WorldWideScience

Sample records for arterial systolic pressure

  1. Scintigraphic prediction of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure by regional right ventricular ejection fraction during the second half of systole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-11-01

    In 49 patients in whom gated equilibrium ventriculography and cardiac catheterization were performed within a 6 day interval, total and fractional portions of global and regional right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were correlated with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was normal (30 mm Hg or less) in 27 patients (Group I) and elevated (31 mm Hg or greater) in 22 patients (Group II). The second-half regional RVEF was 38 +/- 8% (mean +/- standard deviation) with a range of 30 to 54% for Group I and 22 +/- 6% with a range of 13 to 32% for Group II. The difference between the means was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Use of a second-half regional RVEF of 30% as the criterion of elevated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure resulted in a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 1.00. A power curve fit in which pulmonary arterial systolic pressure . 10.91 (second-half regional RVEF)-0.87 allowed accurate estimation (r . -0.85) of pulmonary arterial systolic pressure from the second-half regional RVEF. It is concluded that second-half regional RVEF may be used to accurately detect pulmonary arterial hypertension and to estimate its extent.

  2. Systolic arterial pressure determination by a new pulse monitor technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D T; Volgyesi, G A; Bissonnette, B

    1992-07-01

    The Doppler ultrasound (DUS) technique is a widely accepted non-invasive technique to estimate systolic blood pressure (SBP) accurately in paediatric patients. The DUS has a number of limitations. A new pulse monitor, Mr Pulse (MP), operating on the principle of a finger plethysmograph, was developed to offer an alternative technique to estimate SBP. From 104 paired SBP measurements taken in 16 paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia, SBP determined by the MP technique correlated closely with that by the standard DUS technique (r2 = 0.98). Analysis of degree of agreement performed indicated that there was good agreement between SBP obtained by the MP and the DUS techniques. The mean +/- standard deviation of differences in paired SBP values between the two measurement techniques was 0.55 +/- 3.59 mmHg. Mr Pulse is as accurate as the DUS technique in estimating SBP and has the advantage of less critical sensor positioning as it is not subject to electrical interference. It has no electrical hazard. PMID:1643685

  3. Proportional Relations Between Systolic, Diastolic and Mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure are Explained by Vascular Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Taco; Theo J.C. Faes; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Westerhof, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that proportional relationships exist between systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (P sys, P dia and P mean) and that they are maintained under various conditions in both health and disease. An arterial-ventricular interaction model was used to study the contribution of model parameters to the ratios P sys/P mean, and P dia/P mean. The heart was modeled by a time-varying elastance function, and the arterial system by a three-element windkessel model co...

  4. Effects of terlipressin on systolic pulmonary artery pressure of patients with liver cirrhosis:An echocardiographic assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engin Altintas; Necdet Akkus; Ramazan Gen; M. Rami Helvaci; Orhan Sezgin; Dilek Oguz

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Portopulmonary hypertension is a serious complication of chronic liver disease. Our aim was to search into the effect of terlipressin on systolic pulmonary artery pressure among cirrhotic patients.METHODS: Twelve patients (6 males and 6 females) with liver cirrhosis were recruited in the study. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained in sitting position at rest. Contrast enhanced echocardiography and measurements of systolic pulmonary artery pressure were performed before and after the intravenous injection of 2 mg terlipressin.RESULTS: Of 12 patients studied, the contrast enhanced echocardiography was positive in 5, and the positive findings in contrast enhanced echocardiography were reversed to normal in two after terlipressin injection. The mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 25.5±3.6 mmHg before terlipressin injection, and was 22.5±2.5 mmHg after terlipressin (P=0.003). The systolic pulmonary artery pressure was above 25 mmHg in seven of these 12 patients.After the terlipressin injection, systolic pulmonary artery pressure was <25 mmHg in four of these cases (58.3% vs 25%, P=0.04).CONCLUSION: Terlipressin can decrease the systolic pulmonary artery pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  5. The linear relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure is maintained regardless of autonomic or rhythm disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Eynden, Frédéric; Racapé, Judith; Vincent, Jame; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Bové, Thierry; Van Nooten, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Background In the pulmonary circulation, there is a linear relationship between systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP). The aim of this study was to determine the passive or active nature of this mechanism by exploring the relationship in patients with and without autonomic rhythm control of the heart and pulmonary circulation. Methods Pulmonary arterial pressure recordings from non-transplanted patients and patients with heart transplants or d...

  6. Arterial compliance, systolic pressure and heart rate in elderly women at rest and on exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, C; Berthaux, P; Lenoir, H; Eugene, M; Venet, R; Memin, Y; de la Fuente, X; Reisner, C

    1981-01-01

    In two groups of elderly women, the relationships between arterial compliance estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and systolic blood pressure (SP), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption and the time taken to run 400 m have been studies. Both at rest and with increasing levels of exercise, faster PWVs are associated with higher SPs. These is a tendency for resting HR to be higher with faster PWVs. The changes in HR and oxygen consumption from resting values are strikingly increased with faster PWVs. The time taken over 400 m rises as arterial compliance falls. Therefore, it seems that, with aging, reduced arterial compliance is a major factor affecting cardiovascular responses to exercise. PMID:7274682

  7. Microalbuminuria associated with systolic blood pressure and arterial compliance in Chinese metabolic syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-li; XU Qiong; TONG Min; LU Xin-zheng; ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHOU Yan-li; CAO Ke-jiang; HUANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence showing that microalbuminuria and arterial compliance are sensitive markers for early cardiovascular diseases. However, whether microalbuminuria is associated with reduced arterial compliance in Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) patients remains unknown.Methods According to the definition of MS proposed by ATPⅢ in 2001, USA, subjects (n=362) were divided into three groups according to the number of risk factors: group 1 (control), group 2 (medium, < 3 risk factors) and group 3 (MS, ≥ 3 risk factors). Both large artery compliance (C1) and small artery compliance (C2) were measured with the CVProfilor DO-2020 Cardiovascular Profiling System, and microalbuminuria was evaluated with the ratio of albumin to urine creatinine.Results (1) As C1 and C2 levels elasticity decreased, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the prevalence of microalbuminuria increased within those groups with MS risk factors. C1 and C2 were negatively correlated with the ranking of MS risk factors, ACR was positively correlated with the ranking of MS risk factors (all P<0.05). (2) Subjects were also categorized into a microalbuminuria group and a normal group, C1 and C2 in the microalbuminuria group were lower than in the normal group. (3) Multivariate regression analysis showed that increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and reduced arterial compliance were the main risk factors for microalbuminuria in the MS group.Conclusions The risk of developing microalbuminuria was higher in the subjects with multiple metabolic abnormalities.Increased systolic blood pressure and reduced arterial compliance may be the main predictors for microalbuminuria in MS.

  8. Leave-one-out prediction error of systolic arterial pressure time series under paced breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Ancona, N; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we show that different physiological states and pathological conditions may be characterized in terms of predictability of time series signals from the underlying biological system. In particular we consider systolic arterial pressure time series from healthy subjects and Chronic Heart Failure patients, undergoing paced respiration. We model time series by the regularized least squares approach and quantify predictability by the leave-one-out error. We find that the entrainment mechanism connected to paced breath, that renders the arterial blood pressure signal more regular, thus more predictable, is less effective in patients, and this effect correlates with the seriousness of the heart failure. The leave-one-out error separates controls from patients and, when all orders of nonlinearity are taken into account, alive patients from patients for which cardiac death occurred.

  9. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers by...... direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients with...

  10. Value of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure as a prognostic factor of death in the systemic sclerosis EUSTAR population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachulla, Eric; Clerson, Pierre; Airò, Paolo; Cuomo, Giovanna; Allanore, Yannick; Caramaschi, Paola; Rosato, Edoardo; Carreira, Patricia E; Riccieri, Valeria; Sarraco, Marta; Denton, Christopher P; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Pozzi, Maria Rosa; Zeni, Silvana; Mihai, Carmen Marina; Ullman, Susanne; Distler, Oliver; Rednic, Simona; Smith, Vanessa; Walker, Ulrich A; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Launay, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) estimated by echocardiography in the multinational European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) cohort. METHODS: Data for patients with echocardiography d...

  11. Body Weight and Not Exercise Capacity Determines Central Systolic Blood Pressure, a Surrogate for Arterial Stiffness, in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Meyer, Joanna; Elmenhorst, Julia; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary fitness benefits cardiovascular health. Various studies have shown a strong negative correlation between exercise capacity and arterial stiffness in adults. However, evidence for this connection in children and adolescents is scarce. About 320 healthy children and adolescents (252 male, 14.0±2.1 years) were evaluated with regard to their demographic, anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, and their peak oxygen uptake. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressures were measured with patients in a supine position using an oscillometric device. Peak oxygen uptake was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In multivariate regression, only peripheral systolic blood pressure (β=0.653, P<.001) and body weight (β=0.284, P<.001) emerged as independent determinants for central systolic blood pressure. Body weight therefore determines central systolic blood pressure in children and adolescents rather than measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. The prevention of overweight in childhood is necessary to reduce stiffening of the arteries and delay the onset of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26689169

  12. Noninvasive tracking of systolic arterial blood pressure using pulse transit time measured with ECG and carotid doppler signals with intermittent calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system using pulse transit time (PTT) from the heart to the common carotid artery, measured by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) R-wave and carotid arterial Doppler signals at the anterior neck. In this study, we examined the validity of our system by comparing PTT derived systolic blood pressure (Dopp_SBP) with invasive radial systolic arterial pressure (Inv_SBP) with calibration every 15 min in the ICU setting.Methods: 17 patients u...

  13. Correlation between caudal pulmonary artery diameter to body surface area ratio and echocardiography-estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngjae; Choi, Wooshin; Lee, Donghoon; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Choi, Jihye; Chang, Dongwoo

    2016-06-30

    Caudal pulmonary artery diameter (CPAD) to body surface area (BSA) ratios were measured in ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs to assess the correlation between CPAD to BSA ratios and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) in dogs. Thoracic radiographs of 44 dogs with systolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and 55 normal dogs were evaluated. Systolic PAP was estimated by Doppler echocardiography. CPADs were measured at their largest point at the level of tracheal bifurcation on ventrodorsal radiographs. Both right and left CPAD to BSA ratios were significantly higher in the PAH group than in the normal group (p PAP and right and left CPAD to BSA ratio (right, p = 0.0230; left, p = 0.0012). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the CPAD to BSA ratio had moderate diagnostic accuracy for detecting PAH. The operating point, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were 28.35, 81.40%, 81.82%, and 0.870; respectively, for the right side and 26.92, 80.00%, 66.67%, and 0.822, respectively, for the left. The significant correlation of CPAD to BSA ratio with echocardiography-estimated systolic PAP supports its use in identifying PAH on survey thoracic radiographs in dogs. PMID:26645336

  14. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure relationship in heart failure: an index of right ventricular contractile function and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M; Bandera, F; Pelissero, G; Castelvecchio, S; Menicanti, L; Ghio, S; Temporelli, P L; Arena, R

    2013-11-01

    Echo-derived pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) and right ventricular (RV) tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE; from the end of diastole to end-systole) are of basic relevance in the clinical follow-up of heart failure (HF) patients, carrying two- to threefold increase in cardiac risk when increased and reduced, respectively. We hypothesized that the relationship between TAPSE (longitudinal RV fiber shortening) and PASP (force generated by the RV) provides an index of in vivo RV length-force relationship, with their ratio better disclosing prognosis. Two hundred ninety-three HF patients with reduced (HFrEF, n = 247) or with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFpEF, n = 46) underwent echo-Doppler studies and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide assessment and were tracked for adverse events. The median follow-up duration was 20.8 mo. TAPSE vs. PASP relationship showed a downward regression line shift in nonsurvivors who were more frequently presenting with higher PASP and lower TAPSE. HFrEF and HFpEF patients exhibited a similar distribution along the regression line. Given the TAPSE, PASP, and TAPSE-to-PASP ratio (TAPSE/PASP) collinearity, separate Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed: one with TAPSE and PASP as individual measures, and the other combining them in ratio form. Hazard ratios for variables retained in the multivariate regression were as follows: TAPSE/PASP

  15. Preliminary study of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗良; 杨向军; 王国强; 高美雯; 李勋; 惠杰; 蒋廷波; 宋建平; 刘志华; 蒋文平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with or without hypertension. Methods Treadmill exercise testing (TET) was conducted in 88 patients (40 CAD patients, 48 control subjects)with or without hypertension, each of whom underwent selective coronary angiography (CAG). The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP was defined as 10mmHg higher than earlier periods during the recovery phase (6 minutes)of exercise testing. Results The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP had higher sensitivity, specificity,and accuracy for detecting CAD than those of ST - segment depression in patients with or without hypertension. Its accuracy increased with the severity of CAD while decreased in patients with hypertension, and the increase value of SBP had a positive correlation with the extent of coronary artery lesion. The combination of ST - segment depression and abnormal increase of postexercise SBP diagnosed CAD most accurately in patients with hypertension. Conclusions Abnormal increase of postexercise SBP may be a useful index for diagnosing CAD.

  16. Long term survival of patients with raised pulmonary arterial systolic pressure utilizing echocardiography—a five-year prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maw Pin Tan; Sushil K Bansal; Nu Nu Wynn; Murad Umerov; Angela Gillham; Alison Henderson; Anthony Hildreth; Shahid Junejo

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) can be estimated with transthoracic echocardiography. However, the significance of raised PASP on routine echocardiography is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the mortality and hospitalization rates of subjects with raised PASP in a cohort of patients referred directly by their general practitioners for routine outpatient (open access)echocardiography for further analysis of suspected heart failure. Results A total of 485 subjects were referred for open access echocardiography at our hospital in 2002. A cohort of 209/485 (43%) consecutive subjects with measurable tricuspid regurgitation were followed for a minimum of five years investigating hospitalization rates and survival. Some 62 of 209 (30%) subjects had pulmonary hypertension (PH). Subjects with PH were significantly more likely to have four or more hospital admissions (22% vs. 8%; P 30 days of cumulative hospital stay over five years (29% vs. 13%; P < 0.01). PH was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.003),Records from the Office of National Statistics revealed that subjects with PH were more likely to have chronic lung diseases recorded as immediate or contributory causes of death (50% vs. 14%; P < 0.05). Conclusions PASP ≥ 36 mmHg on routine echocardiography is associated with recurrent hospital admissions, prolonged hospitalizations and increased cause of mortality. Therefore, the diagnosis of PH on echocardiography deserves further clinical evaluation, with future studies designed at defining a suitable diagnostic strategy.

  17. VARIATION IN THE SYSTOLIC ARTERIAL PRESSURE WITH THE CHANGES OF POSITION, AS PREDICTOR OF POSTANESTHETIC HYPOTENSION IN ELECTIVE CESAREAN (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Peña-Martínez Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is important to identify to those pregnant women with risk to present postanesthetic arterial hypotension, when they are submitted to cesarean under spinal anesthesia. Objective: to identify if the variability in the systolic arterial pressure (SAP with the preoperative changes of position is predictor of postanesthetic arterial hypotension in elective cesarean. Methods: 244 women with pregnancy at term, programmed for elective cesarean were studied. Preanesthetic measures of the SAP in supine decubitus and in left lateral decubitus position were carried out, estimating the difference between the two measures. Postanesthetic arterial hypotension was defined as SAP lower than 90 mmHg or reduction higher to 30% of the SAP in supine decubitus position. Results: postanesthetic arterial hypotension was presented in 107 (43.8% of the pregnant women. The variation of the SAP in the group that presented postanesthetic arterial hypotension was 10.5 [2.0 to 16.5] Vs 2.5 [-6.5 to 6.0] between those who did not present it (P<0,0001. It was estimated that variability higher to 11 mmHg of the SAP predicted postanesthetic arterial hypotension with sensibility: 47.6%, specificity: 93.4%, LR (+: 7.26, LR (-: 0.58 and area under the curve of 0.737 (CI 95%: 0.677-0.791, (p=0.0001. In turn such a variation was significant risk factor for the decrease of the arterial pressure. RR: 2.79 (CI95%: 2.19-3.56. Conclusion: the preanesthetic variation of the SAP with the change of position from supine decubitus to lateral decubitus position was predictor of arterial hypotension subsequent to the use of spinal anesthesia in pregnant women submitted to elective cesareans. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2014;5(1:29-34 KEYWORDS Arterial Pressure; Blood Pressure; Cesarean Section; Anesthesia, Obstetric.

  18. In vivo adaptive response of the peripheral conduit artery in patients with borderline systolic hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶军; 靳亚非; 王礼春; 唐安丽; 廖新学; 杨震; 马虹

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate elastic changes of the radial artery, a medium-sized muscular peripheral conduit artery, in patients with borderline systolic hypertension. Methods Using a non-invasive high-resolution echo-tracking device coupled to a photoplethysmography (Finapres system) allowing simultaneous arterial diameter and finger blood pressure monitoring, we measured radial artery elastic parameters of 20 patients with borderline systolic hypertension and 20 normal subjects according to Langewouters model.Results The diameter of the radial artery of control subjects and those with borderline systolic hypertension at the isobaric level of 100 mmHg and mean arterial pressure was similar, but the compliance and distensibility at similar conditions in patients with borderline systolic hypertension did not further reduced and even increased. Conclusion In patients with borderline systolic hypertension, the adaptive responses of the radial artery compliance and distensibility to increased pressure were directed to maintain its elasticity, contributing to the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system.

  19. Age dependency of central and peripheral systolic blood pressures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in European populations

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Richart, Tom; Seidlerová, Jitka; Cwynar, Marcin; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Filipovský, Jan; Casiglia, Edoardo; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; O'Rourke, Michael; Staessen, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. As arteries become stiffer with ageing, reflected waves move faster and augment late systolic pressure. We investigated the age dependency of peripheral and central systolic pressure, pressure amplification (peripheral systolic blood pressure - central systolic blood pressure), and peripheral and central systolic augmentation (maximal systolic pressure minus the first peak of the pressure wave). Methods. We randomly recruited 1420 White Europeans (mean age, 41.7 years). p...

  20. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  1. Differential effects of the changes of LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure on the risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Kuo-Liong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of baseline and changes in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol on the carotid intima media thickness (IMT have not been well documented. Methods A total of 2572 adults (mean age 53.8 years, 54.6% women in a Taiwanese community undertook three blood pressure and LDL cholesterol examinations over 6 years. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the effects of baseline and change in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on IMT. Results Greater baseline LDL and blood pressure were associated with an increase in IMT (0.005 ± 0.002 mm per 1 mg/dL [p = 0.006] and 0.041 ± 0.004 mm mmHg [p Conclusions Carotid IMT was associated with baseline blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, yet only changes of blood pressure, not LDL cholesterol, were related to carotid IMT during the 6-year observation.

  2. Oscillometric measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures validated in a physiologic mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbs Charles F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure with an automated cuff yields valid estimates of mean pressure but questionable estimates of systolic and diastolic pressures. Existing algorithms are sensitive to differences in pulse pressure and artery stiffness. Some are closely guarded trade secrets. Accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of cuff pressure oscillations remains an open problem in biomedical engineering. Methods A new analysis of relevant anatomy, physiology and physics reveals the mechanisms underlying the production of cuff pressure oscillations as well as a way to extract systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of oscillations in any individual subject. Stiffness characteristics of the compressed artery segment can be extracted from the envelope shape to create an individualized mathematical model. The model is tested with a matrix of possible systolic and diastolic pressure values, and the minimum least squares difference between observed and predicted envelope functions indicates the best fit choices of systolic and diastolic pressure within the test matrix. Results The model reproduces realistic cuff pressure oscillations. The regression procedure extracts systolic and diastolic pressures accurately in the face of varying pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. The root mean squared error in extracted systolic and diastolic pressures over a range of challenging test scenarios is 0.3 mmHg. Conclusions A new algorithm based on physics and physiology allows accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from cuff pressure oscillations in a way that can be validated, criticized, and updated in the public domain.

  3. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  4. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 ± 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RVV/LVV) were calculated. RVV/LVV was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 ± 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RVV/LVV and PASP (R = 0.82, p V/LVV were 0.990 and 0.892. RVV/LVV was 1.01 ± 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 ± 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P V/LVV, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  5. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  6. Eprosartan-based hypertension therapy, systolic arterial blood pressure and cognitive function: analysis of Middle East data from the OSCAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaideh G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ghazi Ahmad Radaideh1, Patrick Choueiry2, Amr Ismail2, Elie Eid3, Jean-Pascal Berrou4, Armand Sedefdjian5, Frank Sévenier6, Atul Pathak71Rashid Hospital of Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2Abbott Gulf – Levant; 3Division of Cardiology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwill, Switzerland; 5EvidenceBased Communication (EBC, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 6Fovéa Group, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 7Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1048, Université de Toulouse-UPS, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, FranceBackground: Studies have indicated a relationship between hypertension and cognitive function. The possible effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive disorders is therefore a matter of interest.Materials and methods: The Observational Study on Cognitive function And SBP Reduction (OSCAR was an open-label, multinational trial designed to evaluate the impact of eprosartan-based antihypertensive therapy on cognitive function in patients with essential hypertension. Eprosartan 600 mg/day for 6 months (with provision for additional medication as needed was initiated in hypertensive subjects aged ≥50 years. A total of 853 patients in an intention-to-treat cohort from seven countries of the Middle East was identified for subgroup analysis.Results: Arterial blood pressure was reduced significantly (P < 0.001 during the study: At the end of 6 months of eprosartan-based therapy, the mean (±SD reduction from baseline was 32.1 ± 14.3/14.6.3 ± 8.6 mmHg (P < 0.001. Mean pulse pressure was reduced by 18.3 ± 13.1 mmHg (P < 0.0001 vs baseline. Blood pressure was normalized (systolic <140 mmHg and diastolic <90 mmHg in 68.2% of patients. The overall mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score after 6 months of eprosartan-based therapy was one-point higher than at baseline (P < 0.001. MMSE score on

  7. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds

  8. A simple versatile method for measuring tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdop, R E; Li, X C

    1997-09-01

    1. The non-invasive measurement of tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats is routinely used in long-term cardiovascular studies. There are a number of commercially available tail cuff systems, however, these apparatus are generally expensive and are dedicated for single-task operations. In the present study, a simple method for measuring systolic blood pressure, which requires only minor modifications to the existing hardware found in most cardiovascular laboratories, is described. 2. Systolic blood pressure measurements were made in the conventional manner by determining the systolic blood pressure which coincided with the restoration of the caudal artery pulse. This was achieved by using an inexpensive piezo-electric pulse transducer to detect the pulse, and this was coupled to a standard data-acquisition system (MacLab, ADInstruments) normally set up to record blood pressure. This method was compared with another established tail cuff method, as well as with direct intra-arterial recordings. 3. It was found that the results obtained using both tail cuff systems were in good agreement when systolic blood pressure was measured in Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In addition, systolic blood pressure was measured over 4 weeks in 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats, with both tail cuff methods producing similar results, which were not significantly different from direct intra-arterial recordings in the same animals. 4. Thus, in the present study, with only minor modifications, the same equipment was used for both direct and indirect determinations of systolic blood pressure. This situation differs from other conventional tail cuff systems since these items are designed for a single purpose. Therefore, the current method using piezo-electric sensor/MacLab-technology should be viewed as a relatively simple, flexible and cheap alternative method to measure tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats. PMID:9337632

  9. Prognostic value of systolic short-term blood pressure variability in systolic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Matthieu; Lairez, Olivier; Fourcade, Joelle; Roncalli, Jérôme; Carrié, Didier; Pathak, Atul; Chamontin, Bernard; Galinier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular risk factors in the general population are usually correlated to a better prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Most of the studies show that blood pressure variability (BPV) has noxious effect on general population but data are missing for patients with systolic HF. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) in systolic HF. Methods and results We retrospectively studied 288 pa...

  10. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  11. Systolic blood pressure and systolic hypertension in adolescence of atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2007-11-01

    Annual medical examinations were conducted during adolescence for the in utero clinical study sample subjects exposed prenatally to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Systolic blood pressure and several anthropometric measurements were recorded during these examinations. For 1014 persons exposed in utero, two types of longitudinal analyses were performed, for a total of 7029 observations (6.93 observations per subject) of systolic blood pressure (continuous data) and systolic hypertension (binary data) for persons aged 9 to 19 years. Body mass index (BMI) and/or body weight were considered in the analyses as potential confounders. For the measurements of systolic blood pressure, the common dose effect was 2.09 mmHg per Gy and was significant (P = 0.017). The dose by trimester interaction was suggestive (P = 0.060). A significant radiation dose effect was found in the second trimester (P = 0.001), with an estimated 4.17 mmHg per Gy, but in the first and third trimesters, radiation dose effects were not significant (P > 0.50). For prevalence of systolic hypertension, the radiation dose effect was significant (P = 0.009); the odds ratio at 1 Gy was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.04], and the dose by trimester interaction was not significant (P = 0.778). The dose response of systolic hypertension had no dose threshold, with a threshold point estimate of 0 Gy (95% CI: <0.0, 1.1 Gy). The dose response for systolic blood pressure was most pronounced in the second trimester, the most active organogenesis period for the organs relevant to blood pressure. PMID:17973553

  12. [An automatic non-invasive method for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, D; Suter, P

    1981-01-01

    A new automatic apparatus for the measurement of arterial pressure by a non-invasive technique was compared with direct intra-arterial measurement in 20 adult patients in a surgical intensive care unit. The apparatus works on the basis of the principle of oscillometry. Blood pressure is determined with a microprocessor by analysis of the amplitude of the oscillations produced by a cuff which is inflated then deflated automatically. Thus mean arterial pressure corresponds to the maximum amplitude. Systolic and diastolic pressures are deduced by extrapolation to zero of the amplitudes on either side of the maximum reading. Mean arterial pressure (AP) proved to be very reliable within the limits studied: 8.0 - 14.7 kPa (60 - 110 mmHg) with a difference in mean direct AP and indirect AP of 0,09 +/- 0.9 kPa SD (0.71 +/- 7 mmHg) and a coefficient of linear correlation between the two methods of r = 0.82. This non-invasive technique determined systolic arterial pressure (sAP) in a less reliable fashion than AP when compared with the invasive technique, with a tendency to flatten the extreme values. The correlation coefficient here was 0.68. Finally, diastolic arterial pressure (dAP) showed a better degree of agreement through with a difference in mean indirect AP and mean direct AP of 1.0 +/- 0.8 kPa (7.6 +/- 6.0 mmHg). These results indicate a good degree of agreement for measurements of mean arterial pressure, clinically the most important, between the two methods used. Measurements of diastolic pressure and above all of diastolic pressure seemed to be less in agreement. This difference could be due to an error in determination of the automatic apparatus tested or to the peripheral site (radial artery) of the intra-arterial catheter used, itself falsifying the humeral arterial pressure. PMID:6113805

  13. A variedade da dieta é fator protetor para a pressão arterial sistólica elevada Dietary variety is a protective factor for elevated systolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Prado de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A dieta influencia diretamente a hipertensão arterial (HAS, que é um dos principais fatores de risco da doença cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Associar a HAS com fatores dietéticos de adultos clinicamente selecionados para programa de mudança de estilo de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal composto por 335 indivíduos, com idade entre 44 e 65 anos, clinicamente selecionados para um programa de mudança de estilo de vida. Foram avaliados os dados antropométricos (IMC, % de gordura e circunferência abdominal, os componentes bioquímicos (concentrações plasmáticas de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, HDL-c e LDL-c e a dieta, por meio do recordatório de 24 horas. A qualidade da dieta foi avaliada pelo Índice de Alimentação Saudável. A pressão arterial foi mensurada de acordo com a V Diretriz Brasileira de Hipertensão Arterial e classificada de acordo com o NCEP-ATPIII. A regressão logística foi realizada para determinar a probabilidade de alterações na PAS e PAD de acordo com a ingestão dietética. Adotou-se como significante o valor de p BACKGROUND: Diet directly influences systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, which is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To associate hypertension with dietary factors in adults clinically selected for a change-of-lifestyle program. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 335 individuals, aged between 44 and 65 years, clinically selected for a change-of-lifestyle program. We evaluated anthropometric data (BMI, %body fat and waist circumference, biochemical components (plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-c and diet, through the 24-hour recall method. The quality of the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Blood pressure was measured according to the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension and classified according to NCEP-ATPIII. Logistic regression was performed to determine the likelihood of changes in SBP and

  14. Association of Interarm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference with Atherosclerosis and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI...

  15. Systolic Compression of Epicardial Coronary and Intramural Arteries: in Children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiddin, Saidi A; Fananapazir, Lameh

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that systolic compression of epicardial coronary arteries is an important cause of myocardial ischemia and sudden death in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We examined the associations between sudden death, systolic coronary compression of intra- and epicardial arteries, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and severity of hypertrophy in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Systolic blood pressure of dogs at hospital and domestic environment Pressão arterial sistólica de cães nos ambientes hospitalar e doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Aécio Carvalho Soares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of blood pressure (BP is an important assessment of the cardiovascular system, being influenced by physical and pathological conditions. Certain situations of stress and anxiety during BP measurement can lead to elevated values in small animals, known in medicine as "white coat effect". The aim of this research was to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP measurement using Doppler ultrasonography in 45 adult healthy dogs in two environments, at a veterinary hospital and at home. Comparison of heart rate, serum concentrations of cortisol and glucose intended to help the evaluation of the stress level of the animals. The mean of SBP at the veterinary hospital was 154.7mmHg and it was significantly (PA medida da pressão arterial constitui uma importante avaliação do sistema cardiovascular, sendo influenciada por condições físicas e patológicas. Situações de estresse e ansiedade no momento da aferição podem causar valores de pressão sanguínea elevados, o que é conhecido na medicina humana como "efeito jaleco branco". O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os valores da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS pelo método Doppler em 45 cães em dois ambientes, o doméstico e o hospitalar. Além disso, foram comparadas as frequências cardíacas e concentrações séricas de glicose e cortisol nos dois ambientes, com o objetivo de auxiliar a avaliação o nível de estresse dos animais. A média de PAS observada no hospital foi de 154,7mmHg e foi significativamente superior que a observada em casa (136,3mmHg. Também foi observado que os valores de FC (média=122,7bpm e concentrações séricas de cortisol (mediana=4,5µg dL-1 e glicose (média=95,9mg dL-1 foram superiores (P<0,01 no ambiente hospitalar, quando comparados com os valores obtidos no lar dos animais (109,6bpm; 1,5µg dL-1 e 85,5mg dL-1, respectivamente. Assim, condições ambientais podem influenciar a PAS em cães, devido a fatores relacionados ao estresse.

  17. Systolic blood pressure of dogs at hospital and domestic environment Pressão arterial sistólica de cães nos ambientes hospitalar e doméstico

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Aécio Carvalho Soares; Elisa Barp Neuwald; Verônica Santos Mombach; Ana Elize Ribeiro D'Avila; Francisco de Oliveira Conrado; Félix Hilario Diaz González

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of blood pressure (BP) is an important assessment of the cardiovascular system, being influenced by physical and pathological conditions. Certain situations of stress and anxiety during BP measurement can lead to elevated values in small animals, known in medicine as "white coat effect". The aim of this research was to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement using Doppler ultrasonography in 45 adult healthy dogs in two environments, at a veterinary hospital and at ho...

  18. SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: BIOPHYSICAL, AGE AND GENDER FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Malinova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of systolic blood pressure features in the population of large industrial center. On the basis of measurement of blood pressure in adult population of three city regions there were revealed the following age-related changes in systolic blood pressure in men: three periods of rise and two periods of stabilization. The principal difference in women is the absence of the periods of rise and stabilization, lower level of blood pressure in young and middle aged people and authentically higher level of blood pressure - in elderly women. The increase of haemodynamical loading for one year of life in men of the middle (2 times and elder ages (3 times was revealed, that was not typical forwomen.

  19. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  20. The reliability of toe systolic pressure and the toe brachial index in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Byron M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ankle Brachial Index is a useful clinical test for establishing blood supply to the foot. However, there are limitations to this method when conducted on people with diabetes. As an alternative to the Ankle Brachial Index, measuring Toe Systolic Pressures and the Toe Brachial Index have been recommended to assess the arterial blood supply to the foot. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in patients with diabetes using a manual measurement system. Methods This was a repeated measures, reliability study. Three raters measured Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in thirty participants with diabetes. Measurement sessions occurred on two occasions, one week apart, using a manual photoplethysmography unit (Hadeco Smartdop 45 and a standardised measurement protocol. Results The mean intra-class correlation for intra-rater reliability for toe systolic pressures was 0.87 (95% LOA: -25.97 to 26.06 mmHg and the mean intra-class correlation for Toe Brachial Indices was 0.75 (95% LOA: -0.22 to 0.28. The intra-class correlation for inter-rater reliability was 0.88 for toe systolic pressures (95% LOA: -22.91 to 29.17.mmHg and 0.77 for Toe Brachial Indices (95% LOA: -0.21 to 0.22. Conclusion Despite the reasonable intra-class correlation results, the range of error (95% LOA was broad. This raises questions regarding the reliability of using a manual sphygmomanometer and PPG for the Toe Systolic Pressure and Toe Brachial Indice.

  1. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bursztyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by less than 3 mmHg. In nine examinations the SBP value measured by PPG was higher than that measured by sphygmomanometry by 5 mmHg or more. In only one examination the former was lower by 5 mmHg or more than the latter. The appearance of either the PPG pulses or the Korotkoff sounds assures that the artery under the cuff is open during systolic peak pressure. In the nine examinations mentioned above the PPG pulses were observed while Korotkoff sounds were not detected, despite the open artery during systole. In these examinations, the PPG-based technique was more reliable than sphygmomanometry. The high signal-to-noise ratio of measured PPG pulses indicates that automatic measurement of the SBP by means of automatic detection of the PPG signals is feasible.

  2. Mitral annular systolic velocity as a marker of preclinical systolic dysfunction among patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Ivaylo Rilkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate early changes in left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with hypertension (HTN with and without concomitant diastolic dysfunction (DD and the clinical implications of these findings. Method We enrolled 299 patients with HTN and 297 age-matched patients with HTN and DD and compared both groups with an age-matched control group consisting of 100 healthy subjects. The long axis systolic function was investigated by determining the average peak systolic velocity of the septal and lateral mitral sites (Smavg using spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI. Results We found a strong negative trend toward the reduction of velocity, which is dependent on the grade of HTN, on the magnitude of DD, and also on the gender and age of the subjects (r=−0.891/-0.580; p Conclusion The strength of the study is the analysis of incremental changes in longitudinal contraction in patients with different stage of HTN but not so many the classification of the degree of systolic dysfunction. The importance of our results lies in the fact that these initial changes in systolic contraction could be used as an early sign that should prompt optimization of the treatment of HTN.

  3. COMPARISON OF ENALAPRIL AND PERINDOPRIL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Grinshtein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare efficacy of enalapril and perindopril in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction.Material and methods. Patients (n=51 with HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction<45% were included in the prospective open randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of therapy with enalapril 10-20 mg BID (n=25 or with perindopril 4-8 mg OD (n=26. Hydrochlorothiazide (12,5-25 mg OD was added in case of ineffective therapy. Routine clinical examination, ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring, an electrocardiogram, an echocardiography were performed in all patients.Results. The 24-hour and night antihypertensive effect of enalapril was more prominent than this of perindopril. Target BP level was reached in 21 patients (84% of enalapril group and in 20 patients (76,9% of perindopril group. 8 (30,8% patients of perindopril group did not reach night target BP level vs 3 (12% patients of enalapril group. Similar improvement of the left ventricle systolic function was observed in both groups.Conclusion. Enalapril and perindopril demonstrated comparable antihypertensive and cardioprotective effect.

  4. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

    2009-10-15

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  5. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  6. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pauline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it into analog voltage. PPG signals were converted into voltage and amplified by the recording system with two channel amplifiers and in addition it also amplified analog voltage converted by the pressure transducer. Results: Calibration of the instrument entailed a simple Bland Altman’s plot of pressure recorded as voltage changes against pressure changes in the mercury sphygmomanometer which is considered as gold standard. A regression value of r=0.9 and p=0.00 was obtained. A pilot study was done on ten female rats. Three blood pressure readings were taken on two occasions. Between - animal variation of BP was 123±7 (mean SD, CV=5.9% and within - animal variation of BP was 120 ±7, CV=5.5%. Conclusion: The tail cuff and PPG based technique to measure systolic blood pressure in rats is simple, economic, accurate and reliable.

  7. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Sardari; Mostafa Nejatian; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP) is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR) in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent sta...

  8. Pulse pressure variation and systolic pressure variation in mechanically ventilated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Nurman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In mechanically ventilated patients, changes in breathing patterns may affect the preload, causing stroke volume fluctuation. Pulse pressure variation (PPV and systolic pressure variation (SPV are dynamic means of the hemodynamic monitoring in ventilated patients. No study on PPV and SPV in children has been reported to date. Objective To study changes in PPV and SPV values in mechanically ventilated children. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Pediatric Critical Care Unit (PICU, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Subjects were mechanically ventilated children aged > 12 months. Echocardiography was performed in all patients to determine the cardiac index. Arterial pressure was measured by connecting an arterial line to a vital signs monitor. PPV and SPV were calculated using the standard formulas. Bivariate correlation tests were performed between cardiac index and PPV and between cardiac index and SPV Receiver- operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was done to determine the optimum PPV and SPV cut-off points to predict normal cardiac index (?3.5 L/minute/m2. Results Eighteen patients were enrolled in the study, yielding 48 measurements. Mean cardiac index was 2.9 (SD 1-2.6 L/minute/ M2. Median PPV was 18.9 (4.1-45.5% and SPV was 12.1 (3.8¬18.9%. We found strong negative correlations between PPV and cardiac index (r= ; p= and SPV and cardiac index (r= ; p= . To predict normal cardiac index, the optimum cut-off point was 11.4% for PPV (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 9.45% for SPV (91.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity. Conclusion In mechanically ventilated children, cardiac index is negatively correlated with PPV and SPV [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:34,40].

  9. MRI测量心室壁曲率与肺动脉收缩压的相关性研究%Correlation analysis between curvature ratio measured at cardiac MR and systolic pulmonary artery pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春轶; 孙希文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the value of detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension(PAH) with curvature ratio measured at cardiac MR.Methods We performed a retrospective study of 48 patients with cardiac MR,systemic systolic blood pressure and right heart catheterization(RHC) data.The parameter curvature ratio (Rc) was measured at cardiac MR and transseptal/transmural pressure ratio (RP) was calculated.By using the regression analysis between Rc and RP,the SPAP was calculated.Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the SPAP calculated with SPAP obtained by RHC.The accuracy of the SPAP calculated in detecting PAH was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (SPAP higher than 40 mmHg as cutoff).The normality of parameter is tested by K-S test.Bivariate correlation Pearson test was used to test the consistency of parameters obtained by different measurers.Linear regression analysis was performed to find the relationship between Rc and RP.Results Parameter RP =0.28 ± 0.37 (-0.50-0.83) and RC =0.31 ± 0.57 (-0.78-0.97).Linear relationship was found between Rc and RP (r =0.94,P < 0.01) and regression equation:Rc =1.44 × RP-0.09.Bland-Altman analysis showed satisfactory limits of agreement with the SPAP calculated and obtained by RHC.ROC analysis of the diagnostic value in PAH revealed 94.4% (34/36) of sensitivity and 100.0% of specificity (12/12,area under ROC curve =0.942,P < 0.01).Conclusions Our study suggests that with curvature ratio measured at cardiac MR,the SPAP estimated have considerable sensitivity and specificity for detecting PAH.It may be a useful non-invasive assessment in patients that suspected of PAH.%目的 探讨心血管MR成像测量心室壁曲率对肺动脉高压的诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析48例患者的右心导管检查、MR检查及血压检测数据.通过测量MRI室间隔跨壁压力差与左心室游离壁跨壁压力差的比值(RP)以及室间隔与左心室游离壁曲率的比值(RC

  10. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  11. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....

  12. COMPARISON OF ENALAPRIL AND PERINDOPRIL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND LEFT VENTRICLE SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. I. Grinshtein; O. L. Barbarash; D. A. Yakhontov; A. E. Popelysheva; V. V. Shabalin; N. B. Osetrova

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare efficacy of enalapril and perindopril in patients with arterial hypertension (HT) and left ventricle systolic dysfunction.Material and methods. Patients (n=51) with HT and left ventricle systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction<45%) were included in the prospective open randomized comparative study. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of therapy with enalapril 10-20 mg BID (n=25) or with perindopril 4-8 mg OD (n=26). Hydrochlorothiazide (12,5-25 mg OD) was added in case o...

  13. Measurement of systolic pressure variation during graded volume loss using simple tools on Datex Ohmeda S/5 monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga, Padmaja; Jonnavittula, Nirmala; Muthuchellappan, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandran, Gopinath

    2009-04-01

    Direct invasive arterial monitoring is performed routinely for all major neurosurgical procedures. Systolic pressure variation (SPV) used, independently or in combination with central venous pressure (CVP) allows optimal fluid management in hypovolemia and hemorrhage. This study aims to quantify SPV during graded hypovolemia using the simple technique described by Gouvea and Gouvea using Datex Ohmeda S/5, and to compare its reliability relative to other hemodynamic indicators of hypovolemia. Twenty anesthetized neurosurgical patients of ASA grade I and II patients were administered furosemide 0.5 mg/kg intravenously to obtain graded volume loss in the form of urine output. Invasive arterial pressure from radial artery and CVP were monitored using Datex OhmedaS/5 (Finland). Invasive arterial pressure label was changed to pulmonary artery label with the scale appropriate for arterial pressure. The trace was frozen in the wedge mode to reduce the sweep speed and the cursor was used to measure SPV and pulse pressure variation (PPV). Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, CVP at zero end-expiratory pressure, SPV and PPV are measured at baseline, and after a urine output of 200 and 500 mL. There was a significant correlation between volume loss and CVP, SPV, and PPV. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis was >0.75 for CVP, SPV, and PPV. SPV of 7.5 mm Hg and a change of SPV by 4.5 mm Hg, a PPV of 4.5 and change in PPV by 2.5 mm Hg were the best cut-off values that corresponded to a volume change of 500 mL. This simple method enabled calculation of SPV without the computerized modules, and detected volume loss comparable to CVP. PMID:19295396

  14. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelido, G [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Angiletta, S [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Pujalte, A [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Quiroga, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Cornes, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Craiem, D [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements.

  15. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements

  16. Systolically gated 3D phase contrast MRA of mesenteric arteries in suspected mesenteric ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasser, M.N.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Roos, A. de [Leiden Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of MRA for detecting stenoses in the celiac (CA) and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries in patients suspected of having chronic mesenteric ischemia, using an optimized systolically gated 3D phase contrast technique. In an initial study in 24 patients who underwent conventional angiography of the abdominal vessels for different clinical indications, a 3D phase contrast MRA technique (3D-PCA) was evaluated and optimized to image the CAs and SMAs. Subsequently, a prospective study was performed to assess the value of systolically gated 3D-PCA in evaluation of the mesenteric arteries in 10 patients with signs and symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and surgical findings were used as the reference standard. In the initial study, systolic gating appeared to be essential in imaging the SMA on 3D-PCA. In 10 patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, systolically gated 3D-PCA identified significant proximal disease in the two mesenteric vessels in 4 patients. These patients underwent successful reconstruction of their stenotic vessels. Cardiac-gated MRA may become a useful tool in selection of patients suspected of having mesenteric ischemia who may benefit from surgery. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Multivariate Modeling of Body Mass Index, Pulse Pressure, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Chinese Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang;

    2015-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP), and body mass index (BMI) are heritable traits in human metabolic health but their common genetic and environmental backgrounds are not well investigated. The aim of this article was to explore the phenotypic and genetic associations among...... PP, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. The studied sample contained 615 twin pairs (17-84 years) collected in the Qingdao municipality. Univariate and multivariate structural equation models were fitted for assessing the genetic and environmental contributions...... multivariate model estimated (1) high genetic correlations for DBP with SBP (0.87), PP with SBP (0.75); (2) low-moderate genetic correlations between PP and DBP (0.32), each BP component and BMI (0.24-0.37); (3) moderate unique environmental correlation for PP with SBP (0.68) and SBP with DBP (0.63); (4) there...

  18. Elevated Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity in a Nonanemic Fetus with Alpha-Thalassemia Trait

    OpenAIRE

    Kent Heyborne

    2009-01-01

    Background. Elevated middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) has been reported in nonanemic fetuses following fetal transfusion, and has been attributed to a major population of red blood cells (RBCs) with an adult mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in the fetal circulation. Reported here is an analogous case of elevated MCA-PSV with a normal fetal hematocrit and relative fetal microcytosis due to fetal α-thalassemia trait. Case. Ultrasound findings concerning for early hydrops pro...

  19. Pulse pressure variation and systolic pressure variation in mechanically ventilated children

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Nurman; Antonius H. Pudjiadi; Arwin AP. Akib

    2011-01-01

    Background In mechanically ventilated patients, changes in breathing patterns may affect the preload, causing stroke volume fluctuation. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are dynamic means of the hemodynamic monitoring in ventilated patients. No study on PPV and SPV in children has been reported to date. Objective To study changes in PPV and SPV values in mechanically ventilated children. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Pedia...

