of such events trigger spatial changes across the volcano itself, and can have consequences at regional or even global level in case of outbreaks of greater magnitude. The various examples discussed here focus on hazards, vulnerability and resilience of people living in those volcanic-hazard prone areas.

  4. Etude de la conversion photovoltaïque : effets des résistances parasites des photopiles

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, P. H.; Michel, C; Michel, Christine; Bottin, J.

    1983-01-01

    A partir du schéma équivalent électrique habituel nous développons une méthode de calcul du rendement (η) et du facteur de courbe (f) qui tient compte de la résistance série et de la conductance shunt de la photopile. L'effet de ces derniers paramètres est plus drastique sur le rendement que sur le facteur de courbe. Des expressions semi-empiriques en fonction de la résistance réduite et de la conductance réduite sont déduites des calculs de simulation.

  5. Evolution des effets non intentionnels de la lutte chimique contre le campagnol terrestre sur la faune sauvage et domestique

    OpenAIRE

    Coeurdassier, Michael; Berny, Philippe; Couval, Geoffroy; Decors, Anouk; Jacquot, Marion; Queffelec, Stéphane; Quintaine, Thomas; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Pendant longtemps, la lutte contre les rongeurs a été exclusivement menée avec des anticoagulants. Depuis 1990, des centaines de cas d'intoxications d'autres animaux (rapaces, renards, sangliers...) par ces substances ont été répertoriés en France. Que sait-on des effets non intentionnels des traitements contre les campagnols sur la faune non-cible ? Comment les évaluer ? Quels dispositifs mettre en place pour prévenir les intoxications ? Les indicateurs disponibles montrent que le passage d'...

  6. Étude de l'effet antibactérien des huiles essentielles de Thymus ciliatus ssp coloratus

    OpenAIRE

    HADDOUCHE, Khalida

    2015-01-01

    Etude de l'effet antibactérien de l'huile essentielle de Thymus ciliatus ssp coloratus Résumé Les plantes médicinales constituent une source immense de métabolites secondaires, dont les huiles essentielles dotées de nombreuses activités biologiques ; souvent recherchées dans le domaine phytopharmaceutique et en agro-alimentaire. Le présent travail porte sur une étude qualitative du pouvoir antibactérien de l'huile essentielle de la plante médicinale: Thymus ciliatus ssp c...

  7. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  8. Effets de facteurs sociaux sur la résistance de l’abeille Apis mellifera au parasite Nosema ceranae

    OpenAIRE

    Houstin Le Boedec, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    --BUTS DE L'ETUDE : Etudier les effets du nombre d’abeilles, de la présence de QMP (phéromone mandibulaire de la reine) et de la résistance naturelle au Varroa sur la résistance de l’abeille Apis mellifera au parasite Nosema ceranae. --METHODES & TECHNIQUES : Expériences en laboratoire dans des cagettes avec les différents facteurs. Analyse statistique avec le logiciel XLStat. --RESULTATS : Le Nosema augmente la mortalité dans les groupes de 30 et 100 abeilles avec ou sans QMP....

  9. Effet de l’obturateur sur l’évolution de la qualité sensorielle du vin

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro De Araujo Silva, Maria Adelaide

    2011-01-01

    L’évolution des vins lors de la conservation en bouteille est un processus lent et complexe où les obturateurs jouent un rôle fondamental, conséquence directe de leur perméabilité à l’oxygène mais aussi des interactions physico-chimiques avec les constituants du vin.Dans un premier temps nous avons étudié l’effet de la conservation en bouteille des vins de Sauvignon blanc après 24 mois d’embouteillage. Dans cette étude, la combinaison des conditions de mise en bouteille et des taux de transfe...

  10. Effets de pollutions par hydrocarbures sur les capacités de défense d'organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Bado Nilles, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Les effets des HAPs, parmi les plus toxiques de la liste de l'Agence de Protection Environnementale Américaine, sont testés in vitro et in vivo sur deux espèces commerciales des Pertuis Charentais (Charente-Maritime, France) : le bar commun, Dicentrarchus labrax, et l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas. Cette étude, réalisée dans le cadre du projet européen EROCIPS, recherche de nouveaux descripteurs immunologiques d'une pollution occasionnelle par hydrocarbures. Lors d'expérimentations in vitr...

  11. Les effets musculaires de la vitamine D : application à la perte musculaire liée à l’âge

    OpenAIRE

    Walrand Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Au-delà de ses rôles biologiques classiques sur la santé osseuse, les effets extra-squelettiques de la vitamine D font actuellement l’objet de nombreuses recherches. La présence du récepteur de la vitamine D dans la plupart des tissus de l’organisme vient d’ailleurs renforcer l’argument en faveur de ses fonctions multiples. Parmi celles-ci, l’effet de la vitamine D sur la masse et les performances musculaires a été longtemps pre...

  12. Effets de l'apport de bois raméal sur la plante et le sol : une revue des résultats expérimentaux

    OpenAIRE

    Barthès, Bernard; Manlay, R.; Porte, O.

    2010-01-01

    L_amendement du sol avec des branches, notamment avec des bois raméaux fragmentés (BRF), suscite un intérêt croissant chez les agriculteurs et les services de vulgarisation, mais la validation scientifique de cette pratique est incomplète. Cet article synthétise les résultats statistiquement significatifs concernant l_effet d_apports enfouis ou paillés (mulch) de BRF sur les cultures et le sol, en milieu tempéré et tropical. L_apport de BRF a généralement un effet positif sur le rendeme...

  13. "How, When, Why"--A Comparison of Two Action Research Methods to Examine the Hidden Tones in Annotation Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Elaine; Regan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This recent study broadly confirms earlier conclusions in which action research findings identified that annotated feedback on student assignments carried an unfavourable lecturer tone and, because of which, failed to motivate the student as a learner. It was important to take the action research process further to show how tone is so easily…

  14. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82% LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51% of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3. Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2, while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  15. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  16. Songbirds use pulse tone register in two voices to generate low-frequency sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Cooper, Brenton G.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2007-01-01

    generation alternates between the left and right sound sources. Spontaneously calling crows can also generate similar pulse characteristics with only one sound generator. Airflow recordings in zebra finches and starlings show that pulse tone sounds can be generated unilaterally, synchronously or by...

  17. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  18. Tone Sequences with Conflicting Fundamental Pitch and Timbre Changes Are Heard Differently by Musicians and Nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither-Preisler, Annemarie; Johnson, Linda; Krumbholz, Katrin; Nobbe, Andrea; Patterson, Roy; Seither, Stefan; Lutkenhoner, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    An Auditory Ambiguity Test (AAT) was taken twice by nonmusicians, musical amateurs, and professional musicians. The AAT comprised different tone pairs, presented in both within-pair orders, in which overtone spectra rising in pitch were associated with missing fundamental frequencies (F0) falling in pitch, and vice versa. The F0 interval ranged…

  19. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shufeng; Wong, Lena L. N.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT) is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI). Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT. Design The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI) were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT. Study sample 81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41) and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40). Results Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. Conclusions The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence. PMID:27191394

  20. Auditory Pattern Recognition and Brief Tone Discrimination of Children with Reading Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marianna M.; Givens, Gregg D.; Cranford, Jerry L.; Holbert, Don; Walker, Letitia

    2006-01-01

    Auditory pattern recognition skills in children with reading disorders were investigated using perceptual tests involving discrimination of frequency and duration tonal patterns. A behavioral test battery involving recognition of the pattern of presentation of tone triads was used in which individual components differed in either frequency or…

  1. Cues for Lexical Tone Perception in Children: Acoustic Correlates and Phonetic Context Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine; Burnham, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. Method: Eight minimum pairs of tonal contrasts were presented in either an identical phonetic context…

  2. The ensemble variance of pure-tone measurements in reverberation rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    statistics of measurements in such rooms. Below the Schroeder frequency, the relative variance is much larger, particularly if the source emits a pure-tone. The established theory for this frequency range is based on ensemble statistics of modal sums and requires knowledge of mode shapes and the distribution...

  3. Discrimination of Tone Contrasts in Mandarin Disyllables by Naive American English Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the perception of Mandarin disyllabic tones by inexperienced American English speakers. Participants heard two naturally-produced Mandarin disyllables, and indicated if the two were the same or different. A small native Mandarin-speaking control group participated as well. All 21 possible Mandarin contrasts where the…

  4. An Empirical Study on the Acquisition of English Rising Tone by Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenkai

    2013-01-01

    Intonation is the melody and soul of speech, and plays an important role in oral communication. Nevertheless, the acquisition of English intonation by Chinese EFL learners is far from being satisfactory. It is found by empirical study that the main problems existing in acquiring English rising tone are improper placement of nucleus stress, failure…

  5. Effect of Intensive Voice Treatment on Tone-Language Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Wong, Lina L. -N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive voice therapy on Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. The effect of the treatment on lexical tone was of particular interest. Four Cantonese speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease received treatment based on the principles of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT).…

  6. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  7. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  8. Effects of Clarinet Embouchure on Band Director Tone Quality Preferences: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Loraine D.

    2011-01-01

    Woodwind methods classes are where most teachers learn the basics of woodwind embouchure and tone production. Woodwind methods texts and beginning band methods disagree on clarinet embouchure. One cannot readily reduce any embouchure to one or two attributes; however, clarinet teachers and band directors often disagree about whether the corners of…

  9. Multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takahide; Lu, Guo-Wei; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2013-08-12

    This paper presents multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection that orthogonally detects superchannels without crosstalk between neighboring channels. The receiver consists of multiple sets of multi-tone coherent matched detector employed in parallel. In each detector, the received superchannels signal is homodyne mixed in multi frequency with locally generated multi-tone optical frequency comb; detected is a signal set that has the amplitude and phase exactly matched with the local comb. By launching orthogonal sets of local comb to the multiple parallel coherent matched detectors, the received superchannels are orthogonally downconverted to the baseband frequencies keeping the amplitude and phase information of all channels included. With an aid of n × n transform matrix, all channels are separately recovered from the downconverted signal sets. The system does not rely on any optical filters for channel demultiplexing and separation, with increased flexibility in wavelength arrangement. In addition, the parallel configuration equivalently enhance the bandwidth of the coherent matched detector keeping the speed in each tributary channel as high as possible. In this paper, it is experimentally demonstrated that even-odd interleaved 23 × 20-Gb/s QPSK superchannels are orthogonally demultiplexed and detected by two-tone coherent matched detection. PMID:23938777

  10. How to Study a Tone Language, with Exemplification from Oku (Grassfields Bantu, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    In response to requests I have often got as to how one approaches a tone language, I present a personal view of the three stages involved, starting from scratch and arriving at an analysis: Stage I: Determining the tonal contrasts and their approximate phonetic allotones. Stage II: Discovering any tonal alternations ("morphotonemics").…

  11. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  12. Pre-attentive modulation of brain responses to tones in coloured-hearing synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäncke Lutz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coloured-hearing (CH synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which an acoustic stimulus (the inducer initiates a concurrent colour perception (the concurrent. Individuals with CH synesthesia "see" colours when hearing tones, words, or music; this specific phenomenon suggesting a close relationship between auditory and visual representations. To date, it is still unknown whether the perception of colours is associated with a modulation of brain functions in the inducing brain area, namely in the auditory-related cortex and associated brain areas. In addition, there is an on-going debate as to whether attention to the inducer is necessarily required for eliciting a visual concurrent, or whether the latter can emerge in a pre-attentive fashion. Results By using the EEG technique in the context of a pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we show that the binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is associated with increased MMN amplitudes in response to deviant tones supposed to induce novel concurrent colour perceptions. Most notably, the increased MMN amplitudes we revealed in the CH synesthetes were associated with stronger intracerebral current densities originating from the auditory cortex, parietal cortex, and ventral visual areas. Conclusions The automatic binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is accompanied by an early pre-attentive process recruiting the auditory cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as ventral occipital areas.