  20. Phase shifts of synchronized oscillators and the systolic/diastolic blood pressure relation

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, L; Maestri, R; Marinazzo, D; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S

    2004-01-01

    We study the phase-synchronization properties of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in healthy subjects. We find that delays in the oscillatory components of the time series depend on the frequency bands that are considered, in particular we find a change of sign in the phase shift going from the Very Low Frequency band to the High Frequency band. This behavior should reflect a collective behavior of a system of nonlinear interacting elementary oscillators. We prove that some models describing such systems, e.g. the Winfree and the Kuramoto models offer a clue to this phenomenon. For these theoretical models there is a linear relationship between phase shifts and the difference of natural frequencies of oscillators and a change of sign in the phase shift naturally emerges.

  1. The relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S T; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an el...

  2. Arterial pressure transfer characteristics: effects of travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Stok, Wim J; Wesseling, Karel H; Spaan, Jos A E; Westerhof, Nico; Bos, Willem Jan; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the quantitative contribution of all local conduit arterial, blood, and distal load properties to the pressure transfer function from brachial artery to aorta. The model was based on anatomical data, Young's modulus, wall viscosity, blood viscosity, and blood density. A three-element windkessel represented the distal arterial tree. Sensitivity analysis was performed in terms of frequency and magnitude of the peak of the transfer function and in terms of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure in the aorta. The root mean square error (RMSE) described the accuracy in wave-shape prediction. The percent change of these variables for a 25% alteration of each of the model parameters was calculated. Vessel length and diameter are found to be the most important parameters determining pressure transfer. Systolic and diastolic pressure changed <3% and RMSE <1.8 mmHg for a 25% change in vessel length and diameter. To investigate how arterial tapering influences the pressure transfer, a single uniform lossless tube was modeled. This simplification introduced only small errors in systolic and diastolic pressures (1% and 0%, respectively), and wave shape was less well described (RMSE, approximately 2.1 mmHg). Local (arm) vasodilation affects the transfer function little, because it has limited effect on the reflection coefficient. Since vessel length and diameter translate into travel time, this parameter can describe the transfer accurately. We suggest that with a, preferably, noninvasively measured travel time, an accurate individualized description of pressure transfer can be obtained. PMID:16963619

  3. Baseline Systolic Blood Pressure Response to Exercise Stress Test Can Predict Exercise Indices following Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sardari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systolic blood pressure recovery (rSBP is of prognostic value for predicting the survival and co-morbidity rate in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. This study investigated the association between rSBP and exercise indices after complete cardiac rehabilitation program (CR in a population-based sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Methods: The sample population consisted of 352 patients who underwent pure CABG. The patients underwent standard symptom-limited exercise testing immediately before and also after the completion of the CR sessions. rSBP was defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure at 3 minutes in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise.Results: An abnormal baseline rSBP after exercise was a strong predictor of exercise parameters in the last session, including metabolic equivalents (β = -0.617, SE = 0.127, p value < 0.001 and peak O2 consumption (β = -1.950, SE = 0.363, p value < 0.001 measured in the last session adjusted for baseline exercise characteristics, demographics, function class, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Conclusion: The current study strongly emphasizes the predictive role of baseline rSBP after exercise in evaluating exercise parameters following CR. This baseline index can predict abnormal METs value, peak O2 consumption, post-exercise heart rate, and heart rate recovery after a 24-session CR program.

  4. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...

  5. Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Ho, David; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mice for the evaluation and study of cardiovascular pathophysiology is growing rapidly, primarily due to the relative ease for developing genetically engineered mouse models. Arterial pressure monitoring is central to the evaluation of the phenotypic changes associated with cardiovascular pathology and interventions in these transgenic and knockout models. There are four major techniques for measuring arterial pressure in the mouse: tail cuff system, implanted fluid filled catheter...

  6. Association of interarm systolic blood pressure difference with atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI and baPWV were also obtained from the same device. Clinical data, ABIindex (LVMI); model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis except ABIindex were also associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Our study demonstrated that ABI<0.9, high baPWV, and high LVMI were independently associated with an interarm SBP difference of 10 mmHg or more. Detection of an interarm SBP difference may provide a simple method of detecting patients at increased risk of atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:22927905

  7. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    compliance in both large and small arteries. Results showed, that the effects of decreased compliance in the large arteries far outweigh the effects observed when decreasing the compliance of the small arteries. We further showed that a decrease of compliance in the large arteries results in pressure increases consistent with observations of isolated systolic hypertension, as occurs in ageing. PMID:22962497

  8. The measurement of digital systolic blood pressure by strain gauge technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Bell, G; Lassen, N A

    1972-01-01

    The systolic blood pressure on the finger, toe, and ankle has been measured by a strain gauge technique in 10 normal subjects aged 17-31 years and 14 normal subjects aged 43-57 years. The standard deviation in repeated measurements lies between 2 and 6 mm Hg. The finger pressure in the younger...

  9. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure Values Obtained by Photoplethysmography and by Korotkoff Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bursztyn; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Eran Shalom; Shlomo Engelberg; Ellie Hoffman; Yair Adar; Meir Nitzan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, a non-invasive technique for systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement based on the detection of photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulses during pressure-cuff deflation was compared to sphygmomanometry—the Korotkoff sounds technique. The PPG pulses disappear for cuff-pressures above the SBP value and reappear when the cuff-pressure decreases below the SBP value. One hundred and twenty examinations were performed on forty subjects. In 97 examinations the two methods differed by...

  10. Predictors of high central blood pressure in young with isolated systolic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchenko GD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available G D Radchenko, O O Torbas, Yu M Sirenko State Institute National Scientific Center, M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, National Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, Ukraine Objective: According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers have these devices. The purpose of our study was to identify the simple clinical predictors for differentiation (with or without elevated aortic systolic BP [SBP] of the young with ISH without the need for further extensive work-up. Patients and methods: The study included 44 young men (mean age: 32.2±1.3 years with office SBP ≥140 mmHg and office diastolic BP (DBP <90 mmHg (average: 153.4±2.1 mmHg and 83.4±1.7 mmHg, respectively. The following procedures were performed in all the subjects: body weight and height evaluation; measurement of office SBP, DBP, and heart rate; ambulatory BP monitoring; measurement of pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic and muscle types and central SBP (cSBP; biochemical blood tests; electrocardiography; echocardiography; and carotid ultrasound investigations. Step-by-step multifactor regression analyses were used for finding the predictors of high cSBP. Results: Depending on the cSBP level, all the patients were divided into two groups: first group (n=17, subjects with normal cSBP, and second group (n=27, subjects with elevated cSBP. Patients in the second group were significantly older, with less height and higher body mass index; they had significantly higher levels of office SBP and DBP. Characteristics of target organ damage were within normal limits in both groups and did not differ significantly. Only pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic type was significantly higher in the second group. The independent predictors of

  11. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and...

  12. End-Systolic Elastance and Ventricular-Arterial Coupling Reserve Predict Cardiac Events in Patients with Negative Stress Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Bombardini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A maximal negative stress echo identifies a low-risk subset for coronary events. However, the potentially prognostically relevant information on cardiovascular hemodynamics for heart-failure-related events is unsettled. Aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of stress-induced variation in cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with negative stress echocardiography. Methods. We enrolled 891 patients (593 males mean age 63±12, ejection fraction 48±17%, with negative (exercise 172, dipyridamole 482, and dobutamine 237 stress echocardiography result. During stress we assessed left ventricular end-systolic elastance index (ELVI, ventricular arterial coupling (VAC indexed by the ratio of the ELVI to arterial elastance index (EaI, systemic vascular resistance (SVR, and pressure-volume area (PVA. Changes from rest to peak stress (reserve were tested as predictors of main outcome measures: combined death and heart failure hospitalization. Results. During a median followup of 19 months (interquartile range 8–36, 50 deaths and 84 hospitalization occurred. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves identified as best predictors ELVI reserve for exercise (AUC = 0.871 and dobutamine (AUC = 0.848 and VAC reserve (AUC = 0.696 for dipyridamole. Conclusions. Patients with negative stress echocardiography may experience an adverse outcome, which can be identified by assessment of ELVI reserve and VAC reserve during stress echo.

  13. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P < .0001 to P < .05). The nighttime blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P < .0001) and at night (80 vs. 64/min, P < .0001). Consequently, the reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime to...

  14. Dietary zinc intake is inversely associated with systolic blood pressure in young obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    Zinc may participate in blood pressure regulation and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The study examined the relationship between zinc status and blood pressure in obese Korean women. Forty obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) aged 19-28 years participated in this study. Zinc intake was estimated from one 24 hour recall and 2-day diet records. Serum and urinary zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorbance spectrophotometry. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastoli...

  15. Association of interarm systolic blood pressure difference with atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available An interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP difference of 10 mmHg or more have been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether an association exists between this difference and ankle-brachial index (ABI, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, and echocardiographic parameters. A total of 1120 patients were included in the study. The bilateral arm blood pressures were measured simultaneously by an ABI-form device. The values of ABI and baPWV were also obtained from the same device. Clinical data, ABI<0.9, baPWV, echocariographic parameters, and an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg were compared and analyzed. We performed two multivariate forward analyses for determining the factors associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg [model 1: significant variables in univariate analysis except left ventricular mass index (LVMI; model 2: significant variables in univariate analysis except ABI<0.9 and baPWV]. The ABI<0.9 and high baPWV in model 1 and high LVMI in model 2 were independently associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Female, hypertension, and high body mass index were also associated with an interarm SBP difference ≥10 mmHg. Our study demonstrated that ABI<0.9, high baPWV, and high LVMI were independently associated with an interarm SBP difference of 10 mmHg or more. Detection of an interarm SBP difference may provide a simple method of detecting patients at increased risk of atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy.

  16. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  17. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis--their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350

  18. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  19. Interarm differences in systolic blood pressure and mortality among US army veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, James; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Kivimäki, Mika;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differences between the arms in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥10 mmHg have been associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with hypertensive and chronic renal disease. For the first time, we examined these relationships in a non-clinical population. DESIGN: Cohort...

  20. Decreasing systolic blood pressure and declining mortality rates in an untreated population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla O; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate developments in 30 years mortality risk that may be associated with developments in population systolic blood pressure (SBP) and to evaluate possible secular trends in BP-associated mortality risk in the untreated population....

  1. Linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a score statistic and computer implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yingwei; Wang Kai

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted on systolic blood pressure using a score statistic. The randomly selected Replicate 34 of the simulated data was used. The score statistic was applied to the sibships derived from the general pedigrees. An add-on R program to GENEHUNTER was developed for this analysis and is freely available.

  2. Multivariate models for human genetic analysis: aggregation, coaggregation, and tracking of systolic blood pressure and weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanis, C. L.; Sing, C. F.; Clarke, W. R.; Schrott, H G

    1983-01-01

    A multivariate path model parameterizing the sources of familial aggregation and coaggregation of systolic blood pressure and weight, as well as their tracking across time, is applied to longitudinal data collected in Muscatine, Iowa. Genetic, common household, and individual environmental effects, pleiotropy, and a direct regression effect of blood pressure on weight are parameterized. The sample consisted of 998 individuals distributed in 261 families of whom 601 were measured on four succe...

  3. Microalbuminuria in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus relates to nocturnal systolic blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, T H

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Our objective in the present study was to compare and assess the relationship between 24-hour, day and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric NIDDM and in normal control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, 24 hour ambulatory BP (daytime BP and nocturnal BP) and HbA1c were compared in microalbuminuric (n = 10) and nonmicroalbuminuric NIDDM patients (n = 10) and in nondiabetic controls (n = 9). None of the patients were taking antihypertensive agents. RESULTS: In the microlbuminuric group, whereas 24 hour and daytime systolic BP differed significantly from control values (P < 0.025 and P < 0.05 respectively), there was no difference between diabetic groups. However, nocturnal systolic BP in the microalbuminuric group was significantly higher than in the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (139 vs. 125) (P < 0.05) and a significant difference was also found between the NIDDM patients and the control group (139, 125 vs. 114) (P < 0.025). In multiple regression analysis, only nocturnal systolic BP showed a significant relationship with UAE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure seen in our microalbuminuric NIDDM patients may contribute to the increased morbidity in this group.

  4. Analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relation by gated radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation has been proved experimentally to b e an useful index of left ventricular contractility relatively independent of preload or afterload. But less clinical application has been reported because of its invasive nature, and we evaluated this relationship non-invasively using gated radionuclide angiocardiography as volume determination and cuff sphyngomanometer in the arm as pressure measurement. Gated equilibrium blood pool scintigrams were obtained at rest and during intravenous infusion of angiotensin or nitrate. Ventricular volumes were derived from ventricular activity and peripheral blood volume and activity. The peak systolic pressure (PSP) by cuff method to end-systolic volume index (ESVI) relations showed good linearity (r gt .930 in 84% of consecutive 50 cases) and were gentler in the groups with more impaired left ventricular function. Emax was related exponentially to ejection fraction (EF) and hyperbolically to end-diastolic volume index. The dead volume (VoI) was unfixed and fell into positive or negative value, and was not related to EF under control condition. PSP/ESVI in each loading condition was less variable with the alteration of blood pressure than EF. The linear relation was found between PSP/ESVI under control condition and Emax (PSP/ESVI = 0.651.Emax + 0.958, r = 0.841, p lt .001). Thus in measuring ventricular volume, gated radionuclide angiocardiography is a non-invasive method less affected by the geometry of the left ventricle. Non-invasive determination of end-systolic pressure-volume relation using the volume by radionuclide and the blood pressure by cuff method is clinically useful in the assessment of left ventricular contractility. (author)

  5. Use of systolic pressure variation to predict the cardiovascular response to mini-fluid challenge in anaesthetised dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabozzi, R; Franci, P

    2014-11-01

    Systolic pressure variation (SPV), the maximum variation in systolic pressure values following a single positive pressure breath delivered by controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), is highly correlated with volaemia in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine an SPV value that would indicate when fluid administration would be beneficial in clinical practice. Twenty-six client-owned dogs were anaesthetised, following which CMV with a peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 8 cmH2O was applied. After SPV measurement and recording of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), 3 mL/kg fluid were administered, then HR and BP were recorded again. Dogs exhibiting a 10% decrease in HR and/or an increase in BP were defined as responders, and their SPV pre-bolus was analysed retrospectively. SPV values > 4 mmHg or >4.5% predicted haemodynamic improvement in dogs with normal cardiovascular function, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 87%. The area under the curve receiver operating characteristic value for SPV was 0.931 mmHg (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-0.99 mmHg) and 0.944% (95% CI 0.78-0.99%). It is proposed that SPV values > 4.5% in dogs with a normal cardiovascular function, anaesthetised with isoflurane in oxygen and air, and on CMV (PIP 8 cmH2O), can be used to predict a cardiovascular response (>10% increase in mean arterial BP and/or >10% decrease in heart rate). PMID:25199508

  6. Using an expiratory resistor, arterial pulse pressure variations predict fluid responsiveness during spontaneous breathing: an experimental porcine study

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Michael K.; Vistisen, Simon T; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fluid responsiveness prediction is difficult in spontaneously breathing patients. Because the swings in intrathoracic pressure are minor during spontaneous breathing, dynamic parameters like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are usually small. We hypothesized that during spontaneous breathing, inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors could induce high arterial pressure variations at hypovolemia and low variations at normovolemia and hypervolemia....

  7. Low systolic blood pressure and self perceived wellbeing in middle aged men.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengren, A; Tibblin, G; Wilhelmsen, L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between systolic blood pressure and self perceived wellbeing in 50 year old men. DESIGN--Cross sectional population study of data derived from questionnaires and physical examination as a part of a cardiovascular risk factor survey. SETTING--City of Gothenburg, Sweden. STUDY POPULATION--776 men from a random population sample of 1016 men aged 50. METHODS--Self perceived wellbeing according to the Gothenburg quality of life questionnaire, which is an assessme...

  8. Predictors of high central blood pressure in young with isolated systolic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Radchenko, Ganna; Torbas,Olena; Sirenko, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    G D Radchenko, O O Torbas, Yu M Sirenko State Institute National Scientific Center, M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, National Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, Ukraine Objective: According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP) is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers ha...

  9. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penerbangan dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia. Penerbang terpajan antara lain pada bising dan vibrasi pesawat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor penerbangan pada tekanan darah sistolik.Metode: Penelitian nested case-control dilakukan pada penerbang Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto tahun 2003–2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, jumlah jam terbang, jenis pesawat, kadar glukosa puasa dan kadar kholesterol darah, lingkaran pinggang, tinggi dan berat badan, tinggi badan, serta tekanan darah.Hasil: Dari 336 penerbang, terdapat 16 penerbanga dengan tekanan sistolik ³ 140 mmHg. Penerbang dengan rata-rata jam penerbangan 300-622 jam per tahun dibandingkan dengan 29-299 jam per tahun mempunyai risiko peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi sebesarf 5 kali [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 5,05, 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,88 -23,30, P = 0,070]. Menurut jam terbang total, mereka yang memiliki 1.401-1,1125 jam dibandingkan 147-1.400 jam berisiko 3,6 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 3,58, 95% CI = 1,24-10,38. Selain itu, mereka dengan denyut nadi istirahat tinggi dibandingkan dengan denyut nadi normal istirahat memiliki 2,4 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 2,37, CI = 0,74-7,50 95, P = 0,147].Kesimpulan: Vibrasi pesawat terbang tinggi, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun tinggi, dan frekuensi nadi istirahat yang tinggi meningkatkan risiko tekanan sistolik tinggi.Kata kunci:tekanan darah sistolik, vibrasi pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Flight may affect the human cardiovascular system. Pilots are exposed among others to aircraft noise and vibration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aircraft flight on systolic blood pressure.Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on

  10. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  11. Brachial-to-radial systolic blood pressure amplification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, R E D; Picone, D S; Keske, M A; Sharman, J E

    2016-06-01

    Brachial-to-radial-systolic blood pressure amplification (Bra-Rad-SBPAmp) can affect central SBP estimated by radial tonometry. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have vascular irregularities that may alter Bra-Rad-SBPAmp. By comparing T2DM with non-diabetic controls, we aimed to determine the (1) magnitude of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; (2) haemodynamic factors related to Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; and (3) effect of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp on estimated central SBP. Twenty T2DM (64±8 years) and 20 non-diabetic controls (60±8 years; 50% male both) underwent simultaneous cuff deflation and two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the brachial and radial arteries. The first Korotkoff sound (denoting SBP) was identified from the first inflection point of Doppler flow during cuff deflation. Bra-Rad-SBPAmp was calculated by radial minus brachial SBP. Upper limb and systemic haemodynamics were recorded by tonometry and ultrasound. Radial SBP was higher than brachial SBP for T2DM (136±19 vs 127±17 mm Hg; P<0.001) and non-diabetic controls (135±12 vs 121±11 mm Hg; P<0.001), but Bra-Rad-SBPAmp was significantly lower in T2DM (9±8 vs 14±7 mm Hg; P=0.042). The product of brachial mean flow velocity × brachial diameter was inversely and independently correlated with Bra-Rad-SBPAmp in T2DM (β=-0.033 95% confidence interval -0.063 to -0.004, P=0.030). When radial waveforms were calibrated using radial, compared with brachial SBP, central SBP was significantly higher in both groups (T2DM, 116±13 vs 125±15 mm Hg; and controls, 112±10 vs 124±11 mm Hg; P<0.001 both) and there was a significant increase in the number of participants classified with 'central hypertension' (SBP⩾130 mm Hg; P=0.004). Compared with non-diabetic controls, Bra-Rad-SBPAmp is significantly lower in T2DM. Regardless of disease status, radial SBP is higher than brachial SBP and this results in underestimation of central SBP using brachial-BP-calibrated radial tonometry. PMID:26446391

  12. Characterization and calibration of the central arterial pressure waveform obtained from vibrocardiographic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacanditella, L.; Cosoli, G.; Casaccia, S.; Rohrbaugh, J. W.; Scalise, L.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been demonstrated to be a non-contact technique with high sensitivity, able to measure the skin vibrations related to cardiac activity. The obtainable mechanical signal (i.e. a velocity signal), VibroCardioGram (VCG), is able to provide significant physiological parameters, such as Heart Rate (HR). In this work, the authors aim to present a non-contact measurement method to obtain the arterial blood pressure signal from the mechanical vibrations assessed by LDV, in a central district of the arterial tree, such as carotid artery. In fact, in this way it is possible to indirectly assess Central Arterial Blood Pressure (CABP), which indicates the hemodynamic load on the heart, so that it is considered an important index predicting the cardiac risk of a subject. The measurement setup involves the use of an oscillometric cuff, to measure peripheral blood pressure at the radial artery level. Diastolic and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) at radial level were used to calibrate the integrated LDV signal (i.e. a displacement signal). As regard calibration, an exponential mathematical model was adopted to derive the pressure waveform from the displacement of the vessel detected by LDV. Results show an average difference of around 20% between systolic pressure measured at brachial level (i.e. peripheral pressure value) and systolic pressure derived from VCG signal measured over the carotid artery (i.e. central pressure). This is a physiological difference, consistent with the literature about the physiological increase of Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Pressure Pulse (PP) at increased distances from the heart. However, this non-contact technique is affected by movement artifacts and by reflection phenomena not related to the studied vessel and so it is necessary to account of such issues in the results.

  13. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s−1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  14. Daily liquorice consumption for two weeks increases augmentation index and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia H Leskinen

    Full Text Available Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively.Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290-370 mg with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls.Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05, and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls. Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05 and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05 were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (-3/-0.3 mmHg and central blood pressure (-2/-0.5 mmHg, aortic pulse pressure (-1 mmHg, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7% decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups.Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  15. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  16. [Echocardiographic parameters and systolic times in arterial hypertension in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Santoro, G; Giusti, C; Di Bello, V; Cini, G; Del Corso, L

    1989-09-01

    In 40 subjects, 15 mean age 70.7 +/- 5.6 with systolic-diastolic hypertension, 15 mean age 75.5 +/- 6.8 years with systolic hypertension and 10 mean age 73.6 +/- 5.1 normotensive control group we have analyzed with M-mode 2D echocardiography and echophonocardiography the following parameters: diastolic--EDD--and systolic diameter--SD--of left ventricle, diastolic thickness of septum--SSD--and posterior wall--SPPD--of left ventricle, left ventricular ejection fraction--EF--(Theicholtr. formula), radius posterior wall thickness--R/SPPD--, left ventricular mass--LVM--(Devereux' formula), and systolic time intervals (Q-A2, LVET, PEP and PEP/LVET). The differences between groups are: systolic-diastolic hypertensive patients have increased EDD, SPPD and LVM, reduction of EF and increased PEP/LVET ratio in comparison with B and C groups; systolic hypertension doesn't increase EDD; SSD and PEP/LVET increase, while the EF remains within normal limits. In the healthy aged subjects SSD, SPPD and LVM are normal. PMID:2608185

  17. Daily Liquorice Consumption for Two Weeks Increases Augmentation Index and Central Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Miia H.; Hautaniemi, Elina J.; Tahvanainen, Anna M.; Koskela, Jenni K.; Päällysaho, Marika; Tikkakoski, Antti J.; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively. Methods Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290–370 mg) with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls. Results Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702 PMID:25153328

  18. Peak systolic velocity of superior thyroid artery for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhao

    Full Text Available AIM: The differentiation of destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease (GD is of great importance for selection of proper therapy. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU is the gold standard for differentiating these two conditions but its application has remained somewhat limited. Thyroid color Doppler flow sonography (CDFS is a potential alternative of RAIU but more supporting evidence is warranted. In the present study, a standard operative procedure was developed to measure the mean peak systolic velocity of superior thyroid artery (STA-PSV and evaluate its role in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. METHODS: A total of 135 patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis were enrolled into one retrospective study (GD, n = 103; thyroiditis, n = 32 and another prospective study recruited 169 patients (GD, n = 118; thyroiditis, n = 51. Thirty normal controls were also enrolled. Thyroid function, anti-TSH-receptor antibody (TRAb, RAIU, CFDS of thyroid and STA-PSV were performed for each patient. Receiver operator curve (ROC was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of STA-PSV in a retrospective study so as to seek the optimal cutoff point. Then the cutoff point value was used to validate its diagnostic value in a prospective study and in another thyrotoxicosis population. RESULTS: STA-PSV of GD was significantly higher than that of thyroiditis in both retrospective and prospective studies. The area under the ROC curve of mean STA-PSV was 0.8799 and 0.9447 in the retrospective and prospective studies respectively. If a mean STA-PSV cutoff point of 50.5 cm/s was set from the retrospective analysis for the prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing GD from thyroiditis were 81.04% and 96.08% respectively. Mean STA-PSV and TRAb had similar area under ROC. The coefficients of variation in STA-PSV measurement were lower than 10% for the euthyroid, thyroiditis and GD groups. CONCLUSIONS: STA-PSV is a feasible supplement

  19. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  20. The accuracy of blood pressure measured by arterial line and non-invasive cuff in critically ill children

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Rachel; Duff, Jonathan; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Pugh, Jodie; Ari R. Joffe

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of arterial lines (AL) using the flush test or stopcock test has not been described in children, nor has the difference between invasive arterial blood pressure (IABP) versus non-invasive cuff (NIBP) blood pressure. Methods After ethics approval and consent, we performed the flush test and stopcock test on AL (to determine over damping, under damping, and optimal damping), and determined the difference (NIBP–IABP) in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (ΔSBP, ...

  1. [Multiparameter analysis of the ergometric test. Significance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during recovery phase as an index of coronary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, G; Scaccianoce, G; Artale, S; Francaviglia, B; Platania, F; Circo, A

    1990-10-01

    Ergometric tests were performed in 27 patients who had previously undergone coronarography following instrumental findings and/or symptoms which seemed highly indicative of ischemic cardiopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic importance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during the third minute of the recovery phase of the test as an index of coronary disease. In particular, as reported by other studies, the ratio between systolic blood pressure at the third minute of recovery and maximum systolic blood pressure during the test was also assessed values above 0.7 were considered pathological. Sixteen out the 27 patients examined showed lesions which were hemodynamically significant, whereas 11 patients were free of lesions and 9 had previous myocardial necrosis. The level of the above ratio in subjects without significant coronary lesions was 0.66 +/- 0.05, whereas it was 0.85 +/- 0.04 (p less than 0.01) in patients with coronary disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative prognostic values were respectively 91.6%, 62%, 64.7% and 90.9%. In patients with lesions to the three main arteries both the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. In the same patients, the ST criteria were 85.7%, 50%, 81.8% and 74.3%. PMID:2074932

  2. A new noninvasive device for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring in the superficial temporal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous recording of arterial blood pressure (ABP) has many applications in cardiovascular physiology, but existing alternatives rely on measurements performed in the fingers or radial artery. Peripheral recordings have significant differences from central ABP regarding the pattern of the waveform and corresponding systolic and diastolic values. To address the need for noninvasive measurements closer to the ascending aorta, a new device was constructed to measure ABP in the superficial temporal artery (STA) using photoplethysmography and the arterial volume clamping technique. The optoelectronic circuitry to generate the photoplethysmogram is contained in a specially designed probe placed over the STA and kept in place with a head frame. The prototype (STAbp) also includes original designs for the pneumatic, electronic, signal processing, control and display sub-systems. A self-calibration feature regularly updates the photoplethysmogram operating point to improve accuracy. The performance of the STAbp was compared against the Finapres in 19 healthy subjects. At rest, the bias (SDd) was −23.1 (15.05), −10.8 (13.83) and −12.4 (12.93) mmHg for systolic, mean and diastolic pressures respectively, without significant differences in drift between the two devices. The 99% bandwidth (SD) for the spectral distribution of ABP waveforms was 5.3 (1.46) Hz for STAbp and 6.8 (0.73) Hz for the Finapres (p < 0.01). Handgrip manoeuvre showed a very similar response to the Finapres, including the rapid return to baseline on release. The new STAbp device has considerable potential as a new tool for clinical and research applications where continuous recording of more central ABP is advantageous compared to peripheral alternatives. (paper)

  3. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressuresystolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. PMID:27045024

  4. [Gallopamil and chlorthalidone versus atenolol and chlorthalidone in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients with arterial hypertension: polycardiographic evaluation of the systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieppa, S; Lobascio, C; Brandini, V; Iarussi, D; Giuliani, F; Langella, S; De Simone, R

    1989-08-01

    In 13 patients, affected by hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and essential hypertension, antihypertensive-efficacy and effects of a new calcium-channel blocker (gallopamil) associated with a diuretic agent (chlorthalidone) on left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance assessed by phonocardiographic methods. The results were compared to those obtained, in the same group of patients, with a selective beta-blocker (atenolol) associated with the same diuretic agent (chlorthalidone). With both therapeutic regimens a statistically significant reduction of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure was observed; both agents were able to reduce hemodynamic gradient in systole which characterize HOCM; however, the treatment with gallopamil plus chlorthalidone determined greater effects on left ventricular diastolic function as compared to the treatment with atenolol plus chlorthalidone; both treatments determined bradycardia. PMID:2605580

  5. Validity of Some Anthropometric Indicators in the Prediction of High Systolic Blood Pressure Among Indian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, it is necessary to investigate the relative performance of different indicators used for its assessment and health consequences.Objectives: To examine concordance between various indicators used for assessing obesity among adolescents and to examine their ability to predict risk of high systolic blood pressure.Design: Cross-sectional study, from two schools catering to affluent class.Subjects: Children in age 9–16 yr (n = 1146 boys and 1036 girls.Measurements: Body weight, height, skinfold thickness at triceps (TSFT and body fat percent by trained investigators and blood pressure measurement by a pediatrician using sphygmomanometer.Results: Prevalence of overweight was lowest with criterion of TSFT (11.7% in boys; 7.6% in girls and was highest using criterion of body fat percent (53.7% in boys and 28.4% in girls. Body mass index (BMI had high significant correlation with each of the indicator and with systolic blood pressure (SBP as well, in both sexes. All the indicators with conventional cut offs showed poor sensitivity for predicting high SBP. However, receiver operating characteristics (ROC cut-offs improved sensitivity considerably, but the values were much lower compared to conventional cut-offs.Conclusions: There is considerable disparity in the estimates of overweight children obtained by different indicators. Lower values of ROC cut-offs highlights the need for population specific customized classification systems for assessing obesity in view of the probable population differences in relative risks of non-communicable adult diseases.

  6. Effects of pressure on arterial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamdaengyodtai, Pannathai; Vafai, Kambiz; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut; Terdtoon, Pradit

    2012-10-11

    A three-dimensional multilayer model of mechanical response for analyzing the effect of pressure on arterial failure is presented in this work. The multilayer arterial wall is considered to be composed of five different layers. The three-dimensional effects are incorporated within the five-concentric axisymmetric layers while incorporating the nonlinear elastic characteristics under combined extension and inflation. Constitutive equations for fiber-reinforced material are employed for three of the major layers, i.e., intima, media and adventitia and an isotropic material model is employed for the other two layers, i.e., endothelium and internal elastic lamina. Our own developed three-dimensional five-layer model has been utilized to model propagated rupture area of the arterial wall. Required parameters for each layer are obtained by using a nonlinear least square method fitted to in vivo non-invasive experimental data of human artery and the effects of pressure on arterial failure are examined. The solutions from our computational model are compared with previous studies and good agreements are observed. Local stresses and strain distributions across the deformed arterial wall are illustrated and consequently the rupture area is predicted by varying luminal pressure in the physiological range and beyond. The effects of pressure on the arterial failure have been interpreted based on this comprehensive three-dimensional five-layer arterial wall model. This is the first study which employs two constitutive equations and incorporates a five-layer arterial wall model in three-dimensions based on in vivo non-invasive experimental data for a human artery. PMID:22980577

  7. Doppler ultrasound compared with strain gauge for measurement of systolic ankle blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Jette Bang; Juul, Søren; Abrahamsen, Jimmi;

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses measurement variation in the measurement of ankle systolic blood pressure (ABP) when measured with Doppler ultrasound and with the strain gauge method. Ninety-seven patients were included. ABP was measured with Doppler ultrasound and with the strain gauge method. The methods...... were compared graphically by scatterplots and analyzed by paired t test, analysis of variance, and Pitman's paired variance ratio test. ABP was measured by strain gauge in all extremities, whereas no Doppler signal was obtainable in 7 limbs (4%). There was no systematic difference in measurements...... between the means of the two measurements. However, a substantial difference of more than 25 mm Hg was found in 15% of limbs and more than 20 mm Hg in 20%. In the majority of patients, measurements of ABP by Doppler ultrasound and the strain gauge method give similar results, but for a minority the...

  8. Comparison of oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure and pulse measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithalia, S V; Edwards, D

    1994-01-01

    Non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure and pulse measured by an Omron HEM-703CP monitor were compared with arterial values obtained from direct measurements of the radial artery. An excellent correlation and agreement was found between the two methods (systolic r = 0.99; diastolic r = 0.97; pulse r = 0.99), although there was some variability among individual subjects. The range of difference between them was 0 to 10 mmHg for systolic and -6 to +5 mmHg for diastolic pressures. When tested on the bench using the Metron QA-1280 non-invasive blood pressure analyser the HEM-703CP monitor rarely exhibited errors exceeding 2-3 mmHg over a measurement range of 50-200 mmHg. PMID:7776359

  9. Attenuation of systolic blood pressure and pulse transit time hysteresis during exercise and recovery in cardiovascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Yan, Bryan P; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y

    2014-02-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is a cardiovascular parameter of emerging interest due to its potential to estimate blood pressure (BP) continuously and without a cuff. Both linear and nonlinear equations have been used in the estimation of BP based on PTT. This study, however, demonstrates that there is a hysteresis phenomenon between BP and PTT during and after dynamic exercise. A total of 46 subjects including 16 healthy subjects, 13 subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, and 17 patients with cardiovascular disease underwent graded exercise stress test. PTT was measured from electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram of the left index finger of the subject, i.e., a pathway that includes predominately aorta, brachial, and radial arteries. The results of this study showed that, for the same systolic BP (SBP), PTT measured during exercise was significantly larger than PTT measured during recovery for all subject groups. This hysteresis was further quantified as both normalized area bounded by the SBP-PTT relationship (AreaN) and SBP difference at PTT during peak exercise plus 20 ms (ΔSBP20). Significant attenuation of both AreaN (p <; 0.05) and ΔSBP20 (p <; 0.01) is observed in cardiovascular patients compared with healthy subjects, independent of resting BP. Since the SBP-PTT relationship are determined by the mechanical properties of arterial wall, which is predominately mediated by the sympathetic nervous system through altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone during exercise, results of this study are consistent with the previous findings of autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiovascular patients. We further conclude that VSM tone has a nonnegligible influence on the BP-PTT relationship and thus should be considered in the PTT-based BP estimation. PMID:24158470

  10. The prevalence and influence factors of inter-ankle systolic blood pressure difference in community population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zhang

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of interankle systolic blood pressure difference (sIAND and its influencing factors in community population. METHODS: This study included 2849 (65.1±9.4 y subjects. Blood pressure (BPs of four limbs was simultaneously measured with 4 electronic sphygmomanometers after 10 min rest in supine position. The difference of systolic BP (SBP between two ankles was calculated as DETASBP. The criterion for abnormal sIAND was ≥10 mmHg of absolute DeltaSBP, in which the criterion for 1o sIAND was 10-19 mmHg and for 2o sIAND was ≥20 mmHg. Age, gender, smoking, hypertension, family histories of hypertension and diabetes were recorded. Fasting blood glucose and lipids, circumference of hip and waist, and body mass index (BMI were measured. RESULTS: The SBP was higher in the right ankle than in the left ankle (158.9±21.8 vs 157.3±21.6 mmHg, P<0.05 and mean DeltaSBP was 6.08±6.26 mmHg. Similar difference was found in both genders. The prevalence of abnormal was 18.5%, in which, the prevalence 1o sIAND was 15.3% and that of 2o sIAND was 3.1%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, waist circumference and blood glucose level were the positive factors for DeltaSBP. The normal upper limit for DeltaSBP was 16.7 mmHg in this population, the prevalence of sIAND by≥16 mmHg was 5.8%. CONCLUSION: Aging, hypertension, obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism are positive factors for inter-ankle SBP difference.

  11. Cardiovascular Outcomes According to Systolic Blood Pressure in Patients With and Without Diabetes: An ACCOMPLISH Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael A; Bloch, Michael; Bakris, George L; Weir, Matthew R; Zappe, Dion H; Dahlof, Bjorn; Velazquez, Eric J; Pitt, Bertram; Basile, Jan N; Jamerson, Kenneth; Hua, Tsushung A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of achieved systolic blood pressure (SBP) during treatment on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, the authors measured event rates of a composite primary endpoint (CV death or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke) at on-treatment SBPs of ≥140 mm Hg and the 10 mm Hg intervals of <140 mm Hg, <130 mm Hg, and <120 mm Hg in 6459 patients with diabetes (mean age, 67) and 4246 patients without diabetes (mean age, 69) from the Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living With Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial. In the diabetic cohort, the primary endpoint was 49% lower (P<.001) at <140 mm Hg than at ≥140 mm Hg, and the separate components of this endpoint were also significantly reduced. Further SBP reductions did not improve outcomes, and at <120 mm Hg they were no longer different (except for stroke) from ≥140 mm Hg. In contrast, in the nondiabetic cohort, the primary endpoint event rate fell steadily (although not significantly) through the decreasing SBP categories until it was reduced by 45% (P=.0413) at <120 mm Hg. Total stroke rates for both the diabetic (-56%, P=.0120) and nondiabetic (-68%, P=.0067) cohorts were lowest at <120 mm Hg, and adverse renal events (serum creatinine increase ≥50%) were significantly lowest in the range of 130 mm Hg to 139 mm Hg for both cohorts. Diabetic patients (<140 mm Hg or <130 mm Hg) and nondiabetic patients (<120 mm Hg) may require different SBP targets for optimal CV protection, although stroke and renal considerations should also influence the selection of blood pressure targets. PMID:27060568

  12. Sex Differences in Peripheral Augmentation Index and Arterial Reservoir Pressure during Upper Limb Postural Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Heffernan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the peripheral hemodynamic response to passive arm postural changes in young men and women. Radial artery pulse waveforms were captured using applanation tonometry in 20 men (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2 and 20 women (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 23±1 kg/m2. Arm position was maintained at either heart level or supported 14 cm above/below heart level in a randomized fashion. Systolic augmentation index (sAIx and diastolic augmentation index (dAIx were used as estimates of pressure from wave reflections arriving in systole and diastole, respectively. A novel reservoir-wave separation technique was used to obtain arterial reservoir pressure (pressure generated by arterial capacitance. Women showed a significant reduction in radial diastolic pressure-time integral (DPTI (P0.05 or dAIx (P>0.05 when moving the arm from below to above heart level. Conversely, men showed an attenuated change in radial DPTI (P>0.05 concomitant with significant increases in reservoir pressure (P<0.05, sAIx (P<0.05, and dAIx (P<0.05. Gravity-mediated changes in regional hemodynamics produced by passive arm postural shifts are sex specific. Men demonstrate less change in regional diastolic pressure concomitant with increased augmentation index and arterial reservoir pressure.

  13. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure. PMID:24474369

  14. Predictive value of peak systolic velocity of cavernous artery in diagnosis of arterial insufficiency in erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Morteza Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial insufficiency is a well-recognized etiology of erectile dysfunction. Moreover, nowadays it is appreciated that it can herald silent coronary artery disease in involved patients. However color Doppler study of penis with intracavernosal injection (ICI of Papaverin, as a helpful diagnostic study, is somehow time consuming and technically demanding, as a result, radiologists are reluctant to accomplish. Hence, in a search for more plausible parameters, we were determined to validate PSV in flaccid state for predicting possible arterial insufficiency in patients. Methods: In a cross sectional study to evaluate diagnostic tests, accomplished in Hasheminejad Urology center in Tehran throughout 2011, we studied 59 patients with the complaint of erectile dysfunction. They were referred to our ultrasound clinics by urologists in order to undergo color Doppler study of penis by ICI of Papaverin. They were studied comprehensively before and after injection. Primary and secondary diagnostic criteria of arterial disease in color Doppler and consequently the physiologic event of full erection were designated as gold standard diagnostic considerations. The resulted data were matched and analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Fifty nine patients underwent the study, with the mean age of 45.6 ± 13.1 (24 to 74 year old. Twenty two cases revealed normal study (non-organic causes as 37.3%, 29 were classified as venous leakage, and eight of them demonstrate arterial insufficiency in the study. A flaccid state PSV of 10.5 cm/s as cut off had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specifity of 91.3% and negative predictive value of 93.8% to predict arterial disease. Conclusion: A flaccid state PSV of 10.5 has a suitable statistical value to proclaim arterial insufficiency in cavernosal arteries in patients with erectile dysfunction as a complaint.

  15. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation measured with Nexfin(®) in patients following major upper abdominal surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, R B P; de Wit, F; Geerts, B F; van Vliet, A L; Aarts, L P H J; Vuyk, J; Jansen, J R C

    2016-07-01

    We compared the accuracy and precision of the non-invasive Nexfin(®) device for determining systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation, with arterial blood pressure values measured from a radial artery catheter in 19 patients following upper abdominal surgery. Measurements were taken at baseline and following fluid loading. Pooled data results of the arterial blood pressures showed no difference between the two measurement modalities. Bland-Altman analysis of pulse pressure variation showed significant differences between values obtained from the radial artery catheter and Nexfin finger cuff technology (mean (SD) 1.49 (2.09)%, p agreement -2.71% to 5.69%). The effect of volume expansion on pulse pressure variation was identical between methods (concordance correlation coefficient 0.848). We consider the Nexfin monitor system to be acceptable for use in patients after major upper abdominal surgery without major cardiovascular compromise or haemodynamic support. PMID:27291598

  16. Low-flow aortic stenosis in asymptomatic patients: valvular-arterial impedance and systolic function from the SEAS Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, Dana; Cioffi, Giovanni; Rieck, Ashild E;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the impact of valvuloarterial impedance on left ventricular (LV) myocardial systolic function in asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: In atherosclerotic AS, LV global load consists of combined valvular and arterial resistance to LV ejection...... Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study evaluating placebo-controlled combined simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment in AS were used to assess LV global load as valvuloarterial impedance and LV myocardial function as stress-corrected midwall shortening. The study population was divided into tertiles of global...... load. Stress-corrected midwall shortening was considered low if <87% in men and <90% in women. Low-flow AS was defined as stroke volume index <22 ml/m(2.04). RESULTS: Energy loss index decreased (0.85 cm(2)/m(2) vs. 0.77 and 0.75 cm(2)/m(2)) and the prevalence of low stress-corrected midwall shortening...

  17. Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural geomagnetic storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of geomagnetic storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the geomagnetic field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a geomagnetic storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known geomagnetic storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural geomagnetic storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a reference value. We suggested that the changes in the geomagnetic field associated with a geomagnetic storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.

  18. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability on Recently Diagnosed Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaclara Michel-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes affects approximately 250 million people in the world. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that leads to severe postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, and increased incidence of silent myocardial infarction. Objective: To determine the variability of heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP in recently diagnosed diabetic patients. Methods: The study included 30 patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes of less than 2 years and 30 healthy controls. We used a Finapres® device to measure during five minutes beat-to-beat HR and blood pressure in three experimental conditions: supine position, standing position, and rhythmic breathing at 0.1 Hz. The results were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Results: In the HR analysis, statistically significant differences were found in the time domain, specifically on short-term values such as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50. In the BP analysis, there were no significant differences, but there was a sympathetic dominance in all three conditions. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS decreased in patients with early diabetes compared with healthy subjects during the standing maneuver. Conclusions: There is a decrease in HR variability in patients with early type 2 diabetes. No changes were observed in the BP analysis in the supine position, but there were changes in BRS with the standing maneuver, probably due to sympathetic hyperactivity.

  19. Non-constrained monitoring of systolic blood pressure on a weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a novel technique for estimating non-constrained and cuffless blood pressure (BP) that was based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and ballistocardiogram (BCG). The BCG was non-invasively measured using a common electronic weighing scale when a subject was standing on it. The ECG was measured using three different methods: on the chest using Ag/AgCl electrodes, on the hands using dry electrodes and on the feet also using dry electrodes. For a BP correlated parameter, a time interval parameter, which was defined as the time difference between the ECG R-peak and BCG J-peak, was employed for evaluating and estimating beat-to-beat BP. Under a BP varying experiment with a Valsalva manoeuvre, the R–J intervals were extracted at every beat cycle and a systolic blood pressure (SBP) estimation equation was established using linear regression analysis for each subject. In the case of feet delivered ECG (F-ECG), an ensemble average technique synchronized at the BCG J-peak point was applied to extract the ECG signal from the feet. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using Finapres, a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system, as a reference BP signal, and a scatter plot was used to find the regression line between the reference values and estimated BPs. A moving-window averaging technique was applied to remove the high-frequency noise in the R–J intervals and was applied to enhance the accuracy of the SBP estimation. For all individuals, the estimated SBP was similar to the measured SBP with a reliable correlation, which makes the proposed method suitable for use in a home healthcare system to monitor blood pressure on a weighing scale at the same time as measuring weight

  20. Carotid arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Seo; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Hae-Seung Lee; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform monitoring technique using ultrasound. A portable ultrasound system to excite ultrasound transducers and acquire data is designed with off-the-shelf components. The insonation angles are identified using a vector Doppler technique based on the cosine dependency of the Doppler signals. The pulse pressure of an estimated waveform at the left common carotid artery is compared to the standard sphygmomanometer measurement in a clinical test. The estimated carotid ABP waveform shows excellent agreement to the finger ABP waveform with expected discrepancy of the systolic peak shape due to different measurement sites. The proposed method also tracks slow blood pressure fluctuations. This validation on human subjects shows potential for a noninvasive blood pressure waveform monitoring device at central arterial sites. PMID:26737584

  1. HRCT score in bronchiectasis: Correlation with pulmonary function tests and pulmonary artery pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2008-01-01

    Background: High resolution CT scan (HRCT) and its score have an important role in delineating pathological changes and pulmonary functional impairment in patients with bronchiectasis. Aims: To assess pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with cystic and cylindrical bronchiectasis. To correlate HRCT score with PFTs and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) in both radiological types. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed by HR...

  2. A computational study of pressure wave reflections in the pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M Umar; Hill, N A

    2015-12-01

    Experiments using wave intensity analysis suggest that the pulmonary circulation in sheep and dogs is characterized by negative or open-end type wave reflections, that reduce the systolic pressure. Since the pulmonary physiology is similar in most mammals, including humans, we test and verify this hypothesis by using a subject specific one-dimensional model of the human pulmonary circulation and a conventional wave intensity analysis. Using the simulated pressure and velocity, we also analyse the performance of the P-U loop and sum of squares techniques for estimating the local pulse wave velocity in the pulmonary arteries, and then analyse the effects of these methods on linear wave separation in the main pulmonary artery. P-U loops are found to provide much better estimates than the sum of squares technique at proximal locations, but both techniques accumulate progressive error at distal locations away from heart, particularly near junctions. The pulse wave velocity estimated using the sum of squares method also gives rise to an artificial early systolic backward compression wave. Finally, we study the influence of three types of pulmonary hypertension viz. pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with hypoxic lung disease. Simulating these conditions by changing the relevant parameters in the model and then applying the wave intensity analysis, we observe that for each group the early systolic backward decompression wave reflected from proximal junctions is maintained, whilst the initial forward compression and the late systolic backward compression waves amplify with increasing pathology and contribute significantly to increases in systolic pressure. PMID:25754476

  3. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  4. Phenomenon of declining blood pressure in elderly - high systolic levels are undervalued with Korotkoff method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl Sölve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic blood pressure (SBP decline has been reported in octogenarians. The aim was to study if it could be observed while measuring SBP with two methods: Korotkoff (K-BP and Strain-Gauge-Finger-Pletysmography (SG-BP, and which of them were more reliable in expressing vascular burden. Methods A cohort of 703 men from a population of Malmö, Sweden, were included in "Men born in 1914-study" and followed-up at ages: 68 and 81 years. 176 survivors were examined with K-BP and SG-BP at both ages, and 104 of them with Ambulatory Blood Pressure at age 81/82. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI was measured on both occasions, and Carotid Ultrasound at age 81. Results From age 68 to 81, mean K-BP decreased in the cohort with mean 8.3 mmHg, while SG-BP increased with 13.4 mmHg. K-BP decreased in 55% and SG-BP in 31% of the subjects. At age 81, K-BP was lower than SG-BP in 72% of subjects, and correlated to high K-BP at age 68 (r = --.22; p Conclusion In contrast to K-BP, values of SG-BP in octogenarians strongly correlated with Ambulatory Blood Pressure. The SG-BP decline in the last decade was rare, and increasing SG-BP better than K-BP reflected advanced atherosclerosis. It should be aware, that K-BP underdetected 46% of subjects with SG-BP equal/higher than 140 mmHg at age 81, which may lead to biased associations with risk factors due to differential misclassification by age.

  5. An adaptive transfer function for deriving the aortic pressure waveform from a peripheral artery pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Gokul; Xu, Da; Olivier, N Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2009-11-01

    We developed a new technique to mathematically transform a peripheral artery pressure (PAP) waveform distorted by wave reflections into the physiologically more relevant aortic pressure (AP) waveform. First, a transfer function relating PAP to AP is defined in terms of the unknown parameters of a parallel tube model of pressure and flow in the arterial tree. The parameters are then estimated from the measured PAP waveform along with a one-time measurement of the wave propagation delay time between the aorta and peripheral artery measurement site (which may be accomplished noninvasively) by exploiting preknowledge of aortic flow. Finally, the transfer function with its estimated parameters is applied to the measured waveform so as to derive the AP waveform. Thus, in contrast to the conventional generalized transfer function, the transfer function is able to adapt to the intersubject and temporal variability of the arterial tree. To demonstrate the feasibility of this adaptive transfer function technique, we performed experiments in 6 healthy dogs in which PAP and reference AP waveforms were simultaneously recorded during 12 different hemodynamic interventions. The AP waveforms derived by the technique showed agreement with the measured AP waveforms (overall total waveform, systolic pressure, and pulse pressure root mean square errors of 3.7, 4.3, and 3.4 mmHg, respectively) statistically superior to the unprocessed PAP waveforms (corresponding errors of 8.6, 17.1, and 20.3 mmHg) and the AP waveforms derived by two previously proposed transfer functions developed with a subset of the same canine data (corresponding errors of, on average, 5.0, 6.3, and 6.7 mmHg). PMID:19783780

  6. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects – A Proof of Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Johannes J. van Lieshout

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced bre...

  7. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Hawfield, Amret T; Reboussin, David M; Bild, Diane E; Kaysen, George A; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic S; Ricardo, Ana C; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R; Rocco, Michael V; Freedman, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans (AAs). Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2571 AAs from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary, or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). AA SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with a mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mm Hg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.73) and log UACR estimated slope (β) 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β -3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82-1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not with prevalent CVD in AAs with a UACR under 1000 mg/g. PMID:25029429

  8. Amlodipine and ramipril attenuate exercise-induced rise of systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kishore Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of ramipril and amlodipine on treadmill exercise-induced changes in blood pressure (BP in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Methods: Subjects with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly assigned to any of the three groups; amlodipine, ramipril or placebo, once daily. The maintenance dose of the drugs were administered for 8 weeks. Resting systolic BP (SBP, diastolic BP (DBP and heart rate (HR were measured before and after the drug administration. Treadmill test (TMT was performed according to extended Bruce protocol, before and after 8 weeks of drug treatment. For TMT the basal parameters (SBP, DBP and HR were recorded in the standing position, at the end of each stage till the target heart rate was achieved. Results: Treadmill exercise caused a rise in SBP in the untreated patients in all the groups. Amlodipine and ramipril groups showed a significant fall in the resting SBP and DBP and post-exercise standing SBP in comparison to their respective pre-treatment values while it was statistically insignificant with placebo. Also, there was no significant effect on the mean resting HR while pre-exercise and post-exercise standing HR significantly increased in amlodipine and ramipril groups in comparison to their respective pre-treatment values. Conclusion: This study shows that amlodipine and ramipril treatment in mild to moderate hypertension decrease BP (at rest and cause attenuation of the rise in SBP induced by exercise. The use of amlodipine and ramipril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension could decrease the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy by decreasing BP at rest and during exercise. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 133-136

  9. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water, and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOc. Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOc levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOc oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  10. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Phttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  11. A study of different scenarios of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil G Kachewar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery Peak Systolic Velocity (MCA-PSV is being increasingly used for non-invasively diagnosing fetal anemias irrespective of their cause. A study was therefore undertaken to find out what different scenarios can be encountered in the local obstetric population. Doppler ultrasound measurements of fetal MCA-PSV were done in 1200 pregnant women who were referred for antenatal ultrasound between 12 - 40 weeks of gestation. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS software version 12. The different scenarios encountered in this study were then compiled and are presented here. With increasing gestational age, the value of MCA-PSV was seen to increase correspondingly in all normal fetuses. This correlation between the two was thus positive and was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05. Abnormally raised values of MCA-PSV were seen in fetuses with severe anemia due to ABO-Rh Iso-immunization which left untreated, ultimately resulted in fetal hydrops. Almost similar and normal values were seen in separate as well as conjoint healthy twins. Abnormally elevated values were seen in twins with discordant growths. Fetal MCA-PSV is very useful to confirm the presence or absence of fetal anemia irrespective of underlying cause in singleton as well as twin pregnancies. For complete assessment, it is essential that the specialist is thoroughly aware of the different scenarios that can be encountered while using this non-invasive method.

  12. Genome-wide meta-analysis of systolic blood pressure in children with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Bhatnagar

    Full Text Available In pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD patients, it has been reported that higher systolic blood pressure (SBP is associated with increased risk of a silent cerebral infarction (SCI. SCI is a major cause of neurologic morbidity in children with SCD, and blood pressure is a potential modulator of clinical manifestations of SCD; however, the risk factors underlying these complications are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence SBP in an African American population in the setting of SCD, and explore the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis for SBP using two SCD cohorts, as well as a candidate screen based on published SBP loci. A total of 1,617 patients were analyzed, and while no SNP reached genome-wide significance (P-value<5.0 x 10(-8, a number of suggestive candidate loci were identified. The most significant SNP, rs7952106 (P-value=8.57 x 10(-7, was in the DRD2 locus on chromosome 11. In a gene-based association analysis, MIR4301 (micro-RNA4301, which resides in an intron of DRD2, was the most significant gene (P-value=5.2 x 10(-5. Examining 27 of the previously reported SBP associated SNPs, 4 SNPs were nominally significant. A genetic risk score was constructed to assess the aggregated genetic effect of the published SBP variants, demonstrating a significant association (P=0.05. In addition, we also assessed whether these variants are associated with SCI, validating the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. Three SNPs were nominally associated, and only rs2357790 (5' CACNB2 was significant for both SBP and SCI. None of these SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of DRD2 genetic variation in the modulation of SBP, and extend the aggregated importance of previously reported SNPs in the modulation of SBP in an African American cohort, more specifically in children with SCD.

  13. Continuous blood pressure measurement using the pulse transit time: Comparison to intra-arterial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Andreas; Mendoza, Yuri; Gesche, Heiko; Konermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement allows the investigation of transient changes in BP and thus may give insights into mechanisms of BP control. We validated a continuous, non-invasive BP measurement based on the pulse transit time (PTT), i.e., BP(PTT), by comparing it with the intra-arterial BP (BP(i.a.)) measurement. Twelve subjects (five females and seven males) were included. BP(i.a.) was obtained from the radial artery using a system from ReCor Medical. Systolic and diastolic BP were calculated using the PTT (BP(PTT), SOMNOscreen). (PTT) was determined from the electrocardiogram and the peripheral pulse wave. The BP was modulated by application of increasing doses of dobutamine (5, 10, 20 μg/kg body mass). Systolic BP(PTT) and systolic BP(i.a.) correlated significantly (R = 0.94). The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 19 mmHg; the mean values differed by 1 mmHg. The correlation coefficient for the diastolic BP measurements was R = 0.42. The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 18 mmHg, with a mean difference of 5 mmHg in favour of the BP(PTT). The study demonstrates a significant correlation between the measurement methods for systolic BP. The results encourage the application of PTT-based BP measurement for the evaluation of BP dynamics and pathological BP changes. PMID:25857601

  14. Effect of lower on-treatment systolic blood pressure on the risk of atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Hille, Darcy A; Larstorp, Anne Cecilie K;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: There is a well-established association between hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF); indeed, even upper normal systolic blood pressures (SBP) are long-term predictors of incident AF. These findings suggest that more aggressive BP control may reduce the risk of new AF. However...... determine whether targeting hypertensive patients without AF to lower SBP goals can reduce the burden of new AF in this high-risk population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00338260....

  15. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, MD, James; Woodruff, MD, Michael; Joy, MD, Elizabeth; Dalto, PhD, Joseph; Snow, PhD, Gregory; Srivastava, MD, MPH, Rajendu; Isaacson, PhD, MBA, Brad M.; Allen, MD, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods: We collected retrospective data from...

  16. Isolated systolic hypertension in an elderly Danish population. Prevalence and daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Bang, Lia Evi; Wiinberg, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence in a representative population do not seem to be available. The prevalence of ISH and the white coat effect was thus studied in a cross-sectional survey of 2806...

  17. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry and...... PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  18. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    OpenAIRE

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Johannes J. van Lieshout

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV) is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV). Stroke volume index (SVI) serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI a...

  19. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-SophieG.T.Bronzwaer; WimJ.Stok; BerendE.Westerhof; JohannesJ.Van Lieshout

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV) is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV). Stroke volume index (SVI) serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI ...

  20. Accuracy of advanced versus strictly conventional 12-lead ECG for detection and screening of coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Warren Stafford G; Delgado Reynolds; Bauch Terry; Hayat Matthew J; Bungo Michael W; Rahman M; Vrtovec Bojan; Starc Vito; DePalma Jude L; Greco E; Feiveson Alan H; Kulecz Walter B; Schlegel Todd T; Núñez-Medina Tulio; Medina Rubén

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resting conventional 12-lead ECG has low sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and low positive predictive value (PPV) for prediction of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). We hypothesized that a ~5-min resting 12-lead advanced ECG test ("A-ECG") that combined results from both the advanced and conventional ECG could more accurately screen for these conditions than strictly conventional ECG. Methods Resu...

  1. Optimal systolic and diastolic coronary artery imaging with Dual-source CT: comparison of automatic optimal phase selection technique and whole phase reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the optimal reconstruction phase of dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA), and to compare image quality of CTCA using automatic optimal phase selection technique and whole phase reconstruction. Methods: 107 patients underwent CTCA Optimal systolic and diastolic coronary arteries were selected automatically, image quality was scored using four-score method. Coronary arteries were segmented according to the guideline of American Heart Association. Image quality of CTCA using both techniques was compared Results: Optimal image quality of CTCA was acquired at the 70% of R-R interval (average score of 3.11), followed by 75% and 35% of R- R interval (average scores of 3.06 and 3.03, respectively). Average score of optimal systolic phase was 305; while average score of optimal diastolic phase was 3.08. There was no significant difference between both techniques On the basis of per-segment, there was significant difference of image quality in segment 4 (p value of less than 0.05). On the basis of coronary artery, there was no significant difference between both techniques. Conclusion: Optimal diastolic and systolic image quality of CTCA was acquired at the 70% and 35% of R-R interval Automatic optimal phase selection technique can satisfy clinical demands because of its sufficient image quality; however, its combination of whole phase reconstruction technique is necessary. (authors)

  2. Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement in healthy anesthetized cats using a device that combines oscillometry with photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the basic characteristics of indirect arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurement using a device that combines oscillometry and photoplethysmography in cats. Dobutamine was infused intravenously in four anesthetized cats. Direct ABP was measured by a catheter. Indirect ABP was measured from the left forelimb. Dobutamine significantly elevated both systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. The indirect SAP, MAP and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) values were closely correlated with the direct ABP values (r=0.88, 0.89 and 0.83, respectively). The mean bias for SAP, MAP and DAP was 3.4, 0.2 and -2.4 mmHg, respectively. The indirect ABP measured by this device may be used to reliably monitor ABP changes in anesthetized cats. PMID:27003226

  3. Simultaneously measured inter-arm and inter-leg systolic blood pressure differences and cardiovascular risk stratification: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhchain; Sethi, Ankur; Singh, Mukesh; Khosla, Kavia; Grewal, Navsheen; Khosla, Sandeep

    2015-08-01

    Association of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IASBPD) with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality remains controversial. We aimed to thoroughly examine all available evidence on inter-limb blood pressure (BP) difference and its association with CV risk and outcomes. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, and Ovid for studies reporting bilateral simultaneous BP measurements in arms or legs and risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, subclavian stenosis, or mortality. Random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare effect estimates. Twenty-seven studies met inclusion criteria, but only 17 studies (18 cohorts) were suitable for analysis. IASBPD of 10 mmHg or more was associated with PAD (risk ratios, 2.22; 1.41-3.5; P = .0006; sensitivity 16.6%; 6.7-35.4; specificity 91.9%; 83.1-96.3; 8 cohorts; 4774 subjects), left ventricular mass index (standardized mean difference 0.21; 0.03-0.39; P = .02; 2 cohort; 1604 subjects), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) (one cohort). Association of PAD remained significant at cutoff of 15 mmHg (risk ratios, 1.91; 1.28-2.84; P = .001; 5 cohorts; 1914 subjects). We could not find statistically significant direct association of coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, CV, and all-cause mortality in subjects with IASBPD of 10 mmHg or more, 15 mmHg or more, and inter-leg systolic BP difference of 15 mmHg or more. Inter-leg BP difference of 15 mmHg or more was strong predictor of PAD (P = .0001) and brachial-ankle PWV (P = .0001). Two invasive studies showed association of IASBPD and subclavian stenosis (estimates could not be combined). In conclusion, inter-arm and leg BP differences are strong predictors of PAD. IASBPD may be associated with subclavian stenosis, high left ventricular mass effect, and higher brachial-ankle PWVs. Inter-leg BP difference may also be associated with high left ventricular mass effect and higher

  4. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  5. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Langefeld, Carl D.; Divers, Jasmin; Nicholas M. Pajewski; Hawfield, Amret T.; Reboussin, David M.; Bild, Diane E.; Kaysen, George A.; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic; Ricardo, Ana C.; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R.; Rocco, Michael V.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2,571 African Americans from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logist...

  6. Fixed-Combination Olmesartan/Amlodipine Was Superior to Perindopril + Amlodipine in Reducing Central Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, Luis M

    2016-06-01

    This post hoc analysis from the Sevikar Compared to the Combination of Perindopril Plus Amlodipine on Central Arterial Blood Pressure in Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Hypertension (SEVITENSION) study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of olmesartan (OLM) and amlodipine (AML) in reducing central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) compared with perindopril (PER) plus AML in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomized to OLM/AML 40/10 mg or PER/AML 8/10 mg for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the absolute change in CSBP from baseline to week 24, which was greater with OLM/AML (-13.72±1.14 mm Hg) compared with PER/AML (-10.21±1.11 mm Hg). The between-group difference was -3.51±1.60 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -6.66 to -0.36 mm Hg) and was within the noninferiority margin (2 mm Hg) as well as the superiority margin (0 mm Hg). In addition, OLM/AML was associated with a higher proportion of patients achieving blood pressure normalization. In hypertensive patients with diabetes, the fixed-dose combination of OLM/AML was superior to PER/AML in reducing CSBP, as well as other secondary endpoints. PMID:26395174

  7. Validation of a new formula for mean arterial pressure calculation: the new formula is superior to the standard formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razminia, Mansour; Trivedi, Atul; Molnar, Janos; Elbzour, Monther; Guerrero, Mayra; Salem, Yasser; Ahmed, Aziz; Khosla, Sandeep; Lubell, David L

    2004-12-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) has traditionally been derived from systolic and diastolic pressures, weighted 1/3 systolic and 2/3 diastolic. No correction is made for the increasing time dominance of systole with increasing heart rates. In a previous study, we developed a new and more accurate heart rate-corrected MAP formula from central aorta pressure determinations in a large number of patients: MAP = DP + [0.33 + (HR x 0.0012)] x [PP] where SP and DP are systolic and diastolic pressure and HR is heart rate. The current study validates the new MAP formula in the same patient at increasing paced heart rates. A central aorta catheter was used to obtain computer-determined systolic, diastolic, and MAP in 12 patients. Values were obtained at baseline and then at increasing right atrial paced heart rates. The new and standard MAP formula-derived values were compared with computer-determined values. The new formula showed a much closer correlation with the computer-derived values for MAP. Standard MAP calculations for MAP can easily be improved by inclusion of a heart rate factor. PMID:15558774

  8. Left ventricular hypertrophy in relation to systolic blood pressure and the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander P. Headley; Yan Li; Yi Zhang; Ji-Yong Ge; Qi-Fang Huang; Ji-Guang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is little population-based data on the prevalence and the environmental or genetic determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in China. The purpose of this paper is to study LVH in relation to systolic blood pressure and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion(I/D) polymorphism in Chinese. Methods We recorded 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, v4.2) in 1365 residents in the Jingning County, Zhejiang Province, China. LVH was defined according to the gender-specific Sokolow-Lyon and Comell product ECG criteria. Results Regardless of whether the Sokolow-Lyon or Comell product ECG criteria was used, the prevalence of LVH (20.7% and 4.8%, respectively) significantly (P<0.0001) increased with male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.33 and 7.15) and systolic blood pressure (per 10 mm Hg increase, OR 1.46 and 1.33). If the Sokolow-Lyon criteria was used, the prevalence of LVH was also influenced by alcohol intake (OR 1.44, P=0.03) and body mass index (OR 0.83, P=0.0005). The association between the Sokolow-Lyon voltage amplitude and the ACE I/D polymorphism was dependent on antihypertensive therapy (P=0.01). In 1262 untreated subjects, but not 103 patients on antihypertensive medication, the ACE DD compared with Ⅱ subjects had significantly higher Sokolow-Lyon voltage amplitudes (29.8±0.6 vs. 28.0±20.5 mV, P=0.02) and higher risk of LVH (OR 1.74, 95% CI: 1. 12-2.69, P=0.01). Conclusion LVH is prevalent in Chinese, and is associated with systolic blood pressure and the ACE D allele. The genetic association might be modulated by antihypertensive therapy.

  9. The Relation Between Aortic Pulse Pressure and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Metin Esen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulse pressure (PP is a significant marker of cardiovascular morbidity.We investigated the relation between aortic PP and the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG.Patients and Method: The study group consisted of 550 patients (363 men, 187 women.We evaluated patients in two different groups, PP < 60 mmHg and ≥ 60 mmHg.Results: In univariate analysis gender and presence of hyperlipidemia showed no statistically significant differences between both groups. However, the ratio of patients having diabetes mellitus, hypertension or smoking were significantly higher in ≥ 60 mmHg PP group. The mean age was 55.2 ±11.9 in < 60 mmHg PP group and 61.3±9.3 in the other group (p<0.01. Although systolic blood pressure level was higher in ≥ 60 mmHg PP group (160.4±21.1 vs. 126.4±13.5, p< 0.001, diastolic blood pressure level showed no significant differences between both groups (78.3±13.5 vs. 80.3±10.2, p= 0.32. In the <60 mmHg PP group, the ratio of normal CAG was significantly higher, and also, the critically CAD rate was lower than the other group. In multivariate analysis, smoking [odds ratios (OR 2.344, 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.416-3.879], male gender (OR 5.858, 95% CI, 3.425-10.019 and PP ≥60 mmHg (OR 25.788, 95% CI, 14.001-47.498 were evaluated as an independent indicators of CAD.Conclusions: In our study, we demonstrate that, aortic PP ≥60 mmHg is related to the risk of critically CAD as an independent factor.

  10. Probing genetic overlap in the regulation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng;

    2014-01-01

    with Danish twins. The estimated contribution from unique environmental factors suggests that promoting healthy lifestyles may provide an efficient way of controlling high blood pressure, particularly in the Chinese population.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 15 May 2014; doi:10......Although the phenotypic correlation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is well known, the genetic basis for the correlation has rarely been investigated. The aim of this paper is to examine the genetic overlap between SBP and DBP by fitting bivariate models to...... Danish and Chinese twins and comparing ethnic differences between the two samples. Our estimates revealed a high proportion of additive genetic components shared by both SBP and DBP in Danish (0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.75) and Chinese (0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.71) twins with no statistically...

  11. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices in...

  12. The Impact of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure on Exercise Capacity in Mild-to-Moderate Cystic Fibrosis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Manika; Pitsiou, Georgia G.; Boutou, Afroditi K.; Vassilis Tsaoussis; Nikolaos Chavouzis; Marina Antoniou; Maria Fotoulaki; Ioannis Stanopoulos; Ioannis Kioumis

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an often complication of severe cystic fibrosis (CF); however, data on the presence and impact of pulmonary vasculopathy in adult CF patients with milder disease, is very limited. Aim. To investigate, for the first time, the impact of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PASP) on maximal exercise capacity in adults with mild-to-moderate cystic fibrosis, without PH at rest. Methods. This is a Case Control study. Seventeen adults with mild-to-moderate...

  13. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. PMID:26603907

  14. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; PEDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

  15. A comparison of non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement (Finapres) with intra-arterial pressure during prolonged head-up tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M E; Williams, T R; Sutton, R

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneous intra-radial and non-invasive (Finapres, Ohmeda) blood pressures were compared during prolonged head-up tilt, in eight patients (mean age 49 years) with malignant vasovagal syncope. Twelve tilts were performed, of which eight resulted in vasovagal syncope. The mean bias (difference between Finapres and intra-arterial pressures) for systolic pressure was +0.7 mmHg (standard deviation 11.3 mmHg) and for diastolic pressure was +5.4 mmHg (standard deviation 7 mmHg). The within-tilt precision (standard deviation of the bias) of the non-invasive measurements varied between 2.9-12.4 mmHg (median 4.5 mmHg) for systolic comparisons, and 1.6-8.4 mmHg (median 4.4 mmHg) for diastolic comparisons. In all but one tilt highly significant positive increases in both systolic (median 7.1 mmHg) and diastolic bias (median 8.1 mmHg) occurred on tilt with respect to resting pre-tilt levels. Independent of the absolute level of agreement, the non-invasive measurements followed changes in intra-arterial pressure closely, with 89% of beat-to-beat changes in systolic pressure, and 95% of beat-to-beat changes in diastolic pressure followed to within +/- 2 mmHg. This study suggests that the Finapres is well suited for use during diagnostic tilt testing, demonstrating an acceptable within-tilt precision and closely following pressure changes during vasovagal syncope. PMID:8881861

  16. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. (paper)

  17. Femoral artery pressure measurement to predict the outcome of arterial surgery in patients with multilevel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Tønnesen, K H; Agerskov, K;

    1982-01-01

    would persist. Measurement of the femoral artery pressure allows prediction of the toe and ankle pressure response to surgery to be made with sufficient accuracy to permit a preoperative decision to be made between the need for a single-level or a two-level arterial reconstruction: no patients who had...

  18. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  19. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Møller, N C;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample...

  20. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of angiotensinogen decreases plasma angiotensinogen concentration and systolic blood pressure in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Karounos, Michael; Charnigo, Richard; English, Victoria L.; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of angiotensinogen (AGT) in adipose tissue increased blood pressure. However, the contribution of endogenous AGT in adipocytes to the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure control is undefined. To define a role of adipocyte-derived AGT, mice with loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the AGT gene (Agtfl/fl) were bred to transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 promot...

  1. Pressure Estimation in the Systemic Arteries Using a Transfer Function

    OpenAIRE

    Thore, Carl-Johan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop and study a method for estimation of the pulse pressure in centrally located arteries. Obtaining the central pulse pressure is desirable for several reasons. For example, the central pulse pressure can be used to assess aortic stiffness, which in turn is an important predictor of cardiovascular mortality. In this thesis a method of estimation based on a one--dimensional wave propagation theory applied to a physiological model of the human systemic arterial...

  2. Contributions of tidal lung inflation to human R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J.; Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of mechanical lung inflation on respiratory frequency R-R interval and arterial pressure fluctuations in nine healthy young adults undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. We conducted this research to define the contribution of pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptor input to respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We compared fast Fourier transform spectral power during three modes of ventilation: (1) spontaneous, frequency-controlled (0.25 Hz) breathing, (2) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (0.25 Hz, with a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg) and (3) high frequency jet ventilation (5.0 Hz, 2.5 kg/cm2), after sedation and vecuronium paralysis. Mean R-R intervals, arterial pressures and arterial blood gas levels were comparable during all three breathing conditions. Respiratory frequency systolic pressure spectral power was comparable during spontaneous breathing and conventional mechanical ventilation, but was significantly reduced during high frequency jet ventilation (P mechanical, than high frequency jet ventilation (P pulmonary and thoracic stretch receptors make a statistically significant contribution to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, that contribution is small.

  3. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea;

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome in...

  4. Correlation of arterial blood pressure and compliance with left ventricular structure and function in the very elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendorff, Clive; Go, Orson; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal S

    2012-01-01

    There are very few data on the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), arterial compliance, and left ventricular structure and function, particularly left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in the very elderly (>75 years). SBP and arterial stiffness increase with age, and the question is: which of the two is the main stimulus to LVH? This is a cross-sectional study to compare blood pressure and arterial stiffness measures with regard to their correlations with echocardiographic parameters of LV structure and function, controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, in a very elderly population. Arterial stiffness was determined by radial pulse waveform using pulse contour analysis. LV dimensions were measured by transthoracic M-mode echocardiography, and diastolic function by tissue Doppler measurements of diastolic mitral annular velocities. There were 179 subjects, all male, with a mean age of 81.8 years. Using age-adjusted partial correlations, SBP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were correlated with parameters of LV structure and function. Correlation coefficients were: SBP versus left ventricular mass index (LVMI), r = 0.246; SBP versus early diastolic mitral annular velocity (MAV), r = -0.179; DBP versus LVMI, r = 0.199; DBP versus MAV, r = -0.199; MAP versus LVMI, r = 0.276; and MAP versus MAV, r = -0.206, all with P < .05. However, neither capacitative nor reflective arterial compliance was significantly correlated with any parameter of LV structure and function. After controlling for age and 10 cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, the correlation between blood pressure and the measured LV parameters was substantially unchanged, as was the lack of correlation between indices of arterial compliance and the LV indices. Arterial blood pressure is correlated with LV structure and function in the very elderly, but arterial stiffness, as measured by diastolic pulse contour analysis, is not. PMID:22243840

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  6. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism in the 25th gestational week of pregnancy presenting with systolic arterial hypertension only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveljcina, Janez; Legan, Mateja; Gaberšček, Simona

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy. Our search for secondary causes of arterial hypertension revealed hyperthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which was treated with propilthiouracil. Three weeks after delivery, she was normotensive without medication. In the next four months, she developed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was started. In conclusion, in the second half of pregnancy, a hyperthyroid HT can occur - in spite of the well-known amelioration of autoimmune thyroid disorders in that period, and can be the only cause of arterial hypertension. PMID:26979941

  7. Inaccuracy of doppler echocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery pressures in adult atrial septal defect patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Caojin; Huang Tao; Huang Xinsheng; Huang Yigao; Chen Jimei; Chen Jiyan; Wu Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Background While echocardiography has been a pivotal screening test in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH),the presence of structural cardiac defects may affect the ability to reliably predict pulmonary artery pressures (PAPs).This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography (DE) for estimating PAPs in adult atrial septal defect (ASD) patients with PAH.Methods A prospective study was carried out to compare the echocardiographic assessment of PAP with the same pressures obtained by right heart catheterization (RHC) in adult ASD patients with PAH who underwent simultaneous DE and RHC.Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the agreement between DE and RHC measurements of PAPs.Results Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were included in the study.A significant overestimation of the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was reported by echocardiography compared with those by catheterization ((81.8±26.9) mmHg vs.(72.9±26.9) mmHg,P <0.01; (51.9±16.4) mmHg vs.(41.4±17.2) mmHg,P <0.01,respectively).Twenty-one percent (55/257) of the patients had PAH when estimated by echocardiography whereas showed normal results in the subsequent catheterization test.Using Bland-Altman analytic methods,the bias for the echocardiographic assessment of the sPAP was 9.1 mmHg with 95% limits of agreement ranging from-24.4 to 42.6 mmHg.For mPAP measurement,the bias was 10.5 mmHg with 95% limits of agreement ranging from-12.4 to 33.4 mmHg.On multiple linear regression analysis,age,gender,body surface area,ASDs' diameter,PVR,diastolic blood pressure,and echocardiographic assessment of right atrial pressure (RAP) explained 68.8% of the total variability in the model (r2=0.688,P <0.01).Conclusion Inaccuracy was frequently reported in Doppler echocardiographic assessment of the PAP in adult ASD patients with PAH and was often associated with age,gender,body surface area,ASDs' diameter

  8. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma. Objective. To evaluate changes of haemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after a decrease of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Twenty-six patients were examined, 14 men and 12 women, 21 up to 50 years old and 5 below, all with previously diagnosed and treated POAG, and all examined at the Eye Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. IOP was measured both with a Goldmann aplanation tonometer and dynamic contour tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter. Imaging of the retrobulbar arterial circulation by colour Doppler was performed at the Neurology Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. It involved measuring of haemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary arteries. Peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were measured, and resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were calculated. Results. Haemodynamic arterial parameters PSV and EDV in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery after decrease of IOP were lower, while RI and PI were higher. In the posterior ciliary arteries PSV, EDV and PI were lower, and RI was higher. Conclusion. Changes of the retrobulbar arterial circulation after elevated IOP in POAG patients are important for approach and treatment, while the role of vascular factors in the supplement of the optic disc neuroretinal rim could be a key for progression backlash of glaucoma and the radix of neuroprotection.

  9. Low frequency arterial wall movements for indirect blood pressure measurement in man. Validation of a method for non-invasive assessment of blood pressure under the influence of isoprenaline and angiotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, U; Belz, G G

    1991-05-01

    In order to measure blood pressure noninvasively, the second derivative of the low frequency wall movements of the brachial artery were registered with a piezo-electric pressure probe during deflation of a Riva-Rocci cuff along with the actual cuff pressure. Two characteristic phenomena of this signal have been suggested to reflect systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Appearance of a positive spike phenomenon (S) was suggested to indicate systolic blood pressure and disappearance of a negative preanacrotic notch (D) to indicate diastolic blood pressure. To prove the validity of these suggestions, these phenomena were assessed in 10 young healthy males during isoprenaline and angiotensin induced changes of blood pressure. Intraarterial (A. radialis) and auscultatory (A. brachialis) blood pressures were recorded simultaneously. Determination of systolic blood pressure with the S phenomenon agreed well with invasive and auscultatory results. Invasive diastolic values agreed well with the cuff pressure at the last signal before disappearance of the preanacrotic notch (D1). Data from auscultation agreed less well with the D1 phenomenon. With increasing doses of isoprenaline, the diastolic measurements (D1) tended to be lower than the invasive ones. However, this discrepancy was far discreeter than that seen with ordinary auscultatory blood pressure measurement. We therefore conclude that registrations of low frequency arterial wall movements yield distinct characteristic spike phenomena useful for measurement of blood pressure in good agreement with the invasive method. In addition, the method provides clearly documented records and should be useful in situations which rely on a valid indirect method. PMID:1898428

  10. FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDE (FOS SUPPLEMENTATION IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC ADULTS IMPROVES SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE, SERUM LIPID, AND GUT MICROBIOTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharide (FOS is a prebiotic, becoming apparent for its therapeutic role for diseased conditions like CHD, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. CHD and hypertension are one of the most prevalent NCD’s encountered in diabetic adults. Present study aims to assess the effect of FOS supplementation in type 2 diabetic adults on their lipemic, biophysical parameters and gut microflora parameters. A cross-sectional study was designed with 65 adult type 2 diabetics enrolled from Health clinic of The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat. All the subjects were randomly divided into two groups control and experimental. The experimental group was given 10 g of fructooligosaccharide and compared with the controls for lipemic parameters, hypertension and fecal counts in terms of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enteric pathogen. Eight week supplementation of FOS resulted in an appreciable reduction in serum TC, TG and LDL levels by 10%, 4.9% and 7.8% respectively. A significant reduction (p<0.05 in systolic blood pressure was also observed as a result of FOS supplementation in the experimental group. A decline was seen in TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and non-HDL by 10.4%, 7.6% and 6.6% respectively (p<0.05, p<0.001. Gut microbiota values exhibited a significant increment in fecal log10 counts of Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria by 9.3% and 10.9% respectively (p<0.001 while a significant reduction by 4.8% (p<0.001 was observed for Enteric pathogen. These outcomes revealed an efficacy of FOS in reducing serum lipid parameters, systolic BP and improving the gut microbiota in type 2 diabetic adults

  11. Correlation of invasive central arterial pressure with peripheral arterial pressure and coronary sclerosis%有创中心动脉压与外周动脉压和冠状动脉硬化的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪; 徐聪聪; 刘江; 陈琦; 吴延庆

    2013-01-01

    artery pressure and non-radial artery pressure and invasive central aortic pressure were compared.Results The systolic pressure values measured in invasive and non-invasive brachial artery and radial artery were higher than that measured by central aortic pressure,while the diastolic pressure values measured in the four peripheral artery were lower than that measured in central aorta.The pressure values measured by non-invasive brachial artery pressure were more close to that measured by invasive central aortic pressure (P>0.05).The systolic pressure was increased and the diastolic pressure was reduced in central aortic pressure with the coronary vessel lession numbers increased.The values of systolic pressure in patients with single-vessel,double-vessel and triple-vessel lesions were (118.2± 19.5) mm Hg,(124.9 ± 19.7) mm Hg and (137.7 ± 20.6) mm Hg,respectively and the values of diastolic pressure were (86.8±8.4) mm Hg,(85.3± 10.3) mm Hg and (83.1± 9.4) mm Hg,respectively.There were significant differences in systolic and diastolic pressure values among patients with single-vessel lesions,double vessel lesions and triple-vessel lesions(F=3.93,4.31,both P< 0.05).Conclusions The blood pressure values measured by noninvasive brachial artery pressure are more close to that measured by invasive central aortic pressure.There is a significant correlation between the severe degree of coronary heart disease and invasive central aortic pressure.Non invasive brachial artery pressure can be used in the early detection of cardiovascular dysfunction.

  12. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  13. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P < .000001) but larger association with the SP deviation (R(2) = 0.761; P < .001). Wlzip allows detecting levels of variability in SP that could be hazardous. This new indicator can be easily added to the 24-hour BP monitors improving information toward diagnosis. PMID:26965751

  14. Transfer function for vital infrasound pressures between the carotid artery and the tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Kenji; Yamashita, Masato

    2013-02-01

    While occupational injury is associated with numerous individual and work-related risk factors, including long working hours and short sleep duration, the complex mechanisms causing such injuries are not yet fully understood. The relationship between the infrasound pressures of the tympanic membrane [ear canal pressure (ECP)], detected using an earplug embedded with a low-frequency microphone, and the carotid artery [carotid artery pressure (CAP)], detected using a stethoscope fitted with the same microphone, can be quantitatively characterized using systems analysis. The transfer functions of 40 normal workers (19 to 57 years old) were characterized, involving the analysis of 446 data points. The ECP waveform exhibits a pulsatile character with a slow respiratory component, which is superimposed on a biphasic recording that is synchronous with the cardiac cycle. The respiratory ECP waveform correlates with the instantaneous heart rate. The results also revealed that various fatigue-related risk factors may affect the mean magnitudes of the measured pressures and the delay transfer functions between CAP and ECP in the study population; these factors include systolic blood pressure, salivary amylase activity, age, sleep duration, postural changes, chronic fatigue, and pulse rate. PMID:23363133

  15. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  16. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoyavcheva S.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years. ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified into clusters. Results. Clusters with normal heart rate prevailed in patients with normal weight and overweight, I degree obesity in all AH varuants. Hypertensive clusters with tachycardia were found to prevail in patients with II–III degree obesity. AH structure changed with body mass increase. In overweight and I degree obesity there grows the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH clusters. In II–III degree obesity the clusters of systolic-diastolic and isolated diastolic AH were revealed less frequently than in normal body weight, while isolated systolic AH clusters were found more frequently. Their occurrence increased in patients with a high albuminuria level as well. Conclusion. ABPM data can be grouped into clusters, and their own pathogenic mechanisms of AH maintenance and regulation seem to prevail in each cluster. In overweight and I degree obesity patients the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH increases. With obesity degree increase there is the tendency for heart rate rise, and hemodynamic AH variants are redistributed towards the increase of isolated systolic AH, which is likely to be due to the increase in AH severity with vascular wall remodeling progression. Isolated systolic AH prevalence is increasing not only in II–III degree obesity, but also in high albuminuria supporting the significance of systolic AH in albuminuria development. No interaction between albuminuria and heart rate was revealed.

  17. Gender difference and economic gradients in the secular trend of population systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent population blood pressure (PBP) affects morbidity and mortality in the society. Reports indicated that PBP decreased in many western countries. The associations between the main cardiovascular risk factors and the changing PBP have been described. The aim of this study was to...... addition, there was a trend towards a lowering of risk-factor adjusted SBP in the high income women with time. The mechanism that lies behind the associations between trend in SBP and income is not known but data suggest that poor lifestyle may explain some of the differences. The treated hypertensives are...... treated without income associated treatment differences. In conclusion: Women in higher income groups have lower SBP than women in low-income groups and the gap between SBP in high-income women and low-income women increased with time. There were no significant differences in SBP-trend associated to...

  18. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  19. Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), researchers performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol. LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR greater than 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased, but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased and time to PFR decreased. Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil, but exercise PFR increased, and exercise time to PFR decreased. In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy

  20. Early drop in systolic blood pressure and worsening renal function in acute heart failure : renal results of Pre-RELAX-AHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Davison, Beth A.; Felker, G. Michael; Ponikowski, Piotr; Unemori, Elaine; Cotter, Gadi; Teerlink, John R.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Teichman, Sam L.; Metra, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aimed to determine the relation between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in SBP, and worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients enrolled in the Pre-RELAX-AHF trial. Methods and results The Pre-RELAX-AHF study enrolled 234 patients within 16 h of admiss

  1. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety of anesthesia in dogs and cats with CKD undergoing dialysis. The present study aimed to evaluate two different protocols of chemical restraint in cats with CKD and the effect of these on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR, since the procedure of extracorporeal circulation leads the patient to a hypotensive frame. Twelve adult cats were used, with an average weight of 4 kg, CKD, underwent two anesthetic protocols: Group GP (n = 6 using propofol, and group GCM (n = 6 using ketamine-midazolam association for the implantation procedure of central venous catheter (CVC and hemodialysis. Cats in GP as well as the GCM group showed statistical difference in the change in SBP and HR only from baseline compared to the other time points evaluated. The two protocols maintained SBP and HR within physiological values.

  2. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  3. Determinants of Invasively Measured Aortic Pulse Pressure and its Relationship with B-type Natriuretic Peptides in Stable Patients with Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkovsky, J; J. Parenica; R. Miklik; M. Pavkova Goldbergova; P. Kala; L. Malaskova; Z. Cermakova; M. Poloczek; M. Vytiska; L. Kubková; S. Littnerova; K. Helanová; I. Parenicova; L. Dostalova; P. Kubena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wide aortic pulse pressure (PP) and levels of natriuretic peptides were repeatedly demonstrated as predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even in a population without a history of heart disease. The aim of the work was to find determinants of invasively measured aortic pulse pressure and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and a relationship of both markers in stable patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography with preserved left ventricle systolic function.Pop...

  4. Minimal distal pressure rise after reconstructive arterial surgery in patients with multiple obstructive arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    fifteen had ischemic ulcers. The preoperative median pressure index (per cent of arm systolic pressure) was 10% on the 1st toe. At the 10th postoperative day the median toe pressure rose to 25%. A further rise took place at the one month control to 30% which was unchanged throughout the study. All...... patients with a persistent postoperative toe pressure above 20% of arm systolic pressure were ultimately relieved from rest pain and chronic ulcers....