  13. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha; Pandey, Deeksha

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8-10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044

  14. BRAIN-STEM INFLUENCES ON BICEPS REFLEX ACTIVITY AND MUSCLE TONE IN THE ANESTHETIZED RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JUCH, PJW; SCHAAFSMA, A; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and adjacent brainstem structures on the tonic reflex (TVR), the tonic stretch reflex (TSR) and on muscle tone (MT) in anaesthetized rat. Increases in TVR. TSR and MT of the m. biceps were evoked from regions rostra

  15. Unpredicted Pitch Modulates Beta Oscillatory Power during Rhythmic Entrainment to a Tone Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew; Bosnyak, Dan J.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting temporal regularities in external stimuli in order to predict upcoming events is an essential aspect of perception. Fluctuations in induced power of beta band (15–25 Hz) oscillations in auditory cortex are involved in predictive timing during rhythmic entrainment, but whether such fluctuations are affected by prediction in the spectral (frequency/pitch) domain remains unclear. We tested whether unpredicted (i.e., unexpected) pitches in a rhythmic tone sequence modulate beta band activity by recording EEG while participants passively listened to isochronous auditory oddball sequences with occasional unpredicted deviant pitches at two different presentation rates. The results showed that the power in low-beta (15–20 Hz) was larger around 200–300 ms following deviant tones compared to standard tones, and this effect was larger when the deviant tones were less predicted. Our results suggest that the induced beta power activities in auditory cortex are consistent with a role in sensory prediction of both “when” (timing) upcoming sounds will occur as well as the prediction precision error of “what” (spectral content in this case). We suggest, further, that both timing and content predictions may co-modulate beta oscillations via attention. These findings extend earlier work on neural oscillations by investigating the functional significance of beta oscillations for sensory prediction. The findings help elucidate the functional significance of beta oscillations in perception. PMID:27014138

  16. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with...

  17. Effects of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions on pure-tone frequency difference limens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rói; Santurette, Sébastien; Verhulst, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Pure-tone frequency difference limens (FDLs) have been shown to vary in the vicinity of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). As lower FDLs have been observed near SOAEs when measured ipsi- and contralaterally to the emission ear, it has been proposed that prolonged ongoing stimulation of ne...

  18. Exposure to extinction-associated contextual tone during slow-wave sleep and wakefulness differentially modulates fear expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Si-Zhi; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jian-Feng; He, Jia; Xue, Yan-Xue; Bao, Yan-Ping; Han, Fang; Tang, Xiang-Dong; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has used context cues (odor or auditory cues) to target memories during sleep and has demonstrated that they can enhance declarative and procedural memories. However, the effects of external cues re-presented during sleep on emotional memory are still not fully understood. In the present study, we conducted a Pavlovian fear conditioning/extinction paradigm and examined the effects of re-exposure to extinction memory associated contextual tones during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and wakefulness on fear expression. The participants underwent fear conditioning on the first day, during which colored squares served as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and a mild shock served as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The next day, they underwent extinction, during which the CSs were presented without the US but accompanied by a contextual tone (pink noise). Immediately after extinction, the participants were required to take a nap or remain awake and randomly assigned to six groups. Four of the groups were separately exposed to the associated tone (i.e. SWS-Tone group and Wake-Tone group) or an irrelevant tone (control tone, CtrT) (i.e. SWS-CtrT group and Wake-CtrT group), while the other two groups were not (i.e. SWS-No Tone group and Wake-No Tone group). Subsequently, the conditioned responses to the CSs were tested to evaluate the fear expression. All of the participants included in the final analysis showed successful levels of fear conditioning and extinction. During the recall test, the fear responses were significantly higher in the SWS-Tone group than that in the SWS-No Tone group or the SWS-CtrT group, while the Wake-Tone group exhibited more attenuated fear responses than either the Wake-No Tone group or Wake-CtrT group. Otherwise, re-exposure to auditory tones during SWS did not affect sleep profiles. These results suggest that distinct conditions during which re-exposure to an extinction memory associated contextual cue contributes to differential effects on

  19. The Perception of Musical Tones in the Statistical Sound Fields of Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindevald, Ian Morgan

    1987-09-01

    The perception of musical tones in a room is discussed in light of the room's chaotic sound transmission characteristics. We measure the auditory system's sensitivity to sound source level differences in a room for sine wave and harmonic tone signals. Using the method of adjustment, we derive just noticeable differences, 2.8 dB for the sine wave and 3.2 dB for the tone. The related difference limens derived using a forced choice methodology are 3.4 dB for the sine wave and 3.0, 3.1, and 2.8 dB for three varieties of a tone. The mutually agreeing JND and DL for the sine wave imply that the auditory system processes the equivalent of at least four samples of the room's statistical soundfield. The comparable discriminability of a harmonic tone, whose soundfield's std. dev. is already reduced due to its multiplicity of frequency samples, suggests that the value 3 dB can be considered a round number baseline criterion of discrimination in a room, independent of signal spectrum. Three routes by which the auditory system may access information about a sound source in a room are: (1) motion about the soundfield, (2) the room's onset transient and (3) binaurality. In a related loudness discrimination experiment, we find that with either of the first two of these routes, discrimination is nearly the same as with both; however, with neither, correct discrimination is by chance. We studied the third route by measuring the cross correlation of a random soundfield sampled at the two ears. Binaurality provides two independent sound samples at excitation frequencies above 500 Hz. This value represents a reduction of the two-microphone correlation frequency by a factor of two due to diffraction of sound by the head. With a masking (in a room) experiment, we find that the auditory system's ability to detect a sine wave in the presence of noise is improved by around 5 dB, when the masked tone is presented via the room's random transmission and the masker noise via earphones, as

  20. Making of a face: role of facial physiognomy, skin tone, and color presentation mode in evaluations of racial typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Participants (N=59) performed racial typicality ratings and racial categorization of affectively neutral faces. The authors manipulated facial physiognomy, skin tone, and color presentation mode (gray scale vs. color) independently. Participants perceived Eurocentric faces as more European American in the gray-scale presentation mode than in the color mode. Independent of facial physiognomy, the planned effect of skin tone also emerged: Participants perceived dark skin tone faces as more African American than they did light skin tone faces, but this tendency was especially true with faces presented in color. These findings suggest that color presentation mode plays an important role in altering the perceptions of faces on dimensions critical to the study of stereotyping and prejudice. The common use of gray-scale stimuli may exaggerate physiognomy-based perceptions of racial typicality and category membership, but it may diminish skin-tone-based perceptions in comparison with more realistic color presentations. PMID:19245048

  1. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  2. Coronary arterial fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Shakeel A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between one or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation. Its exact incidence is unknown. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in origin although they may occasionally be detected after cardiac surgery. They do not usually cause symptoms or complications in the first two decades, especially when small. After this age, the frequency of both symptoms and complications increases. Complications include 'steal' from the adjacent myocardium, thrombosis and embolism, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, rupture, endocarditis/endarteritis and arrhythmias. Thrombosis within the fistula is rare but may cause acute myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysmal fistula causing haemopericardium has also been reported. The main differential diagnosis is patent arterial duct, although other congenital arteriovenous shunts need to be excluded. Whilst two-dimensional echocardiography helps to differentiate between the different shunts, coronary angiography is the main diagnostic tool for the delineation of the anatomy. Surgery was the traditional method of treatment but nowadays catheter closure is recommended using a variety of closure devices, such as coils, or other devices. With the catheter technique, the results are excellent with infrequent complications. Disease name and synonyms Coronary arterial fistulas Coronary arterial fistulas or malformations

  3. Investigation of piano soundboard voicing techniques and their impact on tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Matt

    This thesis acts as a first step in connecting the subjective description of piano tone with quantitative measurements of changes in the vibrational and acoustical properties of a piano. Voicing techniques used by piano technicians are applied to a fully strung test piano and a series of tests are undertaken to measure the effect they have on piano tone. The addition of weights and riblets to a piano soundboard, two commonly practiced methods used to change the tone of a piano and even out the transition between the low tenor and high bass bridges, are examined in detail in this thesis. Modal analysis is the first test method applied and is used to determine the mode shapes and the modal properties of the test soundboard. The addition of small masses and riblets is shown to have the ability to change modal properties to varying degrees and connections are made between the output sound, attachment locations, modification locations, and mode shapes of the soundboard. A new technique, piano tone mapping, is introduced as a visualization method that displays the harmonic structure of the entire piano in one image. Using the technique creates a unique fingerprint of a piano that can be compared in various ways to other pianos. The piano tone maps reveal that initial magnitude and decay rate of the output sound are both decreased for notes with attachment points close to modification locations where weights and riblets are added. Impedance testing is also conducted for a number of different modifications. These tests reveal that riblets and weights each have their own frequency bands of influence, with the weights creating impedance changes primarily below 800 Hz and riblets creating impedance changes above 500 Hz, with a region of overlap between 500 Hz and 800 Hz. Tests also revealed that changes in impedance created by these voicing techniques were local in effect, with a region of influence less than 10 cm in radius extending from the location where the weight or

  4. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dykstra

    Full Text Available It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB. The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  5. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  6. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Badri, Kadhem Helo Abbas; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Christiansen, Evald H;

    2015-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk...

  7. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  8. Carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  9. Carotid artery stenting; Karotisangioplastie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum

    2009-09-15

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of the antagonistic effects of different angiotensin II receptor blockers in human coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantev, Emil; Stenman, Emelie; Wackenfors, Angelica;

    2002-01-01

    undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ARBs on vasoconstriction in humans. METHODS: Vasomotor tone was analyzed in endothelium denuded, human coronary artery (HCA) segments. Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)) receptor mRNA expression was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain...... presence of 100 nM losartan elicited a depression of the Ang II response to 32%. Its active metabolite, EXP 3174 (1 nM),abolished the Ang II contraction. The AT(1) receptor antagonists had the following order of blocking effect; EXP 3174 > candesartan = valsartan > losartan. The AT(2) receptor antagonist...

  11. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  12. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  13. Combination of rare right arterial variation with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H; San Millán Ruíz, D; Abdo, G; Asakura, F; Yilmaz, H; Lovblad, K O; Rüfenacht, D A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  14. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  15. Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Gonzalez-Usano, Alba; Agusti, Ana; Balzano, Tiziano; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation and increases GABAergic tone in the cerebellum which contributes to cognitive and motor impairment in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The link between neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone remains unknown. New treatments reducing neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone could improve neurological impairment. The aims were, in hyperammonemic rats, to assess whether: Enhancing endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms by sulforaphane treatment reduces n...

  16. Etude des effets singuliers produits par les particules énergétiques chargées de l’environnement radiatif spatial sur les capteurs d’images CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Lalucaa, Valérian

    2013-01-01

    Ce mémoire de thèse traite des effets singuliers produits par les milieux radiatifs sur les capteurs d’images CMOS. Le travail se concentre sur les effets provoqués par les ions lourds sur les capteurs utilisant des pixels 3T à photodiode standard et des pixels 4T et 5T à photodiodes pincées. Dans un premier temps, l’étude se concentre sur l’environnement spatial et l’architecture des capteurs. La comparaison avec la littérature met en évidence les effets les plus critiques sur les capteurs :...

  17. Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijo T George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal artery is the commonest of the four primitive anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system that may rarely persist in adults, with an angiographic incidence of 0.1 - 0.6%. We present the CT and MR angiograms of a patient who presented with a minor stroke and was detected to have this anomaly and briefly discuss the significance

  18. Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G.B.; Conti, M.L.M.; Veiga, J.C.E.; Jory, M.; Souza, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:22005697

  19. Effect of Ageing on the Passive and Active Tension and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of Rat Coronary Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheykhzade, Majid; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Boonen, Harrie C.M.; Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Nyborg, Niels Chresten Berg

    The influence of ageing on the passive and active tension and pharmacodynamic characteristics of intramural coronary arteries from 3-month-old and 2-year-old male Wistar rats was investigated using an isometric myograph. The passive vessel wall tension measured in Ca2+-free physiological salt...... significantly higher in coronary arteries of old rats. The sensitivity (pD2) to 5-HT was significantly higher in arteries from old (6.43 ± 0.11, n = 22) than from young rats (6.16 ± 0.08, n = 29). Ketanserin induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve in arteries...... solution at L0 was significantly greater in arteries from old rats (1.46 ± 0.10 Nm–1, n = 7) than in young rats (1.13 ± 0.13 Nm–1, n = 6). However, the maximal active tension at L0 was similar. The spontaneous myogenic tone was increased by age and the vasorelaxation induced by extracellular K+ was...

  20. Two-tone intensity-modulated optical stimulus for self-referencing microwave characterization of high-speed photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Zhang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The two-tone intensity modulated optical stimulus is proposed and demonstrated for measuring the high-frequency response of photodetectors. The method provides a narrow linewidth and wide bandwidth optical stimulus based on the two-tone modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical intensity modulator, and achieves the self-referenced measurement of photodetectors without the need for correcting the power variation of optical stimulus. Moreover, the two-tone intensity modulation method allows bias-independent measurement with doubled measuring frequency range. In the experiment, the consistency between our method and the conventional methods verifies the simple but accurate measurement.

  1. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  2. Cortical pitch representations of complex tones in musicians and non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien;

    Musicians typically show enhanced pitch-discrimination ability compared to non-musicians, consistent with the fact that musicians are more sensitive to some acoustic features critical for both speech and music processing. However, it is still unclear which mechanisms underlie this perceptual...... enhancement. In a previous behavioral study, musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance for both resolved and unresolved complex tones suggesting an enhanced neural representation of pitch at central stages of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to clarify whether musicians show...... (i) differential neural activation in response to complex tones as compared to non-musicians and/or (ii) finer fundamental frequency (F0) representation in the auditory cortex. Assuming that the right auditory cortex is specialized in processing fine spectral changes, we hypothesized that an enhanced...

  3. Active reduction of the dominant clear tone component of the noise pollution from power plant chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of a system for active reduction of an irritating dominant clear tone emitted as a part of the noise pollution from a power plant chimney is described. Experiments were carried out on a scale model with diameters 3-4 times less than the actual chimney. Reduction of 25-30 decibels was achieved in relation to the clear tone in the frequency range in connection with which it could be expected that the noise-muffling system would work. The system was also seen to be able to follow the expected variation in the noise signals and to be stable during a longer period of time. The theories on which the experiment was based, the experimental setup and measurement methods and results are presented. (AB)

  4. Selective increase of the contractile response to endothelin-1 in subcutaneous arteries from patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, H; Adner, M; Erlinge, D;

    1999-01-01

    arteries from subjects with established essential hypertension with matched controls. Furthermore, with RT-PCR, the occurrence of mRNA for the ETA and ET(B) receptors was shown in the tunica media layer of subcutaneous arteries in controls and hypertensives. The maximum contractile response to endothelin-1...... was significantly higher in the subcutaneous arteries of the hypertensives (by 88% with no change in potency) as compared to controls. The responses to noradrenaline, acetylcholine and potassium chloride did not differ between the groups. This selective increase in the contractile response to......Endothelin-1 has been shown to contribute to basal vascular tone in man. Since endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor putatively involved in hypertension, we have compared the contractile responses of endothelin-1 and noradrenaline in relation to potassium chloride in subcutaneous resistance...

  5. Endothelium dependent hyperpolarization-type relaxation compensates for attenuated nitric oxide-mediated responses in subcutaneous arteries of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Siti Safiah; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan Wai Sum; Yusof, Mohd Imran; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Azman; Mat Saad, Arman Zaharil; Suppian, Rapeah; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2016-02-29

    Diabetes impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study evaluated the contribution of different endothelium-dependent relaxing mechanisms to the regulation of vascular tone in subcutaneous blood vessels of humans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subcutaneous arteries were isolated from tissues of healthy controls and diabetics. Vascular function was determined using wire myography. Expressions of proteins were measured by Western blotting and immunostaining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P = 0.009). Acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations [in the presence of an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COX; indomethacin) and small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers (UCL1684 and TRAM 34, respectively)] were attenuated in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P bioavailability; however, EDH appears to compensate, at least in part, for this dysfunction. PMID:26768833

  6. Sound power emitted by a pure-tone source in a reverberation room

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    Energy considerations are of enormous practical importance in acoustics. In "energy acoustics," sources of noise are described in terms of the sound power they emit, the underlying assumption being that this property is independent of the particular environment where the sources are placed. However, it is well known that the sound power output of a source emitting a pure tone or a narrow band of noise actually varies significantly with its position in a reverberation room at low frequencies, ...

  7. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik

    2013-04-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  8. Relating Pitch Awareness to Phonemic Awareness in Children: Implications for Tone-Deafness and Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Loui, Psyche; Kroog, Kenneth; Zuk, Jennifer; Winner, Ellen; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one's own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception–production skills in children. Chil...

  9. A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rushmeier, H. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Piatko, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1997-01-15

    The authors present a tone reproduction operator that preserves visibility in high dynamic range scenes. The method introduces a new histogram adjustment technique, based on the population of local adaptation luminances in a scene. To match subjective viewing experience, the method incorporates models for human contrast sensitivity, glare, spatial acuity and color sensitivity. They compare the results to previous work and present examples the techniques applied to lighting simulation and electronic photography.

  10. Dissociation of Detection and Discrimination of Pure Tones following Bilateral Lesions of Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew R Dykstra; Christine K Koh; Braida, Louis D.; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual...

  11. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    The design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator is presented. The intended applications of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  12. KV7 channels regulate muscle tone and nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation of the rat gastric fundus

    OpenAIRE

    Ipavec, V.; Martire, M; Barrese, V.; Taglialatela, M; Currò, D.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent type 7 K+ (KV7) channels play important physiological roles in neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators in the rat gastric fundus and the expression of KV7 channels in this tissue. Muscle tone and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked relaxations of precontracted longitudinal muscle strips of the rat gastric fundus were investigated under nonadrenergic noncholinergic conditions by organ bath s...

  13. Colorectal and rectocolonic reflexes in canines: involvement of tone, compliance, and anal sphincter relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Sallam, Hanaa S.; Lin, Lin; Jiande D. Z. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Distention of the proximal colon may have inhibitory or excitatory effects on the rectum and vice versa. The reflexes between the proximal colon and the rectum have not been well studied due to difficulties in accessing the proximal colon. The aim of this study was to investigate the reflex responses and their mechanisms between the proximal colon and the rectum in consideration of distention-related changes in tone and compliance of these regions as well as anal sphincter relaxation in a can...

  14. Auditory habituation to simple tones: reduced evidence for habituation in children compared to adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Muenssinger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Habituation – the response decrement to repetitively presented stimulation - is a basic cognitive capability and suited to investigate development and integrity of the human brain. To evaluate the developmental process of auditory habituation, the current study used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory habituation, dishabituation and stimulus specificity in children and adults and compared the results between age groups. Twenty-nine children (Mage = 9.69 years, SD ± 0.47 and 14 adults (Mage = 29.29 years, SD ± 3.47 participated in the study and passively listened to a habituation paradigm consisting of 100 trains of tones which were composed of five 500Hz tones, one 750Hz tone (dishabituator and another two 500Hz tones, respectively while focusing their attention on a silent movie. Adults showed the expected habituation and stimulus specificity within-trains while no response decrement was found between trains. Sensory adaptation or fatigue as a source for response decrement in adults is unlikely due to the strong reaction to the dishabituator (stimulus specificity and strong mismatch negativity responses. However, in children neither habituation nor dishabituation or stimulus specificity could be found within-trains, response decrement was found across trains. It can be speculated that the differences between children and adults are linked to differences in stimulus processing due to attentional processes. This study shows developmental differences in task-related brain activation and discusses the possible influence of broader concepts such as attention, which should be taken into account when comparing performance in an identical task between age groups.

  15. Relating Pitch Awareness to Phonemic Awareness in Children: Implications for Tone-Deafness and Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Psyche eLoui; Kenneth eKroog; Jennifer eZuk; Ellen eWinner; Gottfried eSchlaug

    2011-01-01

    Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one’s own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Chil...

  16. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in id...

  17. The Genetics of Congenital Amusia (Tone Deafness): A Family-Aggregation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Isabelle ; Cummings, Stéphanie ; Dubé, Marie-Pierre 

    2007-01-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as “tone deafness”) is a lifelong impairment of music perception that affects 4% of the population. To estimate whether congenital amusia can be genetically transmitted, its prevalence was quantified by direct auditory testing of 71 members of 9 large families of amusic probands, as well as of 75 members of 10 control families. The results confirm that congenital amusia is expressed by a deficit in processing musical pitch but not musical time and also show t...

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THREE-TONE PARADIGM AUDITORY P300 ON AGING DEMENTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓君; 赵毅; 高玉红; 耿稚萍; 余华峰

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To explore the changes of three-tone paradigm P300 and observe the improvement of the diagnostic sensitivity of P300 in aging dementia. Methods. Thirty-four patients of aging dementia underwent traditional P300 (2t-P300) and three-tone paradigm auditory P300 (3t-P300). The results of these two methods were compared. Results. Abnormal P300 was found in 18 of 34 dementia cases (52. 9% ) by 2t-P300, and in 26 of 30 pa-tients who finished the 3t-P300 tests (86. 7% ). In 2t-P300, 9 of 24 mild cases, 7 of 8 moderate cases and 2 severe cases showed abnormal results. In 3t-P300, 20 of 24 mild cases and all 6 moderate cases showed abnormal results. Abnormal 3t-P300 was found in 13 of 16 cases which showed normal 2t-P300. Besides prolonged and bad-shaped P300, no certain response of P300 to rare non-target stimulus (r-nT) was found in 10 mild cases by 3t-P300. Conclusion. Three-tone paradigm auditory P300 had higher sensitivity in early diagnosis of aging dementia than traditional auditory P300. No P300 response to r-nT in 3t-P300 is an important index in early diagnosis of mild dementia.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THREE-TONE PARADIGM AUDITORY P300 ON AGING DEMENTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓君; 赵毅; 高玉红; 耿稚萍; 余华峰

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To explore the changes of three-tone paradigm P300 and observe the improvement of the diagnostic sensitivity of P300 in aging dementia.``Methods. Thirty-four patients of aging dementia underwent traditional P300 (2t-P300) and three-tone paradigm auditory P300 (3t-P300). The resuhs of these two methods were compared.Results. Abnormal P300 was found in 18 of 34 dementia cases (52.9%) by 2t-P300, and in 26 of 30 patients who finished the 3t-P300 tests (86. 7% ). In 2t-P300, 9 of 24 mild cases, 7 of 8 moderate cases and 2severe cases showed abnormal results. In 3t-P300, 20 of 24 mild cases and all 6 moderate cases showed abnormal results. Abnormal 3t-P300 was found in 13 of 16 cases which showed normal 2t-P300. Besides prolonged and bad-shaped P300, no certain response of P300 to rare non-target stimulus (r-nT) was found in 10 mild cases by 3t-P300.``Conclusion. Three-tone paradigm auditory P300 had higher sensitivity in early diagnosis of aging dementia than traditional auditory P300. No P300 response to r-nT in 3t-P300 is an important index in early diagnosis of mild dementia.

  20. Relating Pitch Awareness to Phonemic Awareness in Children: Implications for Tone-Deafness and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one’s own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of 7 and 9 were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.

  1. Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Kroog, Kenneth; Zuk, Jennifer; Winner, Ellen; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one's own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of seven and nine were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis. PMID:21687467

  2. Continuous-tone applications in digital hard-copy output devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jeffrey C.

    1990-11-01

    Dye diffusion technology has made a recent entry into the hardcopy printer arena making it now possible to achieve near-photographic quality images from digital raster image data. Whereas the majority of low cost printers utilizing ink-jet, thermal wax, or dotmatrix technologies advertise high resolution printheads, the restrictions which dithering algorithms apply to these inherently binary printing systems force them to sacrifice spatial resolution capability for tone scale reproduction. Dye diffusion technology allows a fully continuous range of density at each pixel location thus preserving the full spatial resolution capability of the printhead; spatial resolution is not sacrificed for tone scale. This results in images whose quality is far superior to the ink-jet or wax-transfer products; image quality so high in fact, to the unaided eye, dye diffusion images are indistinguishable from their silver-halide counterparts. Eastman Kodak Co. offers a highly refined application of dye diffusion technology in the Kodak XL 7700 Digital Continuous Tone Printer and Kodak EKTATHERM media products. The XL . 7700 Printer represents a serious alternative to expensive laser-based film recorders for applications which require high quality image output from digital data files. This paper presents an explanation of dye diffusion printing, what distinguishes it from other technologies, sensitometric control and image quality parameters, and applications within the industry, particularly that of Airborne Reconnaissance and Remote Sensing.