  5. Assessment of right ventricular function by pressure-volume loops in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-wei; YUE Yun; WU An-shi; LIU Yu; RUI Yan; WU Di; LIU Juan; ZHAO Qiu-hua; GUO Shu-rong; ZHANG Yong-qian

    2008-01-01

    Background Right ventricular function plays an important role in the hemodynamic derangement during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. Pressure-volume loops have been shown to provide load-independent information of cardiac function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of construction of right ventricular pressure-volume loops with pressure and volume data measured by a volumetric pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) and to evaluate right ventricular systolic and diastolic function by end-systolic elastance (EEs) and end-diastolic stiffness (EED) in OPCAB surgery.Methods Twenty-eight patients who underwent OPCAB surgery were included. After anesthesia induction, a volumetric PAC was placed via the right internal jugular vein. Data were recorded at: anesthesia steady-state before skin incision (T1); 5 minutes after the stabilizer device was placed for anastomosis on the heart's anterior wall (T2), lateral wall (T3),posterior wall (T4), respectively; after sternal closure (T5). Three sets of data were collected at each time point: first,hemodynamic variables were measured; second, right ventricular EES and EED were calculated; third, right ventricular pressure-volume loops were constructed with pressure and volume data measured from end-diastole point,end-isovolumic systole point, peak-ejection point, end-systole point and end-isovolumic diastole point.Results Right ventricular pressure-volume loops generally shifted to the left during OPCAB surgery. Especially, the end-diastolic point shifted upward and to the left at T2-T5 compared with that at T1. Decrease in right ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume index and end-diastolic volume index occurred (P<0.05) at T4 compared with values at T1. Pulmonary vascular resistance index at T4 increased relatively compared with that at T2 and T3. The change of EES was not statistically significant during operation. Right atrial pressure increased only during coronary

  6. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  7. Correlation of the ratio of caudal vena cava diameter and aorta diameter with systolic pressure variation in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Caterina; Rabozzi, Roberto; Franci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the correlation coefficient of the ratio between diameter of the caudal vena cava (CVC) and diameter of the aorta (Ao) in dogs as determined ultrasonographically with systolic pressure variation (SPV). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs (9 females and 5 males; mean ± SD age, 73 ± 40 months; mean body weight, 22 ± 7 kg) that underwent anesthesia for repair of skin wounds. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced. Controlled mechanical ventilation with a peak inspiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O was immediately started, and SPV was measured. During a brief period of suspension of ventilation, CVC-to-Ao ratio was measured on a transverse right-lateral intercostal ultrasonographic image obtained at the level of the porta hepatis. When the SPV was ≥ 4 mm Hg, at least 1 bolus (3 to 4 mL/kg) of Hartmann solution was administered IV during a 1-minute period. Bolus administration was stopped and the CVC-to-Ao ratio measured when SPV was SPV and CVC-to-Ao ratio before bolus administration were 7 ± 2 mm Hg and 0.52 ± 0.16, respectively. Mean ± SD SPV and CVC-to-Ao ratio after bolus administration were 2 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 0.91 ± 0.13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, the CVC-to-Ao ratio was a feasible, noninvasive ultrasonographically determined value that correlated well with SPV. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:137-143). PMID:27027706

  8. Systolic prospectively ECG-triggered dual-source CT angiography for evaluation of the coronary arteries in heart transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastarrika, Gorka [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Cardiac Imaging Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain); Broncano, Jordi; Arraiza, Maria; Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Pueyo, Jesus C.; Zubieta, Jose L. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain); Azcarate, Pedro M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Cardiac Imaging Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Cardiology, Pamplona (Spain); Levy Praschker, Beltran G.; Rabago, Gregorio [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    To assess feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of prospectively ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography (CTA) in orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipients. 47 consecutive OHT recipients (40 men, mean age 62.1{+-}10.9 years, mean heart rate 86.3{+-}14.4 bpm) underwent dual-source CTA to rule out coronary allograft vasculopathy in a prospectively ECG-triggered mode with data acquisition during 35% to 45% of the cardiac cycle. Two independent observers blindly assessed image quality on a per-segment and per-vessel basis using a four-point scale (1-excellent, 4-not evaluable). Scores 1-3 were considered acceptable for diagnosis. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate differences between image quality scores obtained at different reconstruction intervals. Effective radiation doses were calculated. 671 coronary segments were evaluated. Interobserver agreement on the image quality was {kappa}=0.75. Diagnostic image quality was observed in 93.9%, 95.5% and 93.3% of the segments at 35%, 40% and 45% reconstruction intervals. Mean image quality score was 1.5{+-}0.7 for the entire coronary tree, 1.4{+-}0.7 for the RCA, 1.6{+-}0.8 for the LCA and 1.6{+-}0.7 for the Cx at the best reconstruction interval. Estimated mean radiation dose was 4.5{+-}1.2 mSv. Systolic prospectively ECG-triggered CTA allows diagnostic image quality coronary angiograms in OHT recipients at low radiation doses. (orig.)

  9. Interaction of central Angiotensin II and estrogen on systolic blood pressure in female DOCA-salt treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafami, Marzieh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Niazmand, Saeed; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Alreza; Farrokhi, Esmaeil; Mazloum, Tahereh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a probable interaction of central angiotensin II (Ang II) and estrogen (Est) on blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Therefore, in the present study, the interaction between Ang II and Est in ovariectomized (Ovx) and Sham rats that were treated with DOCA- salt was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The female rats were divided into 10 groups as follows: Sham, Ovx, Sham-DOCA, Ovx-DOCA, Sham-DOCA-estrogen (E), Ovx DOCA-E, Sham-DOCA-losartan (L), Ovx-DOCA-L, Sham–DOCA-L-E, and Ovx-DOCA-L-E. The Est groups received estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; daily; subcutaneously (s.c)) for four weeks. Following that, several doses of Ang II (0.5, 5, 50, 500, 5000 ng/5 μl) were injected via the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) route and the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated. In the losartan groups, 200 μg losartan was injected (i.c.v) 15 minutes after the Ang II injection and the blood pressure was recorded. Treatment by DOCA was performed by removal of one kidney, injection of DOCA (45 mg/kg i.p), and adding of sodium chloride (NaCl) (1%) and potassium chloride (KCl) (0.1%) in the drinking water. Results: The SBP was increased by Ang II and this effect in DOCA-salt treated rat was higher than in the untreated groups. The effect of Ang II on SBP in groups that were treated with Est and L was lower than that in the DOCA-salt groups. Increase in SBP was strongly attenuated by Ang II in groups that were co-treated with both Est and L compared to the DOCA-treated rats. These results showed that Est significantly attenuated the effect of central Ang II on SBP in the DOCA-salt treated rats. Conclusion: We suggest that there are interactions between E and Ang II in the control of blood pressure in DOCA-salt treated rats. PMID:27195251

  10. Pulse pressure variation and volume responsiveness during acutely increased pulmonary artery pressure: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Daudel, Fritz; Tüller, David; Krähenbühl, Stefanie; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We found that pulse pressure variation (PPV) did not predict volume responsiveness in patients with increased pulmonary artery pressure. This study tests the hypothesis that PPV does not predict fluid responsiveness during an endotoxin-induced acute increase in pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular loading. Methods Pigs were subjected to endotoxemia (0.4 μg/kg/hour lipopolysaccharide), followed by volume expansion, subsequent hemorrhage (20% of estimated blood volume), ...

  11. Systolic prospectively ECG-triggered dual-source CT angiography for evaluation of the coronary arteries in heart transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess feasibility, image quality, and radiation dose of prospectively ECG-triggered coronary CT angiography (CTA) in orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipients. 47 consecutive OHT recipients (40 men, mean age 62.1±10.9 years, mean heart rate 86.3±14.4 bpm) underwent dual-source CTA to rule out coronary allograft vasculopathy in a prospectively ECG-triggered mode with data acquisition during 35% to 45% of the cardiac cycle. Two independent observers blindly assessed image quality on a per-segment and per-vessel basis using a four-point scale (1-excellent, 4-not evaluable). Scores 1-3 were considered acceptable for diagnosis. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate differences between image quality scores obtained at different reconstruction intervals. Effective radiation doses were calculated. 671 coronary segments were evaluated. Interobserver agreement on the image quality was κ=0.75. Diagnostic image quality was observed in 93.9%, 95.5% and 93.3% of the segments at 35%, 40% and 45% reconstruction intervals. Mean image quality score was 1.5±0.7 for the entire coronary tree, 1.4±0.7 for the RCA, 1.6±0.8 for the LCA and 1.6±0.7 for the Cx at the best reconstruction interval. Estimated mean radiation dose was 4.5±1.2 mSv. Systolic prospectively ECG-triggered CTA allows diagnostic image quality coronary angiograms in OHT recipients at low radiation doses. (orig.)

  12. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher mean blood pressure values (systolic 121.9±11.7 mmHg, diastolic 70.2±5.3 mmHg than control subjects (systolic 109.3±6.7 mmHg, diastolic 65.1±4.6 mmHg, p0.05. Blood pressure load was found to be increased in obese children compared to the controls (%13.6±12.9 and %2.6±3.4, respectively; p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of obese children (181.1±33.4 and 131.1±23.1mg/dl were significantly higher than those of the controls (134.3±11.1 and 103.3±14.2 mg/dl, p<0.05.Conclusions: Obesity in children and adolescents should not be regarded as variations of normality, but as abnormality with an extremely high risk for the development of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

  13. Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol (160-320 mg/day). LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased (control 50 + 10% [ + SD ], verapamil 45 + 12%, p < 0.005), but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased (control 1.9 + 0.6 EDV/sec, verapamil 2.3 + 0.9 EDV/sec, p < 0.005) and time to PFR decreased (control 185 + 38 mssec, verapamil 161 + 27 msec, p < 0.05). Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil (control 42 + 13%, verapamil 43 + 12%. NS), but exercise PFR increased (control 3.1 + 0.9 EDV/sec, verapamil 3.6 + 1.1 EDV/sec, p < 0.05) and exercise time to PFR decreased (control 108 + 30 msec, verapamil 91 + 17 msec, p < 0.05). In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy

  14. Antihypertensive medications and sexual function in women: Baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N.; Evans, Gregory W.; Berlowtiz, Dan R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Conroy, Molly B.; Foy, Capri G.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Riley, William T.; Russell, Laurie; Williams, Olubunmi; Hess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and kidney disease, but treatment can substantially reduce risks. Many patients avoid antihypertensive medications due to fear of side effects. While associations between antihypertensives and sexual dysfunction in men have been documented, it remains unclear whether antihypertensives are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from women in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to evaluate the relations among class of antihypertensive medication and the outcomes (a) sexual activity and (b) sexual function. Methods SPRINT enrolled individuals 50 and older with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A subset of participants completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (QoL), including sexual function. Antihypertensive class was determined by medications taken at baseline. Results Of 690 women in the QoL subset of SPRINT, 183 (26.5%) were sexually active. There were no significant differences in sexual activity among women taking one or more antihypertensives and women not taking any. Women taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) had higher odds of sexual activity [OR 1.66 (1.12-4.27), p=0.011]. Among sexually active women, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high (52.5%). No class of medication was associated with sexual dysfunction in the multivariable model. Conclusions ACEI/ARB use was associated with higher odds of sexual activity. While prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high, no single class of antihypertensive medication was associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:27032074

  15. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  16. Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes A. Fekete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to treat individuals with high blood pressure (BP with effective dietary strategies. Previous studies suggest a small, but significant decrease in BP after lactotripeptides (LTP ingestion, although the data are inconsistent. The study aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT. Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched until May 2014. Eligibility criteria were RCT that examined the effects of LTP on BP in adults, with systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP as outcome measures. Thirty RCT met the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 33 sets of data. The pooled treatment effect for SBP was −2.95 mmHg (95% CI: −4.17, −1.73; p < 0.001, and for DBP was −1.51 mmHg (95% CI: −2.21, −0.80; p < 0.001. Sub-group analyses revealed that reduction of BP in Japanese studies was significantly greater, compared with European studies (p = 0.002 for SBP and p < 0.001 for DBP. The 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP response to LTP supplementation was statistically non-significant (p = 0.101 for SBP and p = 0.166 for DBP. Both publication bias and “small-study effect” were identified, which shifted the treatment effect towards less significant SBP and non-significant DBP reduction after LTP consumption. LTP may be effective in BP reduction, especially in Japanese individuals; however sub-group, meta-regression analyses and statistically significant publication biases suggest inconsistencies.

  17. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  18. [Arterial pressure in workers exposed to urban stressors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzella, Assunta; Sancini, Angela; De Sio, Simone; Samperi, Ilaria; Scala, Barbara; Giubilati, Roberto; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Casale, Teodorico; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosat, Maria Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in "outdoor" workers. The research was conducted on a sample of 101 municipal policemen. The sample was divided in 2 groups according to length of service: group A (length of service between 1 and 15 years) and group B (length of service > 15 years). Group A and Group B were matched for age, overall length of service, cigarette smoking habit and consumption of alcohol and spirits. Group A was then divided into: Al (length of service between 1 and 7 years) and A2 (length of service between 7 and 15 years). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest showed statistically significant differences with increased values in group B compared to both groups Al (p<0.05) and A2 (p<0.05). The study suggests that occupational exposure to urban stressors affects the blood pressure regulating system enhancing the risk of blood hypertension. PMID:26193737

  19. Effects of renal artery stenting on renal function and blood pressure in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 沈卫峰; 张瑞岩; 张建盛; 胡健; 张宪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of percutaneous renal artery intervention on renal function and blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis. Methods Eighty-seven patients with severe uni- or bi-lateral renal artery stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) and clinical hypertension received renal artery stenting between January 2002 and December 2002. The changes in blood pressure and serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance (CCr) 48 hours after intervention and during 6 months of follow-up were assessed.Results Renal stenting was performed in 98 stenotic arteries of 87 patients, and the procedural success rate was 100%. Serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from (176±21) μmol/L to (179±11) μmol/L (P=0.15) 48 hours after the procedure, but significantly decreased to (149±15) μmol/L at 6 months (P<0.001). CCr was also greatly improved [(37±11) ml/min before versus (51±8) ml/min at 6 months, P<0.001]. During follow-up, 61% of the patients experienced a normal renal function. Despite conventional medical treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also significantly decreased after stenting [(163±23)/(96±13) mm Hg before versus (148±12)/(79±15) mm Hg at 6 months, all P<0.001], and hypertension was well controlled in 67% of the patients at 6 months ' follow-up.Conclusion Renal artery stenting has a high success rate and is effective in improving renal function and blood pressure for patients with severe renal artery stenosis.

  20. Variable day/night bias in 24-h non-invasive finger pressure against intrabrachial artery pressure is removed by waveform filtering and level correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Parati, Gianfranco; Groppelli, Antonella; van Montfrans, Gert A; Wieling, Wouter; Wesseling, Karel H; Bos, Willem Jan W

    2002-10-01

    BACKGROUND Twenty-four-hour finger arterial pressure (FAP) recordings show a negative bias against intrabrachial artery pressure (BAP) and the bias is greater during the night, thereby overestimating the nocturnal blood pressure dip. We have available a methodology with which to reconstruct BAP from FAP by waveform filtering (transfer function) and generalized level (bias) correction that reduces the bias for short-term blood pressure records. OBJECTIVE To investigate if this methodology also decreases the extra bias during the night, thereby yielding a better estimate of the nocturnal dip. METHODS Twenty-four-hour FAP and BAP blood pressure recordings were simultaneously obtained in eight healthy normotensive volunteers and 14 patients with hypertension (ages 19-60 years), during standardized scheduled activities. The data were analysed off-line, applying the brachial reconstruction technique (reBAP) consisting of a waveform filter and level correction. Simultaneous beats yielded systolic, diastolic and mean pressures that were averaged per 30 min, per day, per night, per activity, over the 24-h period, and for volunteers and patients separately. RESULTS Over the full 24 h, FAP systolic, diastolic and mean values for the total group differed from BAP by +1 +/- 10, -8 +/- 7 and -10 +/- 8 mmHg (mean +/- SD), respectively. Similarly, reBAPs differed by +1 +/- 11, -2 +/- 7 and -2 +/- 7 mmHg. BAPs dipped by 20 +/- 8, 13 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 6 mmHg, respectively, during the night. These dips were overestimated by +8, +4 and +4 mmHg by FAP, but not by reBAP: -1, +1 and +1 mmHg. The volunteer and the patient groups showed slight differences in results, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The generalized reconstruction technique to obtain near-brachial pressure from non-invasive FAP almost completely removed bias over the full 24-h day-night period and improved tracking of diurnal changes for all three blood pressure values. PMID:12359976

  1. Non-invasive measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary artery pulse pressure (Psub(p)) and diastolic pressure (Psub(d)) may be obtained by applying a haemodynamic model of blood flow kinetics and wall mechanics to the pulmonary artery: Psub(P) = ρ(Wsub(s)/(Ssub(s)/Ssub(d) -1))2 log(Ssub(s)/Ssub(d)) - 1/2 ρw2sub(s) Psub(d) (Ssub(d)/Ssub(s))sup(1/2)Psub(p) where ρ is blood density, Wsub(s) is peak ejection velocity, and Ssub(s) and Ssub(d) are peak maximal and end diastolic cross-sectional areas of the main pulmonary artery. The different parameters of the equations were measured from radionuclide Tcsup(m) first pass and equilibrium studies. (author)

  2. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure on cognitive function: the Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Yasar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse pressure (PP in midlife is associated with increased risk for cognitive impairment later in life. There is mixed evidence regarding the effects of late life elevated SBP or PP on cognitive function, and limited information on the role of female gender. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of SBPand PPon cognitive abilities at baseline and over a 9-year period were evaluated in 337 non-demented community-dwelling female participants over age 70 in the Women's Health and Aging Study II using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Participants aged 76-80 years with SBP≥160 mmHg or PP≥84 mmHg showed increased incidence of impairment on Trail Making Test-Part B (TMT, Part B, a measure of executive function, over time when compared to the control group that included participants with normal and pre-hypertensive SBP (<120 and 120-139 mmHg or participants with low PP (<68 mmHg (HR = 5.05 [95%CI = 1.42, 18.04], [HR = 5.12 [95%CI = 1.11; 23.62], respectively. Participants aged 70-75 years with PP≥71 mmHg had at least a two-fold higher incidence of impairment on HVLT-I, a measure of verbal learning, over time when compared to participants with low PP (<68 mmHg (HR = 2.44 [95%CI = 1.11, 5.39]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that elevated SBP or PP in older non-demented women increases risk for late-life cognitive impairment and that PP could be used when assessing the risk for impairment in cognitive abilities. These results warrant further, larger studies to evaluate possible effects of elevated blood pressure in normal cognitive aging.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF âWAKOUBA '' ON THE LIPID PROFILE, SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (SBP) DIASTOLIC (DBP) AND BLOOD GLUCOSE IN HYPERTENSIVE RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Tiekpa Wawa J; Bahi C; N’guessan J.D; Koutou A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Wakouba, an extract of the fronds of oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis (Jacq) traditionally used in the treatment of high blood pressure, on lipid profile, urea, creatinine, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and heart rate (HR) in hypertensive rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits (24) divided into six (06) groups of four rabbits each weighing between 1.5 ±3.0 to 2± 1.5 kg were used. Group 1 served as witness, group 2 sick...

  5. Non-invasive assessment of left ventricular contractility from end-systolic pressure-volume relation (E(max)) determined by gated radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation has been shown experimentally to be an useful index of left ventricular contractility relatively independent of preload or afterload. But the clinical application has been reported less frequently because of the invasiveness in the measurement of ventricular volume and simultaneous intraventricular pressure. We evaluated this relationship using non-invasive method such as the volume determination by gated radionuclide angiocartiography and the pressure measurement by cuff sphyngomanometer in arm. In measuring ventricular volume, gated radionuclide angiocardiography is a non-invasive method less affected by the geometry of left ventricle. Using the volume by radionuclide and the blood pressure by cuff, non-invasive determination of endsystolic pressure-volume relation provides much clinical usefulness in the assessment of left ventricular contractility

  6. Arterial baroreflex buffering of sympathetic activation during exercise-induced elevations in arterial pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, U; Pryor, S L; Bertocci, L A; Victor, R G

    1990-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates metabolically sensitive muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure. To determine if this contraction-induced reflex is modulated by the sinoaortic baroreflex, we performed microelectrode recordings of sympathetic nerve activity to resting leg muscle during static handgrip in humans while attempting to clamp the level of baroreflex stimulation by controlling the exercise-induced rise in blood pressure with pha...

  7. Association of systolic blood pressure drop with intravenous administration of itraconazole in children with hemato-oncologic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyeong Jin Lee,1,* Bongjin Lee,2,* June Dong Park,2 Hyung Joo Jeong,2 Yu Hyeon Choi,2 Hee Young Ju,1 Che Ry Hong,1 Ji Won Lee,1 Hyery Kim,1 Dong In Suh,3 Kyung Duk Park,1 Hyoung Jin Kang,1 Hee Young Shin,1 Hyo Seop Ahn1 1Department of Pediatrics, Cancer Research Institute, 2Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Although few adverse effects have been reported for itraconazole, a widely used antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenia, we found intravenous (IV itraconazole to be associated with serious cases of blood pressure (BP drop. We therefore evaluated the incidence and risk factors for BP drop during IV administration of the drug.Materials and methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with hemato-oncologic disease who were treated with IV itraconazole from January 2012 to December 2013. By analyzing systolic BP (SBP measurements made from 4 hours before through to 4 hours after itraconazole administration, we evaluated the changes in SBP and the risk factors for an SBP drop, especially clinically meaningful (≥20% drops.Results: Itraconazole was administered 2,627 times to 180 patients. The SBP during the 4 hours following itraconazole administration was lower than during the 4 hours before administration (104 [53.0–160.33 mmHg] versus 105 [59.8–148.3 mmHg]; P<0.001. The decrease in SBP was associated with the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT (P=0.012 and the use of inotropic (P=0.005 and hypotensive drugs (P=0.021. A clinically meaningful SBP drop was seen in 5.37% (141 out of 2,627 of the administrations, and the use of inotropics (odds ratio [OR] 6.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–13.92; P<0.001, reducing the dose of inotropics (OR 8.08; 95% CI 1.39–46.94; P=0

  8. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r = 0.55, p = 0.003, N = 27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300-600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. PMID:26393958

  9. Measuring systolic ankle and toe pressure using the strain gauge technique--a comparison study between mercury and indium-gallium strain gauges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Rikke; Wiinberg, Niels; Simonsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of the ankle and toe pressures are often performed using a plethysmograph, compression cuffs and a strain gauge. Usually, the strain gauge contains mercury but other alternatives exist. From 2014, the mercury-containing strain gauge will no longer be available in the...... European Union. The aim of this study was to compare an indium-gallium strain gauge to the established mercury-containing strain gauge. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine at Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals for measurements of systolic...... ankle and toe pressures volunteered for the study. Ankle and toe pressures were measured twice with the mercury and the indium-gallium strain gauge in random order. Comparison of the correlation between the mean pressure using the mercury and the indium-gallium device and the difference between the two...

  10. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student′s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  11. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltiki Katerina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt hypothyroidism has been associated with arterial hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. Results in euthyroid individuals have been conflicting. We investigated associations of thyroid function with systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressure in euthyroid subjects. Methods 311 euthyroid individuals (185 women, mean age 43.9 ± 9 without a history of diabetes attending a preventive medicine program were examined. Subjects receiving thyroxine (10.6% were excluded; 19.3% had hypertension, 43% had a family history for hypertension. TSH, fT4, thyroid autoantibodies, insulin, glucose were measured. The "fT4.TSH product", which has been suggested as a T4 resistance-index, was calculated. Results TSH range was 0.1–8, median 1.4 mU/L, fT4 range was 11.5–25.2 pmol/L, median 17.4. TSH and the "fT4.TSH product" were positively associated with DAP (p 2 mU/L (35.3% vs 21.3%, p = 0.045. Conclusion In euthyroid individuals the association of thyroid function with diastolic arterial pressure remains significant even when a stricter "normal range" for TSH levels is considered. The "freeT4.TSH" product appears to be an even stronger predictor of DAP, independently of HOMA insulin resistance index and obesity.

  12. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kir Sahin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance (IR, inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1 may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR.This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram.The levels of N1 (p < 0.001, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP (p = 0.036, homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.001, systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p < 0.001 BP and HR (p < 0.001 in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004. N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone.Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects.  N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR.

  13. Associations of blood pressure and arterial compliance with occupational noise exposure in female workers of textile mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Chun-hui; ZHANG Yu-jun; CHEN Zhi-yong; ZHOU Yin; ZHOU Jian-wei; Pan Jing-jing; LIU Nian; WANG Jun; LIANG Chen-ke; ZHANG Zhi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Background There are few studies on the arterial compliance of noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between hearing loss, blood pressure and arterial compliance of female workers who exposed to occupational noise in a textile mill.Methods The noise levels in the workplace were measured with a HS6288 sound level meter. Cumulated noise exposure (CNE) was calculated according to the noise intensity and the exposure period. Hearing ability and arterial compliance were measured in 618 noise exposed workers. The database was set up with EpiData and the statistical analysis was performed with SAS software 9.1.3.Results The noise levels were 80.1dB(A) to 113.5dB(A), of which the levels at 92.5% of the noise monitoring sites were over the national standard. The incidence of high frequency hearing loss (HFHL) was 24.43% and language frequency hearing impairment (LFHI) was 0.81%. The incidence of hypertension was 7.93%. Both systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the high frequency hearing loss group were significantly higher than those in the normal hearing group (P<0.05), while C1 (large artery compliance) and C2 (small artery compliance) were significantly lower (P<0.05). The high frequency hearing threshold (HFHT) of the hypertension group was significantly higher than in the normal blood pressure group (P<0.05), while C1 and C2 were significantly lower (P<0.05). C1 and C2 had a negative correlation with HFHT, SBP, DBP, mean of arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and pulse rate (PR) (P<0.05).The multiple regression analyses showed that blood pressure and PR were the main influencing factors on C1 and C2.LFHT was an influence on C2 and HFHT on C1.Conclusions Textile mill noise pollution is very serious and has an obvious influence on worker's auditory function. The female workers with Iow artery compliance or with high blood pressure might be suffering from hearing loss; those with noise

  14. The correlative investigation between the percentage of the systolic stenosis of the mural coronary artery and the length and depth of the myocardial bridge with dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the percentage of systolic stenosis of the mural coronary artery (MCA) and the length and depth of the myocardial bridge using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Four hundred and fifty patients suspected of coronary artery disease (CHD) underwent dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCTCA). The images were analyzed by 2 radiologists independently. When consistency was obtained among the independent results, the diagnosis of MB-MCA could be confirmed. The length of MCA and depth of MB were measured. All data were reconstructed by every 5% R-R interval, the diameters of MCAs during the whole cardiac cycle were reviewed and measured, the phases were detected when the diameters of MCAs were maximal and minimal, the systolic stenosis rate of MCA was calculated, Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relation between length, depth, and degree of systolic stenosis of the MCAs. Results: One hundred and ninety-two sites of MB-MCA were found in 163 (36.2%) of 450 patients. Of the 192 sites, 72 were completely surrounded by myocardium. Among the 30 MCA sites chosen from these 72 sites, the minimal diameters were found at 30%-35% R-R reconstruction interval in 27 sites (90.0%), and the maximal diameters were found at 70%-80% R-R reconstruction interval in 27 sites (90.0%). A significant correlation was not found between systolic stenosis and the length of the MB (r=0.096, P>0.05) but was found with the depth of the MB (r=0.675, P<0.01) of the MCA. Conclusion: The minimal and maximal diameters of the MCA usually emerged in 30%-35% R-R reconstruction interval and 70%-80% R-R reconstruction interval on DSCTCA, respectively. The degree of systolic stenosis of MCA significantly correlates with MB depth but not length. (authors)

  15. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. PMID:26944489

  16. Epworth's sleepiness scale in outpatients with different values of arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare sleepiness scores of the Epworth scale in patients with different levels of arterial pressure when undergoing outpatient monitoring within the context of clinical evaluation. METHODS: A total of 157 patients selected for outpatient monitoring of arterial pressure during hypertension evaluation were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - normotensive; group 2 - hypertensive; group 3 - resistant hypertensive. For analysis, values > or = 11 were considered as associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep. RESULTS: Seventeen (10.8% patients in group 1, 112 (71.3% in group 2, and 28 (17.8% in group 3, which was composed of aged, more severely hypertensive individuals, were analyzed. Groups were similar relative to sex and body mass index, but different in relation to systolic and diastolic pressure levels and age. Despite an absolute difference, no statistically significant difference occurred between Epworth scores and in the proportion of patients with values > or = 11 (5.9% vs. 18.8% vs. 212.4%; P=0.37. Despite the positive association between degree of sleepiness measured with the scale and the severity of the hypertension, no statistical significance occurred following control by age (p=0.18. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation exists between degree of sleepiness and hypertension severity. The absence of a statistical significance shown in the present study could be due to a beta type of error. Instruments that render this complaint into an objective finding could help in the pursuit of an investigation of respiratory disturbances during sleep in more severely hypertensive patients, and should therefore be studied better.

  17. Effect of an L- and T-Type Calcium Channel Blocker on 24-Hour Systolic Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Hypertensive Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Komukai, Masae; Tsutsumi, Takeshi; Ebado, Mio; Takeyama, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an L- and T-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP) and heart rate (24-hour HR) profiles in essential hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The 24-hour SBP and HR were recorded before and after treatment with efonidipine (L- and T-type CCB, 40 mg), after waking. Changes in 24-hour SBP and HR and the diur...

  18. Influence of a history of arterial hypertension and pretreatment blood pressure on the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition after acute myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    1998-01-01

    inhibition after AMI complicated by left ventricular dysfunction may be of particular importance in patients with a history of arterial hypertension or a relatively high pretreatment blood pressure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish the clinical impact of these results.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a history of arterial hypertension and the level of pretreatment blood pressure on the efficacy of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril on mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left...... broad spectrum of potential confounders. Also, benefit from ACE inhibition increased with increasing blood pressure at the time of randomization. Significant interactions between benefit from ACE inhibition and hypertension history, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. CONCLUSION: ACE...

  19. Low arterial pressure on admission as a predictor of mortality in operated patients with type A aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Katica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypertension is a known predictor of proximal aortic dissection, but it is not commonly present in these patients on presentation. The associations between ascending aorta with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis, and outcome of these patients are not fully elucidated. Methods. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection treated surgically in our institution during the last 2 years. The diagnosis was based on imaging studies. Diameter of ascending aorta was measured with echocardiography. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55.4 ± 12.19 years, and 72.7% were men. A history of arterial hypertension was present in 76.4% of the patients. Maximal ascending aorta diameter was 4.09 ± 0.59 cm, while patients with frank aneurysm accounted for 5.5%. Systolic blood pressure on admission was < 150 mmHg in 58.2% of the patients. Diastolic blood pressure on admission was < 90 mmHg in 54.5% of the patients. Mean arterial pressure on admission was 104.9 ± 24.6 mmHg. No correlations were demonstrated between maximal ascending aorta diameter and diameter of the left ventricular wall, any obtained risk factor and with coronary artery atherosclerosis (p > 0.05. After six months 11 (20% patients died, while intrahospital mortality was 72%. According to logistic regression analysis which included traditional risk factors, echo parameters, coronary artery disease and logistic euro scor, mean arterial blood pressure was the independent predictor of a six-month mortality [RR 0.956; CI (0.918-0.994 ; p = 0.024]. Conclusion. In our population the acute type A aortic dissection occurred rarely in the setting of frank ascending aortic aneurysms > 5.0 cm. The majority of patients had a history of arterial hypertension. A history of arterial hypertension was not associated with maximal ascending aorta diameter. Mean arterial blood pressure was the

  20. Efficacy of a classical antiobesity Unani pharmacopial formulation (Safoof-e-Muhazzil in systolic and diastolic blood pressure: A randomized, open-labeled, controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ali Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a Unani formulation in hypertension. A total of 90 patients with total cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl with associated conditions were included in this study. A total of 30 patients having a mean systolic blood pressure (BP of 133.86 mmHg comprising Group A received Unani formulation Safoof-e-Muhazzil (SM in its classical powder form in the dose of 5 g twice a day orally. Group B comprising of 30 patients with a mean systolic BP of 133.13 mmHg received same drug, but in compressed tablet form in the same dosage, whereas, 30 patients comprising Group C with a mean systolic BP of 129.45 mmHg, received Atorvastatin 10 mg as a standard control. Patients were evaluated on each follow-up at 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th week. The mean systolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 133.86 ± 3.028 mmHg and 133.13 ± 2.852 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 119.33 ± 1.922 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 119 ± 1.760 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively. In the control Group C before treatment BP was 129.45 ± 2.499 mmHg and after treatment it significantly decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The percentage change after treatment was 10.85%, 10.61% and 3.94% respectively in each group. Mean diastolic BP in Group A and B before treatment was 85.06 ± 2.11 mmHg and 84.56 ± 1.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to 79.06 ± 1.56 mmHg (P < 0.001 and 79.96 ± 1.15 mmHg (P < 0.001 respectively, BP before treatment in Group C was 83.23 ± 1.588 mmHg, which was decreased to 124.34 ± 1.794 mmHg (P < 0.01. The study results indicate that the test drug was quite effective in reducing both systolic as well as diastolic BP.

  1. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to the stenotic site in the MCA was measured in 15 patients scheduled for intervention. The relationships between these local measurements and pre-intervention and intra-intervention non-invasive arm measurements were assessed. The impact of luminal stenosis on the local blood pressure was quantified. Compared with the pre-intervention arm measurement, the intra-intervention arm pressure decreased significantly by 23.9 ± 11.8 and 9.3 ± 14.7 % at diastole and systole, respectively. The pressure proximal to the stenosis was much lower than the pre-intervention arm measurement (diastole: 65.3 ± 15.7 vs 82.0 ± 9.7, p pressure in the MCA in patients with stenosis pressure (22.8 ± 6.4 vs 11.1 ± 8.3, p = 0.01; unit: mmHg). However, diastolic pressure remained unaffected (69.2 ± 9.3 vs 62.8 ± 19.0, p = 0.58; unit: mmHg). In conclusion, the obtained results are helpful in understanding the local hemodynamic environment modulated by the presence of atherosclerosis. The local pressure measurements can be used for computational analysis to quantify the critical mechanical condition within an MCA lesion. PMID:27349223

  2. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF “WAKOUBA '' ON THE LIPID PROFILE, SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE (SBP DIASTOLIC (DBP AND BLOOD GLUCOSE IN HYPERTENSIVE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiekpa Wawa J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Wakouba, an extract of the fronds of oil palm tree Elaeis guineensis (Jacq traditionally used in the treatment of high blood pressure, on lipid profile, urea, creatinine, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic (DBP and heart rate (HR in hypertensive rabbits. Methods: Twenty four rabbits (24 divided into six (06 groups of four rabbits each weighing between 1.5 ±3.0 to 2± 1.5 kg were used. Group 1 served as witness, group 2 sick and untreated control, groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 were used as experimental groups (sick+treatment. Throughout the experiment the witness group received distilled water; adrenaline was administered to the sick control group. After 10 days of adrenaline injection, hypertension has been stabilized in sick groups (group 2 to 6 and blood was taken for the determination of urea, creatinine, and lipids. Four (04 of the five (05 groups of hypertensive rabbits were treated with two (2 doses of " Wakouba " 950 and 2500 mg / kg bw and two ( 02 doses of ténordate 10 and 20 mg / kg BW, two(2 group by two(2 group . After ten (10 days of treatment, the SBP and DBP and HR were measured, blood was collected for determination of the same biochemical parameters. Results: The study of the effect of Wakouba and ternodate on the changes in systolic blood pressure SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR showed a significant decrease (P up to normalization of these parameters after 10 days of treatment. Similarly, the measurement of serum lipid profile in hypertensive rabbits treated with Wakouba (950mg / kg bw and tenordate (20 mg / kg bw showed a significant reduction in (P values of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in contrast to HDL cholesterol which has increased significantly compared to the control group. Same doses also normalize serum glucose, urea and creatinine. Histological sections performed on the kidney and the heart of hypertensive rabbit showed congestion of

  4. Kinks of the Transplant Renal Artery Without Accompanying Intraarterial Pressure Gradient Do Not Require Correction: Five-Year Outcome Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) results in an intraarterial pressure gradient and increasing graft dysfunction correctable by endovascular therapy. Kinks of the transplant artery cause velocity gradients on Doppler ultrasound, but some will have no intraarterial pressure gradient across the kink. It is not known whether these nonflow limiting kinks progress further to threaten graft function and should undergo endovascular correction. This is a longitudinal study of conservatively managed arterial kinks to define their natural history. Fourteen patients who had undergone angiography over a 5-year period for suspected TRAS had kinks of the renal artery. True intraarterial pressures were measured in all cases by slow withdrawal of an end-hole catheter after intraarterial injection of a vasodilator. Those with a significant pressure change (≥10% change in peak systolic pressure across the area of suspicion) underwent endovascular treatment. The rest were managed conservatively, with maximal antihypertensive therapy. Outcome of all 14 cases was determined by follow-up of creatinine levels, blood pressure (BP) control and graft outcome over a 3-5-year period (median 4 years). Of the 14 patients with kinks, 10 were male and 4 female; age range 23-67 years (mean 47 years). Eleven had received cadaveric transplants and 3 were allografts; 12 had end-to-side and 2 end-to-end anastomosis, 11/14 cases had an intraarterial pressure ratio of <10% and at median 4 years follow-up on conservative treatment, the serum creatinine of these 11 patients did not differ significantly from those who underwent successful endovascular treatment (mean 118 μmol/l versus 149 μmol/l; p = 0.30, Mann Whitney test). Mean blood pressure was 137/82 mmHg, with a range of 124-155/56-95 mmHg. Only one patient has required an unexplainable increase in antihypertensive medication. Grafts (2/11) were lost and both had chronic rejection on histology. There were no unexplained graft

  5. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  6. Amlodipine induces a flow and pressure-independent vasoactive effect on the brachial artery in hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Megnien, J L; Levenson, J.; Del-Pino, M; Simon, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to study the flow-dependent arterial reactivity and pressure-independent arterial compliance of the calcium antagonist amlodipine in hypertensive men. 2. Twenty-one hypertensive patients were randomized to receive 2 months treatment with placebo (n = 10) or 5-10 mg amlodipine (n = 11) once a day. Non-invasive measurement of brachial artery mean blood pressure, diameter and flow (pulsed Doppler) and compliance (arterial mechanography and logarithmic elastic...

  7. Mediation and Moderation of the Association between Cynical Hostility and Systolic Blood Pressure in Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical…

  8. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Komine Hidehiko; Asai Yoshiyuki; Yokoi Takashi; Yoshizawa Mutsuko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes ...

  9. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive...

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure from timing information by EIT: experimental evaluation during induced hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Martin; Braun, Fabian; Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Lemay, Mathieu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in pulmonary hypertensive patients is currently limited to invasive solutions. We investigate a novel non-invasive approach for continuous monitoring of PAP, based on electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a safe, low-cost and non-invasive imaging technology. EIT recordings were performed in three healthy subjects undergoing hypoxia-induced PAP variations. The pulmonary pulse arrival time (PAT), a timing parameter physiologically linked to the PAP, was automatically calculated from the EIT signals. Values were compared to systolic PAP values from Doppler echocardiography, and yielded strong correlation scores ([Formula: see text]) for all three subjects. Results suggest the feasibility of non-invasive, unsupervised monitoring of PAP. PMID:27212013

  11. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komine Hidehiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes of pulse oscillations, we calculated local slopes of the curve between the decreasing cuff pressure and corresponding arterial volume. Whole pressure-volume curve was derived from numerical integration of the local slopes. The curve was fitted using an equation and we identified a numerical coefficient of the equation as an index of arterial stiffness (Arterial Pressure-volume Index, API. We also measured brachial-ankle (baPWV PWV and carotid-femoral (cfPWV PWV using a vascular testing device and compared the values with API. Furthermore, we assessed carotid arterial compliance using ultrasound images to compare with API. Results The slope of the calculated pressure-volume curve was steeper for compliant (low baPWV or cfPWV than stiff (high baPWV or cfPWV arteries. API was related to baPWV (r = -0.53, P r = -0.49, P r = 0.32, P Conclusions These results suggest that our method can simply and simultaneously evaluate arterial stiffness and blood pressure based on oscillometric measurements of blood pressure.

  12. Correlation analysis of the changes in arterial blood pressure in people with acute mountain sickness when exposed to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To investigate the changes in arterial blood pressure in the healthy lowlanders when they were exposed to different altitudes and duration, and the relationship of the exposure with the prevalence and susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS, in order to evaluate the significance of arterial blood pressure changes in the diagnosis of AMS and its clinical risk. Methods  Demographic data and blood pressure parameters [systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial BP (MABP] of healthy lowlanders (inhabitants in ≤500m were collected after being exposed to 3700m on day 1, 3, 5 and 7, and also after being exposed to 4400m on day 5, while healthy young men living at low altitude were randomly selected as the control group. Simultaneously the AMS symptoms Questionnaire was filled. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system (LLS was used to diagnose AMS. The changes in arterial blood pressure in people above and its correlation with AMS were analyzed. Results  After acute exposure to 3700m (day 1, SBP, DBP and MABP rose obviously, and then descended moderately after adaptation for about a week, but still higher than that of LA level (P<0.05. And then SBP, DBP and MABP rose again at high-altitude of 4400m, but lower than the levels of day 1 at 3700m. MABP at 3700m and 4400m were related to LLS (r=0.138, P=0.048; r=0.145, P=0.045, respectively. MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 3700m showed an cut-off point of 98.5mmHg with sensitivity of 32.8% and specificity of 73.7% (P<0.05, and MABP levels for diagnosis of AMS at 4400m showed an cut-off point of 97.8mmHg with sensitivity of 42.4% and specificity of 75.5% (P<0.05. Conclusions  After exposure to acute hypoxia, MABP may serve as a predictive parameter for diagnosis of AMS. However, the clinical application of MABP as a diagnostic criterion is limited because of its poor specificity or sensitivity. The use of MABP as a diagnostic

  13. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CHEN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to control (CON and tail suspension (SUS group (9 each. Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of abdominal aorta contraction was measured by aortic ring test. Western blotting was performed to determine and compare the protein expression level of clock genes such as Per2 (Period2, Bmal1 (Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocatorlike and dbp (D element binding protein in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and abdominal aorta of rats in CON and SUS group at different time points. Results  Compared with CON group, the caudal arterial pressure, both systolic and diastolic pressure, decreased significantly and the diurnal variability disappeared, meanwhile the heart rate increased obviously and also the diurnal variability disappeared in rats of SUS group. Compared with CON group, the contraction reactivity of abdominal aorta decreased with disappearence of the diurnal variability, and also the clock genes expression in SCN and abdominal aorta showed no diurnal variability in rats of SUS group. Conclusion  Simulated microgravity may lead to circadian rhythm disorders in rats' cardiovascular system, which may be associated with the changes of the clock genes expression. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.06

  14. Hemodynamic variables during exercise in childhood and resting systolic blood pressure levels 6 years later in adolescence: the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntved, A; Brage, S; Møller, N C; Kristensen, P L; Wedderkopp, N; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during exercise in childhood can predict resting SBP levels in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. We studied this in a sample of Danish children followed longitudinally for 6 years. The study comprised 226 children randomly sampled at age 9, who had their blood pressure and HR measured during ergometer exercise to exhaustion and was reassessed in adolescence. SBP and RPP during exercise in stage two of the test were positively associated with future resting SBP, independent of resting SBP in childhood (P=0.045 and P=0.013, respectively). After additional adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the associations with SBP and RPP during stage two on future resting SBP only slightly materially change, although only RPP remained significant (P=0.059 and P=0.012, respectively). No significant independent associations were observed for HR during exercise, but associations were in the same direction. Our results supports that measuring SBP and RPP, during a standard acute ergometer exercise test in children, improves the prediction of future SBP levels during rest in adolescence independent of resting SBP and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:21068765

  15. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, N C B B; Munch, I C; Sander, B;

    2008-01-01

    dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and retinal arterial tortuosity, using a three-level grading scale (straight, wavy, tortuous). Heritability...... factors accounting for the remaining 18% (CI(95 )8, 36%). Increasing values of mean arterial blood pressure and body mass index were both associated with decreasing levels of retinal arterial tortuosity. CONCLUSION: There was a large variation in tortuosity of retinal arteries in these healthy subjects...

  16. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhay B. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kalange, Ashok E. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Tuljaram Chaturchand College, Baramati 413 102 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjay.bodas@gmail.co [Center for Nanobio Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004 (India); Gangal, S.A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  17. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  18. Developed pressure data may provide misinformation when used alone to evaluate systolic function in isovolumetric left ventricle preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Murad N.; Tucci P.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We report data showing that developed pressure (DPmax) may lead to opposite conclusion with respect to maximal developed circumferential wall stress (smax) when used to assess contractile function in left ventricle isovolumic preparations. Isovolumetric left ventricle preparations of rats with cardiac hypertrophy (H; N = 10) induced by isoproterenol administration showed higher DPmax (174 ± 14 mmHg) than control (C; N = 8) animals (155 ± 12 mmHg) or rats with regression (R; N = 8) of hypertro...

  19. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  20. Pressão arterial entre trabalhadores de curtume Blood pressure among tannery workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1998-10-01

    death in Brazil since the 1970s. High blood pressure has been the major risk factor among the above mentioned diseases. A negative correlation between occupational qualification and blood pressure has been observed among workers. The above mentioned facts bring out the importance of the knowledge of high blood pressure distribution among the different occupational groups. The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of blood pressure in stable and homogeneous population of unskilled, low wage larning industrial workers. The Prevalence of high blood pressure was established for this specific group. This prevalence was also related to some biological and socio-economical covariates as compared with that among other occupational groups in Brazil. METHOD: The subjects were 73 active employees at a tannery in Botucatu, state of S.Paulo, Brazil, in July 1993. These subjects underwent blood pressure measurements, anamnesis and clinical examination. The results were compared with those of similar studies carried out in elsewhere Brazil. Age confounding was controlled by different techniques. RESULT: The crude prevalence of high blood pressure detected in this group of workers was of 56.1%, with 15.8% of isolated systolic hypertension. Alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with high blood pressure and isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. DISCUSSION: Prevalence of hypertension in the group studied is significantly higher than that observed in other groups of workers studied in Brazil. Such a finding points to the need for further investigation so as to isolate those factors involved in the increased blood pressure found in this group.

  1. The evolution of systolic blood pressure as a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk and the effectiveness of fixed-dose ARB/CCB combinations in lowering levels of this preferential target

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-01-01

    Jean-Jacques MouradHypertension Unit, Avicenne Hospital – AP-HP and Paris XIII University Bobigny, FranceAbstract: Elevated blood pressure is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Although targets for both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are defined by current guidelines, DBP has historically taken precedence in hypertension management. However, there is strong evidence that SBP is superior to DBP as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover,...