  3. Subpacket structures in EMIC rising tone emissions observed by the THEMIS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Shoji, Masafumi; Nosé, Masahito; Summers, Danny; Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2015-09-01

    We report subpacket structures found in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) rising tone emissions observed by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes. We investigate three typical cases in detail. The first case shows a continuous single rising tone with four obvious subpackets, and the second case is characterized by a patchy emission with multiple subpackets triggered in a broadband frequency. The third case looks like a smooth rising tone without any obvious subpacket in the fast Fourier transform spectrum, while its amplitude contains small peaks with increasing frequencies. The degree of polarization of each subpacket is generally higher than 0.8 with a left-handed polarization, and the wave direction of the subpackets is typically field aligned. We show that the time evolution of the observed frequency and amplitude can be reproduced consistently by nonlinear growth theory. We also compare the observed time span of each subpacket structure with the theoretical trapping time for second-order cyclotron resonance. They are consistent, indicating that an individual subpacket is generated through a nonlinear wave growth process which excites an element in accordance with the theoretically predicted optimum amplitude.

  4. Absence of cholinergic airway tone in normal BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Zosky, Graeme R; Bozanich, Elizabeth M; Turner, Debra J; Hantos, Zoltan; Sly, Peter D

    2008-05-31

    Basal airway smooth muscle (ASM) tone has not been demonstrated in mice in vivo. To determine whether basal ASM tone is present in mouse airways we measured respiratory system impedance (Zrs) before and after either atropine or bilateral vagotomy. Zrs was measured using forced oscillations delivered via a wave-tube during slow ( approximately 35s) inflation-deflation maneuvers between transrespiratory pressures (Prs) of 0 and 20 cm H2O. A constant-phase tissue model was applied to the Zrs to calculate airway resistance (R aw), tissue damping (G) and elastance (H). Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically at Prs=0 cm H2O and by integration of the inspiratory flow. The relationship between conductance (G aw=1/R aw) and TGV during inflation was also examined. Neither atropine nor vagotomy produced any change in R aw, H, eta (=G/H), TGV or the slope of G aw vs. TGV that was different to that observed in the relevant control groups. These data show that BALB/c mice do not have cholinergic ASM tone in vivo. PMID:18440286

  5. Overnight fasting regulates inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Groessl

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH contributes to the regulation of overall energy homeostasis by modulating energy intake as well as energy expenditure. Despite the importance of the DMH in the control of energy balance, DMH-specific genetic markers or neuronal subtypes are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate the presence of cholinergic neurons in the DMH using genetically modified mice that express enhanced green florescent protein (eGFP selectively in choline acetyltransferase (Chat-neurons. Overnight food deprivation increases the activity of DMH cholinergic neurons, as shown by induction of fos protein and a significant shift in the baseline resting membrane potential. DMH cholinergic neurons receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic input, but the activation of these neurons by an overnight fast is due entirely to decreased inhibitory tone. The decreased inhibition is associated with decreased frequency and amplitude of GABAergic synaptic currents in the cholinergic DMH neurons, while glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not altered. As neither the frequency nor amplitude of miniature GABAergic or glutamatergic postsynaptic currents is affected by overnight food deprivation, the fasting-induced decrease in inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons is dependent on superthreshold activity of GABAergic inputs. This study reveals that cholinergic neurons in the DMH readily sense the availability of nutrients and respond to overnight fasting via decreased GABAergic inhibitory tone. As such, altered synaptic as well as neuronal activity of DMH cholinergic neurons may play a critical role in the regulation of overall energy homeostasis.

  6. The effect of the player's vocal tract on woodwind instrument tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, J

    1985-07-01

    Many players of woodwind instruments believe that the tone of the instrument is influenced by the player's vocal tract. If this is so, it would be expected that the vibrating reed in the player's mouth would generate an appreciable sound pressure in his vocal tract. However, measurements of the vocal tract impedance (looking into the mouth) give values an order of magnitude less than the impedances of the clarinet air column resonances. The sound pressure built up in the vocal tract would thus be expected to be much smaller than that in the clarinet. A clarinetlike system was arranged to sound by drawing air through it from the normally open end, the reed being out in the open for easy accessibility. When the mouth was placed around the mouthpiece with the system sounding, the changes in the waveform and harmonic structure of the tone were minimal. When a system with a more sharply tuned resonance was substituted for the vocal tract, the waveform changes were observable but not large. It appears that the player's vocal tract has a negligible influence on the instrument tone. PMID:4019905

  7. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  8. TONE AT THE TOP’: FIGHTING MILITARY CORRUPTION IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military unethical culture in contaminated hierarchical organisations will be proposed, while a number of hypotheses on the institution’s functioning will be provided. Differently from private companies’ theoretical bias, the main suggested approach implies the initial establishment of a strong, transactional-based tone at the top as the main tool to fight military corruption. As a further step, after the corrupt culture has been neutralised, transactional leadership based on ethics could be slowly transformed into gentler versions of transformational style, but never letting the main fear of the harshest punishment evanesce. In summary, by showing that unethical leadership will necessarily pave the way for misconduct in traditional military organisations, we propose a cannonball strategy, based on a punishment and reward system, to reinforce integrity instead of gentler or charismatic leadership styles.

  9. Ischemic heart disease induces upregulation of endothelin receptor mRNA in human coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wackenfors, Angelica; Emilson, Malin; Ingemansson, Richard; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Szok, Delia; Tajti, Janos; Vecsei, Laszlo; Edvinsson, Lars; Malmsjö, Malin

    2004-01-01

    Endothelin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. The aims were to quantify endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptor mRNA levels in human coronary arteries from patients with ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and...... significantly higher in arteries from patients with ischemic heart disease (0.23+/-0.04 and 0.35+/-0.06) as compared to congestive heart failure (0.09+/-0.02 and 0.07+/-0.01) and controls (0.08+/-0.02 and 0.08+/-0.01). After organ culture, the endothelin ETB receptor mRNA levels were elevated, and the...... sarafotoxin 6c-induced vasoconstriction was more efficacious. Increased endothelin receptor activity may contribute to the increased vascular tone and development of atherosclerotic disease in ischemic heart disease in man....

  10. Effet de la litière de Cordyla pinnata sur les cultures : approche expérimentale en agroforesterie

    OpenAIRE

    Samba Arona Ndiaye Samba,

    2001-01-01

    La litière provenant des arbres constitue un important mode de transfert d'éléments des végétaux aux sols. La litière foliaire de Cordyla pinnata est estimée à 33,7 g m$^{-2}$ an$^{-1}$ dans un parc agroforestier au Sénégal. La perte en masse de cette litière est de 75 % en 67 j. L'effet de la dose de cette litière (0, 39, 78, 156 kg par t de sol ou D0, D39, D78 et D156, respectivement) sur le sol et les cultures révèle qu'une augmentation de la dose de D0 à D156 augmente N total, Ca, Mg et K...

  11. Effet du glaucome et des facteurs de risque de glaucome sur l'hémodynamique choroïdienne

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Samra, Waleed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Dans la présente étude, nous avons évalué quantitativement l'hémodynamique de la circulation choroïdienne subfovéolaire chez des patients atteints de glaucome à angle ouvert et des patients présentant un hypertension oculaire. Nous avons étudié l'effet des facteurs de risque du glaucome sur la circulation choroïdienne subfoveale en vue de déterminer le rôle de cette circulation dans la pathogénie de cette maladie. De plus, nous avons établi les relations entre les paramètres hémodynamiques et...

  12. Définir les choix à risque: l'éthique et les effets des décisions organisationnelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Marika

    2016-07-01

    Les choix de vivre « à risque » sont complexes et difficiles. Ils peuvent être structurés par les politiques organisationnelles. Certaines personnes veulent vraiment vivre dans des situations à haut risque ou perçues comme telles parce qu'elles en tirent un avantage important. Cependant, il est probable que ces choix dépendent en grande partie du contexte et qu'ils ne se soient pas posés dans une autre situation. L'article plaide pour la responsabilité d'être attentif aux effets des décisions organisationnelles sur les choix de vivre à risque et sur la répartition globale du risque. PMID:27365384

  13. Effets de l'étrépage pour la restauration de landes tourbeuses en haute Ardenne belge

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; De Sloover, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    En 1989, la restauration par éùépage de landes lourbeuses dégradées et envahies par Molinia caerulea a été enlrcprise en hauie Ardenne belge Des relevés de véqétation ont été effectués en 'i989 et en 1998 l'étrépage â un effet bénéfique en diminuant le couvert de la molinie et en augmentant celui des espèces lypiques des landes tourbeuses telles que Juncus sq-uaffosus, Carex panicea, Erica tetralix, Trichophorum cespitosun el Narthecium assifragum féirépâqe a égaleûrenl permis le retour d'esp...

  14. Études expérimentales en magnétohydrodynamique : effet dynamo, turbulence et induction.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhille, Gautier

    2010-01-01

    Ce manuscrit est consacré à l'étude de trois aspects de la magnétohydrodynamique : l'effet dynamo, l'influence d'un écoulement turbulent de métal liquide sur un champ magnétique et l'influence d'un champ magnétique fort sur un écoulement turbulent de métal liquide. Des expériences en gallium à l'ENS-Lyon, et des expériences en sodium à Cadarache, au sein de la collaboration VKS (von Karman sodium), on été menées. Une partie est consacrée à l'importance des conditions aux limites pour les proc...

  15. De l’effet de sidération et de peur dans les autoportraits d’Andy Warhol

    OpenAIRE

    Cordié-Levy, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Nous nous proposons d’analyser la sidération et la peur dans la dernière série d’autoportraits faite par Andy Warhol en 1986 qui donnent à voir les subterfuges de l’artiste pour en contrer ou en accompagner les effets. Après une première mise en perspective, nous avons tissé un réseau de correspondances serrées entre ces œuvres et le texte « Méduse et Compagnie » de Roger Caillois sur le travestissement, le camouflage et l’intimidation, en utilisant la micro-analyse tactile, technique inspiré...

  16. Orientations professionnelles atypiques : transgression des normes de genre et effets identitaires

    OpenAIRE

    Gianettoni, Lavinia; Simon-Vermot, Pierre; Gauthier, Jacques-Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Par le biais d’analyses secondaires des données longitudinales suisses issues de l’étude « Transition entre l’école et l’emploi », cet article analyse les effets des aspirations professionnelles atypiques du point de vue du genre et de l’exercice d’une profession atypique sur l’identité des jeunes et leur conformisme aux rôles sexués. Les résultats montrent que les filles aspirent plus que les garçons à exercer des métiers majoritairement occupés par le sexe opposé, mais ont beaucoup moins de...

  17. Further studies of static to flight effects on fan tone noise using inlet distortion control for source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Current experimental investigations have linked static inflow distortion phenomena such as the ground vortex, atmospheric turbulence, and teststand structure interference to the generation of fan tone noise at the blade passing frequency. Since such distortions do not exist in flight, it is important to remove them from the static test environment and thereby improve the static-to-flight tone-noise correlation. In the course of providing evidence for this position, a recent investigation used a distortion control inlet with a modern day turbofan engine to assess atmospheric turbulence effects. Although the initial results were encouraging, they were incomplete. The present investigation continues this work and shows more completely the effect of atmospheric turbulence on tone-noise generation. Further, use is made of the distortion control inlet to identify other competing tone-noise sources in the test engine such as a rotor-core stator interaction which was confirmed by engine modifications.

  18. High- and Low-Frequency Probe Tone Tympanometry in Chinese Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of low- and high-frequency tympanometry in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction in Chinese infants. Methods Tympanograms were obtained with 226 Hz, 678 Hz and 1000 Hz probe tones from infants aged 5-25 weeks with normal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)(15 infants,30 ears) and withprolonged wave Ⅰ latencies(17 infants, 20 ears), suggesting middle ear dysfunction, using a GSI Tympstar middle ear analyzer Version Ⅱ. Results The single-peaked tympanogram was the most characteristic type in both groups and seen in 25 ears (83.3%) in the normal ABR group and in 18 ears (90%) in the delayed wave Ⅰ group, respectively. The peak pressure, peak compensated static acoustic admittance and gradient of 226 Hz tympanometry were of no significant differences between the two groups. The 678 Hz tympanograms of admittance, susceptance and conductance demonstrated non-peak, single-, double- and tri-peaked patterns in both groups. The agreement between ABRs and 678 Hz tympanograms of admittance,susceptance and conductance were 70.0%, 58.0% and 64.0%(kappa=0.324, 0.234 and 0.118) respectively. For 1000 Hz probe tone, admittance,susceptance and conductance tympanograms showed single peaked patterns in 28 (93.3%), 25 (83.3%) and 26 (86.7%) of the 30 normal ears. Admittance, susceptance and conductance tympanograms using the 1000 Hz probe tone were flat in 15 (75%), 17(85%) and 13 (65%) of the ears in infants with prolonged wave Ⅰ latencies. For 1000 Hz admittance, susceptance and conductance Tympanograms, the agreement between tympanometry and ABR results were 90.0%, 92.0% and 86.0% with kappa at 0.783, 0.831 and 0.690, respectively. Conclusion 1000 Hz probe tone tympanometry is a promising middle ear function test for infants of 1-6 months age, while 226 Hz and 678 Hz probe tones are less efficient in detecting middle ear dysfunction in infants.

  19. Scalp potentials to pitch change in rapid tone sequences. A correlate of sequential stream segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J; Jones, S J; Vaz Pato, M

    2001-09-01

    The object of the study was to look for a neurophysiological substrate of sequential auditory stream segregation. When a sequence of tones alternates rapidly between pitches separated by more than a few semitones, there is a tendency for it to be perceived as two independent "streams". We examined the scalp potentials evoked when the pitch interval abruptly changes, to see whether there are response parameters which might be correlated with sudden stream segregation and/or integration. For 3 s a continuous synthesized tone of "clarinet" timbre oscillated between pitches of F4 and F#4 (one semitone higher) at 16 notes/s, perceived as an integrated stream. The upper note was then raised to E5 (11 semitones above F4, perceived as segregated streams) for a further 3 s and the cycle was repeated 40 times. In a second condition also starting with oscillation between F4 and F#4, the upper note was lowered to E4 (one semitone below F4, still perceived as a single stream). Further conditions examined the changes between oscillations of 1 and 11 semitones down from E5, 1 and 23 semitones up from F4, and 10 and 11 semitones up from F4. Virtually no potentials were detectable during the periods of unchanging oscillation, but an N1/P2 complex was evoked on each change in the pitch interval. The N1 was termed "MN1" on account of its arguable relatedness to the mismatch negativity, recorded in a separate experiment using discontinuous tones at a much slower rate. The mean peak latency of the MN1 varied between 96 and 123 ms, the shortest latencies being recorded, not to the largest changes of pitch interval but to the widest pitch intervals between the new tone and the immediately preceding one. Therefore, although a causal relationship with streaming cannot necessarily be inferred, the MN1 latency appears to mark the degree of pitch contrast between consecutive tones, in correlation with the streaming effect. PMID:11500798

  20. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, N J; Kitslaar, P; Janevski, B K

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called "functional" PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. PMID:2837797

  1. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology.

  2. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.)

  3. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.; Farber, Harrison W.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality....

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Amy L.; Mandel, Jess; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved understanding of the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it remains a severe and progressive disease, usually culminating in right heart failure, significant morbidity and early mortality. Over the last decade, some major advances have led to substantial improvements in the management of PAH. Much of this progress was pioneered by work in animal models. Although none of the current animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) completely recapitulate the hum...

  5. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should ...

  7. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Knutson, Gary A; Owens, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviews complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The review culminates in Part II with a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle ...

  8. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic responses stabilize smooth muscle tone, with and without parasympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, A; Löfdahl, C G; Ullman, A; Skoogh, B E

    1993-03-01

    In guinea-pig isolated airways, nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neural responses converge towards a similar level of smooth muscle tone, via a contraction when the tone is low prior to stimulation, and via a relaxation when the tone is high prior to stimulation. We wanted to assess the effect of simultaneous parasympathetic activation on these converging NANC responses, with and without the addition of sympathetic activation. In guinea-pig isolated airways, the spontaneous airway tone was initially abolished by indomethacin (10 microM). In one series, adrenergic depletion by guanethidine (10 microM) was then established, with and without cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM). In another series, either cholinergic blockade by atropine (1 microM) or no blockade was utilized. Responses to electrical field stimulation (1,200 mA, 0.5 ms, 3 Hz for 240 s) were studied with no induced tone, at a moderate (0.3 microM) and at a near-maximum (6 microM), histamine-induced tone. The mean level of the tonus equilibrium (% of maximum tone) was higher with the simultaneous NANC and parasympathetic activation than with NANC activation alone (75% compared with 44%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The level of the tonus equilibrium was also higher with the simultaneous NANC, sympathetic and parasympathetic activation than with NANC and sympathetic activation only (49% compared with 21%, in the main bronchus, n = 8). The pattern was similar in the distal trachea. In conclusion, NANC neural responses can stabilize smooth muscle tone, and this stabilizing effect can be modulated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activation, in guinea-pig isolated airways. PMID:8472834

  9. Studying the Difference in the Effect of Noise and Pure Tone on the Residual Inhibition in Patients Suffering Tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Norouzi; Abdollah Mousavi; Masoumeh Rouzbehani

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: we were aimed at studying the difference in the effect of noise and pure tone on the residual inhibition in patients suffering tinnitus. "nMethod: patients were selected among whom referred to audiology clinic in Ran faculty of rehabilitation sciences and aged between 20-70 years old. Our method in studying patients was experimental- masking with pure tone was performed in patients who had experienced partial residual inhibition with noise. Results; the differences between the mas...

  10. Resting Vagal Tone and Vagal Response to Stress: Associations with Anxiety, Aggression and Perceived Anxiety Control among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youth (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiet...

  11. Robotic coronary artery bypass for aberrant right coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Teefy, Patrick; Kiaii, Bob; Vezina, William C; Chu, Michael Wa

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries that course between the aorta and pulmonary artery are subject to compressive forces and can manifest angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. The current report presents a young, female patient who presented with a short duration of severe, rapidly progressive angina despite optimal medical therapy. Combined computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scanning identified an anomalous dominant right coronary artery that appeared kinked at its origin between the aorta and main pulmonary artery. A robot-assisted right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery bypass was performed, which was confirmed to be widely patent (FitzGibbon grade A) on routine intraoperative angiography. The procedure completely resolved the patient's angina symptoms. PMID:20931103

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (ascites syndrome) in broilers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Rhoads, D D; Erf, G F; Anthony, N B

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers (also known as ascites syndrome and pulmonary hypertension syndrome) can be attributed to imbalances between cardiac output and the anatomical capacity of the pulmonary vasculature to accommodate ever-increasing rates of blood flow, as well as to an inappropriately elevated tone (degree of constriction) maintained by the pulmonary arterioles. Comparisons of PAH-susceptible and PAH-resistant broilers do not consistently reveal differences in cardiac output, but PAH-susceptible broilers consistently have higher pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary vascular resistances compared with PAH-resistant broilers. Efforts clarify the causes of excessive pulmonary vascular resistance have focused on evaluating the roles of chemical mediators of vasoconstriction and vasodilation, as well as on pathological (structural) changes occurring within the pulmonary arterioles (e.g., vascular remodeling and pathology) during the pathogenesis of PAH. The objectives of this review are to (1) summarize the pathophysiological progression initiated by the onset of pulmonary hypertension and culminating in terminal ascites; (2) review recent information regarding the factors contributing to excessively elevated resistance to blood flow through the lungs; (3) assess the role of the immune system during the pathogenesis of PAH; and (4) present new insights into the genetic basis of PAH. The cumulative evidence attributes the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH-susceptible broilers to an anatomically inadequate pulmonary vascular capacity, to excessive vascular tone reflecting the dominance of pulmonary vasoconstrictors over vasodilators, and to vascular pathology elicited by excessive hemodynamic stress. Emerging evidence also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of PAH includes characteristics of an inflammatory/autoimmune disease involving multifactorial genetic, environmental, and immune system components. Pulmonary

  13. Computer-aided assessment of tone production: A case of Zimbabwean students learning Chinese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.

  14. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS. The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton’s jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton’s jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 211–218

  15. Integrative modeling of small artery structure and function uncovers critical parameters for diameter regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed VanBavel

    Full Text Available Organ perfusion is regulated by vasoactivity and structural adaptation of small arteries and arterioles. These resistance vessels are sensitive to pressure, flow and a range of vasoactive stimuli. Several strongly interacting control loops exist. As an example, the myogenic response to a change of pressure influences the endothelial shear stress, thereby altering the contribution of shear-dependent dilation to the vascular tone. In addition, acute responses change the stimulus for structural adaptation and vice versa. Such control loops are able to maintain resistance vessels in a functional and stable state, characterized by regulated wall stress, shear stress, matched active and passive biomechanics and presence of vascular reserve. In this modeling study, four adaptation processes are identified that together with biomechanical properties effectuate such integrated regulation: control of tone, smooth muscle cell length adaptation, eutrophic matrix rearrangement and trophic responses. Their combined action maintains arteries in their optimal state, ready to cope with new challenges, allowing continuous long-term vasoregulation. The exclusion of any of these processes results in a poorly regulated state and in some cases instability of vascular structure.

  16. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J;

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed that the...... lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  17. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  18. Exhaustive swimming differentially inhibits P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in isolated rat arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu LI; Tao WU; Cong WEI; Jian-ke HAN; Zhen-hua JIA; Yi-ling WU; Lei-ming REN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of exhaustive swimming exercise on P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction of different types of arteries in rats.Methods:Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups:the sedentary control group (SCG) and the exhaustive swimming exercise group (ESEG).The rats in the ESEG were subjected to a swim to exhaustion once a day for 2 weeks.Internal carotid,caudal,pulmonary,mesenteric arteries and aorta were dissected out.Isometric vasoconstrictive responses of the arteries to α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-MeATP) or noradrenaline (NA) were recorded using a polygraph.Results:The exhaustive swimming exercise did not produce significant change in the EC5o values of α,β-MeATP or NA in vasoconstrictive response of most of the arteries studied.The exhaustive swimming exercise inhibited the vasoconstrictive responses to P2X1 receptor activation in the internal carotid artery,whereas it reduced the maximal vasoconstrictive responses to α1-adrenoceptor stimulation in the caudal,pulmonary,mesenteric arteries and aorta.The rank order of the reduction of the maximal vasoconstriction was as follows:mesenteric,pulmonary,caudal,aorta.Conclusion:Exhaustive swimming exercise differentially affects the P2X1 receptor- and α1-adrenoceptor-regulated vasoconstriction in internal carotid artery and peripheral arteries.The ability to preserve purinergic vasoconstriction in the peripheral arteries would be useful to help in maintenance of the basal vascular tone during exhaustive swimming exercise.

  19. Triple spontaneous cervical artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old healthy man had several transient ischaemic attacks suggesting left internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. There were no vascular risk factors and no preceding trauma. Colour-coded duplex sonography suggested a pseudo-occlusion of the left ICA, and cerebral angiography demonstrated dissection of the left ICA and both vertebral arteries. Angiography 6 months later was completely normal. This underlines the importance of four vessel angiography in young patients with dissections of cervical arteries. (orig.)

  20. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  1. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In

  2. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography

  3. Effets de site : évalutation expérimentale et modélisations multidimensionnelles : application au site test EURO-SEISTEST (Grèce)

    OpenAIRE

    Riepl, Judith

    1997-01-01

    L'objectif de cette thèse est, l'étude fine des effets d'amplification suite à la géologie locale, notamment dans des bassins sédimentaires, ainsi que l'évaluation des avantages et Iimites des méthodes d'estimations. La partie expérimentale est basée sur des données acquises au site test EURO-SEISTEST, le premier site-test en Europe occidentale proche de Thessalonique (Grèce). Après une évaluation des effets d'amplification au site même et une étude de leur stabilité en fonction de plusieurs ...