  2. Phytoestrogen genistein decreases contractile response of aortic artery in vitro and arterial blood pressure in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-fang LI; Long-de WANG; Song-yi QU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the mechanisms of effects of phytoestrogen genistein on the contracted rabbit aortic arteries in vitro, and observe the effect of genistein and 17-β estradiol on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: (1) Strips of rabbit aortic smooth muscle were suspended in organ baths containing Kreb's solution, and then isometric tension was measured. (2) Female mature Wistar rats underwent a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). Sham-operated rats (SHAM) were used as controls. After administration of genistein (0.4(1) Similar to 17-β estradiol, genistein could dose-dependently relax 40 mmol/L KCl-precontracted arterial strips.Incubation with Nω-L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), methylene blue (MB), indomethacin, propranolol or endothelium removal did not affect relaxation induced by genistein. In calcium-free solution containing 0.01mmol/L egtazic acid (EGTA), genistein inhibited not only the first phase contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA), but also the second contraction induced by CaCl2. In addition, genistein could reduce the contractile responses of NA, KCl and CaCl2,and shift their cumulative concentration-response curves rightward. (2) MAP in OVX rats was significantly higher compared with that of SHAM rats. However, after chronically treatment with genistein or 17-β estradiol for 21 d the baseline MAP in OVX rats was reduced significantly. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The vasodilator effect of genistein in vitro is endothelium independent and not related to the nitric oxide, its mechanisms being probably due to inhibition of Ca2+ influx through calcium channels in a noncompetitive manner and Ca2+ release from intracellular store induced by NA. (2) Administration of genistein or 17-β estradiol can chronically decrease MAP in OVX rats.

  3. Pressure Myography to Study the Function and Structure of isolated small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring, Olav; Carlsson, Rune; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Small arteries play an important role in regulation of peripheral resistance and organ perfusion. Here we describe a series of the methods allowing measurements in pressurized segments of small arteries from the systemic and coronary circulation of mice as well as other species. The pressure myog...

  4. Intrinsic Frequency Method for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Rinderknecht, Derek; Tavallali, Peyman; Petrasek, Danny; Matthews, Ray; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    We have recently developed a new mathematical method, intrinsic frequency (IF) method, that views the left ventricle-arterial system as a coupled dynamic pumping system which is decoupled upon the closure of the aortic valve. Utilizing this method, given an arterial blood pressure waveform we are able to extract two intrinsic frequencies (ω1 and ω2) correlating to systole when the left ventricle (LV) and aorta (vasculature) act as a coupled dynamic pumping system and diastole where the dynamics of the LV is removed. Each of these dynamical pumping states has an inherent frequency of operation (ω1 and ω2) which gives information about LV systolic function (ω1) as well as arterial dynamics (ω2) . IF methodology extracts ω1 and ω2 from the pressure wave. This method was applied to invasive aortic pressure waveforms and noninvasively measured carotid pressure waveforms. Our results shows that ω1 is elevated in patients with LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD). However, ω1 remains relatively constant under healthy conditions as age advances. Our results indicate that IF methodology can be used to detect LVSD from a single pressure waveform. One unique advantage of the IF method is only the shape of the waveform is required. Therefore, ω1 can be easily derived from noninvasive measurements and monitored continuously.

  5. Peak systolic blood pressure in exercise testing is associated with scintigraphic severity of myocardial ischemia in patients with exercise-induced ST-segment depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some electrocardiographic variables, including the degree of maximal ST-segment depression (STD), may not necessarily indicate the severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. The present study examined whether maximal STD correlates with the severity and extent of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 (201Tl) imaging, and which parameter of exercise testing reflects scintigraphic severity and extent in 270 patients who had a 1 mm or greater horizontal or down-sloping STD on exercise 201Tl imaging. The scintigraphic severity and extent of exercise-induced ischemia was assessed and correlated with maximal STD, number of positive leads, workload, peak heart rate, peak systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate-pressure product, chest pain and the Duke treadmill score. Most of the scintigraphic markers of the severity and extent of ischemia had significant but weak correlation with all of those parameters. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that peak SBP and the Duke treadmill score (chest pain in only simple variables model) correlated independently with scintigraphic severity and extent of ischemia. Furthermore, most of the patients with a peak SBP of 200 mmHg or more had milder and less extensive ischemia. In patients with exercise-induced STD, the scintigraphic severity and extent of ischemia may be estimated by peak SBP and the Duke treadmill score. (author)

  6. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  7. 妊娠晚期胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度对地中海贫血的快速预测价值%QUICK PREDICTION FOR FETAL THALASSEMIA IN LATE PREGNANCY BY MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY PEAK SYSTOLIC VELOCITY IN HIGH RISK SYSTOLIC VELOCITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 华少萍; 黄振兰; 谢毅强; 南瑞霞; 陈蔚; 钟叶超

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the quick prediction for fetal thalassemia in late pregnancy by middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in high risk systolic velocity. [Methods] 100 cases of normal fetuses in control group and 25 cases of thalassemia fetus were included in the study. Compared the MCA-PSV in each group and calculated the prediction value. [Results] MCA-PSV in severe thalassaemia group was significantly higher than mild thalassaemia group. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting severe fetal anemia were 100% and 100% respectively and 50% and 100% in fetuses with moderate anemia. [Conclusion] Fetal MCA-PSV has the value of quick prediction. It can be a relied prediction method when the diagnosis is missed or failed.%[目的]通过对妊娠晚期不同程度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV)的分析,探讨妊娠晚期MCA-PSV快速筛查和预测重度地贫的价值,为临床提供一种弥补中孕产前诊断失败或错过的补救方法.[方法]回顾性分析2008.01~2010.12妊娠晚期接受MCA-PSV检查的病例,正常胎儿组100例,产前诊断确诊为各型地贫的病例25例,分析各类妊娠晚期地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉血流蜂值速度的特点及MCA-PSV在胎儿地中海贫血的预测价值.[结果]重型地贫胎儿MCA-PSV明显高于正常组以及轻度和中间型地贫胎儿.以1.55 MOM为切割值,晚孕重度地中海贫血的敏感性100%和特异性达100%.以>1.29 MOM为切割值,中度地中海贫血的敏感性50%和特异性100%.[结论]妊娠晚期MCA-PSV具有快速筛查和预测重度地贫的价值,为临床提供一种弥补中孕产前诊断失败或错过的补救方法.

  8. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  9. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  10. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Nejati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP in patients with hypertension.Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga or to the control group (recipient of yoga training. The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points.Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women and control (53% women groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05, emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001, and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001 were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention.Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension.

  11. Benidipine has effects similar to losartan on the central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Hyun Ihm; Hui-Kyung Jeon; Shung Chull Chae; Do-Sun Lim; Kee-Sik Kim; Dong-Ju Choi; Jong-Won Ha

    2013-01-01

    Background Central blood pressure (BP) is pathophysiologically more important than peripheral BP for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.Arterial stiffness is also a good predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.The effects of benidipine,a unique dual L-/T-type calcium channel blocker,on central BP have not been reported.This study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and losartan on the central BP and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertensives.Methods This 24 weeks,multi-center,open label,randomized,active drug comparative,parallel group study was designed as a non-inferiority study.The eligible patients (n=200) were randomly assigned to receive benidipine (n=101)or losartan (n=99).Radial artery applanation tonometry and pulse wave analysis were used to measure the central BP,pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Alx).We also measured the metabolic and inflammatory markers.Results After 24 weeks,the central BP decreased significantly from baseline by (16.8+14.0/10.5+9.2) mmHg (1mmHg =0.133 kPa) (systolic/diastolic BP; P <0.001) in benidipine group and (18.9+14.7/12.1+10.2) mmHg (P <0.001)in losartan group respectively.Both benidipine and losartan groups significantly lowered peripheral BP (P <0.001) and Alx (P <0.05),but there were no significant differences between the two groups.The mean aortic,brachial and femoral PWV did not change in both groups after 24-week treatment.There were no significant changes of the blood metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in each group.Conclusion Benidipine is as effective as losartan in lowering the central and peripheral BP,and improving arterial stiffness.

  12. Changes in pulmonary artery pressures during ethanol sclerotherapy for arteriovenous malformations: identifying the most vulnerable period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J.S. [Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S., E-mail: kem99@skku.edu [Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, B.S.; Kim, M.J.; Lee, J.H. [Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.H.; Do, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during ethanol embolization and to identify the most vulnerable period associated with cardiovascular collapse in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients (30 sessions) with AVMs were enrolled. PAP was measured at the following times: baseline (T{sub baseline}); immediately before (T{sub pre}), and after (T{sub post}) bolus injection of absolute ethanol; at the time of maximum mean PAP value during a session (T{sub highest-ethanol}); 10 min after final injection (T{sub final}); after restoration of spontaneous breathing (T{sub resp}); at extubation (T{sub extubation}); 30 min after extubation (T{sub extubation-30} {sub min}); and at the time of maximum mean PAP after patient resumed spontaneous respiration (T{sub highest-resp}). Nitroglycerin was infused (range 0.5-3 {mu}g/kg/min) in all patients to attenuate the effect of ethanol on pulmonary vasoconstriction. Results: The PAPs of T{sub highest-ethanol}, T{sub resp}, T{sub extubation}, and T{sub highest-resp} were significantly higher than the corresponding values for T{sub baseline} and T{sub final} (all p < 0.05). The systolic and mean PAPs of T{sub highest-resp} were significantly higher than those at T{sub highest-ethanol} (both p < 0.05). In 24 sessions (80%), the highest mean PAP was detected during the recovery period. Conclusion: The greatest rise in PAP was noted during the recovery period in patients undergoing ethanol embolotherapy. Therefore, PAP monitoring and nitroglycerin infusions are recommended during the recovery period because early detection of an increase in PAP and prompt management may prevent detrimental complications.

  13. Relationship between mean arterial pressure and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide during hemorrhagic shock and volume resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between partial end-tidal CO2 (pet) and mean arterial pressure in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock, who were receiving constant minute ventilation. Methods. In 61 patients we continuously measured pet CO2 with a capnograph, direct arterial pressure via a cannula, oxygen levels via pulse oximetry and body temperature. Results. We observed significant changes in pet CO2 (increase) after volume resuscitation and a quantitative linear relati...

  14. Nicorandil prevents right ventricular remodeling by inhibiting apoptosis and lowering pressure overload in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Zuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH are caused by progressive right ventricular (RV pathological remodeling, dysfunction, and failure. Nicorandil can inhibit the development of PAH by reducing pulmonary artery pressure and RV hypertrophy. However, whether nicorandil can inhibit apoptosis in RV cardiomyocytes and prevent RV remodeling has been unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RV remodeling was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT. RV systolic pressure (RVSP was measured at the end of each week after MCT injection. Blood samples were drawn for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP ELISA analysis. The hearts were excised for histopathological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and Western blotting analyses. The MCT-injected rats exhibited greater mortality and less weight gain and showed significantly increased RVSP and RV hypertrophy during the second week. These worsened during the third week. MCT injection for three weeks caused pathological RV remodeling, characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and RV mitochondrial impairment, as indicated by increased levels of apoptosis. Nicorandil improved survival, weight gain, and RV function, ameliorated RV pressure overload, and prevented maladaptive RV remodeling in PAH rats. Nicorandil also reduced the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, with a concomitant increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD reversed these beneficial effects of nicorandil in MCT-injected rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nicorandil inhibits PAH-induced RV remodeling in rats not only by reducing RV pressure overload but also by inhibiting apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+ (mitoK(ATP channels. The use of a mitoK(ATP channel opener such as nicorandil for PAH-associated RV remodeling and dysfunction may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the amelioration of RV

  15. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects – A Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzwaer, Anne-Sophie G. T.; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects. Methods In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt). Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, pSPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, pSPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047). These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46). Conclusion Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects. PMID:26335939

  16. Arterial Pressure Variation as a Biomarker of Preload Dependency in Spontaneously Breathing Subjects - A Proof of Principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie G T Bronzwaer

    Full Text Available Pulse (PPV and systolic pressure variation (SPV quantify variations in arterial pressure related to heart-lung interactions and have been introduced as biomarkers of preload dependency to guide fluid treatment in mechanically ventilated patients. However, respiratory intra-thoracic pressure changes during spontaneous breathing are considered too small to affect preload and stroke volume sufficiently for the detection by PPV and/or SPV. This study addressed the effects of paced breathing and/or an external respiratory resistance on PPV and SPV in detecting preload dependency in spontaneously breathing subjects.In 10 healthy subjects, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were evaluated during progressive central hypovolemia (head-up tilt. Breathing conditions were varied by manipulating breathing frequency and respiratory resistance. Subjects responding with a reduction in stroke volume index ≥15% were classified as having developed preload dependency. The ability for PPV and SPV to predict preload dependency was expressed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC.A breathing frequency at 6/min increased the PPV (16±5% vs. 10±3%, p<0.001 and SPV (9±3% vs. 5±2%, p<0.001 which was further enhanced by an expiratory resistance (PPV: 19±3%, p = 0.025 and SPV: 10±2%, p = 0.047. These respiratory modifications, compared to free breathing, enhanced the predictive value of PPV with higher accuracy (AUC: 0.92 vs. 0.46.Under conditions of progressive central hypovolemia, the application of an external respiratory resistance at a breathing frequency of 6/min enhanced PPV and SPV and is worth further study for detection of preload dependency from arterial pressure variations in non-ventilated subjects.

  17. Accuracy of invasive arterial pressure monitoring in cardiovascular patients: An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Quattrone, Diego; Tofani, Lorenzo; Tujjar, Omar; Villa, Gianluca; Romano, Salvatore M.; A. R. De Gaudio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients and patients undergoing high-risk and major surgery, are instrumented with intra-arterial catheters and invasive blood pressure is considered the "gold standard" for arterial pressure monitoring. Nonetheless, artifacts due to inappropriate dynamic response of the fluid-filled monitoring systems may lead to clinically relevant differences between actual and displayed pressure values. We sought to analyze the incidence and causes of resonance/underdamping p...

  18. Accuracy of invasive arterial pressure monitoring in cardiovascular patients: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Quattrone, Diego; Tofani, Lorenzo; Tujjar, Omar; Villa, Gianluca; Romano, Salvatore M.; De Gaudio, A Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients and patients undergoing high-risk and major surgery, are instrumented with intra-arterial catheters and invasive blood pressure is considered the “gold standard” for arterial pressure monitoring. Nonetheless, artifacts due to inappropriate dynamic response of the fluid-filled monitoring systems may lead to clinically relevant differences between actual and displayed pressure values. We sought to analyze the incidence and causes of resonance/underdamping ph...

  19. Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Mills

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between these markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h at intensities progressing from low (40% to moderate (65-70% of VO2max for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI. In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

  20. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (RSpearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  1. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  2. [Are there risk factors for pure systolic hypertension?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milon, H; Fromage, P; Bruyère, A M; Boissonnat, P; Contassot, J C; Francou, M; Pommier, A; Robert, A

    1987-06-01

    Pure systolic hypertension (PSH) is mainly observed in subjects over 60 years of age, and it is always due to a loss of compliance of the greater arteries. Blood pressure itself is partly responsible for loss of compliance, but other factors have been suggested. We have investigated this matter in a study of 3,388 subjects aged from 20 to 69 years. In a first stage, PSH patients (systolic BP greater than or equal to 160; diastolic BP less than 95 mmHg), aged from 50 to 59 years, were compared with normotensive subjects (systolic BP less than 140; diastolic BP less than 95 mmHg) and with other types of hypertensive patients with regard to cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-GT, glucose and uric acid levels. Several of these variables were significantly higher in all hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but cigarette smoking and gamma-GT levels were predominantly or exclusively higher in PSH patients. In a second stage, correlations between differential BP and the variables listed above were studied in subjects with two levels of diastolic BP: 70-79 and 80-89 mmHg, thus taking into account all degrees between normal BP and PSH proper. Weakly positive correlations were found with alcohol consumption, plasma gamma-GT and glucose levels, and with percentages of smokers or ex-smokers. It is therefore conceivable that in addition to BP itself other factors, such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and hyperglycaemia, contribute to the loss of arterial compliance progressively leading to pure systolic hypertension. PMID:3116968

  3. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E;

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40....../PP on one side and age, sex, body weight, portal pressure, systemic hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and severity of disease on the other. In the multiple-regression analysis, sex, age, mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and biochemical variables were significant independent...

  4. AGE, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄京; 刘国仗; 刘力生

    2001-01-01

    The recent researches on the structure and function of large artery find that increasing pulse pressure is associated with greater cardiovascular risk, especially risk of coronary events. Such risk is not explicable on the basis of increasing systolic pressure with age, and is apparent even when the major reason for increased pulse pressure is a relative decrease of diastolic pressure. The finding challenges the conventional approach to arterial pressure where diastolic pressure is traditionally viewed as the most robust indicator of caridovascular risk. An explanation is available. This is based on the perception of Harriet Dustan that hypertension in the older popula-

  5. Evaluation of a new arterial pressure-based cardiac output device requiring no external calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Amann Matthias; Trabold Benedikt; Schweiger Stefan; Keyl Cornelius; Bele Sylvia; Prasser Christopher; Welnhofer Julia; Wiesenack Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Several techniques have been discussed as alternatives to the intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output (COPAC) measurement by the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). However, these techniques usually require a central venous line, an additional catheter, or a special calibration procedure. A new arterial pressure-based cardiac output (COAP) device (FloTrac™, Vigileo™; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) only requires access to the radial or femoral artery using a s...

  6. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...

  7. Combined use of non-invasive techniques to predict pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J M; Csukas, M

    1989-01-01

    The value of non-invasive procedures for predicting pulmonary arterial pressure was investigated in 370 patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases and in 73 with fibrosing alveolitis in a combined study at nine centres in six European countries. Measurements included forced expiratory volume in one second, arterial blood gas tensions, standard electrocardiogram, radiographic dimensions of pulmonary artery, right ventricle dimensions by M mode echocardiography, and myocardial scintigraphy...

  8. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Gu Choi; Keun-Ho Kim; Woo-Beom Lee; Dong-Hyun Nam; Il-Ho Son; You-Sik Hong; Sang-Suk Lee

    2011-01-01

    To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The...

  9. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacoeconomic aspects of application of antihypertensive preparations of various groups in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkina T.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available At the background of the therapy for 3 months with Perindopril, Telmisartan and Bisoprolol, the patients with arterial hypertension were noted to decrease systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. The preparations under investigation had different effects on electrolyte metabolism. Therapy with Telmisartan turned out to have the least effect on electrolyte metabolism. Microalbuminuria is a risk factor in patients with arterial hypertension and may influence on the basic blood electrolyte balance. Bisoprolol should be recommended as the most preferable therapy for arterial hypertension from the pharmacoeconomic point of view. In order to control morning systolic arterial pressure the preference should be given to Perindopril, while for controlling evening systolic arterial pressure the preference should be given to Telmisartan

  10. Blood Pressure Regulation VIII: Resistance Vessel Tone and Implications for a Pro-Atherogenic Conduit Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Fadel, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of the endothelium is proposed as the primary initiator of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, which occurs mainly in medium to large-sized conduit arteries of the lower extremities (e.g., iliac, femoral, popliteal arteries). In this review article, we propose the novel concept that conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype is determined, in part, by microvascular tone in skeletal muscle resistance arteries through both changes in arterial blood pressure as well as upstream...

  11. Vector flow imaging of the ascending aorta. Are systolic backflow and atherosclerosis related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    the ascending aorta in long axis view. The presence of systolic backflow, visualized with TO, was correlated to aortic atherosclerosis, to systolic velocities obtained with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac output obtained with pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution, to gender, age...

  12. C-reactive protein, renal function, and cardiovascular outcome in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Vrsalović, Mislav; Vučur, Ksenija; Car, Boris; Krčmar, Tomislav; Vrsalović Presečki, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prognostic role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and renal function for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods The occurrence of MACE, defined as composite endpoint of acute myocardial infarction, urgent coronary revascularization, stroke, and death was assessed in 319 consecutive PAD patients admitted to the University Hospital ...

  13. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Wiinberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects of the...... test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices in...

  14. Thinking outside the box: Use of the pressure wire to assess intracranial large artery stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Vani P; Prasad, Anand

    2016-08-01

    A novel study investigating the utility of the 0.014″ diameter pressure wire to assess the hemodynamic significance of intermediate intracranial stenosis. Technical aspects of pressure wire positioning across intracranial arteries are described. Further research is required to clarify the assessment of pressure gradients in the cerebral circulation and to define the optimal threshold for intervention. PMID:27530191

  15. Venous cuff pressures from 30 mmHg to diastolic pressure are recommended to measure arterial inflow by plethysmography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Vliet, L. van; Kooijman, H.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography (VOP) is based on the assumption that the veins are occluded and arterial inflow is undisturbed by the venous cuff pressure. Literature is not clear concerning the pressure that should be used. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal venou

  16. An alternative approach to approximate entropy threshold value (r) selection: application to heart rate variability and systolic blood pressure variability under postural challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Saini, B S; Singh, D

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an alternative approach to approximate entropy (ApEn) threshold value (r) selection. There are two limitations of traditional ApEn algorithm: (1) the occurrence of undefined conditional probability (CPu) where no template match is found and (2) use of a crisp tolerance (radius) threshold 'r'. To overcome these limitations, CPu is substituted with optimum bias setting ɛ opt which is found by varying ɛ from (1/N - m) to 1 in the increments of 0.05, where N is the length of the series and m is the embedding dimension. Furthermore, an alternative approach for selection of r based on binning the distance values obtained by template matching to calculate ApEnbin is presented. It is observed that ApEnmax, ApEnchon and ApEnbin converge for ɛ opt = 0.6 in 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series of N = 300. Similar analysis suggests ɛ opt = 0.65 and ɛ opt = 0.45 for 50 realizations each of fractional Brownian motion and MIX(P) series (Lu et al. in J Clin Monit Comput 22(1):23-29, 2008). ɛ opt = 0.5 is suggested for heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) signals obtained from 50 young healthy subjects under supine and upright position. It is observed that (1) ApEnbin of HRV is lower than SBPV, (2) ApEnbin of HRV increases from supine to upright due to vagal inhibition and (3) ApEnbin of BPV decreases from supine to upright due to sympathetic activation. Moreover, merit of ApEnbin is that it provides an alternative to the cumbersome ApEnmax procedure. PMID:26253284

  17. An Inexpensive Arterial Pressure Wave Sensor and its application in different physiological condition

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.

  18. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Allan; Mittu, Ranjeev; Ratwani, Raj; Reggia, James

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue caused by false alarms and alerts is an extremely important issue for the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the staff and hospital systems better classify a patient’s waveforms and subsequent alarms. This paper explores the use of Echo State Networks, a specific type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure wave...

  19. Left ventricular systolic response to exercise in patients with systemic hypertension without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T F; Zinsmeister, A R; Miller, T D; Clements, I P; Gibbons, R J

    1990-05-15

    Supine exercise radionuclide angiography was performed in 367 men to assess left ventricular (LV) systolic response to exercise; 58 had systemic hypertension without LV hypertrophy on a resting electrocardiogram and 309 were normotensive. All patients met the following criteria defining a low pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease: age less than 50 years; normal electrocardiographic response to exercise; absence of typical or atypical chest pain; and exercise heart rate greater than 120 beats/min. Patients taking beta-receptor blockers were excluded. There were no significant differences between hypertensive and normotensive groups in peak exercise heart rate, workload or exercise duration. However, hypertensive patients had significantly higher peak exercise systolic blood pressures and peak exercise rate-pressure products. There were no differences between patients with and without hypertension in resting ejection fraction, peak exercise ejection fraction (hypertensive patients 0.71 +/- 0.01, normotensive patients 0.70 +/- 0.05) or change in ejection fraction at peak exercise (hypertensive patients 0.07 +/- 0.01, normotensive patients 0.07 +/- 0.04). Diastolic and systolic ventricular volumes tended to be smaller in the hypertensive patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. The change in systolic volume with exercise was similar in the 2 groups (hypertensive -10 +/- 3 ml/m2, normotensive -10 +/- 1 ml/m2). In the absence of electrocardiographic evidence of LV hypertrophy, systemic hypertension does not influence LV systolic response to exercise. PMID:2140008

  20. Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Thune, Jens J; Nielsen, Jens C;

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure caused by coronary artery disease has been well documented. However, the evidence for a benefit of prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic heart failure that is not due...

  1. Effects of hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of long-term hypoproteinemia on renal hemodynamics, arterial pressure, and fluid volume were studied in eight conscious dogs over a 34-day period. Plasma protein concentration (PPC) was decreased by daily plasmapheresis, and the effects of decreasing and increasing sodium intake were measured. By the 12th day of plasmapheresis PPC had decreased to 2.5 g/dl from a control value of 7.2 g/dl, mean arterial pressure had decreased to 78% of control, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 75.2% of control, and urinary sodium excretion was decreased. By day 18 of plasmapheresis, estimated renal plasma flow (ERPF) was decreased to 60% of control due to the decreased arterial pressure and an increase in renal vascular resistance. GFR and ERPF were determined from the total clearance of [125I]iothalamate and [131I]iodohippurate. Also, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration were both increased, and the relationship between mean arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion was distinctly shifted to the left along the arterial pressure axis. In contradistinction to acute experiments, chronic hypoproteinemia results in decreases in GFR, ERPF, and urinary sodium excretion and has marked effects on both fluid volume and arterial pressure regulation

  2. Mini invasive hemodynamic monitoring: from arterial pressure to cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    GIORGIO DELLA ROCCA; MAURIZIO CECCONI; MARIA GABRIELLA COSTA

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the Cardiac Output (CO) the standard invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is considered today the gold standard. The major criticism to the PAC is that its level of invasiveness is not supported by an improvement in patient's outcome. The interest to lesser and lesser invasive techniques is high. Therefore, the alternative techniques have been recently developed.Cardiac Output can be monitored continuously by different devices that analyze the arterial waveform to track change...

  3. Noninvasive Monitoring of Arterial Viscoelastic Indices Using a Foil-type Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hiromi; Hirano, Harutoyo; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Tsuji, Toshio; Fukuda, Osamu; Ueno, Naohiro; Ukawa, Teiji; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Kawamoto, Masashi; Yoshizumi, Masao

    This paper proposes a noninvasive method for estimating the dynamic characteristics of arterial walls using pulse waves measured in various parts of the body by a foil-type pressure sensor. The sensor not only has high sensitivity and flexibility but also features the ability to continuously measure the alternating-current component of pulse waves. These capabilities make it suitable for estimating the dynamic characteristics of arterial walls. In this paper, a foil-type pressure sensor was employed to measure pulse waves based on the tonometry approach, and a method of estimating changes in arterial viscoelastic indices was proposed based on the measured pulse waves and photoplethysmograms. In order to accurately measure blood pressure, first, we examined suitable mechanical forces to the sensor, and found that values of 5-25[N] yielded the best performance. We then estimated the arterial viscoelastic indices of a radial artery and a dorsal pedis artery when mechanical pain stimuli were applied to the subjects. The results suggested that the estimated indices can be used to quantitatively assess vascular response caused by sympathicotonia. We thus concluded that the proposed method enabled noninvasive measurement of pulse waves in the dorsal pedis artery and estimation of arterial viscoelastic indices.

  4. The phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol dilates large cerebral arteries in humans without affecting regional cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Petersen, Kenneth A;

    2004-01-01

    the middle cerebral arteries (VMCA) was measured with transcranial Doppler, and the superficial temporal and radial arteries diameters were measured with ultrasonography. During the 4-hour observation period, there was no effect on systolic blood pressure (P = 0.28), but diastolic blood pressure...

  5. Measurement of mean arterial pressure: comparison of the Vasotrac monitor with the finger differential oscillometric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagomägi, K; Raamat, R; Talts, J; Ragun, U; Tähepõld, P

    2010-01-01

    The Vasotrac monitor provides non-invasive near-continuous blood pressure monitoring and is designed to be an alternative to direct intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement. As compared to radial artery invasive BP and upper arm non-invasive BP, Vasotrac readings have been found to have a good agreement with them. However, discrepancies have been reported when rapid changes in BP exist. In the present study we compared BP measured by the Vasotrac monitor on the radial artery with that recorded on the finger arteries by the differential oscillometric device allowing measurement on the beat-to-beat basis. Comparisons were performed on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) level. Special attention was paid to the signal conditioning before comparison of pressures of different temporal resolution. Altogether 383 paired MAP measurements were made in 14 healthy subjects. Based on all 383 paired measurements, the MAP values measured at the radial artery at rest were 4.8+/-6.0 mm Hg higher than those measured on fingers. The observed difference between the Vasotrac and differential oscillometric device can be explained by different measurement sites. This result is consistent with previous investigations, and the Vasotrac monitor can be considered to adequately track relatively rapid MAP changes on the radial artery. Attention should be paid to a proper signal conditioning before comparison of results obtained by different devices. PMID:20406039

  6. Right Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Is Common in Hypertensive Heart Failure: A Prospective Study in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojji, Dike B.; Lecour, Sandrine; Atherton, John J.; Blauwet, Lori A.; Alfa, Jacob; Sliwa, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction is now recognized widely as a strong and independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Reduction of RV systolic function more closely predicts impaired exercise tolerance and poor survival than does left ventricular (LV) systolic function. In spite of this, there is a dearth of data on RV function in hypertensive HF which is the commonest form of HF in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of hypertensive HF patients presenting to the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria over an 8 year period. Methods Each subject had transthoracic echocardiography performed on them according to the guidelines of American Society of Echocardiography. RV systolic function was defined as a tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) <15mm using M-mode echocardiography. Results RV systolic dysfunction was identified in 272 (44.5%) of the 611 subjects that were studied. Subjects with TAPSE less than 15mm had worse prognosis compared to those with TAPSE ≥15mm.There was a significant correlation between TAPSE and other adverse prognostic markers including left and right atrial area, LV size, LV mass, LV ejection fraction, restrictive mitral inflow and RV systolic pressure (RVSP). However, LV ejection fraction and right atrial area were the only independent determinants of RV systolic dysfunction. Conclusions Hypertensive HF is a major cause of RV systolic dysfunction even in a population with a low prevalence of coronary artery disease, and RV systolic dysfunction is associated with poor prognosis in hypertensive HF. Detailed assessment of RV function should therefore be part of the echocardiography evaluation of patients with hypertensive HF. PMID:27073856

  7. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  8. Current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/E' ratio as a noninvasive surrogate for left ventricular diastolic pressures in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Emmanuel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congestive heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function has emerged as a growing epidemic medical syndrome in developed countries, which is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of this condition is essential for optimizing the therapeutic management. The diagnosis of congestive heart failure is challenging in patients presenting without obvious left ventricular systolic dysfunction and additional diagnostic information is most commonly required in this setting. Comprehensive Doppler echocardiography is the single most useful diagnostic test recommended by the ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for assessing left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac abnormalities in patients with suspected congestive heart failure, and non-invasively determined basal or exercise-induced pulmonary capillary hypertension is likely to become a hallmark of congestive heart failure in symptomatic patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function. The present review will focus on the current clinical applications of spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography used as a reliable noninvasive surrogate for left ventricular diastolic pressures at rest as well as during exercise in the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. Chronic congestive heart failure, a disease of exercise, and acute heart failure syndromes are characterized by specific pathophysiologic and diagnostic issues, and these two clinical presentations will be discussed separately.

  9. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Systolic Blood Pressure Lower than Heart Rate upon Arrival at and Departure from the Emergency Department Indicates a Poor Outcome for Adult Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Hung; Wu, Shao-Chun; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable trauma death. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the hemodynamic stability of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI < 1) may indicate hemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess the associated complications in trauma patients with an RSI < 1 upon arrival at the emergency department (ED) (indicated as (A)RSI) and at the time of departure from the ED (indicated as (L)RSI) to the operative room or for admission. Methods: Data obtained from all 16,548 hospitalized patients recorded in the trauma registry system at a Level I trauma center between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 10,234 adult trauma patients aged ≥20 were enrolled and subsequently divided into four groups: Group I, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 9827); Group II, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 76); Group III, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 251); and Group IV, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 80). Pearson’s χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, or independent Student’s t-test was conducted to compare trauma patients in Groups II, III, and IV with those in Group I. Results: Patients in Groups II, III, and IV had a higher injury severity score and underwent a higher number of procedures, including intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion, than Group I patients. Additionally, patients of these groups had increased hospital length of stay (16.3 days, 14.9 days, and 22.0 days, respectively), proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (48.7%, 43.0%, and 62.5%, respectively), and in-hospital mortality (19.7%, 7.6%, and 27.5%, respectively). Although the trauma patients who had a SBP < 90 mmHg either upon arrival at or departure from the ED also present a more severe injury and poor outcome, those patients who had a SBP ≥ 90 mmHg but an RSI < 1 had

  11. Arterial pressure variations as parameters of brain perfusion in response to central blood volume depletion and repletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-SophieG.T.Bronzwaer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rationale:\tA critical reduction in central blood volume (CBV is often characterized by hemodynamic instability. Restoration of a volume deficit may be established by goal-directed fluid therapy guided by respiration-related variation in systolic- and pulse pressure (SPV and PPV. Stroke volume index (SVI serves as a surrogate end-point of a fluid challenge but tissue perfusion itself has not been addressed. Objective: To delineate the relationship between arterial pressure variations, SVI and regional brain perfusion during CBV depletion and repletion in spontaneously breathing volunteers. Methods: This study quantified in 14 healthy subjects (11 male the effects of CBV depletion (by 30 and 70 degrees passive head-up tilt (HUT and a fluid challenge (by tilt back on CBV (thoracic admittance, mean middle cerebral artery (MCA blood flow velocity (Vmean, SVI, cardiac index (CI , PPV and SPV. Results: PPV (103±89%, p< 0.05 and SPV (136±117%, p< 0.05 increased with progression of central hypovolemia manifested by a reduction in thoracic admittance (11±5%, p< 0.001, SVI (28±6%, p< 0.001, CI (6±8%, p< 0.001 and MCAVmean (17±7%, p< 0.05 but not in arterial pressure. The reduction in MCAVmean correlated to the fall in SVI (R2=0.52, p< 0.0001 and inversely to PPV and SPV (R2=0.46 (p< 0.0001 and R2=0.45 (p< 0.0001, respectively. PPV and SPV predicted a ≥15% reduction in MCAVmean and SVI with comparable sensitivity (67%/ 67% vs. 63%/ 68% respectively and specificity (89%/94% vs. 89%/94%, respectively. A rapid fluid challenge by tilt-back restored all parameters to baseline values within one minute. Conclusion: In spontaneously breathing subjects, a reduction in MCAVmean was related to an increase in PPV and SPV during graded CBV depletion and repletion. Specifically, PPV and SPV predicted changes in both SVI and MCAVmean with comparable sensitivity and specificity, however the predictive value is limited in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  12. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A;

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing in...

  13. Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H; Holm, Jens-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness...... in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA), and arterial stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). RESULTS...... analyses, the higher nighttime BP in the obese group was independent of logHOMA and cfPWV. CONCLUSIONS: Obese children had a higher nighttime BP when compared with the control group independently of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness. No relationship was found between insulin resistance and arterial...

  14. l-Citrulline supplementation attenuates blood pressure, wave reflection and arterial stiffness responses to metaboreflex and cold stress in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kalfon, Roy

    2016-07-01

    Combined isometric exercise or metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI)) and cold pressor test (CPT) increase cardiac afterload, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. l-Citrulline supplementation (l-CIT) reduces systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) at rest and aortic haemodynamic responses to CPT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of l-CIT on aortic haemodynamic and baPWV responses to PEMI+CPT. In all, sixteen healthy, overweight/obese males (age 24 (sem 6) years; BMI 29·3 (sem 4·0) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to placebo or l-CIT (6 g/d) for 14 d in a cross-over design. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), baPWV, reflection timing (Tr) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated at rest and during isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), PEMI and PEMI+CPT at baseline and after 14 d. No significant effects were evident after l-CIT at rest. l-CIT attenuated the increases in aortic SBP and wave reflection (AP and AIx) during IHG, aortic DBP, MAP and AIx during PEMI, and aortic SBP, DBP, MAP, AP, AIx and baPWV during PEMI+CPT compared with placebo. HR and Tr were unaffected by l-CIT in all conditions. Our findings demonstrate that l-CIT attenuates aortic blood pressure and wave reflection responses to exercise-related metabolites. Moreover, l-CIT attenuates the exaggerated arterial stiffness response to combined metaboreflex activation and cold exposure, suggesting a protective effect against increased cardiac afterload during physical stress. PMID:27160957

  15. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pres...

  16. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIUM SIZED ARTERIES OF NECK IN RELATION WITH THEIR PULSE PRESSURE AND PULSATORY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: There are several studies on the microstructure of main arteries of the body but limited have been dealt with the neck arteries. It has been mentioned that the vascular pathologies like the thrombo-embolism, atherosclerosis and infarction are common in the branches of vertebral and internal carotid artery as compared to the branches of external carotid artery. OBJECTIVE: To study the histological structure of the 3 medium sized arteries of neck namely external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery, calculation of their mean pulse pressure and pulsatory power and to find any association between them if present. METHOD: Fresh samples of external carotid, internal carotid and vertebral artery each measuring 10mm in length were taken from five cadavers and prepared for histological examination under microscope using orcein and H&E stain. The mean pressure and pulsatory power of these arteries were calculated by taking the measurements such as wall thickness, lumen circumference, arterial wall area, and smooth muscle fibre density in tunica media in that arterial segment. RESULT: The pulsatory power of external carotid artery, internal carotid artery and vertebral artery is found to be 120, 273.3, 400 Joules /heart beat and the mean pressure is 17.1 mm Hg, 27.3 mm Hg and 33.3 mm Hg respectively. CONCLUSION: The thickness of tunica media of an artery is directly proportional to its pulsatory power. The mean pulse pressure, pulsatory power as well the number of smooth muscles fibres in tunica media are more in internal carotid artery and vertebral artery in comparison to external carotid artery. It may be a very important reason why vascular pathologies are less common in branches of external carotid as compare to internal carotid and vertebral artery.

  17. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls) were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher...

  18. Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Baruch, Martin C; Kalantari, Kambiz; Gerdt, David W; Adkins, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes. The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA’s premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five ...

  19. Capabilities of Cluster Analysis in Interpretation of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring Data in Patients with Arterial Hypertension and Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Samoyavcheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the potential of cluster analysis as an additional method of data analysis for 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (BPM in patients with both normal geometry and with various types and extents of remodeling of the left ventricle (LV. Materials and Methods. The investigation included 71 patients, ranging in age from 23 to 71. The inclusion criterion was significant arterial hypertension (AH, while exclusion criteria were symptomatic AH and severe co-morbidity. Body mass, height, waist measurement, body mass index, lipid profile, and glycemic level were determined for each subject in addition to carrying out echocardiography and conventional and cluster analysis of 24-hour BPM data of each. Results. In patient groups with different types of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, the conventional analysis demonstrated differences in the standard 24-hour BPM parameters. Development of concentric LVH is associated with the highest average day-time and average night-time blood pressure, pressure-induced loads and blood pressure variability. Eccentric LVH has a pathogenetic link to other factors and is formed under conditions of relatively low blood pressure. The use of cluster analysis allowed to reveal the increased occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH in concentric LVH, and isolated systolic AH and isolated diastolic AH in eccentric LVH. Conclusion. Such an integrated approach to the interpretation of 24-hour BPM results, comprising both conventional and cluster analysis, allows for objectification of the study results and reveals the significant features of AH in patients with different types of LV remodeling.

  20. The evolution of systolic blood pressure as a strong predictor of cardiovascular risk and the effectiveness of fixed-dose ARB/CCB combinations in lowering levels of this preferential target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques MouradHypertension Unit, Avicenne Hospital – AP-HP and Paris XIII University Bobigny, FranceAbstract: Elevated blood pressure is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Although targets for both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP are defined by current guidelines, DBP has historically taken precedence in hypertension management. However, there is strong evidence that SBP is superior to DBP as a predictor of cardiovascular events. Moreover, achieving control of SBP is assuming greater importance amongst an aging population. In spite of the growing recognition of the importance of SBP in reducing cardiovascular risk and the emphasis by current guidelines on SBP control, a substantial proportion of patients still fail to achieve SBP targets, and SBP control is achieved much less frequently than DBP control. Thus, new approaches to the management of hypertension are required in order to control SBP and minimize cardiovascular risk. Fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy is an approach that offers the advantages of multiple drug administration and a reduction in regimen complexity that favors compliance. We have reviewed the latest evidence demonstrating the efficacy in targeting SBP of the most recent FDC products; combinations of the calcium channel blocker (CCB, amlodipine, with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, valsartan or olmesartan. In addition, results from studies with new classes of agent are outlined.Keywords: hypertension, systolic blood pressure, angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, combination therapy

  1. The vibration plethysmographic method of arterial compliance analysis in dependence on transmural pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudr, J; Svačinová, J; Závodná, E; Honzíková, N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a detailed analysis of the relationship between the finger arterial compliance C [ml/mm Hg] and the arterial transmural pressure P(t) [mm Hg]. We constructed a dynamic plethysmograph enabling us to set up a constant pressure P(css) [mm Hg] and a superimposed fast pressure vibration in the finger cuff (equipped with a source of infra-red light and a photoelectric sensor for the measurement of arterial volume). P(css) could be set on the required time interval in steps ranging between 30 and 170 mm Hg, and on sinusoidal pressure oscillation with an amplitude P(ca) (2 mm Hg) and a frequency f (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz). At the same time continuous blood pressure BP was measured on the adjacent finger (Portapres). We described the volume dependence of a unitary arterial length on the time-varying transmural pressure acting on the arterial wall (externally P(css)+P(ca).sin(2pif), internally BP) by a second-order differential equation for volume. This equation was linearized within a small range of selected BP. In the next step, a Fourier transform was applied to obtain the frequency characteristic in analytic form of a complex linear combination of frequency functions. While series of oscillations [P(ca), f] were applied for each P(css), the corresponding response of the plethysmogram was measured. Amplitude spectra were obtained to estimate coefficients of the frequency characteristic by regression analysis. We determined the absolute value: elastance E, and its inverse value: compliance (C=1/E). Then, C=C(P(t)) was acquired by applying sequences of oscillations for different P(css) (and thus P(t)) by the above-described procedure. This methodology will be used for the study of finger arterial compliance in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25669680

  2. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger;

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  3. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in presence of low perfusion pressure increases infarct size in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Nedergaard, Majken; Schroeder, T;

    1988-01-01

    A model was set up in order to evaluate the importance of hemispheric perfusion pressure when the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occluded in anaesthetized rats. In 6 animals the internal carotid artery (ICA) was occluded prior to ipsilateral MCA occlusion; in 17 animals the MCA only was occluded......; 6 animals underwent the same preparation, but the vessels were left unoccluded. Four days after surgery the infarct volume was measured with a computerized image analyser. The infarcted areas were significantly larger in the ICA + MCA occluded group compared with the MCA occluded group (p less than...... occurs, as compared to patients with no, or only minor, reduction in hemispheric perfusion pressure....

  4. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  5. The physiological impact of the nonlinearity of arterial elasticity in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is claimed to be a new estimator for arterial rigidity. It was recently defined as one minus the slope of the linear regression of systolic to diastolic ambulatory pressure during 24 h. Although several reports testify its clinical relevance, the explanation of how this new index is conceptually associated with arterial stiffness remains controversial. In this work we hypothesize that nonlinear arterial elasticity is behind AASI physiological principles. To that end, random number generators were used to emulate arterial cross-sectional area (CSA) during 24 h. Pressure values were calculated using linear and nonlinear elasticity models for rigid and compliant arteries. The AASI was calculated from simulated pressures and also analytically predicted for each model. Additionally, invasive aortic pressure and CSA were continuously measured in a conscious sheep during 24 h to test the nonlinear model. We found that analytical solutions agreed with simulation outcomes; for the nonlinear model, the AASI was higher in rigid arteries with respect to compliant arteries (0.51 versus 0.38) and the linear model systematically predicted AASI = 0. For in vivo pressure measurements, AASI was 0.31. Using the measured pulsatile CSA and an estimation of the elastic constant for the nonlinear model, the AASI was accurately predicted with errors below 5%. We conclude that the AASI is higher in stiffer arteries due to the nonlinear behavior of the arterial wall. With a nonlinear arterial function, the slope of the linear regression of diastolic to systolic pressures during 24 h depends on the product of an elastic constant by the pulsatile CSA. As the elastic constant dominates the product, the reported associations between the AASI and arterial stiffness indices now have a consistent explanation

  6. Energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure for powering embedded brain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Aditya; Karami, M. Amin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure via the piezoelectric effect by using a novel streaked cylinder geometry for the purpose of powering embedded micro-sensors in the brain. Initially, we look at the energy harvested by a piezoelectric cylinder placed inside an artery acted upon by blood pressure. Such an arrangement would be tantamount to constructing a stent out of piezoelectric materials. A stent is a cylinder placed in veins and arteries to prevent obstruction in blood flow. The governing equations of a conductor coated piezoelectric cylinder are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Pressure acting in arteries is radially directed and this is used to simplify the modal analysis and obtain the transfer function relating pressure to the induced voltage across the surface of the harvester. The power harvested by the cylindrical harvester is obtained for different shunt resistances. Radially directed pressure occurs elsewhere and we also look at harvesting energy from oil flow in pipelines. Although the energy harvested by the cylindrical energy harvester is significant at resonance, the natural frequency of the system is found to be very high. To decrease the natural frequency, we propose a novel streaked stent design by cutting it along the length, transforming it to a curved plate and decreasing the natural frequency. The governing equations corresponding to the new geometry are derived using Hamilton's principle and modal analysis is used to obtain the transfer function.