  4. Effet des tanins condensés sur la solubilité des protéines de légumineuses fourragères

    OpenAIRE

    Julier, B; Lila, M; Huyghe, Christian,; Morris, P.; Allison, G; Robbins, M

    2003-01-01

    Les protéines issues des légumineuses fourragères sont souvent médiocrement valorisées par les ruminants. En effet, elles sont trop rapidement dégradées dans le rumen pour être efficacement absorbées dans l'intestin. Cependant, les tannins condensés, métabolites secondaires produits par certaines espèces comme les lotiers, réduisent la dégradation des protéines. L'étude a consisté à tester l'effet d'une addition de tannins à des échantillons de luzerne ou de trèfle blanc. L'ajout, en d...

  5. Effet du travail du sol et des apports organiques sur l'érodibilité des sols des Rougiers de Camarès (Sud de la France)

    OpenAIRE

    Barthès, Bernard; Albrecht, Alain; Asseline, Jean; De Noni, Georges; Roose, Eric; Viennot, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Dans la petite région des Rougiers de Camarès, au sud du Massif Central, l'érosion hydrique provoque une dégradation des sols, en particulier sur les versants cultivés des collines, et une dégradation des infrastructures. L'objectif des travaux présentés est d'y évaluer l'effet du travail du sol et des apports organiques sur la sensibilité du sol à l'érosion, ou érodibilité. L'effet de cinq types de travail du sol (labour à plat conventionnel, labour à plat avec mulch, labour dressé, travail ...

  6. Difficile compréhension de l’effet de serre : comment concevoir un parcours d’enseignement-apprentissage au lycée ?

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Philippe; Tran Tat, Noëmie

    2013-01-01

    Cet article présente une étude exploratoire des conditions d’enseignement-apprentissage de l’effet de serre naturel en seconde. La construction d’un parcours d’enseignement-apprentissage repose sur une prise en compte imbriquée d’une analyse de contenu de la physique mise en jeu et du repérage des difficultés des élèves. Ce repérage est effectué à partir d’entretiens prenant appui sur un modèle matériel de l’effet de serre et sur des schémas de vulgarisation. Les principaux obstacles à la com...

  7. Etude des effets mitochondriaux du monoxyde d'azote :
    Régulation de l'oxydation phosphorylante et de la transition de perméabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Pascaline

    2006-01-01

    Le monoxyde d'azote (NO) est formé à partir de L-arginine par la famille des NO synthases. La dysrégulation de la synthèse de cette molécule de signalisation cellulaire est impliquée dans le développement d'un grand nombre de pathologies. Les effets cellulaires du NO sont en partie dus à une inhibition des complexes de la chaîne respiratoire mitochondriale. Nous nous sommes intéressés aux effets du NO sur la régulation de l'oxydation phosphorylante et de le transition de perméabilité, deux pr...

  8. Effets d'apports organiques et de gypse sur la stabilité structurale de deux sols méditerranéens

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi, H.; Pansu, Marc

    1990-01-01

    Des expériences sur modèles de laboratoire ont été conduites avec des mélanges de matériaux terreux, de paille, de blé et de gypse. Une classification hiérarchique des échantillons selon leurs propriétés physico-chimiques montre l'effet des amendements organiques et gypseux sur les propriétés mesurées des sols, particulièrement leur stabilité structurale, en relation avec le temps d'incubation. L'article propose une approche de l'étude de la stabilité structurale des sols, sous l'effet d'amen...

  9. Effets discursifs de la représentation de la loi dans la littérature argentine : dictature et post dictature

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Martín

    2014-01-01

    La problématique de cette thèse se centre sur la manière dont plusieurs textes de fiction, évoquant des événements emblématiques des années 1976-2001, représentent la loi à travers ses effets discursifs. Lors de l’analyse des effets discursifs de la représentation de la loi dans les textes de fiction certaines questions s’imposent : de quelle manière le discours littéraire configure-t-il les frontières entre l’espace public et l’espace privé, caractérise les espaces rendus visibles ou invisib...

  10. Étude des effets de la minimalisation des boues sur la méthanisation par digestion anaérobique

    OpenAIRE

    Amelem, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Le biogaz se présente comme une solution aux problèmes énergétiques actuels. La minimalisation des boues semble nous éloigner de notre objectif pour l’implantation d’un système de production d’énergie renouvelable. Les effets sur la méthanisation sont donc à étudier en profondeur. La modélisation et simulation des multiples procédés associés à la méthanisation par digestion anaérobique et la postérieur analyse financière ont permis de connaitre et comprendre l’effet de la minimalisation. Cett...

  11. An offset tone based gain stabilization technique for mixed-signal RF measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gopal; Motiwala, Paresh D.; Randale, G. D.; Singh, Pitamber; Agarwal, Vivek; Kumar, Girish

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications.

  12. An offset tone based gain stabilization technique for mixed-signal RF measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a gain stabilization technique for a RF signal measurement system. A sinusoidal signal of known amplitude, phase and close enough in frequency is added to the main, to be measured RF signal at the input of the analog section. The system stabilizes this offset tone in the digital domain, as it is sampled at the output of the analog section. This process generates a correction factor needed to stabilize the magnitude of the gain of the analog section for the main RF signal. With the help of a simple calibration procedure, the absolute amplitude of the main RF signal can be measured. The technique is especially suited for a system that processes signals around a single frequency, employs direct signal conversion into the digital domain, and processes subsequent steps in an FPGA. The inherent parallel signal processing in an FPGA-based implementation allows a real time stabilization of the gain. The effectiveness of the technique is derived from the fact, that the gain stabilization stamped to the main RF signal measurement branch requires only a few components in the system to be inherently stable. A test setup, along with experimental results is presented from the field of RF instrumentation for particle accelerators. Due to the availability of a phase synchronized RF reference signal in these systems, the measured phase difference between the main RF and the RF reference is also stabilized using this technique. A scheme of the signal processing is presented, where a moving average filter has been used to filter out not only the unwanted frequencies, but also to separate the main RF signal from the offset tone signal. This is achieved by a suitable choice of sampling and offset tone frequencies. The presented signal processing scheme is suitable to a variety of RF measurement applications

  13. Constraints of Tones, Vowels and Consonants on Lexical Selection in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Seth; Turnbull, Rory

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that when speakers of European languages are asked to turn nonwords into words by altering either a vowel or consonant, they tend to treat vowels as more mutable than consonants. These results inspired the universal vowel mutability hypothesis: listeners learn to cope with vowel variability because vowel information constrains lexical selection less tightly and allows for more potential candidates than does consonant information. The present study extends the word reconstruction paradigm to Mandarin Chinese--a Sino-Tibetan language, which makes use of lexically contrastive tone. Native speakers listened to word-like nonwords (e.g., su3) and were asked to change them into words by manipulating a single consonant (e.g., tu3), vowel (e.g., si3), or tone (e.g., su4). Additionally, items were presented in a fourth condition in which participants could change any part. The participants' reaction times and responses were recorded. Results revealed that participants responded faster and more accurately in both the free response and the tonal change conditions. Unlike previous reconstruction studies on European languages, where vowels were changed faster and more often than consonants, these results demonstrate that, in Mandarin, changes to vowels and consonants were both overshadowed by changes to tone, which was the preferred modification to the stimulus nonwords, while changes to vowels were the slowest and least accurate. Our findings show that the universal vowel mutability hypothesis is not consistent with a tonal language, that Mandarin tonal information is lower-priority than consonants and vowels and that vowel information most tightly constrains Mandarin lexical access. PMID:27089806

  14. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  15. [The single coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  16. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  17. Parent Artery Occlusion for Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoya, K.; Nagaishi, M.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Morikawa, E.; H. Takahashi(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA)

    2006-01-01

    We review four cases of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm, of which three showed intolerance of parent artery occlusion. In two, balloon test occlusion (BTO) indicated poor opaci- fication of the PCA branches from the anastomoses, and therefore, permanent occlusion was not attempted.

  18. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  19. Dual anterior descending coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Luciane da L. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a male with risk factors for coronary artery disease, who was referred for cardiac catheterization after acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall. The patient underwent transluminal coronary angioplasty in the right coronary artery with successful stent implantation.

  20. AEolian tones and stall flutter of lengthy objects in fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically consider the spontaneous oscillations of an elastic cylinder in a streaming fluid flow. Such oscillations are responsible for stall flutter in e.g. turbine blades and bridges, or AEolian tones when in the acoustic range. The process of vortex separation from the oscillating surface is modelled as a self-excited oscillator. The vortex separation frequency remains synchronized with the oscillations of the cylinder over a great range of frequency mismatches, enabling the amplitudes and frequencies to be calculated. Only when the vortex separation frequency is much less than the cylinder's natural oscillation frequency the synchronization breaks down, and then two-frequency oscillations (beats) occur.

  1. Relevance of Pure Tone Average (PTA) as a Predictor for Incus Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M; Subramanian, Mukundan; Vijayan, Nisha

    2012-12-01

    Between 40 and 90% of tympanoplasty require middle ear ossicular chain reconstruction. Ossicular discontinuity usually cannot be determined unless an operation is performed. The main objective was to determine the predictive value of pre-operative audiological factors in diagnosing incudal necrosis in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media. A retrospective clinical study of 20 patients who underwent ossicular reconstruction with autologous incus over a period of two years was performed. The mean pre-operative pure tone average was 49.18 dB HL.The minimum value being 45 dB HL and the maximum value being 64 dB HL. PMID:24294583

  2. Imaging study of positive and negative tone weak phase-shifted 65 nm node contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Greenway, Robert T.; Maslow, Mark J.; MacDonald, Susan S.; Margolis, Lee H.; Hughes, Gregory P.

    2005-05-01

    CPL and aerial image mapping type contact designs for both negative and positive tones were created, built and tested for 100 nm and sub-100 nm contacts. Experimental results illustrated the need for electromagnetic-field corrections in the simulations. Resolution down to 80nm dense contacts were seen with both negative and positive resists with acceptable process windows though some process optimization is still required as unacceptable CD variation and a reentrant profile was observed. High MEEF requires strict CD control on the mask. Data volume for the isolated contact designs can also challenge the mask build.

  3. Base developable negative tone molecular resist based on epoxide cross-linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Brandon; Lawson, Richard A.; Fralick, Ashten; Narcross, Hannah; Chun, Jun Sung; Neisser, Mark; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2015-03-01

    A negative tone, aqueous base developable molecular glass resist, 3Ep, is presented that is developable in both standard organic solvents and aqueous base developers. The resist shows slightly better imaging performance in organic solvent versus aqueous base and shows a shift of E0 away from zero dose. Compared to a previously reported 4Ep resist, 3Ep appears to have a more controlled polymerization rate at equivalent conditions, which results in higher-quality patterned features. 3Ep also requires use of an underlayer to avoid de-wetting during aqueous base development.