  7. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  8. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  9. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  10. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  11. Cardiac systolic time intervals in fetal monkeys: pre-ejection period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y; Martin, C B; Ikenoue, T; Petrie, R H

    1978-10-01

    The systolic time intervals of the fetal cardiac cycle were studied by means of simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound Doppler cardiogram (DCG) in chronic preparations of fetal rhesus monkeys. Recordings were made under physiologic conditions as well as during various experimental stresses. The pre-ejection period (PEP) showed no significant relationship with heart rate in the unstressed fetuses, but the acceleration of heart rate induced by epinephrine was accompanied by shortening of PEP. The PEP increased with advancing fetal age. The PEP was inversely correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and arterial pulse pressure, but showed a positive correlation with both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The PEP also exhibited strong negative correlation with arterial blood pH. the prolongation was essentially the same whether acidosis was of respiratory or metabolic origin. The PEP increased slightly but significantly during nonacidemic hypoxemia; however, there was no correlation between Pao2 and PEP Epinephrine shortened the PEP significantly, whereas the effect of atropine was inconsistent. Alteration of the plasma glucose level by injection of insulin or glucose did not affect PEP. These findings demonstrate that the PEP may be a useful indicator of fetal cardiac performance, reflecting both myocardial contractility and the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:30282

  12. Development of a tonometric sensor for measurement and recording of arterial pressure waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, K.; Werszko, M.; Sasiadek, J. Z.; Kosek, J.; Berny, W.; Weiser, A.; Feder-Kubis, J.

    2013-09-01

    There are many techniques and devices for measurement and recording of arterial blood pressure. Some of them allow (enable) additionally to observe the shape of a wave of arterial pressure, which can be regarded as one of the most important diagnostic parameters of human cardiovascular system. This paper presents a novel design and prototype of a new, non-invasive blood waveform measuring device. It expounds theoretical and experimental (including latest preliminary clinical) results obtained during several years of extensive investigations into blood pressure waveform measuring and monitoring problem. According to investigations performed in the laboratory and preliminary clinical evaluation, the sensor has linear steady-state characteristics and satisfactory dynamic properties. It is an efficient and accurate tool for blood pressure waveform monitoring and assessing the cardiovascular condition of the patients. The novelty of this solution is that the device is equipped with a pneumatic pressure sensor based on the pneumatic nozzle flapper amplifier principle with negative feedback. Due to such a technical solution, the device does not require any cuff, which remains an essential component of the majority of contemporary non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices; therefore, it can be used on the artery where the application of a cuff would be impossible (e.g., carotid artery). This advantage makes possible to obtain an accurate shape of blood pressure waveform with high fidelity, comparable to a direct measurement method. Moreover, during the measurement the device converts directly "pressure into pressure." Such a principle of operation makes possible to eliminate additional calibration (at the current stage of research we have eliminated the necessity of calibration in laboratory conditions).

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  15. Relationship between pulmonary artery volumes at computed tomography and pulmonary artery pressures in patients with- and without pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: This study was designed to determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) volumes at computed tomography (CT) and PA pressures at right-sided heart catheterization in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PAH) to develop a noninvasive CT method of PA pressure quantification. Materials and methods: Sixteen patients with chronic sleep apnea syndrome underwent contrast enhanced helical CT (slice thickness 3 mm; pitch 2; increment 2 mm) at inspiration. Eight patients had PAH while cardiopulmonary disease has been excluded in eight other patients. Vascular volumes were determined using a 3D technique (threshold seeded vascular tracing algorithm; thresholds -600 H [lower] and 3000 H [upper]). Right-sided heart catheterization measurements were available for linear regression analysis of PA volumes and pressures. Results: Correlation between PA pressures and volumes (normalized for BMI), was high in both groups (without PAH: r = .85; with PAH .90, Pearson). Compared to elevated PA pressures in patients with pulmonary hypertension (p < .005), PA volumes also were significantly increased (p < .05) among the groups. Conclusions: High correlation was found between PA volumes and mean PA pressures in patients with- and without PAH. Significant differences in PA volumes at CT-volumetry may admit non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension

  16. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M., E-mail: sehgalc@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Vascular Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  17. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging

  18. Arterial pulse pressure amplification described by means of a nonlinear wave model: characterization of human aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, M.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R.; Pessana, F.; Wray, S.; Legnani, W.

    2016-04-01

    The representation of blood pressure pulse as a combination of solitons captures many of the phenomena observed during its propagation along the systemic circulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the applicability of a compartmental model for propagation regarding the pressure pulse amplification associated with arterial aging. The model was applied to blood pressure waveforms that were synthesized using solitons, and then validated by waveforms obtained from individuals from differentiated age groups. Morphological changes were verified in the blood pressure waveform as a consequence of the aging process (i.e. due to the increase in arterial stiffness). These changes are the result of both a nonlinear interaction and the phenomena present in the propagation of nonlinear mechanic waves.

  19. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to...

  20. Pulmonary artery pressure responses to increased cardiac output in chickens with raised metabolic rate

    OpenAIRE

    West, John B.; Fu, Zhenxing; Gu, Yusu; Wagner, Harrieth E.; Carr, J. Austin; Peterson, Kirk L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown remarkable differences in the pressure-flow relations of the pulmonary circulation between birds and mammals. For example several studies suggest that the avian pulmonary blood vessels behave like rigid tubes, very different from the situation in mammalian lung. We therefore speculated that birds would develop high pulmonary artery pressures when the cardiac output was substantially increased during heavy exercise, for example during flight. However because of the tech...

  1. Effect on intra-arterial blood pressure of slow release metoprolol combined with placebo or chlorthalidone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kieso, H A; Gould, B A; Mann, S; Hornung, R S; Altman, D G; Raftery, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty patients with essential hypertension participated in a double blind crossover trial in which they were randomly allocated to treatment with either once daily slow release metoprolol (200 mg) with placebo or once daily slow release metoprolol (200 mg) with chlorthalidone (25 mg). Ambulatory intra-arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously for 24-48 hours before treatment and two months after each change in regimen. The response of blood pressure and pulse rate to a standard exerc...

  2. Understanding the contribution of Guyton's large circulatory model to long-term control of arterial pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Jean-Pierre; Van Vliet, Bruce N

    2009-01-01

    With the publication in 1972 of a large computer model of circulatory control, Guyton and colleagues challenged the then prevailing views on how blood pressure and cardiac output were controlled. At that time, it was widely accepted that the heart controlled cardiac output and that peripheral resistance controlled arterial blood pressure. By incorporating the empirically demonstrated concepts of blood flow autoregulation and the pressure–natriuresis relationship into their mathematical model,...

  3. The Relationship of Coronary Sinus Dilation with Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Amoozgar; Mohammadali Fallahi; Gholamhossein Ajami; Mohammad Borzoee

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased right atrial pressure due to pulmonary hypertension may impair venous drainage with resultant coronary sinus dilatation. The aim of this study was to search for correlations between coronary sinus diameter and estimated pulmonary artery pressure in children. Methods: In a prospective study, 100 children who were referred consecutively for transthoracic echocardiography were included in this study. Ratios of coronary sinus diameter to weight, body surface area and aor...

  4. A micromechanical device that monitors arterial pressure during general anesthesia and in intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, A. V.; Luchinin, V. V.; Kuzmina, K. A.; Klyavinek, A. S.; Karelov, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    A vibroacoustic fiber optic system that consists of micromechanical components designated for use in medicine and biology is reviewed. A theoretical analysis of a fiber optic microphone is done and its optimal construction parameters are determined. The possibility of using the developed system with magnetic resonance tomography to noninvasively measure man's arterial pressure is specified.

  5. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...

  6. Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Obese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Duicu; Oana Mărginean Cristina; Maria Pitea Ana; Elena Melit Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences regarding 24-hour blood pressure and arterial stiffness in a cohort of office normotensive obese and non-obese children and adolescents, and to evaluate correlations of these parameters with some anthropometric indices. We retrospectively evaluated ABPM records in 71 children (42 boys); 31 obese compared with 40 normal-weight children.

  7. Pressure profile and morphology of the arteries along the giraffe limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brøndum, Emil;

    2011-01-01

    Giraffes are the tallest animals on earth and the effects of gravity on their cardiovascular system have puzzled physiologists for centuries. The authors measured arterial and venous pressure in the foreleg of anesthetized giraffes, suspended in upright standing position, and determined the ratio...

  8. Lifelong Cyclic Mechanical Strain Promotes Large Elastic Artery Stiffening: Increased Pulse Pressure and Old Age-Related Organ Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The arterial wall is under a huge mechanical constraint imposed by the cardiac cycle that is bound to generate damage with time. Each heartbeat indeed imposes a pulsatile pressure that generates a vascular stretch. Lifetime accumulation of pulsatile stretches will eventually induce fatigue of the elastic large arterial walls, such as aortic and carotid artery walls, promoting their stiffening that will gradually perturb the normal blood flow and local pressure within the organs, and lead to organ failure. The augmented pulse pressure induced by arterial stiffening favours left ventricular hypertrophy because of the repeated extra work against stiff high-pressure arteries, and tissue damage as a result of excessive pulsatile pressure transmitted into the microcirculation, especially in low resistance/high-flow organs such as the brain and kidneys. Vascular aging is therefore characterized by the stiffening of large elastic arteries leading to a gradual increase in pulse pressure with age. In this review we focus on the effect of age-related stiffening of large elastic arteries. We report the clinical evidence linking arterial stiffness and organ failure and discuss the molecular pathways that are activated by the increase of mechanical stress in the wall. We also discuss the possible interventions that could limit arterial stiffening with age, such as regular aerobic exercise training, and some pharmacological approaches. PMID:26961664

  9. Cardiac signal estimation based on the arterial and venous pressure signals of a hemodialysis machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, M; Sandberg, F; Solem, K; Olde, B; Sörnmo, L

    2016-09-01

    Continuous cardiac monitoring is usually not performed during hemodialysis treatment, although a majority of patients with kidney failure suffer from cardiovascular disease. In the present paper, a method is proposed for estimating a cardiac pressure signal by combining the arterial and the venous pressure sensor signals of the hemodialysis machine. The estimation is complicated by the periodic pressure disturbance caused by the peristaltic blood pump, with an amplitude much larger than that of the cardiac pressure signal. Using different techniques for combining the arterial and venous pressure signals, the performance is evaluated and compared to that of an earlier method which made use of the venous pressure only. The heart rate and the heartbeat occurrence times, determined from the estimated cardiac pressure signal, are compared to the corresponding quantities determined from a photoplethysmographic reference signal. Signals from 9 complete hemodialysis treatments were analyzed. For a heartbeat amplitude of 0.5 mmHg, the median absolute deviation between estimated and reference heart rate was 1.3 bpm when using the venous pressure signal only, but dropped to 0.6 bpm when combining the pressure signals. The results show that the proposed method offers superior estimation at low heartbeat amplitudes. Consequently, more patients can be successfully monitored during treatment without the need of extra sensors. The results are preliminary, and need to be verified on a separate dataset. PMID:27511299

  10. A PILOT STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH HIGH AND LOW HABITUAL DIETARY MAGNESIUM INTAKE ON RESTING AND RECOVERY FROM AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsy S. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.

  11. Evaluation of accuracy of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in relation to carotid artery pressure in anaesthetised ponies

    OpenAIRE

    Gent, Thomas C; Schwarz, Andrea; Hatz, Lea-Annina; Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel; Stijn, Schauvliege; Gasthuys, Frank; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2015-01-01

    Invasive blood pressure measurement (IBP) using peripheral arteries is a commonly used technique in equine anaesthesia, although the accuracy has not been demonstrated. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (NIBP) may be indicated for field anesthesia, short procedures and foal anaesthesia. In the present report, the agreement of various IBP and NIBP measuring sites compared to carotid artery pressure was tested in anaesthetised experimental ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised in lateral r...

  12. Usefulness of Diastolic Strain Measurements in Predicting Elevated Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Risk of Rejection or Coronary Artery Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jimmy C; Magdo, H Sonali; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Zamberlan, Mary; Gajarski, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    In pediatric heart transplant recipients, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is associated with rejection and coronary artery vasculopathy. This study aimed to evaluate which echocardiographic parameters track changes in PCWP and predict adverse outcomes (rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy). This prospective single-center study enrolled 49 patients (median 11.4 years old, interquartile range 7.4 to 16.5) at time of cardiac catheterization and echocardiography. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (range 1.2 to 3.1 years), with serial testing per clinical protocol. Ratio of early mitral inflow to annular velocity (E/E'), left atrial (LA) distensibility, peak LA systolic strain, E/left ventricular (LV) diastolic strain, and E/LV diastolic strain rate were measured from echocardiograms. Increase in PCWP ≥3 mm Hg was associated with changes in LA distensibility, E/E', and E/LV diastolic strain, with highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for E/LV diastolic strain (0.76). In 9 patients who subsequently developed rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy, E/LV diastolic strain rate at baseline differed from patients without events (median 57.0 vs 43.6, p = 0.02). On serial studies, only change in LV ejection fraction differed in patients with events (median -10% vs -1%, p = 0.01); decrease in LV ejection fraction of -19% had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 44%. In conclusion, LV diastolic strain and strain rate measurements can track changes in PCWP and identify patients at risk for subsequent rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data in a larger cohort. PMID:26976792

  13. Transpulmonary pressure gradient verifies pulmonary hypertension is initiated by increased arterial resistance in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, A G; Anthony, N B; Wideman, R F

    2008-01-01

    Previous hemodynamic evaluations demonstrated that pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is higher in broilers that are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) than in broilers that are resistant to PHS. We compared key pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in broilers from PHS-susceptible and PHS-resistant lines (selected for 12 generations under hypobaric hypoxia) and in broilers from a relaxed (control) line. In experiment 1 the PAP was measured in male broilers in which a flow probe positioned on one pulmonary artery permitted the determination of cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The PAP and relative PVR were higher in susceptible broilers than in relaxed and resistant broilers, whereas absolute and relative cardiac output did not differ between lines. In experiment 2 male and female broilers from the 3 lines were catheterized to measure pressures in the wing vein, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary veins (WP, wedge pressure). The transpulmonary pressure gradient (TPG) was calculated as (PAP-WP), with PAP quantifying precapillary pressure and WP approximating postcapillary pulmonary venous pressure. When compared with resistant and relaxed broilers, PAP values in susceptible broilers were > or =10 mmHg higher, TPG values were > or =8 mmHg higher, and WP values were < or =2 mmHg higher, regardless of sex. The combined hemodynamic criteria (elevated PAP and PVR combined with a proportionally elevated TPG) demonstrate that susceptibility to PHS can be attributed primarily to pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with increased precapillary (arteriole) resistance rather than to pulmonary venous hypertension caused by elevated postcapillary (venous and left atrial) resistance. PMID:18079461

  14. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María González-Núñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  15. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  16. Assessment of the dynamic interactions between heart rate and arterial pressure by the cross time–frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a framework for the characterization of the dynamic interactions between RR variability (RRV) and systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV) is proposed. The methodology accounts for the intrinsic non-stationarity of the cardiovascular system and includes the assessment of both the strength and the prevalent direction of local coupling. The smoothed pseudo-Wigner–Ville distribution (SPWVD) is used to estimate the time–frequency (TF) power, coherence, and phase-difference spectra with fine TF resolution. The interactions between the signals are quantified by time-varying indices, including the local coupling, phase differences, time delay, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Every index is extracted from a specific TF region, localized by combining information from the different spectra. In 14 healthy subjects, a head-up tilt provoked an abrupt decrease in the cardiovascular coupling; a rapid change in the phase difference (from 0.37 ± 0.23 to −0.27 ± 0.22 rad) and time delay (from 0.26 ± 0.14 to −0.16 ± 0.16 s) in the high-frequency band; and a decrease in the BRS (from 23.72 ± 7.66 to 6.92 ± 2.51 ms mmHg−1). In the low-frequency range, during a head-up tilt, restoration of the baseline level of cardiovascular coupling took about 2 min and SAPV preceded RRV by about 0.85 s during the whole test. The analysis of the Eurobavar data set, which includes subjects with intact as well as impaired baroreflex, showed that the presented methodology represents an improved TF generalization of traditional time-invariant methodologies and can reveal dysfunctions in subjects with baroreflex impairment. Additionally, the results also suggest the use of non-stationary signal-processing techniques to analyze signals recorded under conditions that are usually supposed to be stationary. (paper)

  17. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Núñez, María; Riolobos, Adela S.; Castellano, Orlando; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; de los Ángeles Sevilla, María; Oujo, Bárbara; Pericacho, Miguel; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; ten Dijke, Peter; López-Novoa, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons. PMID:26398936

  18. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  19. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  20. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  1. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijane Oliveira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32; Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26; and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20. Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion: In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  2. The mobility analog for modeling the intra-arterial pressure wave parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D; Stinnett, H O

    1995-01-01

    To assist in the identification of physical/physiological parameters obtained from in vivo rat aortic artery dynamic pressure data, the natural (mobility) mechanical circuit model was constructed. The direct electrical analog of the model thus obtained was then analyzed using SPICE. The experimental data were obtained using a Multifunction Pressure Generator (MPG), appropriate pressure probes, and a high-speed video camera. Two 486 computers were used for system control and data recording and computation. Transfer functions in rational form of the ratio of the MPG input pressure (Pi) to the intra-arterial pressure (Po) were then generated in the s-domain. The mechanical circuit described by these rational functions was then constructed and transformed into its equivalent electrical model for analysis. On this basis, physiological pressures are represented by electrical currents, and volume flow rates by electrical voltages. The results obtained through steady-state (Bode plot) and transient analysis of the model developed suggest a compartmental model that explains the experimental observations. The mobility model is an improvement over previous models in that the mass element is referred to a single frame of reference, which agrees with the physical property that mass is a one-terminal device. PMID:7654985

  3. Percutaneous renal artery stenting reduces arterial blood pressure, but what about renal function? A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervişoğlu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTRA/S on arterial blood pressure and renal function.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PTRA/S at our institution between December 2003 and September 2006 was done. Follow-up data were derived from hospital records. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR was used as the marker of renal function. To evaluate the pre- and post-procedure values in individual patients the paired t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used.Results: Thirty-six patients (16 women, 30 men; mean age 59±15 years, range: 25-83 years underwent 43 PTRA/S interventions at our institution. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.3±8.6 (range 2-28 months. We observed no significant change in EGFR from pre-procedure to that obtained at follow-up (71.4±40.2 mL/min vs.73.3±39.0 mL/min; p=0.483. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, however, was reduced significantly: pre-procedure MABP-123±22 mmHg; post-procedure follow-up value of 101±14 mmHg (p <0.001. The mean number of antihypertensive medications used at the time of intervention was 2.1±1.0 (range: 0-4, whereas at follow-up, this number had decreased to 1.3±1.0 (range: 0-4; p<0.001. In patients with renal impairment (EGFR ≤59 mL/min, 41% showed improvement, 29% showed no change and 29% demonstrated deterioration in EGFR. Conclusion: PTRA/S may preserve renal function, especially in patients with pre-procedural impaired renal function.

  4. Combination Proximal Pulmonary Artery Coiling and Distal Embolization Induces Chronic Elevations in Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguero, Jaume; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Fish, Kenneth M.; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Hadri, Lahouaria; Garcia-Alvarez, Ana; Ibanez, Borja; Fuster, Valentin; Hajjar, Roger J.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with aberrant vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction that contribute to early mortality. Large animal models that recapitulate human PH are essential for mechanistic studies and evaluating novel therapies; however, these models are not readily accessible to the field owing to the need for advanced surgical techniques or hypoxia. In this study, we present a novel swine model that develops cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and structural changes characteristic of chronic PH. This percutaneous model was created in swine (n=6) by combining distal embolization of dextran beads with selective coiling of the lobar pulmonary arteries (2 procedures per lung over 4 weeks). As controls, findings from this model were compared with those from a standard weekly distal embolization model (n=6) and sham animals (n=4). Survival with the combined embolization model was 100%. At 8 weeks after the index procedure, combined embolization procedure animals had increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPA) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) compared to the controls with no effect on left heart or systemic pressures. RV remodeling and RV dysfunction were also present with a decrease in the RV ejection fraction, increase in the myocardial performance index, impaired longitudinal function, as well as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis, which were not present in the controls. Pulmonary vascular remodeling occurred in both embolization models, although only the combination embolization model had a decrease in pulmonary capacitance. Taken together, these cardiopulmonary hemodynamic and structural findings identify the novel combination embolization swine model as a valuable tool for future studies of chronic PH. PMID:25923775

  5. A pitfall in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in the ischaemic limb during elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate if elevation of the ischaemic limb above heart level is an alternative to the conventionally applied method with external counterpressure for estimation of skin perfusion pressure, femoral and popliteal artery pressures were measured directly in eight patients with occlusion of...... the superficial femoral artery. The measurements were done in the horizontal position and during elevation of the calf above heart level. During elevation relative blood flow, measured by arterio-venous oxygen saturation differences, decreased compared with the horizontal position. In contrast the...... lower extremity cannot be determined non-invasively by elevation of the extremity, probably due to collapse of segments of the vascular bed increasing the vascular resistance considerably....

  6. Left ventricular stroke volume in the fetal sheep is limited by extracardiac constraint and arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A; Fauchère, J C; Eede, K J; Tyberg, J V; Walker, A M

    2001-08-15

    1. Extracardiac constraint and sensitivity to arterial pressure may be critical factors that limit the functional reserves of the developing fetal heart in utero. We hypothesise that extracardiac constraint is the predominant factor that limits fetal stroke volume (SV). To test this hypothesis we studied six chronically instrumented fetal sheep to determine the relative roles that extracardiac constraint and arterial pressure play in determining left ventricular (LV) function. 2. Pregnant ewes (128-131 days gestation, term = 147 days) were anaesthetised (5 mg kg(-1) Propofol I.V., then 1.5 % halothane, 50 % O(2), balance N(2)O by inhalation) and instrumented using sterile surgical techniques to record LV end-diastolic pressure (P(lved)), aortic pressure (P(ao)), pericardial pressure (P(per)), and LV SV. 3. After a minimum of 72 h recovery, LV function was assessed by altering fetal blood volume to vary P(lved). Ventricular function curves were generated using two measures of ventricular function, SV and stroke work index (SWI = SV x P(ao)), and two measures of ventricular filling, P(lved) and LV end-diastolic transmural pressure (P(lved,tm) = P(lved) - P(per)). 4. Although decreasing P(lved) from the resting level decreased SV, increasing P(lved) from the resting level did not increase SV because the ventricular function curve plateaued. This plateau was not explained solely by an increase in aortic pressure, as the plateau remained present in the SWI versus P(lved) curve. When extracardiac constraint was accounted for (SV against P(lved,tm)), the plateau was largely eliminated (approximately 80 %). The remaining portion of the plateau (approximately 20 %) was eliminated when both extracardiac constraint and arterial pressure were accounted for (SWI versus P(lved,tm)). 5. Thus, the major limitation upon LV function in the near-term fetus results from extracardiac constraint limiting ventricular filling while, at the same time, a much smaller limitation arises from

  7. The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure caused by hypoxia depends on iron status

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Thomas G.; Balanos, George M; Quentin P P Croft; Talbot, Nick P; Dorrington, Keith L; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Robbins, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension. Gene expression activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is central to this process. The oxygen-sensing iron-dependent dioxygenase enzymes that regulate HIF are highly sensitive to varying iron availability. It is unknown whether iron similarly influences the pulmonary vasculature. This human physiology study aimed to determine whether varying iron availability affects pulmonary arterial pressure and the pulmonary...

  8. Fourier Analysis of Peripheral Blood Pressure and Flow in Intraoperative Assessment of Infrainguinal Arterial Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshmedzhiev Mihail V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess infrainguinal arterial reconstructions by intraoperative flowmetry under the distal anastomosis using a fast Fourier transformation; calculate and compare the amplitude ratios of peripheral arterial blood pressure and volume flow before and after drug-induced vasodilation of occluded bypass grafts and bypass grafts that have been patent at least for 1 year. To find what magnitude of the change of these ratios indicate a long-term patency of the bypass grafting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the results of the intraoperative flowmetry tests of 97 patients with infrainguinal arterial reconstructions. The patients were divided into two groups based on the graft status: the grafts in 49 patients were patent for at least a year, and 48 patients had failed bypass. We used a fast Fourier transform (FFT of the pressure and blood flow waves and compared the ratios of their amplitudes before and after administration of a vasodilator drug into the graft. Comparing the ratios obtained before and those after administration of the drug we quantified their change in each group and analysed them. RESULTS: After a drug-induced vasodilation, the blood pressure and flow amplitude ratios for the group with compromised reconstructions were less than 1.9 times smaller than those before drug infusion, while for the group with bypass grafts that had been functional for at least 12 months the ratios declined by more than 1.9≈2 times. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the change of amplitude ratios of the peripheral pressure and volume flow after drug-induced vasodilation can be used to make an assessment of the bypass graft and the distal arterial segment.

  9. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  10. Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

  11. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP) is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP). Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz) may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new...

  12. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Maltz, Jonathan S.; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F.; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D.; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, lab-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arg...

  13. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Siebig, Sylvia; Rockmann, Felix; Sabel, Karl; Zuber-Jerger, Ina; Dierkes, Christine; Brünnler, Tanja; Wrede, Christian E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP) is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP). Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz) may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new tech...

  14. The Effect of Respiratory Functions and Pulmonary Artery Pressure on Right and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Alpsoy, Şeref; Akyüz, Aydın; Akkoyun, Dursun Çayan; Oran, Mustafa; Mutlu, Levent Cem; TOPÇU, Birol; Değirmenci, Hasan; Yalçın, Banu Çiçek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate of biventricular diastolic function and to investigate the effect of pulmonary function and pulmonary artery pressure on diastolic functions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and Methods: Sixty patients with COPD and 40 healthy individuals were assessed by echocardiography and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were determined. Co...

  15. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 months; in 24 feet major amputation became necessary after an average of 4.3 months. The frequency of...... cases (9%) healed. Of the 11 cases with SDBP of 20 to 29 mmHg seven cases (64%) healed and of the 33 cases with SDBP of30 mmHg or above all cases (100%) healed. There was no significant difference between the 35 diabetic feet and the 31 non-diabetic feet as regards the healing rates, although infection...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  16. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  17. Modelling Arterial Pressure Waveforms Using Gaussian Functions and Two-Stage Particle Swarm Optimizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of arterial pressure waveform characteristics have been accepted as risk indicators of cardiovascular diseases. Waveform modelling using Gaussian functions has been used to decompose arterial pressure pulses into different numbers of subwaves and hence quantify waveform characteristics. However, the fitting accuracy and computation efficiency of current modelling approaches need to be improved. This study aimed to develop a novel two-stage particle swarm optimizer (TSPSO to determine optimal parameters of Gaussian functions. The evaluation was performed on carotid and radial artery pressure waveforms (CAPW and RAPW which were simultaneously recorded from twenty normal volunteers. The fitting accuracy and calculation efficiency of our TSPSO were compared with three published optimization methods: the Nelder-Mead, the modified PSO (MPSO, and the dynamic multiswarm particle swarm optimizer (DMS-PSO. The results showed that TSPSO achieved the best fitting accuracy with a mean absolute error (MAE of 1.1% for CAPW and 1.0% for RAPW, in comparison with 4.2% and 4.1% for Nelder-Mead, 2.0% and 1.9% for MPSO, and 1.2% and 1.1% for DMS-PSO. In addition, to achieve target MAE of 2.0%, the computation time of TSPSO was only 1.5 s, which was only 20% and 30% of that for MPSO and DMS-PSO, respectively.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of arterial and left ventricular pressure in conscious freely moving rats by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreti, Jason A; Polakowski, James S; Blomme, Eric A; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive cardiovascular assessment in conscious rodents by utilizing telemetry has been limited by the restriction of current devices to one pressure channel. The purpose of this study was to test and validate a dual pressure transmitter that allows the simultaneous measurement of arterial pressure (AP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) in conscious freely moving rats. Six rats were surgically implanted with dual pressure transmitters. Baseline hemodynamics and circadian rhythm were observed to return within 7days. AP, heart rate (HR), LVP and indices of left ventricular contractility were stable and demonstrated a prominent circadian rhythm over a two-week period of uninterrupted recordings. Administration of the vasodilator nifedipine produced the anticipated dose-dependent decrease in AP which was accompanied by a baroreflex mediated increase in HR and cardiac contractility. The negative inotrope verapamil produced the expected dose-dependent decreases in AP and cardiac contractility. Finally, a terminal validation of the dual pressure transmitter was performed under anesthesia by measuring AP and LVP simultaneously via telemetry and from a fluid filled arterial catheter and an intraventricular Millar catheter, respectively. A range of pressures and cardiac contractility were studied by administering sequential intravenous infusions of the positive inotrope dobutamine followed by verapamil. Linear regression analysis revealed a high level of agreement between pressures measured by the dual pressure transmitter and the exteriorized catheters. Histopathologic analysis of the heart revealed mild peri-catheter fibrosis. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of AP and LVP offers the potential for more detailed cardiovascular assessment in conscious rats. PMID:26778372

  19. Re-evaluation of Pre-pump Arterial Pressure to Avoid Inadequate Dialysis and Hemolysis: Importance of Prepump Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eriko; Nagai, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Risa; Noda, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomomi; Chikata, Yusuke; Hann, Michael; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ono, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Sayo; Tamaki, Masanori; Murakami, Taichi; Matsuura, Motokazu; Abe, Hideharu; Doi, Toshio

    2015-07-01

    Prepump arterial pressure (PreAP) is monitored to avoid generating excessive negative pressure. The National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for vascular access recommend that PreAP should not fall below -250 mm Hg because excessive negative PreAP can lead to a decrease in the delivery of blood flow, inadequate dialysis, and hemolysis. Nonetheless, these recommendations are consistently disregarded in clinical practice and pressure sensors are often removed from the dialysis circuit. Thus far, delivered blood flow has been reported to decrease at values more negative than -150 mm Hg of PreAP. These values have been analyzed by an ultrasonic flowmeter and not directly measured. Furthermore, no known group has evaluated whether PreAP-induced hemolysis occurs at a particular threshold. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the importance of PreAP in the prediction of inadequate dialysis and hemolysis. By using different diameter needles, human blood samples from healthy volunteers were circulated in a closed dialysis circuit. The relationship between PreAP and delivered blood flow or PreAP and hemolysis was investigated. We also investigated the optimal value for PreAP using several empirical monitoring methods, such as a pressure pillow. Our investigation indicated that PreAP is a critical factor in the determination of delivered blood flow and hemolysis, both of which occured at pressure values more negative than -150 mm Hg. With the exception of direct pressure monitoring, commonly used monitoring methods for PreAP were determined to be ineffective. We propose that the use of a vacuum monitor would permit regular measurement of PreAP. PMID:25940509

  20. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Fuglsang, Stefan; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, E; Møller, Søren

    2001-01-01

    %, respectively; P < 0.001) in cirrhotic patients (n = 49) than in control subjects (n = 19), and a close correlation between C(1) and SV/PP was found in both cirrhotic patients (r = 0.86, P < 0.001) and control subjects (r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed significant relations between C(1) and SV....../PP on one side and age, sex, body weight, portal pressure, systemic hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and severity of disease on the other. In the multiple-regression analysis, sex, age, mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and biochemical variables were significant independent...

  1. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M; Wang, T; Brøndum, E;

    2015-01-01

    adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective......BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary...

  2. Dyck's surfaces, systoles, and capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Mikhail G

    2012-01-01

    We prove an optimal systolic inequality for nonpositively curved Dyck's surfaces. The extremal surface is flat with eight conical singularities, six of angle theta and two of angle 9?pi - theta, for a suitable theta with cos(theta) Q(sqrt{19}). Relying on capacity estimates, we also show that the extremal surface is not conformally equivalent to the hyperbolic surface with maximal systole, yielding a first example of systolic extremality with this behavior.

  3. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, A.M.K.; Arnold, N D; Chang, W.; Watson, O.; Swift, A J; Condliffe, R; Elliot, C A; Kiely, D. G.; Suvarna, S K; Gunn, J.; Lawrie, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to de...

  4. Sildenafil has no effect on portal pressure but lowers arterial pressure in patients with compensated cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Puneeta; Inayat, Irteza; Tal, Michael; Spector, Marcelo; Shea, Martha; Groszmann, Roberto; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of portal pressure in patients with early compensated cirrhosis may be more responsive to drugs increasing intrahepatic vasodilatation than those reducing portal venous inflow. The PDE-V inhibitor sildenafil can potentially reduce portal pressure by decreasing intrahepatic resistance, but its systemic vasodilatory effects may be deleterious.

  5. Elementary theory of synchronous arterio-arterial blood pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.; Petscheck, H. E.; Kantrowitz, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    In the technique of arterio-arterial pumping, a volume of fluid is withdrawn from the aorta during systole and reinjected during diastole, thereby reducing the systolic pressure of the heart and adding energy to the systemic circulation. It is found that an upper bound for the effectiveness of such devices is given by a formula that considers stroke output of the unaided heart and the increment caused by the pump with a stroke. The division of effort of the pump between the reduction of pressure and the increase of flow depends on the physiological mechanical impedance of the heart. The total effect is, however, independent of the impedance.

  6. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  7. Effects of simulated microgravity on circadian rhythm of caudal arterial pressure and heart rate in rats and their underlying mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Lu; Xie, Man-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the circadian rhythm of rats' caudal arterial pressure and heart rate, and their underlying mechanism. Methods  Eighteen male SD rats (aged 8 weeks) were randomly assigned to control (CON) and tail suspension (SUS) group (9 each). Rats with tail suspension for 28 days were adopted as the animal model to simulate microgravity. Caudal arterial pressure and heart rate of rats were measured every 3 hours. The circadian difference of a...

  8. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index and 24-hour ambulatory pulse pressure as predictors of mortality in Ohasama, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Asayama, Kei; Metoki, Hirohito; Imai, Yutaka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Li, Yan; Kikuya, Masahiro; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Wang, Ji-Guang; Dolan, Eamon; Hashimoto, Junichiro; O'Brien, Eoin; Obara, Taku

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and pulse pressure (PP) are indexes of arterial stiffness and can be computed from 24-hour blood pressure recordings. We investigated the prognostic value of AASI and PP in relation to fatal outcomes. METHODS: In 1542 Ohasama residents (baseline age, 40 to 93 years; 63.4% women), we applied Cox regression to relate mortality to AASI and PP while adjusting for sex, age, BMI, 24-hour MAP, smoking and drinking habits, diabetes me...

  9. Effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehri Najafi Sani; Hamid Reza Kianifar; Abdolrazagh Kianee; Gholamreza Khatami

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.METHODS: Garlic powder in a capsule form was given to 15 children with hepatopulmonary syndrome (confirmed by contrast echocardiography) at the dosage of 1g/1.73 m2 per day. Patients were evaluated clinically and by arterial blood gas every four weeks.RESULTS: The garlic capsule was administered to 15patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. There were 10 boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 9.4±3.9 years.The underlying problems were biliary tract atresia (4patients), autoimmune hepatitis (4 patients), cryptogenic cirrhosis (4 patients) and presinusoidal portal hypertension (3 patients). Eight patients (53.3%) showed an increase of 10 mmHg in their mean arterial oxygen pressure. The baseline PaO2 was 65.6±12.1 mmHg in the responder group and 47.1±11.2 mmHg in nonresponder group. At the end of treatment the mean PaO2 in responders and non-responders was 92.2±7.75mmHg and 47.5±11.87 mmHg, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Garlic may increase oxygenation and improve dyspnea in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  10. Sensitivity of rapidly acting arterial pressure control system in conscious adult rabbits at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, H; Katsuda, S; Motochigawa, H; Morita, H; Hayashida, Y

    1984-01-01

    Changes in sensitivity of the rapidly acting arterial pressure control (AP) system with aging were investigated. Two catheters, one for pressure measurement and the other for inducing hemorrhage from the aorta, were chronically implanted in 25 rabbits from the same colony (aged 6 to 30 months). A few days after the operations, each animal was quickly bled (2 ml/kg body weight) while it was conscious. The hemorrhage experiment was repeated 16 times and the mean arterial pressure responses were sampled with an A/D-converter and stored in a digital computer, the 16 strings of data being pooled for each animal. The overall open-loop gain (G) of the AP-system was estimated from the individually pooled responses. In the present study, aging exerted no significant effect on the value of G (7.1) as evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis' non-parametric one criterion variance analysis (p greater than 0.05). The reflex sensitivity of the AP-system over the pressure ranges used in this experiment thus appears to be unaffected by aging over the range from 6 to 30 months. PMID:6533380

  11. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore. PMID:26495200

  12. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  13. Evaluation of a new arterial pressure-based cardiac output device requiring no external calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amann Matthias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques have been discussed as alternatives to the intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output (COPAC measurement by the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC. However, these techniques usually require a central venous line, an additional catheter, or a special calibration procedure. A new arterial pressure-based cardiac output (COAP device (FloTrac™, Vigileo™; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA only requires access to the radial or femoral artery using a standard arterial catheter and does not need an external calibration. We validated this technique in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU using COPAC as the method of reference. Methods We studied 20 critically ill patients, aged 16 to 74 years (mean, 55.5 ± 18.8 years, who required both arterial and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. COPAC measurements were performed at least every 4 hours and calculated as the average of 3 measurements, while COAP values were taken immediately at the end of bolus determinations. Accuracy of measurements was assessed by calculating the bias and limits of agreement using the method described by Bland and Altman. Results A total of 164 coupled measurements were obtained. Absolute values of COPAC ranged from 2.80 to 10.80 l/min (mean 5.93 ± 1.55 l/min. The bias and limits of agreement between COPAC and COAP for unequal numbers of replicates was 0.02 ± 2.92 l/min. The percentage error between COPAC and COAP was 49.3%. The bias between percentage changes in COPAC (ΔCOPAC and percentage changes in COAP (ΔCOAP for consecutive measurements was -0.70% ± 32.28%. COPAC and COAP showed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.58 (p PAC and ΔCOAP was 0.46 (p Conclusion Although the COAP algorithm shows a minimal bias with COPAC over a wide range of values in an inhomogeneous group of critically ill patients, the scattering of the data remains relative wide. Therefore, the used algorithm (V 1.03 failed to

  14. Redox signaling via oxidative inactivation of PTEN modulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone in rat middle cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available The present study examined the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and roles of inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in response to an increase in intramural pressure-induced myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. Step increases in intraluminal pressure of cannulated cerebral arteries induced myogenic constriction and concomitant formation of superoxide (O2 (.- and its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as determined by fluorescent HPLC analysis, microscopic analysis of intensity of dihydroethidium fluorescence and attenuation of pressure-induced myogenic constriction by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4,hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine1-oxyl (tempol or Mito-tempol or MitoQ in the presence or absence of PEG-catalase. An increase in intraluminal pressure induced oxidation of PTEN and activation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PTEN activity potentiated pressure-dependent myogenic constriction and caused a reduction in NPo of a 238 pS arterial KCa channel current and an increase in [Ca(2+]i level in freshly isolated cerebral arterial muscle cells (CAMCs, responses that were attenuated by Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate an increase in intraluminal pressure induced increase in ROS production triggered redox-sensitive signaling mechanism emanating from the cross-talk between oxidative inactivation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that involves in the regulation of pressure-dependent myogenic cerebral arterial constriction.

  15. The arterial load in pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vonk-Noordegraaf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical differences between the pulmonary and systemic arterial system are the main cause of the difference in distribution of compliance. In the pulmonary arterial system compliance is distributed over the entire arterial system, and stands at the basis of the constancy of the RC-time. This distribution depends on the number of peripheral vessels, which is ∼8–10 times more in the pulmonary system than the systemic tree. In the systemic arterial tree the compliance is mainly located in the aorta (80% of total compliance in thoracic-abdominal aorta. The constant RC-time in the pulmonary bed results in proportionality of systolic and diastolic pressure with mean pressure and, in turn, in the constant ratio of oscillatory and mean power.

  16. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P < 0.0005). 443 patients were measured on two separate occasions and the interarm difference for systolic blood pressure was reproducible for...

  17. Efeito do treinamento físico na pressão arterial de adolescentes com obesidade Efecto del entrenamiento físico en la presión arterial de adolescentes con obesidad Effect of physical training on the blood pressure of adolescents with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Quintella Farah

    2012-12-01

    ISI Web of knowledgeSM. Se incluyeron los estudios que evaluaron a adolescentes, publicados hasta el año de 2010 y que poseían grupo control. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Ocho estudios atendieron a los criterios de inclusión. Dos de ellos utilizaron ejercicios de fuerza combinados con aeróbicos, mientras que seis emplearon solamente ejercicios aeróbicos. Cinco estudios utilizaron intervenciones complementarias, siendo la intervención nutricional la más frecuente. Cuatro estudios observaron reducción de la presión arterial sistólica en el grupo ejercicio comparado al control. En esos cuatro estudios, además de la reducción de la presión arterial, se notó disminución de la masa corporal. Todos los estudios que verificaron reducción de la presión arterial utilizaron de 12 a 24 semanas de ejercicios aeróbicos. El programa de entrenamiento tuvo lugar con tres a seis sesiones semanales con duración de 50 a 90 minutos e intensidad entre 55 y 75% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto del entrenamiento físico en la presión arterial de adolescentes obesos es controvertido. Sin embargo, la reducción de la presión arterial parece ocurrir con programas de entrenamiento aeróbicos que promueven también la reducción de la masa corporal.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the results of studies that analyzed the effects of physical training on the blood pressure of obese adolescents. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was performed and examined the effect of physical training on the blood pressure of obese adolescents, published in journals indexed at PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and ISI Web of knowledgeSM databases. Studies that evaluated adolescents published until 2010 and that had a Control Group were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Two of them used strength exercises combined with aerobics, while six used only aerobics. Five studies used complementary intervention

  18. A Lumped Parameter Method to Calculate the Effect of Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion on Anterior Cerebral Artery Pressure Waveform

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, M.; Navidbakhsh, M.; Razmkon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Numerical modeling of biological structures would be very helpful tool to analyze hundreds of human body phenomena and also diseases diagnosis. One physiologic phenomenon is blood circulatory system and heart hemodynamic performance that can be simulated by utilizing lumped method. In this study, we can predict hemodynamic behavior of one artery of circulatory system (anterior cerebral artery) when disease such as internal carotid artery occlusion is occurred. Method ...

  19. Ex Vivo and in Silico Study of Human Common Carotid Arteries Pressure Response in Physiological and Inverted State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechna, A.; Cieślicki, K.; Lombarski, L.; Ciszek, B.

    2015-02-01

    Arterial walls are a multilayer structures with nonlinear material characteristics. Furthermore, residual stresses exist in unloaded state (zero-pressure condition) and they affect arterial behavior. To investigate these phenomena a number of theoretical and numerical studies were performed, however no experimental validation was proposed and realized yet. We cannot get rid of residual stresses without damaging the arterial segment. In this paper we propose a novel experiment to validate a numerical model of artery with residual stresses. The inspiration for our study originates from experiments made by Dobrin on dogs' arteries (1999). We applied the idea of turning the artery inside out. After such an operation the sequence of layer is reversed and the residual stresses are re-ordered. We performed several pressure-inflation tests on human Common Carotid Arteries (CCA) in normal and inverted configurations. The nonlinear responses of arterial behavior were obtained and compared to the numerical model. Computer simulations were carried out using the commercial software which applied the finite element method (FEM). Then, these results were discussed.

  20. Sex dependent effects of perinatal taurine exposure on the arterial pressure control in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Suwanich, Atchariya; Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study tests the sex-dependent effect of perinatal taurine exposure on arterial pressure control in adults. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% beta-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (C) from conception to weaning. Their male and female offspring were then fed normal rat chow and tap water with 5% glucose (C with glucose, CG; TD with glucose, TDG; TS with glucose, TSG) or water alone (CW, TDW or TSW). At...

  1. Muscular scintigraphy at effort and the index of systolic pressure (ISP) at rest in the detection of obliterative arteriopathy of inferior limbs (OAIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diminution of fixation of 201Tl at effort on the leg muscles can reveal a debuting or confirmed OAIL. The same is valid for the ISP. This study compares the 2 techniques in asymptomatic subjects, the ISP being used as 'reference method'. We have measured in 105 patients the ISP at rest (posterior-tibial pressure/humeral pressure, left and right), the asymmetry index (AI), defined as fixation in a limb divided by fixation in the other, and the segmentary fixation index (SFI), defined as fixation in a limb divided by fixation in the entire body, after the injection of 92 MBq of 201Tl at the moment of a maximal effort test, achieved on a running belt. An ISP < 0.90 was considered as pathologic (13/105 i.e. 12.4%). A table is presented, giving the percentage values of AI, SFI and AI + SFI corresponding to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the muscular scintigraphy at effort in detection of OAIL, characterized by a significant diminished ISP at rest, varies according to the criteria of positivity. The AIs is less sensible but more specific. The sensitivity is maximal (100%) when one couples the 2 indices, to detriment of specificity (55%). The best compromise is provided by the ISF. Although the positivity in case of normal at-rest ISP is rather frequent. The significance of the muscular anomalies detected at effort remains to be elucidated, taking into account the limits of ISP

  2. Effect of beta-1-blocker, nebivolol, on central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Soanker

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Nebivolol 5 mg demonstrated antihypertensive efficacy in patients with essential hypertension by reducing not only peripheral brachial pressures, but also significantly reducing central aortic pressures, augmentation index, and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity, which is the marker of arterial stiffness.