  4. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  5. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  6. Hystérésis et réduction de sons auto-entretenus commandées par effet Coanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Sébastien; Allery, Cyrille; Sakout, Anas

    An air flow crossing two baffles in tandem inside a duct, generates strong self-sustained tones. Four radial slots created on the upstream baffle, leads to a large hysteresis loop of the sound pressure level when velocity varies, the second branch of which corresponds with a reduction of the self-sustained tones. Measurements of velocity show that a Coanda effect happens on the jets issued from the slots, which induces this flow behaviour.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  8. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  9. [Responses of isolated hepatic artery segments to barium in the presence of a flavonoid (4-methylesculetin), indomethacin and acetylsalicylate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, V; Gamba, G; Legrenzi, E; Mayellaro, F; Santoni, G

    1983-05-30

    The aim of this work is to study the mechanism by which 4-methylesculetin (4-Me) inhibits the Ba++ induced contraction in smooth muscle. The effect of 4-Me, alone or associated with ascorbic acid, on basal tone and Ba++ induced contraction of isolated hepatic artery strips have been studied. Experiments have been carried out in the presence of lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) and indomethacin (IN), specific inhibitors of prostaglandin-synthetase. Both LAS and IN suppressed the depressive effect of 4-Me on the Ba++ dependent contraction. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that the 4-Me influence could be mediated by prostaglandins release smooth muscle. PMID:6411101

  10. Frequency sweep rates of rising tone electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: Comparison between nonlinear theory and Cluster observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been suggested to account for the rapid loss of ring current ions and radiation belt electrons. For the rising tone EMIC wave (classified as triggered EMIC emission), its frequency sweep rate strongly affects the efficiency of pitch-angle scattering. Based on the Cluster observations, we analyze three typical cases of rising tone EMIC waves. Two cases locate at the nightside (22.3 and 22.6 magnetic local time (MLT)) equatorial region and one case locates at the duskside (18MLT) higher magnetic latitude (λ = –9.3°) region. For the three cases, the time-dependent wave amplitude, cold electron density, and cold ion density ratio are derived from satellite data; while the ambient magnetic field, thermal proton perpendicular temperature, and the wave spectral can be directly provided by observation. These parameters are input into the nonlinear wave growth model to simulate the time-frequency evolutions of the rising tones. The simulated results show good agreements with the observations of the rising tones, providing further support for the previous finding that the rising tone EMIC wave is excited through the nonlinear wave growth process

  11. Effects of low-level laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and radiofrequency on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] In this study, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), electroacupuncture (EA), and radiofrequency (RF), which are used in physical therapy, on the pigmentation and skin tone of adult women's faces were investigated to provide basic data for skin interventions. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult females were assigned to either an LLLT group (n=10), an EA group (n=10), or an RF group (n=10). The intervention was performed in two 15-minute sessions per week for six weeks. Subjects' skin tone and pigmentation were observed before and after the intervention. [Results] The EA group showed significant reductions in pigmentation in the left and right eye rims, as well as in the left cheek. The RF group showed significant post-intervention reductions in pigmentation under the left eye, as well as in the left and right eye rims and the left cheek. The LLLT group showed significant increases in skin tone in the forehead and both eye rims. The RF group showed significant increases in skin tone under both eyes. [Conclusion] The application of LLLT, EA, and RF had positive effects on pigmentation and skin tone of adult women's faces. PMID:27313340

  12. Vagal Tone and Children's Delay of Gratification: Differential Sensitivity in Resource-Poor and Resource-Rich Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Skibo, Michael A; Rogosch, Fred A

    2016-06-01

    Children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have differing abilities to delay gratification, and impoverished children have the greatest difficulties in doing so. In the present study, we examined the role of vagal tone in predicting the ability to delay gratification in both resource-rich and resource-poor environments. We derived hypotheses from evolutionary models of children's conditional adaptation to proximal rearing contexts. In Study 1, we tested whether elevated vagal tone was associated with shorter delay of gratification in impoverished children. In Study 2, we compared the relative role of vagal tone across two groups of children, one that had experienced greater impoverishment and one that was relatively middle-class. Results indicated that in resource-rich environments, higher vagal tone was associated with longer delay of gratification. In contrast, high vagal tone in children living in resource-poor environments was associated with reduced delay of gratification. We interpret the results with an eye to evolutionary-developmental models of the function of children's stress-response system and adaptive behavior across varying contexts of economic risk. PMID:27117276

  13. Effet de l'interaction coulombienne sur la localisation d'Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d'électrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, G.

    2010-09-01

    Nous étudions l’effet des interactions coulombiennes sur la localisation d’Anderson dans le gaz bidimensionnel d’électrons désordonné. L’objectif est de statuer sur la question de l’existence de métaux à deux dimensions. En l’absence d’interaction, la théorie d’échelle de la localisation prédit qu’un désordre infinitésimal suffit à localiser la fonction d’onde électronique et donc à rendre le système isolant à température nulle (Abrahams et al., 1979). Dans certaines limites extrêmes, les interactions peuvent être prises en compte et l’on aboutit également à un état isolant. Cependant, aucune théorie analytique ne permet de traiter le régime quantique non-perturbatif où désordre et interaction sont intermédiaires. Expérimentalement, il est possible de l’explorer dans des échantillons de haute mobilité et basse densité. Depuis 1994, des comportements métalliques inexpliqués y ont été observés (Kravchenko et al., 1994). Nous avons mis au point une méthode numérique permettant d’étudier le problème couplé de la localisation d’Anderson en présence d’interaction. Cette méthode mêle Monte Carlo quantique à température nulle et théorie d’échelle pour la conductance de Thouless. Nous trouvons que la théorie d’échelle de la localisation est préservée en présence d’interaction et donc que le gaz bidimensionnel, même corrélé, est isolant à température nulle. Nos résultats montrent de plus que les interactions délocalisent le gaz bidimensionnel et que cet effet de délocalisation est accru en présence de dégénérescence de vallées. Ils nous permettent de proposer un mécanisme simple rendant compte des principales caractéristiques des comportements métalliques observés expérimentalement.

  14. Study of abscopal radiation effects on multicellular organisms; Etudes sur les effets a distance dans les organismes multicellulaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Amongst the lesions brought about by total body irradiation, two basically different types can be distinguished: those appearing in the area which has absorbed radiant energy and those emerging in areas remote from the irradiated tissues (abscopal effects). The abscopal effects are produced by toxic tissue breakdown products, which are removed by the bloodstream and interfere with particularly sensitive structures (radiotoxins). The radiotoxins mobilize other biologically active substances, interfering with the same tissues which may display abscopal effects. This is well established for the hormones of the adrenal cortex. Furthermore, important fractions of the radiotoxins are neutralized by the reticuloendothelial system. Temporary blockade of this system enhances the efficiency of radiotoxins and greatly increases mortality of the irradiated animals. One can therefore conclude that the reticuloendothelial system affords a natural defense against an essential reaction of total body irradiation: the effect of the radiotoxins. (author) [French] Les lesions consecutives a une irradiation peuvent etre classees en deux categories: celles qui se produisent au niveau du tissu irradie et celles qui apparaissent en dehors de celui-ci. Ces dernieres - appelees -'effets a distance'- sont dues a l'action de produits d'histolyse apparaissant au niveau du volume tissulaire ayant absorbe l'energie radiante, emportes par le courant sanguin et agissant sur des structures specialement receptives (Radiotoxines). Ces corps provoquait, dans des structures eloignees du siege de l'action locale du rayonnement, la secretion d'autres corps biologiquement actifs, capables d'agir sur les memes tissus pouvant presenter des effets a distance, compliquant ainsi leur mecanisme. Ceci est etabli pour les corticosteroides. De plus, des fractions importantes des radiotoxines sont neutralisees par le systeme reticuloendothelial. Puisque le blocage de ce

  15. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of...

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system; Les effets des rayonnements ionisants sur le systeme cardiovasculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire de radiopathologie et de therapies experimentales (LRTE), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  17. Bit Rate Maximising Per-Tone Equalisation with Adaptive Implementation for DMT-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Sitjongsataporn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a bit rate maximising per-tone equalisation (BM-PTEQ cost function that is based on an exact subchannel SNR as a function of per-tone equaliser in discrete multitone (DMT systems. We then introduce the proposed BM-PTEQ criterion whose derivation for solution is shown to inherit from the methodology of the existing bit rate maximising time-domain equalisation (BM-TEQ. By solving a nonlinear BM-PTEQ cost function, an adaptive BM-PTEQ approach based on a recursive Levenberg-Marquardt (RLM algorithm is presented with the adaptive inverse square-root (iQR algorithm for DMT-based systems. Simulation results confirm that the performance of the proposed adaptive iQR RLM-based BM-PTEQ converges close to the performance of the proposed BM-PTEQ. Moreover, the performance of both these proposed BM-PTEQ algorithms is improved as compared with the BM-TEQ.

  18. On the lift increments with the occurrence of airfoil tones at low Reynodls numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomoaki; Fujimoto, Daisuke; Inasawa, Ayumu; Asai, Masahito

    2015-11-01

    The aeroacoustic effects on the aerodynamics of an NACA 0006 airfoil are investigated experimentally at relatively low Reynolds numbers, Re = 30 , 000 - 70 , 000 . By employing two wind-testing airfoil models at different chord lengths, L = 40 and 100 [mm], the aerodynamic dependence on Mach number is examined at a given Reynolds number. In a particular range of Reynolds number, tonal peaks of trailing-edge noise are obtained from a shorter-chord airfoil, while no apparent tones are observed with longer chord length at a lower Mach number. Surprisingly, the occurrence of a tonal noise leads to a greater lift slope in the present wind-tunnel experiment, evaluated via a PIV approach. The lift curves obtained experimentally at higher Mach numbers agree well with two-dimensional numerical simulations, performed at M = 0 . 2 . At the Mach number, the numerical results clearly indicate the occurrence of an acoustic feedback loop with discrete tones, within a range of angle of attack. A few three dimensional numerical results are also presented. In the simulation at Re = 50 , 000 , the suppression of tonal noise corresponds to the development of a turbulent wedge in the suction-side boundary layer at the angle of attack 4 . 0 [deg.], which agrees with the experiment. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant No. 25420139).

  19. Low-frequency interaural cross correlation discrimination in stereophonic reproduction of musical tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung; Martens, William L.

    2005-04-01

    By industry standard (ITU-R. Recommendation BS.775-1), multichannel stereophonic signals within the frequency range of up to 80 or 120 Hz may be mixed and delivered via a single driver (e.g., a subwoofer) without significant impairment of stereophonic sound quality. The assumption that stereophonic information within such low-frequency content is not significant was tested by measuring discrimination thresholds for changes in interaural cross-correlation (IACC) within spectral bands containing the lowest frequency components of low-pitch musical tones. Performances were recorded for three different musical instruments playing single notes ranging in fundamental frequency from 41 Hz to 110 Hz. The recordings, made using a multichannel microphone array composed of five DPA 4006 pressure microphones, were processed to produce a set of stimuli that varied in interaural cross-correlation (IACC) within a low-frequency band, but were otherwise identical in a higher-frequency band. This correlation processing was designed to have minimal effect upon other psychoacoustic variables such as loudness and timbre. The results show that changes in interaural cross correlation (IACC) within low-frequency bands of low-pitch musical tones are most easily discriminated when decorrelated signals are presented via subwoofers positioned at extreme lateral angles (far from the median plane). [Work supported by VRQ.

  20. Argument for a non-linear relationship between severity of human obesity and dopaminergic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, A; Fenske, W K; Hankir, M K

    2015-10-01

    Alterations in the dopaminergic system have been implicated in both animal and human obesity. However, to date, a comprehensive model on the nature and functional relevance of this relationship is missing. In particular, human data remain equivocal in that seemingly inconsistent reports exist of positive, negative or even no relationships between dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum and measures of obesity. Further, data on receptor availability have been commonly interpreted as reflecting receptor density, despite the possibility of an alternative interpretation, namely alterations in the basal levels of endogenous dopaminergic tone. Here, we provide a unifying framework that is able to explain the seemingly contradictory findings and offer an alternative and novel perspective on existing data. In particular, we suggest (i) a quadratic relationship between alterations in the dopaminergic system and degree of obesity, and (ii) that the observed alterations are driven by shifts in the balance between general dopaminergic tone and phasic dopaminergic signalling. The proposed model consistently integrates human data on molecular and behavioural characteristics of overweight and obesity. Further, the model provides a mechanistic framework accounting not only for the consistent observation of altered (food) reward-responsivity but also for the differences in reinforcement learning, decision-making behaviour and cognitive performance associated with measures of obesity. PMID:26098597

  1. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  2. Sleep disturbances due to exposure to tone pulses throughout the night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y

    1987-10-01

    Sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) and subjective reports data were obtained from six subjects (male college students) during 2 nights of baseline observation and 5 experimental nights of exposure to a 90-100 dB, 25 ms, 1,000 c/s tone pulse with various interstimulus intervals. The first of the 5 experimental nights started with an intertone interval of 80 s. On each of the following 4 nights, the intertone interval was fixed at 40-, 10-, 2.5-, or 1-s intervals, respectively. With the intensification of noise stimulus by shortening the intervals of tone pulses, a progressive disruption of nightly EEG sleep patterns was observed as follows: (a) increased frequency of awakenings and sleep stage changes during the night, (b) prolonged sleep latency, and (c) increased percentage of time spent in stage 1 sleep. However, total sleep time, REM latency, inter-REM intervals, and the percentages of time in stages 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep did not change significantly. The degree of subjective sleep disturbance was highly associated with objective measures of nightly EEG sleep patterns. PMID:3685754