  3. Validation of noninvasive pulse contour cardiac output using finger arterial pressure in cardiac surgery patients requiring fluid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuizen, C.M.; Lansdorp, B.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Scheffer, G.J.; Lemson, J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nexfin (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) allows for noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood pressure (ABPNI) and cardiac output (CONI) by measuring finger arterial pressure (FAP). To evaluate the accuracy of FAP in measuring ABPNI and CONI as well as the adequacy of detecting chang

  4. Validation of noninvasive pulse contour cardiac output using finger arterial pressure in cardiac surgery patients requiring fluid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuizen, Charlotte; Lansdorp, Benno; Hoeven, van der Johannes G.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Lemson, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nexfin (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) allows for noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood pressure (ABPNI) and cardiac output (CONI) by measuring finger arterial pressure (FAP). To evaluate the accuracy of FAP in measuring ABPNI and CONI as well as the adequacy of detecting change

  5. Measurements of systolic time intervals using a transoesophageal pulsed echo-Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournadre, J P; Muchada, R; Lansiaux, S; Chassard, D

    1999-10-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals (STI), an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, is usually labour intensive and requires considerable expertise to perform accurately. We have evaluated the accuracy of an automated, continuous and non-invasive STI measurement technique using a descending aortic blood velocity Doppler signal obtained using a transoesophageal echo-Doppler system (TEDS) and an ECG signal. STI were measured in adult pigs using a transoesophageal probe (4 x 4 mm pulsed wave Doppler transducer, 5-MHz frequency and a 3 x 3 mm echo transducer, 10-MHz frequency) associated with an ECG recorder. Measurements were performed at baseline and after injection of esmolol and dobutamine. TEDS data were compared with those obtained by one-line recordings of the electrocardiogram and the central aortic arterial pressure wave. Similar mean values were observed for pre-ejection period (PEPI), LV ejection time (LVET) and PEP/LVET with the two methods. Agreement between the methods (Bland and Altman's test) was excellent with 95% confidence intervals for PEP, LVET and PEP/LVET of -7.17 to +1.37 ms, -12.64 to +0.24 ms and -0.033 to +0.028, respectively. We conclude that the combination of descending aorta blood velocity Doppler and ECG signal is an alternative technique for non-invasive and objective measurement of STI, allowing continuous monitoring of LV systolic function. PMID:10673883

  6. [Effect of the type of diabetes on the prognosis over 4 years of arterial blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaudon, H; Dupuy, O; Belmejdoub, G; Bredin, C; Rivetta, F; Avaro, J F; Bauduceau, B

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse over a four years period the blood pressure rise according to the type of diabetes. The study population was composed of 79 diabetic patients (type 1: 36; type 2: 43). An evaluation of diabetes mellitus is undertaken at a four years interval (A0, A4). In the same time, blood pressure level is assessed using clinic BP and 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Type 2 diabetic patients were older than type 1 (60.9 +/- 9.5 vs 43.5 +/- 12.5 years, p < 0.001). The two groups did not differ in body mass index, tobacco consumption, diabetes duration, glycemic control and serum creatinine. Hypertension was more frequent in type 2 diabetes (46.5 vs 11.1%, p < 0.01) and baseline systolic but not diastolic casual BP was significantly higher in type 2 diabetes compared with type 1 (142 +/- 14 vs 132 +/- 15 mmHg, p < 0.01). Between A0 and A4 the increase in type 1 and type 2 diabetics casual BP was not significant. Type 1 diabetic patients 24 h-ABPM did not differ from significant manner at A0 and at A4. Type 2 diabetic subjects had an increase in 24 h and night time SBP (24 h: 123 +/- 14 at A0 vs 130 +/- 16 mmHg at A4, p < 0.05; night time: 116 +/- 15 at A0 vs 125 +/- 17 mmHg at A4, p < 0.02). This reduction in nocturnal BP fall was not associated with an increase in diabetes complications frequency. BP evolution seems to be closely linked to the type of diabetes and to patients age. In this study, frequency of diabetes complications does not increase when BP level is lower than references values for ABPM. PMID:10989751

  7. 20-HETE induces remodeling of renal resistance arteries independent of blood pressure elevation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Garcia, Victor; Dimitrova, Irina; Weidenhammer, Adam; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank; Manthati, Vijay L; Falck, John R; Capdevila, Jorge H; Schwartzman, Michal L

    2013-09-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 (Cyp)-derived arachidonic acid metabolite that has been shown to increase smooth muscle contractions and proliferation, stimulate endothelial dysfunction and activation, and promote hypertension. We examined if 20-HETE contributes to microvascular remodeling in hypertension. In Sprague-Dawley rats, administration of the 20-HETE biosynthesis inhibitor HET0016 or the 20-HETE antagonist N-20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (20-HEDE) prevented 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in blood pressure as well as abrogated DHT-induced increases in the media-to-lumen ratio (M/L), media thickness, and collagen IV deposition in renal interlobar arteries. Reserpine prevented blood pressure elevation in DHT-treated rats but did not affect microvascular remodeling (M/L, media thickness, and collagen deposition); under these conditions, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist attenuated microvascular remodeling, suggesting that 20-HETE contributes to DHT-induced vascular remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. In Cyp4a14(-/-) mice, which display androgen-driven and 20-HETE-dependent hypertension, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist abolished remodeling of renal resistance arteries measured as media thickness (24 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1 μm) and M/L (0.29 ± 0.03 vs. 0.17 ± 0.01). Moreover, in Cyp4a12 transgenic mice in which the expression of Cyp4a12-20-HETE synthase is driven by a tetracycline-sensitive promoter, treatment with doxycycline resulted in blood pressure elevation (140 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 5 mmHg) and a significant increase in remodeling of renal resistance arteries (media thickness: 23 ± 1 vs. 16 ± 1 μm; M/L: 0.39 ± 0.04 vs. 0.23 ± 0.02); these increases were abrogated by cotreatment with 20-HEDE. This study demonstrated that 20-HETE is a key regulator of microvascular remodeling in hypertension; its effect is independent of blood pressure elevation and androgen levels. PMID

  8. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N; Buus, Niels H; Larsen, Mogens L; Mulvany, Michael J; Christensen, Kent L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Correction of the abnormal structure of resistance arteries in essential hypertension may be an important treatment goal in addition to blood pressure (BP) reduction. We investigated how this may be achieved in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: Plethysmography was used to measure....... RESULTS: In group A, mean ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) fell from 119 +/- 2 (SE) to 103 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), whereas mean ABP was unchanged in group B (100 +/- 1 to 99 +/- 1 mmHg, P = NS). Both groups showed similar reductions in Rrest (-33.4 and -28.5%, respectively) and in Rmin (-15.4 and -15...... forearm resting vascular resistance (Rrest) and minimum vascular resistance (Rmin) as a measure of vascular structure. Two different groups of patients with essential hypertension were examined at baseline and after 6 months of antihypertensive treatment. In group A, 21 patients with never...

  9. The inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Fukuda, Yukiko; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Okada, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Yoshioka, Keiji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether the IAD could be a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a cross-sectional retrospective study of 206 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 49-76 years, we examined the correlation of the IAD with the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) or cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI). The IAD was positively correlated with the maximum IMT (r=0.266, P<0.0001), mean IMT (r=0.209, P=0.00726) or CAVI (r=0.240, P=0.0005). The IAD was higher in patients with CVD than in those without (P=0.0020). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the IAD was an independent determinant of maximum IMT (β=0.169, P=0.0167), mean IMT (β=0.178, P=0.0153), ABI (β=-0.222, P=0.0033) or CAVI (β=0.213, P=0.0011) after adjusting for known risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the IAD as a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis was similar to the AUC of the Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk score. In conclusion, the IAD could be a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24599017

  10. A pressão arterial está sendo medida? Is the blood pressure being measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C. Alavarce

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A medida da pressão arterial faz parte do exame físico e deve ser realizada em toda consulta médica. Para avaliar se a pressão arterial é medida nas consultas médicas, foram consultados 500 prontuários de pacientes de primeira consulta ambulatorial, sendo 335 (67% provenientes de clínicas médicas e cirúrgicas e 165 (33% das clínicas ginecológica e obstétrica. A pressão arterial foi anotada em 39% das consultas realizadas (135±32/85±19 mm Hg, sendo que em 11% destas anotações a pressão diastólica estava acima de 90 mm Hg. Em relação ao diagnóstico prévio de hipertensão arterial verificou-se que: a em 62% dos prontuários não havia esta informação; b 20% referiram ter hipertensão, e em 79% destes a pressão arterial foi anotada; e c 18% referiram não ter hipertensão e 46% destes tiveram registro da pressão arterial. Portanto, a maior parte dos pacientes não teve sua pressão arterial anotada.The blood pressure measure is part of the physical exam and it should be accomplished in every medical consultation. To verify the blood pressure measured in the accomplished medical consultations record of first they were consulted it consults 500 patient's ambulatorial being 335 (67% coming of medical and surgical clinics and 165 (33% of the gynecological and obstetric clinics. The blood pressure was written down in 39% of the accomplished consultations (135+32 mm Hg 85+19 mm Hg, and 11% of this annotations the pressure diastólica was above 90 mm Hg. In relation to the previous diagnosis of hypertension it was verified that: a in 62% of the records there was not this information; b 20% referred to have hypertension, and in 79% of these the arterial pressure was scored; and c 18% referred not to have hypertension and 46% of these had registration of the arterial pressure. Therefore, most of the patients didn't have its logged arterial pressure.

  11. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Osamu; Sakai, Akio

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure(overline {P_{pa} } ) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in(overline {P_{pa} } ) with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, P a CO 2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the P a O 2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  12. Diencephalic regulation of respiration and arterial pressure during actual and fictive locomotion in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Eldridge, F L; Waldrop, T G; Kiley, J P

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine by experimentation the hypothesis that the respiratory and circulatory responses during exercise are attributable to command signals that emanate from the suprapontine brain. We studied the relations between locomotion (exercise) and phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure in cats that walked or ran on a treadmill and in animals during fictive locomotion, i.e., locomotor activity in motor nerves to legs. Anesthetized cats with intact brains and unanesthetized decorticated cats were used. All preparations exhibited spontaneous actual and fictive locomotion. Electrical stimulation or microinjection of picrotoxin, a GABA antagonist, of the subthalamic locomotor areas always caused locomotion to develop. Phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure increased in proportion to the level of locomotor activity despite control or ablation of feedback signals from chemoreceptors and vagal receptors. Similar relations were measured during fictive locomotion despite the absence of muscular contraction and limb movement and the lack of change in metabolic rate. These findings provide experimental support for the central command hypothesis for the genesis of the respiratory hyperpnea and increased cardiovascular function that occur during exercise. We believe that the command signals emanate from the subthalamic locomotor area of the diencephalon. PMID:3652403

  13. Usual blood pressure, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular risk: cohort study of 4.2 million adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emdin, Connor A; Anderson, Simon G.; Callender, Thomas; Conrad, Nathalie; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Mohseni, Hamid; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the subgroup specific associations between usual blood pressure and risk of peripheral arterial disease, and to examine the relation between peripheral arterial disease and a range of other types of vascular disease in a large contemporary cohort. Design Cohort study. Setting Linked electronic health records from 1990 to 2013 in the United Kingdom. Participants 4 222 459 people aged 30-90 years, registered at a primary care practice for at least one year and with a blo...

  14. Borderline pulmonary arterial pressure in systemic sclerosis patients: a post-hoc analysis of the DETECT study

    OpenAIRE

    Visovatti, Scott H; Distler, Oliver; Coghlan, J.; Denton, Christopher P; Grünig, Ekkehard; Bonderman, Diana; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Pope, Janet E; Vonk, Madelon C; Seibold, James R; Torres-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Doelberg, Martin; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Rosenberg, Daniel M; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with mean pulmonary artery pressures (mPAP) of 21 to 24 mm Hg have a so-called borderline elevation of mPAP (BoPAP)—a condition thought to represent early-stage pulmonary arterial vasculopathy. Based on the DETECT study, this post-hoc analysis examined patient characteristics of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with normal mPAP, BoPAP and elevated mPAP, fulfilling pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) criteria. Methods Adult patients with a duration of SSc more than 3 y...

  15. Impaired blood pressure response to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: possible contribution of attenuated reflex vasoconstriction in non-exercising muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamatsu, S; Takeshita, A; Nakamura, M.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups according to whether their blood pressure decreased (eight, group 1) or increased (10, group 2) in response to treadmill exercise testing. Age and the extent and distribution of coronary artery disease were similar in the two groups. At rest, blood pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, cardiac index, forearm vascular resistance, and oxygen consumption were similar in the two groups. During supine leg exercise on ...

  16. Resposta da pressão arterial ao esforço em adolescentes: influência do sobrepeso e obesidade Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carletti

    2008-07-01

    . METHODS: The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (56 boys and 48 girls, divided into two groups: the obese/overweight group (OOG and the eutrophic group (EG. The following variables were measured: anthropometric (weight, height, and BMI, body composition (skin fold thickness, as well as hemodynamic variables such as systolic arterial pressure (SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP, and heart rate (HR, at rest and at maximal physical exertion during the cardiopulmonary test. RESULTS: In the male group, the greatest values of systolic arterial pressure at rest were recorded in the OOG as compared to the EG (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.009, pre-exertion SAP (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.003, and SAP during maximal exertion conditions (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0.03. In the female group, only pre-exertion SAP was higher in the overweight group as compared to the eutrophic girls (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0.009. CONCLUSION: The response of arterial blood pressure during physical exercise was most exacerbated in obese adolescents as compared to eutrophic teens, suggesting greater reactivity to physical exertion.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Miguel Ayzin Rosoky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a suitable predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has already been investigated. Its relevance as a predictor of the appearance and worsening of coronary arterial disease is also well known. However, the same is not true regarding peripheral arterial disease. METHOD: Eighty-five consecutive patients with an ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI < 0.9 and the presence of either intermittent claudication or critical lower leg ischemia were included. The plasma level of IgG autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein was evaluated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were categorized into quartiles according to the ankle-brachial pressure index (a marker of peripheral arterial disease severity, and significant differences were investigated with the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the quartiles for this population (p = 0.33. No correlation was found between the ankle-brachial pressure index and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not a good predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity.

  18. Neural reflex regulation of arterial pressure in pathophysiological conditions: interplay among the baroreflex, the cardiopulmonary reflexes and the chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Vasquez

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of arterial pressure at levels adequate to perfuse the tissues is a basic requirement for the constancy of the internal environment and survival. The objective of the present review was to provide information about the basic reflex mechanisms that are responsible for the moment-to-moment regulation of the cardiovascular system. We demonstrate that this control is largely provided by the action of arterial and non-arterial reflexes that detect and correct changes in arterial pressure (baroreflex, blood volume or chemical composition (mechano- and chemosensitive cardiopulmonary reflexes, and changes in blood-gas composition (chemoreceptor reflex. The importance of the integration of these cardiovascular reflexes is well understood and it is clear that processing mainly occurs in the nucleus tractus solitarii, although the mechanism is poorly understood. There are several indications that the interactions of baroreflex, chemoreflex and Bezold-Jarisch reflex inputs, and the central nervous system control the activity of autonomic preganglionic neurons through parallel afferent and efferent pathways to achieve cardiovascular homeostasis. It is surprising that so little appears in the literature about the integration of these neural reflexes in cardiovascular function. Thus, our purpose was to review the interplay between peripheral neural reflex mechanisms of arterial blood pressure and blood volume regulation in physiological and pathophysiological states. Special emphasis is placed on the experimental model of arterial hypertension induced by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME in which the interplay of these three reflexes is demonstrable

  19. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  20. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new technique improved monitoring of patients undergoing interventional endoscopy. Methods: 40 patients undergoing interventional endoscopy between April and December 2007 were prospectively studied with CNAP® in addition to standard monitoring (NIBP, ECG and oxygen saturation. All monitoring values were extracted from the surveillance network at one-second intervals, and clinical parameters were documented. The variance of CNAP® values were calculated for every interval between two NIBP measurements. Results: 2660 minutes of monitoring were recorded (mean 60.1±34.4 min/patient. All patients were analgosedated with midazolam and pethidine, and 24/40 had propofol infusion (mean 90.9±70.3 mg. The mean arterial pressure for CNAP® was 102.4±21.2 mmHg and 106.8±24.8 mmHg for NIBP. Based on the first NIBP value in an interval between two NIBP measurements, BP values determined by CNAP® showed a maximum increase of 30.8±21.7% and a maximum decrease of 22.4±28.3% (mean of all intervals. Discussion: Conventional intermittent blood pressure monitoring of patients receiving sedating agents failed to detect fast changes in BP. The new technique CNAP® improved the detection of rapid BP changes, and may contribute to a better patient safety for those undergoing interventional procedures.

  1. On arterial physiology, pathophysiology of vascular compliance, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, S P

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, the main emphasis in hypertension treatment has been on lowering diastolic blood pressure. Recently, this emphasis has been shifting toward systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, the latter of which might be a better indicator of future clinical events than either blood pressure reading alone or in combination. Increased pulse pressure indicates increased arterial stiffness and hence is commonly seen in older subjects. As patients age and vessels stiffen, there is a resulting loss of arterial compliance, the ability of the vessel to store blood volume temporarily as it is ejected with each systole. The arterial system acts like a Windkessel, or pump, as it converts intermittent flow from the heart into continuous flow to the organs. The process of stiffening occurs via vascular remodeling, a redistribution of the heterogeneous elements of the vascular wall. Endothelial dysfunction can trigger this remodeling process, increasing stiffness, raising blood pressure and pulse pressure, and ultimately leading to atherosclerosis, plaque formation, and attendant clinical events. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists can restore arterial compliance, they are suitable choices for hypertension treatment when it is complicated by vascular stiffness. PMID:11728285

  2. Examining the response pressure along a fluid-filled elastic tube to comprehend Frank's arterial resonance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Wang, Yuh-Ying; Sze, Wah-Keung; Lin, Chin-Chih; Chen, Jiang-Ming; Houng, Chin-Chi; Chang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2015-04-13

    Frank first proposed the arterial resonance in 1899. Arteries are blood-filled elastic vessels, but resonance phenomena for a fluid-filled elastic tube has not drawn much attention yet. In this study, we measured the pressure along long elastic tubes in response to either a single impulsive water ejection or a periodic water input. The experimental results showed the low damped pressure oscillation initiated by a single impulsive water input; and the natural frequencies of the tube, identified by the peaks of the response in the frequency domain, were inversely proportional to the length of the tube. We found that the response to the periodic input reached a steady distributed oscillation with the same period of the input after a short transient time; and the optimal pressure response, or resonance, occurred when the pumping frequency was near the fundamental natural frequency of the system. We pointed out that the distributed forced oscillation could also be a suitable approach to analyze the arterial pressure wave. Unlike Frank's resonance model in which the whole arterial system was lumped together to a simple 0-D oscillator and got only one natural frequency, a tube has more than one natural frequency because the pressure P(z,t) is a 1-D oscillatory function of the axial position z and the time t. The benefit of having more than one natural frequency was then discussed. PMID:25773589

  3. How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? Insights from Studies of the Renal Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C; Dorrington, Keith L

    2016-01-01

    Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca(++)-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972

  4. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Cavadino, Alana; Berry, Diane J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with...... blood pressure and hypertension risk. METHODS: In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or substrate availability (CYP2R1 and DHCR7), which we used as a proxy for 25(OH)D concentration. We meta......% increase, -0·12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0·20 to -0·04; p=0·003) and reduced odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·97-0·99; p=0·0003), but not with decreased diastolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·02 mm Hg, -0·08 to 0·03; p=0·37). In meta-analyses in which we combined data from D-CarDia and...

  5. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper;

    2000-01-01

    Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: Sixteen adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis. INTERVENTION: Infusion of norepinephrine to increase MAP. MEASUREMENTS: During a rise in MAP induced by norepinephrine infusion, we measured relative changes in CBF by transcranial Doppler......OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute bacterial meningitis are often treated with sympathomimetics to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). We studied the influence of such therapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF). DESIGN: Prospective physiologic trial. SETTING: The Department of Infectious....... Autoregulation was classified as impaired if Vmean increased by >10% per 30 mm Hg increase in MAP and if no lower limit of autoregulation was identified by the computer program; otherwise, autoregulation was classified as preserved. MAIN RESULTS: Initially, Vmean increased from a median value of 46 cm/sec (range...

  6. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  7. A correlation study between ankle brachial pressure index and the severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyakorn, Thoetphum; Kuanprasert, Sarun; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that there was a correlation between low ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and the presence of the coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have investigated the correlation between ABPI and the severity of CAD by using a scoring system. The authors aimed to investigate this correlation by using ABPI and CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography (CAG). A total of 213 consecutive patients awaiting CAG in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from July 2009 to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. The ABPI was measured before CAG. The severity of CAD was graded on CAG by using SYNTAX scores. The authors found a significantly negative correlation between ABPI and SYNTAX scores (correlation coefficient = -.172, P = .01). The authors concluded that ABPI appeared to correlate negatively with the severity of CAD in the Thai population. PMID:22561522

  8. Arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow variability: friend or foe? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarolineAliceRickards

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Variability in arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow has traditionally been interpreted as a marker of cardiovascular decompensation, and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes across varying time scales, from impending orthostatic syncope to an increased risk of stroke. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that increased hemodynamic variability may, in fact, be protective in the face of acute challenges to perfusion, including significant central hypovolemia and hypotension (including hemorrhage, and during cardiac bypass surgery. This review presents the dichotomous views on the role of hemodynamic variability on clinical outcome, including the physiological mechanisms underlying these patterns, and the potential impact of increased and decreased variability on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. We suggest that reconciliation of these two apparently discrepant views may lie in the time scale of hemodynamic variability; short time scale variability appears to be cerebroprotective, while mid to longer term fluctuations are associated with primary and secondary end-organ dysfunction.

  9. The relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in persons with arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronic exposure to lead represents a risk factor of arterial hypertension development. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is the most prognostically reliable method of measuring of arterial blood pressure. The study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in patients with arterial hypertension. The studies included 73 men (mean age, 54.26 ± 8.17 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I-persons occupationally exposed to lead (n = 35) and group II-individuals not exposed to lead (n = 38). An analysis of results obtained during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring disclosed significantly higher values of mean systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and variability of systolic blood pressure in the group of hypertensive patients occupationally exposed to lead as compared to patients with arterial hypertension but not exposed to lead. The logistic regression showed that a more advanced age, higher concentration of blood zinc protoporphyrin, and a higher mean value of pulse pressure represented independent risk factors of left ventricular hypertrophy in the group of persons with arterial hypertension and chronically exposed to lead (ORage = 1.11; ORZnPP = 1.32; ORPP = 1,43; p < 0.05). In view of the above data demonstration that occupational exposure to lead represents an independent risk factor of increased pulse pressure may be of key importance in the process of shaping general social awareness as to harmful effects of lead compounds on human health.

  10. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with coronary artery bypass grafting and obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yumei; Dai, Yingnan; Wei, Guoqian; Cha, Li; Li, Xueqi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have documented that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the incidence of hypertension, respiratory failure and unexpected post-operative deaths during night in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. We hypothesized that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces blood pressure in these patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, controlled study in 51 patients. The subjects received CPAP treatment were defined as CPAP group, whereas those...

  11. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  12. Effects of Weather and Heliophysical Conditions on Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Vencloviene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009–2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs, in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10–I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T, wind speed (WS, relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP. We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS > 600 km/s increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP by 12% (RR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.21; and WS ≥ 3.5 knots during days of T < 1.5 °C and T ≥ 12.5 °C by 8% (RR = 1.08; CI 1.04–1.12. An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T ≥ 17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population’s sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  13. Continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation: influence of non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal variability of parameters which describe dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), usually quantified by the short-term relationship between arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), could result from continuous adjustments in physiological regulatory mechanisms or could be the result of artefacts in methods of measurement, such as the use of non-invasive measurements of BP in the finger. In 27 subjects (61 ± 11 years old) undergoing coronary artery angioplasty, BP was continuously recorded at rest with the Finapres device and in the ascending aorta (Millar catheter, BPAO), together with bilateral transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery, surface ECG and transcutaneous CO2. Dynamic CA was expressed by the autoregulation index (ARI), ranging from 0 (absence of CA) to 9 (best CA). Time-varying, continuous estimates of ARI (ARI(t)) were obtained with an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model applied to a 60 s sliding data window. No significant differences were observed in the accuracy and precision of ARI(t) between estimates derived from the Finapres and BPAO. Highly significant correlations were obtained between ARI(t) estimates from the right and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) (Finapres r = 0.60 ± 0.20; BPAO r = 0.56 ± 0.22) and also between the ARI(t) estimates from the Finapres and BPAO (right MCA r = 0.70 ± 0.22; left MCA r = 0.74 ± 0.22). Surrogate data showed that ARI(t) was highly sensitive to the presence of noise in the CBFV signal, with both the bias and dispersion of estimates increasing for lower values of ARI(t). This effect could explain the sudden drops of ARI(t) to zero as reported previously. Simulated sudden changes in ARI(t) can be detected by the Finapres, but the bias and variability of estimates also increase for lower values of ARI. In summary, the Finapres does not distort time-varying estimates of dynamic CA obtained with a sliding window combined with an ARMA model, but

  14. Changes in arterial blood pressure induced by passive leg raising predict hypotension during the induction of sedation in critically ill patients without severe cardiac dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao; PAN Chun; GUO Feng-mei; YANG Yi; QIU Hai-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypotension due to the induction of sedation with dexmedetomidine infusion may be harmful in critically ill patients.Changes in pulse pressure induced by the passive leg raising test (PLR-△PP) as marker of fluid responsiveness,assessed prior to sedation,may predict hemodynamic changes.The present study was to investigate the power of the PLR test in critically ill patients in predicting hypotension induced by the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation.Methods Fluid responsiveness was estimated by a passive leg raising (PLR) test before dexmedetomidine sedation.Patients were assigned to either the "Nonresponders" or "Responders" group according to their hemodynamic responses to the PLR test ("Nonresponders",PLR-△PP <10.3%; "Responders",PLR-△PP >10.3%).Sedation was performed with a dexmedetomidine infusion (0.5 μg/kg over a 10-minute loading period,then 0.2-0.7 μg-kg-1.h-1)and titrated to maintain the target Richmond agitation sedation scale (RASS) score in the range of-2 to-1 and the bispectral index value in the range of 60 to 75.Radial artery pulse pressure,heart rate (HR),and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured at each phase of the study procedure.Hemodynamic fluctuations during the use of dexmedetomidine sedation were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results Fifty patients had a median (25%-75% interquartile range) of 71 (61-78) years old were studied.At baseline,39 of the 50 patients were "Nonresponders" and 11 were "Responders".Following dexmedetomidine sedation,patients classified as "Responders" had a significantly greater systolic blood pressure decrease during the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation than the "Nonresponders" ((-26.3 ± 6.8)% vs.(-11.8 ± 8.5)%,P <0.001).In addition,the "Responders" group required significantly more fluid boluses (8 vs.3; P <0.001) and vasopressors (2 vs.0; P <0.05)than the "Nonresponders" group to restore blood pressure.Finally,PLR-△PP was positively correlated

  15. Arterial pulse wave velocity, inflammatory markers, pathological GH and IGF states, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: Blood pressure (BP measurements provide information regarding risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but only in a specific artery. Arterial stiffness (AS can be determined by measurement of arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV. Separate from any role as a surrogate marker, AS is an important determinant of pulse pressure, left ventricular function and coronary artery perfusion pressure. Proximal elastic arteries and peripheral muscular arteries respond differently to aging and to medication. Endogenous human growth hormone (hGH, secreted by the anterior pituitary, peaks during early adulthood, declining at 14% per decade. Levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I are at their peak during late adolescence and decline throughout adulthood, mirror imaging GH. Arterial endothelial dysfunction, an accepted cause of increased APWV in GH deficiency (GHD is reversed by recombinant human (rh GH therapy, favorably influencing the risk for atherogenesis. APWV is a noninvasive method for measuring atherosclerotic and hypertensive vascular changes increases with age and atherosclerosis leading to increased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Aerobic exercise training increases arterial compliance and reduces systolic blood pressure. Whole body arterial compliance is lowered in strength-trained individuals. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein are two infl ammatory markers directly linked with arterial endothelial dysfunction. Reviews of GH in the somatopause have not been favorable and side effects of treatment have marred its use except in classical GHD. Is it possible that we should be assessing the combined effects of therapy with rhGH and rh

  16. Correlation analysis between blood pressure morning peak of high-normal blood pressure and severity of coronary artery disease%正常高值血压者血压晨峰水平与冠状动脉病变程度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝翠平

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between blood pressure morning peak of high-normal blood pressure and severity of coronary artery disease.Methods180 cases of patients with high-normal blood pressure in our hospital were given 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ABPM) and coronary angiography (coronary angiography, CAG). They were divided into morning peak group (67 cases) and non-morning peak group (113 cases) according to ABPM whether or not the morning peak phenomenon, ABPM, coronary artery lesions of two groups were compared, factors of coronary artery lesions were analyzed.ResultsThe morning peak group 24 h, day, night, morning peak systolic blood pressure were significantly higher than the average morning peak group (in turn, the value oft was 2.59, 3.46, 2.71, 11.89, allP<0.05); Coronary artery lesions of morning peak group of patients were significantly more than non-morning peak group (U=4.587 0,P<0.01); Gensini total score of morning peak group was significantly higher than the morning peak group (P<0.01); Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, MBPS, 24 h average systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, age were independent risk factors for coronary artery disease.ConclusionThe high-normal blood pressure is closely related to MBPS severity of coronary artery disease, is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease prediction and severity, effectively control blood pressure in patients with high-normal blood pressure can reduce morning peak target organ damage.%目的 探讨正常高值血压者血压晨峰水平与冠状动脉病变严重程度的相关性.方法 对我院收治的180例正常高值血压患者进行24 h动态血压监测(ABPM)以及冠状动脉造影(CAG).按ABPM有无晨峰现象分为晨峰组(67例)与非晨峰组(113例),比较两组患者的ABPM、冠状动脉病变支数,分析冠状动脉病变的影响因素.结果晨峰组白昼、夜间、24 h、晨峰平

  17. Neural set point for the control of arterial pressure: role of the nucleus tractus solitarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinuzzi Max E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiological experiments have shown that the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP can not be regulated after chemo and cardiopulmonary receptor denervation. Neuro-physiological information suggests that the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS is the only structure that receives information from its rostral neural nuclei and from the cardiovascular receptors and projects to nuclei that regulate the circulatory variables. Methods From a control theory perspective, to answer if the cardiovascular regulation has a set point, we should find out whether in the cardiovascular control there is something equivalent to a comparator evaluating the error signal (between the rostral projections to the NTS and the feedback inputs. The NTS would function as a comparator if: a its lesion suppresses cardiovascular regulation; b the negative feedback loop still responds normally to perturbations (such as mechanical or electrical after cutting the rostral afferent fibers to the NTS; c perturbation of rostral neural structures (RNS to the NTS modifies the set point without changing the dynamics of the elicited response; and d cardiovascular responses to perturbations on neural structures within the negative feedback loop compensate for much faster than perturbations on the NTS rostral structures. Results From the control theory framework, experimental evidence found currently in the literature plus experimental results from our group was put together showing that the above-mentioned conditions (to show that the NTS functions as a comparator are satisfied. Conclusions Physiological experiments suggest that long-term blood pressure is regulated by the nervous system. The NTS functions as a comparator (evaluating the error signal between its RNS and the cardiovascular receptor afferents and projects to nuclei that regulate the circulatory variables. The mean arterial pressure (MAP is regulated by the feedback of chemo and cardiopulmonary receptors and

  18. Influence of the Lactotripeptides Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and Valine-Proline-Proline on Systolic Blood Pressure in Japanese Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Chanson-Rolle

    Full Text Available The lactotripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP and valine-proline-proline (VPP have been shown to decrease systolic blood pressure (SBP in several populations, but the size of the effect varies among studies. We performed a meta-analysis including all published studies to evaluate the SBP-lowering effect of IPP/VPP in Japanese subjects more comprehensively.Eligible randomized controlled trials were searched for within four bibliographic databases, including two Japanese ones. Eighteen studies (including a total of 1194 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. A random effect model using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimator was used for the analysis. The analysis showed that consumption of IPP/VPP induced a significant reduction in SBP as compared with placebo in Japanese subjects, with an estimated effect of -5.63 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.87 to -4.39, P<0.0001 and no evidence of publication bias. A significant heterogeneity between series was evident, which could be explained by a significant influence of the baseline blood pressure status of the subjects, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP being stronger in hypertensive subjects (-8.35 mm Hg, P<0.0001 than in non-hypertensive subjects (-3.42mm Hg, P<0.0001. Furthermore, the effect of IPP/VPP on SBP remained significant when limiting the analysis to series that tested the usual doses of IPP/VPP consumed daily (below 5 mg/d, with estimated effects of -6.01 mm Hg in the overall population and -3.32 mm Hg in non-hypertensive subjects.Results from this meta-analysis show that IPP/VPP lactotripeptides can significantly reduce office SBP in Japanese subjects with or without overt hypertension, and for doses that can potentially be consumed as an everyday supplement. This suggests that these peptides could play a role in controlling blood pressure in Japanese subjects. The systematic review protocol was published on the PROSPERO register (CRD42014014322.

  19. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422

  20. Evidence that blood pressure remains under the control of arterial baroreceptors in renal hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Trindade Jr.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the range of the influence of the baroreflex on blood pressure in chronic renal hypertensive rats. Supramaximal electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve and section of the baroreceptor nerves (sinoaortic denervation were used to obtain a global analysis of the baroreceptor-sympathetic reflex in normotensive control and in chronic (2 months 1-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rats. The fall in blood pressure produced by electrical baroreceptor stimulation was greater in renal hypertensive rats than in normotensive controls (right nerve: -47 ± 8 vs -23 ± 4 mmHg; left nerve: -51 ± 7 vs -30 ± 4 mmHg; and both right and left nerves: -50 ± 8 vs -30 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0.05. Furthermore, the increase in blood pressure level produced by baroreceptor denervation in chronic renal hypertensive rats was similar to that observed in control animals 2-5 h (control: 163 ± 5 vs 121 ± 1 mmHg; 1K-1C: 203 ± 7 vs 170 ± 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 and 24 h (control: 149 ± 3 vs 121 ± 1 mmHg; 1K-1C: 198 ± 8 vs 170 ± 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 after sinoaortic denervation. Taken together, these data indicate that the central and peripheral components of the baroreflex are acting efficiently at higher arterial pressure in renal hypertensive rats when the aortic nerve is maximally stimulated or the activity is abolished.

  1. Flavonoid metabolite 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid formed by human microflora decreases arterial blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmanová, Iveta; Pourová, Jana; Vopršalová, Marie; Pilařová, Veronika; Semecký, Vladimír; Nováková, Lucie; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2016-05-01

    There are reports of positive effects of quercetin on cardiovascular pathologies, however, mainly due to its low biovailability, the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report that one metabolite formed by human microflora (3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid)relaxed isolated rat aorta and decreased arterial blood pressure in rats. PMID:26790841

  2. Angus sattle at high altitude: Genetic relationships and initial genome-wide association analyses of pulmonary arterial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records from yearling Angus (n = 10,647) cattle from elevation 2,340 m were used in genetic analysis of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Bulls were developed within a grain-supplemented performance test, whereas heifers and steers were grazed. The BovineSNP50 Beadchip was used to genotype a subset...

  3. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  4. Effect of hypercortisolism control on high blood pressure in Cushing's syndrome Efecto del control del hipercortisolismo sobre la hipertensión arterial en el síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo M. Gómez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many hypertensive patients affected by endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS persist with high blood pressure (HBP despite good control of cortisol excess. We assessed the effect of preoperative ketoconazole administration and of definitive treatment of CS on arterial hypertension and analysed the factors involved in the persistence of hypertension. We assessed retrospectively 71 patients with CS and HBP (60 women, 11 men; 50 pituitary, 21 adrenal successfully treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy; 19 of them received ketoconazole (KNZ before surgery. After treatment, patients were divided into those with persistent high blood pressure (PHBP and those with normal blood pressure (NBP. As possible predictive factors for PHBP we analysed age, duration and family history of HBP, pre-treatment 24 hour urinary free cortisol (24h-UFC and body mass index (BMI. HBP normalized in 53 out of 71 patients (74.6%, regardless of the origin of Cushing's syndrome. PHBP patients were older (p=0.003, had longer duration (p=0.007 and higher systolic blood pressure before treatment (p=0.046 than NBP patients. Thirteen out of 19 patients (68.4% treated with ketoconazole, normalized their hypertension and remained normotensive after successful surgery. Five patients became normotensive only after surgery. In conclusion: a blood pressure levels normalized in most patients after remission of CS; b ketoconazole was effective for the control of HBP, and seems to be a good indicator of post-surgical outcome, and c higher age at presentation, longer duration of hypertension and higher systolic blood pressure figures before treatment negatively influence normalization of blood pressure after resolution of Cushing's syndrome.Muchos pacientes con síndrome de Cushing (SC permanecen hipertensos a pesar del control del exceso glucocorticoideo. Investigamos el efecto de la administración de ketoconazol (KNZ y del tratamiento definitivo del SC sobre la hipertensión arterial (HTA

  5. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    2001-01-01

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  6. Random perturbations of arterial blood pressure for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of cerebral autoregulation (CA) relies mostly on methods that modulate arterial blood pressure (ABP). Despite advances, the gold standard of assessment remains elusive and clinical practicality is limited. We investigate a novel approach of assessing CA, consisting of the intermittent application of thigh cuffs using square wave sequences. Our aim was to increase ABP variability whilst minimizing volunteer discomfort, thus improving assessment acceptability. Two random square wave sequences and two maximum pressure settings (80 and 150 mmHg) were used, corresponding to four manoeuvres that were conducted in random order after a baseline recording. The intermittent application of thigh cuffs resulted in an amplitude dependent increase in ABP (p = 0.001) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) variability (p = 0.026) compared to baseline. No statistically significant differences in mean heart rate or heart rate variability were observed (p = 0.108 and p = 0.350, respectively), suggesting that no significant sympathetic response was elicited. No significant differences in the CBFV step response were observed, suggesting no distortion of autoregulatory parameters resulted from the use of thigh cuffs. We conclude that pseudorandom binary sequences are an effective and safe alternative for increasing ABP variability. This new approach shows great promise as a tool for the robust assessment of CA. (paper)

  7. Peripheral arterial disease in the elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Wouter; Hoes, Arno; Rutgers, D.; Bots, Michiel; Grobbee, Diederick; Hofman, Albert

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the age- and sex-specific prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) in an elderly population, we performed a population-based study in 7715 subjects (40% men, 60% women) aged 55 years and over. The presence of PAD and IC was determined by measuring the ankle-arm systolic blood pressure index (AAI) and by means of the World Health Organization/Rose questionnaire, respectively. PAD was considered present when the AAI was

  8. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  9. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2013-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  10. Arterial Stiffness and Dialysis Calcium Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Mac-Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is the major determinant of isolated systolic hypertension and increased pulse pressure. Aortic stiffness is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and general population. Hemodynamically, arterial stiffness results in earlier aortic pulse wave reflection leading to increased cardiac workload and decreased myocardial perfusion. Although the clinical consequence of aortic stiffness has been clearly established, its pathophysiology in various clinical conditions still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that have looked at the impact of dialysis calcium concentration on arterial stiffness. Overall, the results of small short-term studies suggest that higher dialysis calcium is associated with a transient but significant increase in arterial stiffness. This calcium dependant increase in arterial stiffness is potentially explained by increased vascular smooth muscle tone of the conduit arteries and is not solely explained by changes in mean blood pressure. However, the optimal DCa remains to be determined, and long term studies are required to evaluate its impact on the progression of arterial stiffness.

  11. Echocardiographic Parameters and Survival in Chagas Heart Disease with Severe Systolic Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo, E-mail: dani.rassi@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arruda, Ana Lúcia Martins [Instituto de Radiologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hotta, Viviane Tiemi [Instituto do Coração da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furtado, Rogério Gomes; Rassi, Danilo Teixeira; Rassi, Salvador [Faculdade de Medicina e Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Echocardiography provides important information on the cardiac evaluation of patients with heart failure. The identification of echocardiographic parameters in severe Chagas heart disease would help implement treatment and assess prognosis. To correlate echocardiographic parameters with the endpoint cardiovascular mortality in patients with ejection fraction < 35%. Study with retrospective analysis of pre-specified echocardiographic parameters prospectively collected from 60 patients included in the Multicenter Randomized Trial of Cell Therapy in Patients with Heart Diseases (Estudo Multicêntrico Randomizado de Terapia Celular em Cardiopatias) - Chagas heart disease arm. The following parameters were collected: left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes; ejection fraction; left atrial diameter; left atrial volume; indexed left atrial volume; systolic pulmonary artery pressure; integral of the aortic flow velocity; myocardial performance index; rate of increase of left ventricular pressure; isovolumic relaxation time; E, A, Em, Am and Sm wave velocities; E wave deceleration time; E/A and E/Em ratios; and mitral regurgitation. In the mean 24.18-month follow-up, 27 patients died. The mean ejection fraction was 26.6 ± 5.34%. In the multivariate analysis, the parameters ejection fraction (HR = 1.114; p = 0.3704), indexed left atrial volume (HR = 1.033; p < 0.0001) and E/Em ratio (HR = 0.95; p = 0.1261) were excluded. The indexed left atrial volume was an independent predictor in relation to the endpoint, and values > 70.71 mL/m{sup 2} were associated with a significant increase in mortality (log rank p < 0.0001). The indexed left atrial volume was the only independent predictor of mortality in this population of Chagasic patients with severe systolic dysfunction.

  12. Profound influence of different methods for determination of the ankle brachial index on the prevalence estimate of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenberg Jens R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle brachial index (ABI is an efficient tool for objectively documenting the presence of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD. However, different methods exist for ABI calculation, which might result in varying PAD prevalence estimates. To address this question, we compared five different methods of ABI calculation using Doppler ultrasound in 6,880 consecutive, unselected primary care patients ≥65 years in the observational getABI study. Methods In all calculations, the average systolic pressure of the right and left brachial artery was used as the denominator (however, in case of discrepancies of ≥10 mmHg, the higher reading was used. As nominators, the following pressures were used: the highest arterial ankle pressure of each leg (method #1, the lowest pressure (#2, only the systolic pressure of the tibial posterior artery (#3, only the systolic pressure of the tibial anterior artery (#4, and the systolic pressure of the tibial posterior artery after exercise (#5. An ABI Results The estimated prevalence of PAD was lowest using method #1 (18.0% and highest using method #2 (34.5%, while the differences in methods #3–#5 were less pronounced. Method #1 resulted in the most accurate estimation of PAD prevalence in the general population. Using the different approaches, the odds ratio for the association of PAD and cardiovascular (CV events varied between 1.7 and 2.2. Conclusion The data demonstrate that different methods for ABI determination clearly affect the estimation of PAD prevalence, but not substantially the strength of the associations between PAD and CV events. Nonetheless, to achieve improved comparability among different studies, one mode of calculation should be universally applied, preferentially method #1.

  13. Prognostic role of alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the utility of the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (AaDO2) in predicting the short-term prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This study retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive patients with acute PE, diagnosed by either spiral computed tomography or high probability ventilation-perfusion lung scans. During the first 24 h of admission, all patients had initial artery blood gas collected under room air. Patient exclusion criteria were chronic lung disease, septic emboli, and moderate and low probability lung scans. Patients were assigned to 2 groups based on either 30-day death or a 30-day composite event. Receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to determine the AaDO2 cut-off value for predicting primary and composite endpoints. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in AaDO2 between the 30-day composite endpoint group and the 30-day composite event-free survival group (p=0.012). The AaDO2 had a strong trend between the 30-day death group and the survival group (p=0.062). The best cut-off value for AaDO2 was 53 mmHg and using this, the positive predictive value for 30-day death was 25% and the negative predictive value was 92%. For the 30-day composite endpoint, the positive predictive value for AaDO2 was 35%, and the negative predictive value was 84%. In this study, thrombocytopenia was also an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with acute PE. The AaDO2 measurement is a highly useful and simple measurement for predicting short-term prognosis in patients with acute PE. It has high negative predictive value and moderate positive predictive value for 30-day death and 30-day composite event. Aggressive thrombolytic treatment strategies should be considered for patients with an initial poor prognostic parameter (ie, AaDO2≥53 mmHg). (author)

  14. Avaliação comparativa entre a anestesia geral com halotano e isoflurano sobre a pressão arterial em cães Comparartive evaluation of the general anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane on the arterial pressure in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available As alterações produzidas pelo halotano e isoflurano sobre as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média foram avaliadas em 34 caninos de ambos os sexos e de diferentes pesos corporais e raças, todos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, divididos em dois grupos de 17 animais, submetidos a jejum prévio de 12 horas antes da indução anestésica. Os animais de ambos os grupos receberam sulfato de atropina 0,04mg/kg, associado ao sulfato de morfina 1,5mg/kg, administrados por via intramuscular e indução anestésica com propofol 6mg/kg por via intravenosa e a anestesia geral foi mantida com halotano no grupo I e o isoflurano no grupo II. Em ambos os grupos, o óxido nitroso na proporção 2:1 com oxigênio foi utilizado como gás diluente do anestésico volátil. Decorridos 15 minutos do início da anestesia volátil, as pressões sistólica, diastólica e média foram mensuradas pelo método oscilométrico indireto até o período de 90 minutos. Observou-se que as pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica do grupo II foi maior a partir dos 45 minutos de manutenção com os anestésicos voláteis, não ocorrendo diferença significativa na freqüência cardíaca. Conclui-se que a manutenção anestésica com isoflurano produz valores de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica superiores à manutenção com halotano que causou hipotensão arterial dos 45 aos 75 minutos de anestesia volátil.Changes in arterial systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were evaluated and compared in 34 dogs anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane and submitted to orthopedic surgeries. Two groups were formed each with 17 dogs. These animals were fasted for 12 hours before anesthesia induction. Anesthetic technique was premedication with 0.04mg/kg atropine intramuscular combined 1.5mg/kg morphine intramuscular. Anesthesia was induced with 6.0mg/kg propofol intravenously. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in group I and

  15. Prediction of Pressure Difference and Velocity Profile in Steady Flow through Axi-Symmetric Plaque Deposited Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AnwarSolangi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of blood flow through plaque deposited arteries at different Reynolds numbers have been performed to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on pressure drop and velocity profile at down stream. The predicated results are presented in terms of non-dimensional pressure isobars and velocity profiles at distinct Reynolds numbers and various levels of deposition at downstream of the artery segment. The scaled non-dimensional graph of pressure drop is also illustrated. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in the axi-symmetric frame of reference is solved numerically by employing FEM (Finite Element Method. Semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme has been utilised to obtain steady state solutions. The effects of atherosclerosis on hemodynamic factors have been investigated. The results show that blockage disturbs the flow field in the wake of plaque deposited arteries and the trend of pressure and velocity is increasing as level of deposition or Reynolds number increases. The application of this research work can be utilised in the field of cardio vascular disease, design of device and further planning towards treatment.