  3. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  4. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  5. Effects of halothane, thiamylal, and ketamine on central sympathetic and vagal tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, T; Kimura, T; Furukawa, K

    1983-02-01

    The effects of increasing doses of halothane, thiamylal, and ketamine on central sympathetic tone (ST) and vagal tone (VT) in cats were studied. Compound action potentials were recorded simultaneously from the cervical sympathetic trunk and the vagus nerve. After full-wave rectification, they were integrated for continuous monitoring of the tonic levels of activity. ST and VT changed characteristically with different anesthetics. Halothane depressed ST and VT equally to approximately 70%, 60%, and 30% of the control level (70% N2O in O2) at end-tidal halothane concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%, respectively. When thiamylal was given intravenously at incremental doses (3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/kg), ST was markedly reduced to 10% of the control level. The reduction in VT was relatively small and the autonomic balance shifted in the vagodominant direction. Intravenous ketamine (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) changed neither ST nor VT significantly. Halothane and thiamylal markedly reduced central sympathetic and vagal outflows that play a role in peripheral homeostatic regulation. We suggest that these two anesthetics effect attenuated or altered autonomic regulation. Ketamine produced little change in central autonomic outflow. PMID:6829912

  6. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  7. Stress "Deafness" Reveals Absence of Lexical Marking of Stress or Tone in the Adult Grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Rahmani

    Full Text Available A Sequence Recall Task with disyllabic stimuli contrasting either for the location of prosodic prominence or for the medial consonant was administered to 150 subjects equally divided over five language groups. Scores showed a significant interaction between type of contrast and language group, such that groups did not differ on their performance on the consonant contrast, while two language groups, Dutch and Japanese, significantly outperformed the three other language groups (French, Indonesian and Persian on the prosodic contrast. Since only Dutch and Japanese words have unpredictable stress or accent locations, the results are interpreted to mean that stress "deafness" is a property of speakers of languages without lexical stress or tone markings, as opposed to the presence of stress or accent contrasts in phrasal (post-lexical constructions. Moreover, the degree of transparency between the locations of stress/tone and word boundaries did not appear to affect our results, despite earlier claims that this should have an effect. This finding is of significance for speech processing, language acquisition and phonological theory.

  8. Memory for musical tones: The impact of tonality and the creation of false memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique T. Vuvan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the relation between tonality and musical memory has been fairly well-studied, less is known regarding the contribution of tonal-schematic expectancies to this relation. Three experiments investigated the influence of tonal expectancies on memory for single tones in a tonal melodic context. In the first experiment, listener responses indicated superior recognition of both expected and unexpected targets in a major tonal context than for moderately expected targets. Importantly, and in support of previous work on false memories, listener responses also revealed a higher false alarm rate for expected than unexpected targets. These results indicate roles for tonal schematic congruency as well as distinctiveness in memory for melodic tones. The second experiment utilized minor melodies, which weakened tonal expectancies since the minor tonality can be represented in three forms simultaneously. Finally, tonal expectancies were abolished entirely in the third experiment through the use of atonal melodies. Accordingly, the expectancy-based results observed in the first experiment were disrupted in the second experiment, and disappeared in the third experiment. These results are discussed in light of schema theory, musical expectancy, and classic memory work on the availability and distinctiveness heuristics.

  9. Ionic carbamate photoacid/photobase generators for the advancement of dual-tone photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett-Tapley, Geniece L.; Wee, Tse-Luen; Eldo, Joby; Jackson, Edward A.; Blackwell, James M.; Scaiano, Juan C.

    2012-03-01

    Current work in lithographic patterning has been carried out using 193 nm excitation sources, limiting the pitch division to approximately λ/2 and, thus, the advancement of Moore's law. Recently, double patterning has emerged as a potential extension of 193 nm techniques as two lines can be patterned in one exposure. In this contribution, the double patterning features of single component carbamate photoacid/photobase generators (PAG/PBG) are examined. At lower exposure doses, sulfonic acid is generated, while at higher doses, a photochemical rearrangement is initiated to activate the PBG. Optimally, at intermediate doses, photoacid and photobase components can exist concurrently resulting in the desired dual tone lithographic features. The energy required to initiate dual tone behavior can be tailored through co-added amine quenchers and carbamate concentration. Using ellipsometry, the energy required for the resists to have the first sign of photoacid generation (film dissolution), E0, and at the energy required for photobase activation (En) were determined, as this value dictates the ability to achieve the desired pitch division.

  10. The slow formation of a pitch percept beyond the ending time of a short tone burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demany, Laurent; Semal, Catherine

    2005-11-01

    The discriminability of short tone bursts differing in frequency was measured in terms of the sensitivity index d' as a function of interstimulus interval (ISI). The two stimuli presented on each trial consisted of either 6 or 30 sinusoidal cycles. When the frequency of the first stimulus varied randomly and widely from trial to trial (Experiment 1), discriminability was maximal for an ISI of about 400 msec in the 6-cycles condition and for a significantly longer ISI (of about 1 sec) in the 30-cycles condition. However, when the first stimulus had only two possible frequencies and the second stimulus was fixed (Experiment 2), the optimal ISI appeared to be about 400 msec in both conditions. A final experiment confirmed that, for tone bursts of 30 cycles, the optimal ISI was dependent on the perceptual uncertainty of the first stimulus. These results support the idea that the duration required to perceive the pitch of a sound as accurately as possible may far exceed the duration of the stimulus itself. More importantly, they indicate that the required duration is not a constant. PMID:16555589

  11. Time and frequency characteristics of temporary threshold shifts caused by pure tone exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The time-frequency characteristics of Temporary Threshold Shifts (TTS) caused by pure tones were determined using the Békésy audiometric method with narrow-band noise of short duration as the probe stimuli. Two experiments were done using exposures of 3 min at 100 dB above threshold. In the first...... second experiment, the TTS recovery curve produced by a 1 kHz pure tone exposure was assessed at 1.5 kHz, at approximately 15 s intervals for the first 5 min and at regularly increasing intervals up to 45 min after the exposure. The results showed a maximum in the recovery around 2 min after the exposure....... The data gathered in these experiments were used to construct a mathematical model of TTS recovery. The model describes both the 1/2-octave shift and the 2 min bounce and it can be used in the comparison of temporary changes in auditory function, assessed at different times and frequencies....

  12. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  13. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  14. Les effets musculaires de la vitamine D : application à la perte musculaire liée à l’âge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walrand Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Au-delà de ses rôles biologiques classiques sur la santé osseuse, les effets extra-squelettiques de la vitamine D font actuellement l’objet de nombreuses recherches. La présence du récepteur de la vitamine D dans la plupart des tissus de l’organisme vient d’ailleurs renforcer l’argument en faveur de ses fonctions multiples. Parmi celles-ci, l’effet de la vitamine D sur la masse et les performances musculaires a été longtemps pressenti. En effet, dans la Grèce Antique, Hérodote recommandait le soleil comme un remède pour les « muscles faibles et mous », et les anciens Olympiens recevaient l’ordre de se coucher exposés aux rayons du soleil pour améliorer leurs performances physiques. En 1952, Spellerberg, un physiologiste du sport, a réalisé une vaste étude portant sur les effets de l’irradiation UV sur les performances d’athlètes de haut niveau. Suite aux résultats positifs de cette investigation, ce scientifique dû informer le Comité Olympique que l’irradiation UV présentait un effet « convaincant » sur la performance physique et les capacités motrices. Ces données sont conformes à de nombreuses études postérieures signalant une amélioration des aptitudes physiques, de la vitesse et de l’endurance chez des sujets jeunes traités par des UV ou par des suppléments contenant de la vitamine D. Des observations complémentaires font état d’un effet significatif sur la force musculaire, en particulier au niveau des membres inférieurs. Concernant les mécanismes mis en jeu, certaines études fondamentales récentes ont montré que la vitamine D exerce des effets moléculaires au sein de la cellule musculaire. Précisément, une action régulatrice de la vitamine D sur les flux de calcium, l’homéostasie minérale et certaines voies de signalisation contrôlant l’anabolisme protéique a été rapportée au niveau du tissu musculaire. Plusieurs enquêtes épidémiologiques révèlent qu

  15. A case of primitive persistent hypoglossal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. K.; Koh, B. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, S. R. [Hangyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Three kinds of carotid-basilar anastomosis have been found, they were named as persistent primitive trigeminal artery, persistent primitive acoustic (or otic) artery and persistent primitive hypoglossal artery, among them, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery is by far the least common type of the internal carotid-basilar anastomosis which have been demonstrate in human postembryonic stages. Persistent primitive by hypoglossal artery is usually found incidentally. This vascular anomaly, however,have been reported to be associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery hypoplasia, absence of the posterior communicating artery, hypoplasia of the proximal portion of the posterior cerebral artery, aneurysm of the circle of Willis, the origin of both pericallosal arteries from a single anterior cerebral artery, retarded mental development dating from infancy, carotid-cavernous fistula formation etc. A case of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in an young Korean male was reported with brief review of the literature.

  16. P2-purinoceptors of two subtypes in the rabbit mesenteric artery: reactive blue 2 selectively inhibits responses mediated via the P2y-but not the P2x-purinoceptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnstock, G.; Warland, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    alpha,beta-Methylene ATP and ATP both produced concentration-dependent contractions of the isolated mesenteric artery of the rabbit that were not inhibited by reactive blue 2. In preparations where the tone had been raised with noradrenaline, ATP and 2-methylthio ATP, but not alpha,beta-methylene ATP, produced relaxations of the vessel. These relaxations were inhibited in the presence of reactive blue 2. Reactive blue 2 did not inhibit the contractions to noradrenaline, and only slightly inhi...

  17. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  18. Coronary artery disease (CAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of myocardial ischemia is the most relevant indication of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. P. Marie exposes the sensibility and specificity of the method, based on an analysis of literature. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy gives prognostical informations: among them, should be highlighted the excellent prognosis of a normal perfusion scintigraphy even in patients with significant coronary stenosis and the poor prognosis of extensive perfusion defects at stress. P. Rigo details echocardiographic techniques and nuclear medicine techniques to assess patients with coronary artery disease. He analyses the pathophysiological principles and clinical indications of these techniques. Then, he exposes a quantification analysis software based on bull'eyes representation. M. Slama points out the complementarity of coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (authors)

  19. Peripheral artery atherectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal atherectomies were performed with the Simpson catheter. Evaluation included clinical examination, Doppler ultrasonography (ankle-arm index, before and immediately and 1,3 and 6 months after atherectomy), and angiography (6 months after or for clinical worsening). Twenty of 21 procedures achieved satisfactory vessel patency, with the addition of complementary angioplasty for residual stenosis over 30% (one of three cases). Early thrombosis occurred in only one of 21 cases (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy), and no distal embolization occurred. Six-month follow-up showed stable improvements in 11 of 12 patients and restenosis in only one (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy). Preliminary results indicate that atherectomy is the method of choice for restoring large lumens, with minimal arterial wall injury and fewer cases of restenosis than with angioplasty

  20. Relationship between the calibration tone and speech volume unit (VU) levels for some commercially available test tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, B J; Beattie, R C; Helmerich, L F

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the calibration tone and speech volume unit (VU) levels for nine commercially recorded speech tests was studied. Two procedures were used. In procedure 1, experienced clinicians reported observations of four different audiometer VU meters responding to six commercially available speech tests. Differences in magnitude estimates among judges were usually about 1 dB or less. Peak VU level deviations from the zeroed calibration tone were within +/- 1.5 VU except for the Fulton Lewis Jr. recording, which varied by about -4.8 VU. In procedure 2, a video system was used to recorded precisely VU meter responses to clinical speech materials. Differences between the calibration tones and speech levels were similar to those obtained using multiple observers. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were found between the speech levels of the commercial test recordings. PMID:7141143