  16. Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Robach, P;

    2014-01-01

    altitude than at sea level (P < 0.05). At altitude, the high doses of adenosine and ATP reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 9-12%, independently of FI O2 . The change in vascular conductance in response to ATP was lower at altitude than at sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses...... protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. RESULTS: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) than at sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower at...... blood pressure and reduces the vasodilatory responses to adenosine and ATP....

  17. Low pulmonary artery flush perfusion pressure combined with high positive end-expiratory pressure reduces oedema formation in isolated porcine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flush perfusion of the pulmonary artery with organ protection solution is a standard procedure before lung explantation. However, rapid flush perfusion may cause pulmonary oedema which is deleterious in the lung transplantation setting. In this study we tested the hypotheses that high pulmonary perfusion pressure contributes to the development of pulmonary oedema and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts oedema formation. We expected oedema formation to increase weight and decrease compliance of the lungs on the basis of a decrease in alveolar volume as fluid replaces alveolar air spaces. The pulmonary artery of 28 isolated porcine lungs was perfused with a low-potassium dextrane solution at low (mean 27 mmHg) or high (mean 40 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during mechanical ventilation at low (4 cmH2O) or high (8 cmH2O) PEEP, respectively. Following perfusion and storage, relative increases in lung weight were smaller (p < 0.05) during perfusion at low PAP (62 ± 32% and 42 ± 26%, respectively) compared to perfusion at high PAP (133 ± 54% and 87 ± 30%, respectively). Compared to all other PAP–PEEP combinations, increases in lung weight were smallest (44 ± 9% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nonlinear intratidal lung compliance was largest (46% and 17% respectively, both p < 0.05) and lung histology showed least infiltration of mononuclear cells in the alveolar septa, and least alveolar destruction during the combination of low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. The findings suggest that oedema formation during pulmonary artery flush perfusion in isolated and ventilated lungs can be reduced by choosing low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. PAP–PEEP titration to minimize pulmonary oedema should be based on lung mechanics and PAP monitoring

  18. Reproducibility of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechering, D.G.; Steen, M.S. van der; Adiyaman, A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the repeatability of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), which can be computed from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings as unity minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic BP. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two hypertensive outpatients recruited in...... Nijmegen (mean age = 46.2 years; 76.3% with systolic and diastolic hypertension) and 145 patients enrolled in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial (71.0 years) underwent 24-h BP monitoring at a median interval of 8 and 31 days, respectively. We used the repeatability coefficient, which is...... were approximately 30%. Differences in AASI between paired recordings were correlated with differences in the goodness of fit (r2) of the AASI regression line as well as with differences in the night-to-day BP ratio. However, in sensitivity analyses stratified for type of hypertension, r2, or dipping...

  19. Non-invasive assessment of the left ventricular pressure to volume relationships during ejection period using a single cardiac probe system and tonometric measurement of radial arterial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The left ventricular (LV) pressure to volume relationships are very sensitive parameters for the evaluation of the LV function. For measurement of LV pressure in an entire cardiac cycle, an invasive method is always needed. However, on the assumption that the LV pressure is similar to that of aorta and radial artery during ejection period, we have developed a new system for simple and non-invasive assessment of the LV pressure to volume relationships. The LV volume is estimated by ECG-gated radionuclide ventriculography using a single cardiac probe system and the data were collected every 10 msec. The radial arterial pressure was measured simultaneously every 10 msec by a tonometry system. These data were transferred to the personal computer through RS-232c cable. Then the pressure to volume curves during ejection phase was generated automatically. Emax was calculated from these curves. Moreover, the new parameter called the ejection rate of change of power (ERCP) can be calculated. These parameters are very useful for the evaluation of the effect of the drugs on the LV performance. (author)

  20. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  1. Arrhythmias and electrocardiographic changes in systolic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Devkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure is a common condition that that leads to hospitalization. It is associated with various atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Aim: The aim of this study is to find common arrhythmias and electrocardiographic changes in hospitalized patients who have systolic heart failure. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of medical records, and electrocardiograms (EKGs of 157 patients admitted to our hospital who had systolic heart failure with ejection fraction (EF 35%. Twelve-lead EKG of these patients was studied to identify common arrhythmia and demographic variables; laboratory results were compared to identify the differences. Results: A total of 157 patients with systolic heart failure, 63.7% had an EF ≤ 35%. Hypertension 82.8%, diabetes 49%, coronary artery disease 40.8%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma 22.3%, and stroke 12.1% were common associated co-morbidities. On analysis of EKG, 28.6% had tachycardia, 21.9% had prolonged PR > 200 ms, 16.3% had wide QRS > 120 ms, 70.7% had prolonged corrected QT (QTc, and 42.2% had left axis deviation. The most common arrhythmias were sinus tachycardia and atrial fibrillation/flutter which were found in 14.6% and 13.4%, respectively. The left ventricular hypertrophy was a common abnormality found in 22.4% followed by ventricular premature contractions 18.4%, atrial premature contractions 9.5%, and left bundle branch block 6.1%. Patients with severe systolic heart failure had prolonged QRS (P = 0.02 and prolonged QTc (P = 0.01 as compared to the other group. Conclusions: Sinus tachycardia and atrial fibrillation/flutter were common arrhythmias in patients with systolic heart failure. Patients with severe systolic heart failure had statistically significant prolongation of the QRS duration and QTc interval.

  2. Measurement of digital blood pressure after local cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    A double-inlet plastic cuff was designed for local cooling and systolic blood pressure measurement on the middle phalanx of the fingers. With a tourniquet on the proximal phalanx of one finger, cooling for 5 min made the digital artery temperature equal the skin temperature. The difference between...... the systolic pressure in a control finger and in the cooled finger give the reopening pressure in the digital arteries. At 30, 25, 20, 15, and 10 degrees C, respectively the percent decrease of the finger pressure was 0.2 (0.2), 1.5 (2.5), 8.5 (3.7), 11.4 (3.4), and 15.3 (3.1) in normal young women...

  3. Arterial distensibility as a possible compensatory mechanism in chronic aortic regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopel Liliane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate elastic properties of conduit arteries in asymptomatic patients who have severe chronic aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers aged 30±1 years (control group and 14 asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation aged 29±2 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.61±0.02 (radioisotope ventriculography were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was performed to measure the systolic and diastolic diameters of the common carotid artery. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure enabled the calculation of arterial compliance and distensibility. RESULTS: No differences were observed between patients with aortic regurgitation and the control group concerning age, sex, body surface, and mean blood pressure. Pulse pressure was significantly higher in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (78±3 versus 48±1mmHg, P<0.01. Arterial compliance and distensibility were significantly greater in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (11.0±0.8 versus 8.1±0.7 10-10 N-1 m4, P=0.01 e and 39.3±2.6 versus 31.1±2.0 10-6 N-1 m², P=0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic aortic regurgitation have increased arterial distensibility. Greater vascular compliance, to lessen the impact of systolic volume ejected into conduit arteries, represents a compensatory mechanism in left ventricular and arterial system coupling.

  4. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hack-Lyoung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjects was 52.8 ± 8.4 years, and 78 (67.8% were men. The mean baPWV value was 1,325 ± 185 cm/s. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups according to E/E’ value: subjects with E/E’ p β = 0.371, p after controlling confounders including age, sex and body mass index. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of E/E’ ≥ 10 were 78.6% and 59.8%, respectively with mean baPWV of 1,282 cm/s as the cut off value. The discriminatory capacity for predicting E/E’ ≥ 10 was improved from an area under the ROC curve of 0.646 with age alone to 0.734 when baPWV was added (p Conclusions There is a significant association between baPWV and E/E’ in an apparently healthy Korean population. BaPWV is useful as a simple and non-invasive method for early detection of increased LV filling pressure among these people.

  5. Effects of arterial and venous volume infusion on coronary perfusion pressures during canine CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, N T; Martin, G B; Appleton, T J; Moeggenberg, J; Paradis, N A; Nowak, R M

    1991-08-01

    Intraarterial (IA) volume infusion has been reported to be more effective than intravenous (IV) infusion in treating cardiac arrest due to exsanguination. A rapid IA infusion was felt to raise intraaortic pressure and improve coronary perfusion pressure (CPP). The purpose of this study was to determine if IA or IV volume infusion could augment the effect of epinephrine on CPP during CPR in the canine model. Nineteen mongrel dogs with a mean weight of 26.3 +/- 4.2 kg were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Thoracic aortic (Ao), right atrial (RA) and pulmonary artery catheters were placed for hemodynamic monitoring. Additional Ao and central venous catheters were placed for volume infusion. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and Thumper CPR was begun after 5 min (t = 5). At t = 10, all dogs received 45 micrograms/kg IV epinephrine. Six animals received epinephrine alone (EPI). Five dogs received EPI plus a 500 cc bolus of normal saline over 3 min intravenously (EPI/IV). Another group (n = 8) received EPI plus the same fluid bolus through the aortic catheter (EPI/IA). Resuscitation was attempted at t = 18 using a standard protocol. There was a significant increase in CPP over baseline in all groups. The changes in CPP from baseline induced by EPI, EPI/IV and EPI/IA were 20.6 +/- 3.7, 22.8 +/- 4.2 and 22.2 +/- 2.4 mmHg, respectively. Volume loading did not augment the effect of therapeutic EPI dosing. By increasing both preload and afterload, volume administration may in fact be detrimental during CPR. PMID:1658894

  6. Pré-hipertensão arterial e pressão de pulso aumentada em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados Arterial prehypertension and elevated pulse pressure in adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Garcia Rosa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de pré-hipertensão e pressão de pulso aumentada em escolares, e verificar associação dessas duas condições com sexo, idade, maturidade sexual, obesidade e atividade física. MÉTODOS: Em amostra de 456 estudantes de 12 a 17 anos, de escolas públicas e privadas do bairro do Fonseca, Niterói-RJ, entre 2003 e 2004, mediu-se a pressão arterial em duas visitas, aplicou-se questionário e foram feitas medidas antropométricas. RESULTADOS: Trinta e nove (8,6% adolescentes apresentaram pré-hipertensão (PH e 13,4%, pressão de pulso (PP aumentada. Na análise bivariada, a PH mostrou associação significativa com sexo, idade e obesidade, com prevalência maior em meninos, naqueles de 15 a 17 anos, e nos obesos. A PP aumentada associou-se somente com o sexo - maior prevalência nos meninos. A maturidade sexual não mostrou associação com a PH ou PP aumentada. Na regressão logística, as associações se mantiveram, com razões de chance de prevalência de PH de 7,7 para sexo; 4,3 para idade e 4,6 para obesidade; e de PP aumentada, de 10,8 para sexo. A PP mostrou correlação positiva com a atividade física. O aumento da PP ocorreu com o aumento da pressão arterial sistólica. CONCLUSÃO: A PH e a PP aumentadas estão presentes em adolescentes em uma população com baixa prevalência de hipertensão, principalmente em meninos, indicando a necessidade de realização de estudos com desenhos prospectivos para examinar a persistência e o impacto dessas condições.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of prehypertension and elevated pulse pressure in adolescents and assess the association between those two conditions and sex, age, sexual development, obesity and physical activity. METHODS: Anthropometrical data and blood pressure were measured in and a questionnaire was applied to 456 adolescents (aged 12 to 17 years recruited from public and private schools, in the Fonseca district, in the city of Niter

  7. RR interval variability during galvanic vestibular stimulation correlates with arterial pressure upon head-up tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ito, Yamato; Ikeda, Mayumi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2014-10-01

    RR interval variability (RRIV) in the supine position without and with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS (off) and GVS (on), respectively), changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the onset of 60° head-up tilt (HUT) during GVS (off), and their relationship were analyzed in 25 healthy young subjects. MAP decreased by less than 5mmHg or increased upon HUT in 12 subjects (UP), but MAP decreased by more than 5mmHg in 13 subjects (DOWN). Applying sinusoidal GVS of 2mA at a random frequency of 0.2 to 10.0Hz did not change the RR intervals or MAP. However, the high frequency component (HF) of RRIV increased in both UP and DOWN subjects. The increase in DOWN subjects was larger than that in UP subjects. The ratio of the low frequency component to HF (L/H) increased in UP subjects during GVS (on), but did not reach a significant level in DOWN subjects. The changes in the HF were significantly correlated with changes in MAP at the onset of HUT; i.e., the subjects with larger increases in the HF during GVS (on) showed larger decreases in MAP. Thus, GVS or vestibular input during HUT possibly activates the vagal nerves, and the dominance of excitation in sympathetic or vagal nerves during vestibular stimulation is important for controlling MAP at the onset of HUT. PMID:24783995

  8. Changes in pulmonary artery pressures during ethanol sclerotherapy for arteriovenous malformations: identifying the most vulnerable period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during ethanol embolization and to identify the most vulnerable period associated with cardiovascular collapse in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients (30 sessions) with AVMs were enrolled. PAP was measured at the following times: baseline (Tbaseline); immediately before (Tpre), and after (Tpost) bolus injection of absolute ethanol; at the time of maximum mean PAP value during a session (Thighest-ethanol); 10 min after final injection (Tfinal); after restoration of spontaneous breathing (Tresp); at extubation (Textubation); 30 min after extubation (Textubation-30min); and at the time of maximum mean PAP after patient resumed spontaneous respiration (Thighest-resp). Nitroglycerin was infused (range 0.5-3 μg/kg/min) in all patients to attenuate the effect of ethanol on pulmonary vasoconstriction. Results: The PAPs of Thighest-ethanol, Tresp, Textubation, and Thighest-resp were significantly higher than the corresponding values for Tbaseline and Tfinal (all p highest-resp were significantly higher than those at Thighest-ethanol (both p < 0.05). In 24 sessions (80%), the highest mean PAP was detected during the recovery period. Conclusion: The greatest rise in PAP was noted during the recovery period in patients undergoing ethanol embolotherapy. Therefore, PAP monitoring and nitroglycerin infusions are recommended during the recovery period because early detection of an increase in PAP and prompt management may prevent detrimental complications.

  9. Arterial gas embolism during pressure tolerance testing in a hyperbaric chamber: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, D Kim

    2010-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of arterial gas embolism (AGE) occurring during the course of routine pressure tolerance testing (PTT) of Canadian Forces divers in a dry hyperbaric chamber. PTT is used by many military organizations as a means to determine whether divers can sustain a hyperbaric challenge similar to that to which they will be exposed during their diving duties. Problems arising from such testing are usually limited to issues of equalization and minor otic barotraumas. Incidents of AGE resulting from hyperbaric chamber exposures in general are very unusual. The incidents reported here are the first such cases arising in military divers during PTT to be reported in the extant literature. In one case a potential precipitating pulmonary lesion was identified during post-event chest imaging. In the other case, while presenting with all the usual hallmarks of an AGE, no predisposing pulmonary lesion was identified. Ascent rates were within the limits considered acceptable by the Canadian Forces for PTT. The cases are useful in examining the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying pulmonary barotrauma and AGE, and raise questions as to the appropriate screening procedures for military divers in this regard. PMID:21197859

  10. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch;

    2001-01-01

    models which reflect the disease process. Material and Results: We randomly allocated 45 newborn pigs, at the age of 48 hrs, to groups in which there was either construction of a 3 mm central aorto-pulmonary shunt, undertaken in 9, or ligation of the left pulmonary artery, achieved in 13. Controls...... included sham operations in 13, or no operations in 10 pigs. Follow-up was continued for three months. The interventions were compatible with survival in most pigs. The shunts resulted in an acute 85% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and a more than twofold increase in pulmonary blood flow....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. These...

  11. Pulse pressure and michigan neuropathy screening instrument are independently associated with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease among type 2 diabetes community residents: A community-based screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chi Fan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the major manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis and plays an important role in low-extremity amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic PAD in type 2 diabetic community residents. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 552 type 2 diabetic adults (232 men and 320 women without subjective symptoms of intermittent claudication. We defined the PAD group as an ankle-brachial index (ABI ≤ 0.90, and the normal group as an ABI 0.91-1.30. Their clinical characteristics, Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI scores and blood pressure were compared. Results: We discovered that 51 patients have asymptomatic PAD. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, history of stroke, longer duration of diabetes (> 10 years, unemployment or retirement, pulse pressure, systolic blood pressure, and high MNSI score (> 2 were risk factors for PAD. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, pulse pressure, high MNSI score, age, and history of stroke were independent risk factors with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, CI of 1.032 (1.012-1.053, 2.359 (1.274-4.370, 1.050 (1.010-1.091, and 5.152 (1.985-13.368, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of PAD increased significantly with increment in the pulse pressure and MNSI. Conclusions: In summary, the overall prevalence of asymptomatic PAD in the type 2 diabetic adults was 9.2%. Age, history of stroke, pulse pressure and MNSI score may provide important clinical information. Primary care physicians should be aware of asymptomatic patients with high pulse pressure and MNSI scores.

  12. A novel photoplethysmography technique to derive normalized arterial stiffness as a blood pressure independent measure in the finger vascular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffening of the small artery may be the earliest sign of arteriosclerosis. However, there is no adequate method for directly assessing small arterial stiffness. In this study, the finger arterial elasticity index (FEI) was defined as the parameter n which denotes the curvilinearity of an exponential model of pressure (P)–volume (Va) relationship (Va = a − b exp (−nP)). For the original estimation, the FEI was calculated from a compliance index from the finger photoplethysmogram whilst occluding the finger. A simple estimation of the FEI was devised by utilizing normalized pulse volume instead of the compliance index. Both estimations yielded close agreement with the exponential model in healthy young participants (study 1: n = 19). Since the FEI was dependent on finger mean blood pressure, normalized finger arterial stiffness index (FSI) was defined as standardized residual from their relationship: mean and standard deviation (SD) of the FSI were 50 ± 10 (study 2: n = 174). The mean coefficient of variation of the FSI for four measurements was 5.72% (study 3: n = 6). The mean and SD of the FSI in seven arteriosclerotic patients were 100.0 ± 13.5. In conclusion, the FEI and FSI by simple estimation are valid and useful for arteriosclerosis research

  13. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease : the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Breeijen, J.H.; Grobbee, Diederick; Boeing, H.; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hofman, Albert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined cross-sectionally the association of dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E with peripheral arterial disease in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (1990--1993). The 4,367 subjects from the Rotterdam Study were aged 55--94 years and had no previous cardiovascular disease at baseline. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-arm systolic blood pressure index (AAI) of < or = 0.9 and was present in ...

  14. Pressão arterial de crianças e adolescentes de uma escola pública de Fortaleza - Ceará Presión arterial de niños y adolescentes de una escuela pública de Fortaleza-Ceará Blood pressure of children and teenagers from a public school in Fortaleza-Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Leite de Araujo

    2007-12-01

    entre las variables: sexo, grado de parentesco para hipertensión arterial, fumador pasivo con la PAS y con la PAD. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observó que la PAS y la PAD de los niños y adolescentes disminuyeron a lo largo de las evaluaciones.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evolution of systolic blood pressure (SAP, diastolic blood pressure (DAP and anthropometric measurement values of children and teenagers who presented altered arterial pressure on a first evaluation. METHODS: Follow-up study, performed from October / 2004 to December / 2005, at a public school in Fortaleza. One hundred fifty-one subjects between six and seventeen years old were accompanied and evaluated for a period of one year. RESULTS: It was observed that the SAP and DAP of children and teenagers decreased along the evaluations. The variables age, education, weight, height, body mass index, waist perimeter, hip perimeter, arm and subscapular skin fold circumference were correlated positive and significantly with SAP and DAP values. There was a difference in median among the variables: Gender, kinship degree for arterial hypertension, passive smoker with SAP and DAP. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the SAP and DAP of children and adolescents decreased along the evaluations.

  15. Acompanhamento da pressão arterial: estudo com crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão Acompañamiento de la presión arterial: investigación con niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión Blood pressure tracking: study with children and adolescents with familial history of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soares Chaves

    2010-03-01

    complicaciones.The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the percentiles of blood pressure in children and adolescents with familial history of arterial hypertension. This is a longitudinal study developed in a community in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The blood pressure was evaluated in five home visits from January, 2004 to December, 2006. The group was composed of 141 participants, of which 92 were children and 49 adolescents. Of the children, 67,4% remained with no alterations of the percentiles of blood pressure in all the evaluations; of the adolescents, 65,3% remained in the same condition. Most individuals kept their values and percentiles of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and many that did not initially present alterations started to show some during the follow up. As a result, routine monitoring of blood pressure of children and adolescents proves necessary for the early detection and prevention of complications.

  16. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  17. Using Doppler measurement of fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity on prediction of fetal anemia%彩超大脑中动脉血流峰值速度检测胎儿宫内贫血的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌奕; 金松; 张越青; 南瑞霞; 华少萍; 莫秀兰; 胡春霞; 黄元华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度(middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity MCA-PSV)和胎儿血红蛋白关系的研究,评估胎儿MCA-PSV在预测胎儿贫血中的临床应用价值,为l临床提供一种无创伤的检测胎儿贫血的新方法.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,正常单胎组85例,正常双胎22例,胎儿贫血高危组50例,所有病例均查脐血血常规测血红蛋白含量.脐穿前1周内做MCA-PSV检测,分析胎儿MCA-PSV和胎儿血红蛋白的关系.评估胎儿MCA-PSV预测胎儿贫血的准确性.结果:①以相应孕周正常值的中位数的倍数MOM值为单位,胎儿MCA-PSV与Hh浓度呈负相关(P<0.001).②MCA-PSV预测轻度贫血灵敏度25%,特异度98%,预测重度贫血的敏感性及特异性均为100%.③重度贫血胎儿MCA-PSV升高早于二维超声异常表现.④正常双胎与单胎MCA-PSV与Hb浓度无显著差异.结论:胎儿大脑中动脉血流峰值速度预测胎儿贫血无创伤,发现早,准确性高,可作为临床胎儿贫血尤其是重度贫血的预测指标.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between fetal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) in fetuses at high risk for anemia, and to establish a noninvasive method to predict fetal anemia. Methods: 85 normal fetuses in control group , 22 twin fetus and 50 high risk fetus in research group were analyzed. Fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity ( MCA - PSV) were measured within 1 week of blood sampling. Fetal Hb values were obtained by cordocentesis during prenatal diagnosis, before termination of pregnancy or after delivery. For the high risk group monthly Doppler ultrasound commenced at 16 weeks, and continued until blood sampling. Marl - G's data was used as the normal value of Hb and MCA - PSV at each gestafional age. Both MCA- PSV and Hemoglobin concentration were expressed as multiples of the median (MOM) . Results: ① There

  18. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  19. Spatial Orientation and Morphology of the Pulmonary Artery: Relevance to Optimising Design and Positioning of a Continuous Pressure Monitoring Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Lin; Aguib, Heba; Chapron, Julien; Bahmanyar, Reza; Borghi, Alessandro; Murphy, Olive; McLeod, Chris; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2016-06-01

    Personalised treatment of heart disease requires an understanding of the patient-specific characteristics, which can vary over time. A newly developed implantable surface acoustic wave pressure sensor, capable of continuous monitoring of the left ventricle filling pressure, is a novel device for personalised management of patients with heart disease. However, a one-size-fits-all approach to device sizing will affect its positioning within the pulmonary artery and its relationship to the interrogating device on the chest wall on a patient-specific level. In this paper, we analyse the spatial orientation and morphology of the pulmonary artery and its main branches in patients who could benefit from the device and normal controls. The results could optimise the design of the sensor, its stent, and importantly its placement, ensuring long-term monitoring in patient groups. PMID:27075735

  20. A prospective study of glomerular filtration rate and arterial blood pressure in insulin-dependent diabetics with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Friisberg, B; Bonnevie-Nielsen, V; Andersen, A R

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR, single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique), serum creatinine, proteinuria and arterial blood pressure have been measured prospectively in 14 young onset insulin-dependent diabetics selected by of persistent proteinuria (greater than 0.5 g/day) secondary to diabetic...... nephropathy. Twelve of the 14 patients had normal serum creatinine levels. None of the patients received antihypertensive treatment. During the mean observation period of 26 months (range 23 to 33 months) GFR decreased from 107 to 87 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p less than 0.001), serum creatinine remained unchanged: 107....../min/month (range 0.1 to 1.5 ml/min/month). The decrease in GFR did not correlate wih sex, age at onset, duration of diabetes, arterial blood pressure, proteinuria, insulin requirement, postprandial blood glucose or the initial GFR in each individual was constant, but varied considerably between patients. Increase...

  1. The Impact of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Arterial Stiffness and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Angina Pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagidullin, Naufal; Scherbakova, Elena; Safina, Yuliana; Zulkarneev, Rustem; Zagidullin, Shamil

    2016-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is the set of ischemia episodes that protects against subsequent periods of prolonged ischemia through the cascade of adaptive responses; however, the mechanisms of RIPC are not entirely clear. Here, we aimed to study the impact of RIPC in patients with stable angina pectoris and compare it with healthy individuals with respect to arterial stiffness and heart rate variability. In the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover blind design study, a group of 30 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients (63.9 ± 1.6 years) with stable angina pectoris NYHA II-III and a control group of 20 healthy individuals (58.2 ± 2.49) were both randomly allocated for remote RIPC or sham RIPC. Arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity (Spygmacor, Australia), and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded before and after the procedure followed by the crossover examination. In the group of healthy individuals, RIPC showed virtually no impact on the cardiovascular parameters, while, in the CHD group, the systolic and central systolic blood pressure, central pulse pressure, and augmentation decreased, and total power of HRV improved. We conclude that ischemic preconditioning reduces not only systolic blood pressure, but also reduces central systolic blood pressure and improves arterial compliance and heart rate modulation reserve, which may be associated with the antianginal effect of preconditioning. PMID:27348009

  2. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  3. Systolic reconstruction in patients with low heart rate using coronary dual-source CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Shigemoto, Youko; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Miura, Toshiro; Nao, Tomoko [Department of Cardiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sano, Yuichi; Narazaki, Akiko [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between the predictive factors and systolic reconstruction (SR) as an optimal reconstruction window in patients with low heart rate (LHR; less than 65 bpm). Methods: 391 patients (262 male and 129 female, mean age; 67.1 {+-} 10.1 years of age) underwent coronary CTA without the additional administration of a beta-blocker. Affecting factors for SR were analyzed in age, gender, body weight (BW), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary arterial disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF), systolic and diastolic body pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) during coronary CTA. Results: In 29 (7.4%) of the 391 patients, SR was needed, but there was no apparent characteristic difference between the systolic and diastolic reconstruction groups in terms of gender, age, BW, DM, CAD and EF. In a multivariate analysis, the co-existence of DM [P < 0.05; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.092-0.80], diastolic BP [P < 0.01; OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98] and HRV [P < 0.01; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99] were found to be the factors for SR. In gender-related analysis, HRV was an important factor regardless of sex, but co-existence of DM affected especially for female and BP for male. Conclusion: Especially in the patients with LHR who had a medication of DM, high HRV or high BP, SR, in addition to DR, was needed to obtain high-quality coronary CTA images.

  4. Systolic reconstruction in patients with low heart rate using coronary dual-source CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between the predictive factors and systolic reconstruction (SR) as an optimal reconstruction window in patients with low heart rate (LHR; less than 65 bpm). Methods: 391 patients (262 male and 129 female, mean age; 67.1 ± 10.1 years of age) underwent coronary CTA without the additional administration of a beta-blocker. Affecting factors for SR were analyzed in age, gender, body weight (BW), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary arterial disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF), systolic and diastolic body pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) during coronary CTA. Results: In 29 (7.4%) of the 391 patients, SR was needed, but there was no apparent characteristic difference between the systolic and diastolic reconstruction groups in terms of gender, age, BW, DM, CAD and EF. In a multivariate analysis, the co-existence of DM [P < 0.05; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.092-0.80], diastolic BP [P < 0.01; OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98] and HRV [P < 0.01; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99] were found to be the factors for SR. In gender-related analysis, HRV was an important factor regardless of sex, but co-existence of DM affected especially for female and BP for male. Conclusion: Especially in the patients with LHR who had a medication of DM, high HRV or high BP, SR, in addition to DR, was needed to obtain high-quality coronary CTA images.

  5. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

    OpenAIRE

    Samoyavcheva S.V.; Shkarin Vl.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH) with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years). ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified int...

  6. Management of initial orthostatic hypotension: lower body muscle tensing attenuates the transient arterial blood pressure decrease upon standing from squatting

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Schön, Ingeborg K.; Kim, Yu-Sok; Linzer, Mark; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Wieling, Wouter; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH) comprises symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion caused by an abnormally large transient mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decrease 5-15 s after arising from a supine, sitting or squatting position. Few treatment options are available. We set out to test the hypothesis that lower body muscle tensing (LBMT) attenuates IOH after rising from squatting and its symptoms in daily life. Thirteen IOH patients (9 males, 27 years) rose twice from s...

  7. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure and brain natriuretic peptide in high altitude pulmonary edema susceptible non-mountaineers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajinder K. Gupta; Himashree, G.; Krishan Singh; Poonam Soree; Koundinya Desiraju; Anurag Agrawal; Dishari Ghosh; Deepak Dass; Prassana K. Reddy; Usha Panjwani; Shashi Bala Singh

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia is a pathgonomic feature observed in high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) susceptible mountaineers. It was investigated whether measurement of basal pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) could improve identification of HAPE susceptible subjects in a non-mountaineer population. We studied BNP levels, baseline hemodynamics and the response to hypoxia (FIo2 = 0.12 for 30 min duration at sea level) in 11 HAPE resistan...

  8. Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct (PPCI) trial - the importance of mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent cerebral complications after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;

    2016-01-01

    coronary vessel and/or valve disease and who are undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients are stratified by age and surgical procedure and are randomised 1:1 to either an increased mean arterial pressure (70-80 mmHg) or 'usual practice' (40-50 mmHg) during cardiopulmonary...... caused by emboli, but inadequate blood flow caused by other mechanisms may increase ischaemia in the penumbra or cause watershed infarcts. During cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure can be below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation. Although much debated, the constant blood flow provided by the...... cardiopulmonary bypass system is still considered by many as appropriate to avoid cerebral ischaemia despite the low blood pressure. METHODS/DESIGN: The Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct trial is a single-centre superiority trial with a blinded outcome assessment. The trial is randomising 210 patients with...

  9. Pressão arterial elevada em escolares de Santos: relação com a obesidade High arterial pressure in school children in Santos: relationship to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Koch Nogueira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O crescimento na prevalência da obesidade aumentou a freqüência de pressão elevada em crianças. O objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar a relação da pressão arterial com a obesidade em escolares do município de Santos. MÉTODOS: Realizamos estudo transversal em duas etapas, sendo uma fase de triagem, envolvendo avaliação antropométrica e medida de pressão em 7.440 crianças (9,0 ± 1,1 anos, 3.891 ou 52% de meninas. Uma amostra de 1.713 indivíduos (9,7 ± 1,1 anos, 826 ou 48% de meninas dentre os que, na triagem, apresentaram a pressão arterial em nível igual ou superior ao percentil 90 foi revisitada um ano mais tarde e novas medidas foram realizadas. Nas duas fases do estudo, consideramos pressão elevada os valores iguais ou maiores que o percentil 95 de pressão para o sexo e a estatura. RESULTADOS: Na triagem 1.123/7.440 (15% crianças apresentaram pressão elevada; crianças obesas apresentaram pressão elevada mais freqüentemente (OR = 3,7 95% IC=3,2 a 4,3. Na segunda fase, 43/1.713 (2,7% apresentaram pressão elevada e novamente a presença de obesidade conferiu maior risco para pressão elevada (OR=1,5 95% IC=1,2 a 1,8. Além disso, observamos aumento da PA sistólica de acordo com a massa corporal na totalidade dos intervalos de IMC estudados e não apenas após a instalação da obesidade. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso estudo reforça os dados que sugerem aumento no risco de pressão elevada em crianças obesas. Para a pressão sistólica, o incremento de pressão parece ser cumulativo de acordo com o aumento do IMC, mesmo em crianças não obesas.OBJECTIVE: The escalating prevalence of obesity has led to an increase in the blood pressure of children and adolescents. This works aims to assess the relation between blood pressure and obesity in school children of Santos. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in two phases. In a first screening we measured blood pressure and performed anthropometric evaluation

  10. Physiological Responses Associated with Nordic-Walking Training in Systolic Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latosik Ewelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of physical strength and hypertension are among the most pronounced detrimental factors accompanying aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a supervised 8-week Nordic-walking training program on systolic blood pressure in systolic-hypertensive postmenopausal women. This study was a randomized control trial on a sample of 24 subjects who did not take any hypertension medications. There was a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in lower and upper-body strength in the group following Nordic-walking training. There was a decrease in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. The obtained results indicate that an 8-week Nordic-walking program may be efficiently employed for counteracting systolic hypertension through a direct abatement of systolic blood pressure and an increase of maximal aerobic capacity.

  11. A lumped-parameter model to investigate the effect of plantar pressure on arterial blood flow in a diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C; Mahajan, A; Chu, T; Schoen, M

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model for the big-toe region that investigates the effect of plantar pressure on the diameter of the blood vessels, specifically the arteries, in the presence of arterial and/or tissue changes. The model developed in this paper uses a multi-domain energy system approach to develop the lumped-parameter differential equations. Blood flow is modelled as fluidic flow through compliant pipes that have inertia, stiffness, and damping. The tissue material is treated as a soft compliant material that transmits the external force to the blood vessels. Conclusions have been drawn to show the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and their combination on the diameter of the blood vessels. The principles used here can be used to model the entire foot and the model used to investigate the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and arterial changes on different parts of the foot. The work presented here may also have applications in other vascular diseases. PMID:17937206

  12. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.;

    2008-01-01

    patients (52.3%), who were older and had higher body mass index and heart rate (all P < 0.01) but similar systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in comparison with patients with normal left atrial systolic force. After controlling for confounders, increased left atrial systolic force was associated with......In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...

  13. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-ba...

  14. Aortic pressure wave reconstruction during exercise is improved by adaptive filtering: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, W.J.; Westerhof, B E; Guelen, I.; Karemaker, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of central aortic pressure from a peripheral measurement by a generalized transfer function (genTF) works well at rest and mild exercise at lower heart rates, but becomes less accurate during heavy exercise. Particularly, systolic and pulse pressure estimations deteriorate, thereby underestimating central pressure. We tested individualization of the TF (indTF) by adapting its resonance frequency at the various levels of exercise. In seven males (age 44–57) with coronary artery ...

  15. Low-pressure balloon angioplasty with adjuvant pharmacological therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by intracranial arterial occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Raul G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care and Vascular Neurology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Schwamm, Lee H.; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Koroshetz, Walter J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Neurocritical Care and Vascular Neurology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Yoo, Albert J.; Rabinov, James D.; Pryor, Johnny C.; Hirsch, Joshua A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Endovascular Neurosurgery/Interventional Neuroradiology Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The use of coronary balloons in the cerebral vasculature is limited due to their poor trackability and increased risk of vessel injury. We report our experience using more compliant elastomer balloons for thrombus resistant to intraarterial (IA) pharmacological and mechanical thrombolysis in acute stroke. We retrospectively analyzed 12 consecutive patients with an occluded intracranial artery treated with angioplasty using a low-pressure elastomer balloon. Angiograms were graded according to the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) and Qureshi grading systems. Outcomes were categorized as independent (modified Rankin scale, mRS, score {<=}2), dependent (mRS score 3-5), or dead (mRS score 6). Included in the study were 12 patients (mean age 66{+-}17 years, range 31-88 years; mean baseline National Institutes of Health stroke scale score 17{+-}3, range 12-23). The occlusion sites were: internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus (five patients, including two concomitant cervical ICA occlusions), M1 segment (two patients), and basilar artery (two patients). Pharmacological treatment included intravenous (IV) t-PA only (two patients), IA urokinase only (nine patients), both IV t-PA and IA urokinase (one patient), and IV and/or IA eptifibatide (eight patients). Mean time to treatment was 5.9{+-}3.9 h (anterior circulation) and 11.0{+-}7.2 h (posterior circulation). Overall recanalization rate (TICI grade 2/3) was 91.6%. Procedure-related morbidity occurred in one patient (distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery embolus). There were no symptomatic hemorrhages. Outcomes at 90 days were independent (five patients), dependent (three patients) and dead (four patients, all due to progression of stroke with withdrawal of care). Angioplasty of acutely occluded intracranial arteries with low-pressure elastomer balloons results in high recanalization rates with an acceptable degree of safety. Prior use of thrombolytics may increase the chances of recanalization, and

  16. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  17. PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN THE LEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a condition characterized by atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the lower extremities. While PAD is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation, it is also accompanied by a high likelihood for symptomatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for more than 90% of cases of PAD, and uncommon vascular syndromes account for the remaining 10%. The femoral and popliteal arteries are affected in 80% to 90% of symptomatic PAD patients, the tibial and peroneal arteries in 40% to 50%, and the aortoiliac arteries in 30%.Although 65–75% of patients with PAD are asymptomatic, the classic presenting symptom is usually described as muscle cramps, fatigue or pain in the lower legs induced by exercise and rapidly relieved by rest; often the symptom location indicates the level of arterial involvement. RISK FACTORS: Diabetes and smoking are the strongest risk factors for PAD. Other well-known risk factors are advanced age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. DIAGNOSIS: PAD can be easily and accurately diagnosed by calculating the ankle-brachial index (ABI.The ABI is defined as the ratio of the systolic blood pressure in the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure at the arm. The tools required to perform the ABI measurement include a hand-held 5–10 MHz Doppler probe and a blood pressure cuff. MANAGEMENT: Most patients' symptoms improve with optimal medical treatment and invasive intervention is often not required. Smoking cessation and exercise are considered the two most important treatments for PAD. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic PAD often impairs a patient's quality of life and untreated disease can lead to limb loss. Aggressive management of atherosclerotic risk factors, a structured exercise program, use of antiplatelet agents and when indicated percutaneous or surgical revascularizations are the keys for successful management.

  18. Effects of hypocretin and norepinephrine interaction in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, J; Caverson, M M; Li, Z

    2013-01-01

    Forebrain neuronal circuits containing hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) and norepinephrine (NE) are important components of central arousal-related processes. Recently, these two systems have been shown to have an overlapping distribution within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), a limbic structure activated by stressful challenges, and which functions to adjust arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) to the stressor. However, whether hcrt-1 and NE interact in BST to alter cardiovascular function is unknown. Experiments were done in urethane-α-chloralose anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats to investigate the effect of hcrt-1 and NE on the cardiovascular responses elicited by l-glutamate (Glu) stimulation of BST neurons. Microinjections of hcrt-1, NE or tyramine into BST attenuated the decrease in AP and HR to Glu stimulation of BST. Additionally, combined injections of hcrt-1 with NE or tyramine did not elicit a greater attenuation than either compound alone. Furthermore, injections into BST of the α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) antagonist yohimbine, but not the α1-AR antagonist 2-{[β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]aminomethyl}-1-tetralone hydrochloride, blocked both the hcrt-1 and NE-induced inhibition of the BST cardiovascular depressors responses. Finally, injections into BST of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, but not the GABAB receptor antagonist phaclofen, blocked the hcrt-1 and NE attenuation of the BST Glu-induced depressor and bradycardia responses. These data suggest that hcrt-1 effects in BST are mediated by NE neurons, and hcrt-1 likely acts to facilitate the synaptic release of NE. NE neurons, acting through α2-AR may activate Gabaergic neurons in BST, which in turn through the activation of GABAA receptors inhibit a BST sympathoinhibitory pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that hcrt-1 pathways to BST through their interaction with NE and Gabaergic neurons may function in the coordination of

  19. Serum VEGF levels are related to the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakkas Lazaros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between systemic sclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is well recognized. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been reported to play an important role in pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between systolic pulmonary artery pressure, clinical and functional manifestations of the disease and serum VEGF levels in systemic sclerosis. Methods Serum VEGF levels were measured in 40 patients with systemic sclerosis and 13 control subjects. All patients underwent clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and echocardiography. Results Serum VEGF levels were higher in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg than in those with sPAP LCO were independent predictors of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusion Serum VEGF levels are increased in systemic sclerosis patients with sPAP ≥ 35 mmHg. The correlation between VEGF levels and systolic pulmonary artery pressure may suggest a possible role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PAH in systemic sclerosis.

  20. 正常高值血压者的中心动脉压对动脉弹性功能的影响%The changes of central blood pressure and artery elasticity in individuals with high-normal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华伟; 金丹丹; 汪世军; 吴小庆; 耿伯春; 唐关敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes of central blood pressure and artery elasticity in individuals with high- normal blood pressure (HNBP). Methods A total of 138 subjects underwent health examination were divided into ideal blood pressure group (n=72) and HNBP group (n=66) according to blood pressure. The central systolic blood pressures (CSBP) was measured indirectly by Ormon- Colin non- invasive radial artery pulse wave measurement device, and carotid- femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured by Complior device. Regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between CSBP and cfPWV. Results CSBP and cfPWV were significantly higher in HNBP group than in ideal blood pressure group (P<0.01). CSBP was positively related to cfPWV (r=0.53, P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that CSBP was the risk factor for cfPWV (β=0.449, P<0.01). Conclusion Central blood pressure increases with decrease of artery elasticity in individuals with normal- high blood pressure.%目的探讨正常高值血压者中心动脉压与动脉弹性的变化。方法选取在医院体检中心行健康体检者138例,根据血压分为理想血压组72例和正常高值血压组66例,采用Ormon- Colin公司的无创桡动脉脉波检测装置测量中心动脉收缩压(CSBP),应用Complior脉搏波速度测定仪测量颈股脉搏波传导速度(cfPWV)。采用回归分析方法比较CSBP与cfPWV的变化及两者的相关性。结果正常高值血压组中心动脉压和cfPWV均高于理想血压组(均P<0.05)。中心动脉压与cfPWV呈正相关(r=0.53,P<0.01)。逐步回归分析显示中心动脉压是cfPWV的主要影响因素(β=0.449,P<0.01)。结论正常高值血压者中心动脉压增高,动脉弹性下降。

  1. Galectin-3: A Link between Myocardial and Arterial Stiffening in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ioan Lala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Heart failure is accompanied by abnormalities in ventricular-vascular interaction due to increased myocardial and arterial stiffness. Galectin-3 is a recently discovered biomarker that plays an important role in myocardial and vascular fibrosis and heart failure progression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether galectin-3 is correlated with arterial stiffening markers and impaired ventricular-arterial coupling in decompensated heart failure patients. Methods: A total of 79 inpatients with acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated. Serum galectin-3 was determined at baseline, and during admission, transthoracic echocardiography and measurements of vascular indices by Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Results: Elevated pulse wave velocity and low arterial carotid distensibility are associated with heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction (p = 0.04, p = 0.009. Pulse wave velocity, carotid distensibility and Young’s modulus did not correlate with serum galectin-3 levels. Conversely, raised galectin-3 levels correlated with an increased ventricular-arterial coupling ratio (Ea/Elv p = 0.047, OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.0‑3.6. Increased galectin-3 levels were associated with lower rates of left ventricular pressure rise in early systole (dp/dt (p=0.018 and raised pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.046. High galectin-3 levels (p = 0.038, HR = 3.07 and arterial pulmonary pressure (p = 0.007, HR = 1.06 were found to be independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and readmissions. Conclusions: This study showed no significant correlation between serum galectin-3 levels and arterial stiffening markers. Instead, high galectin-3 levels predicted impaired ventricular-arterial coupling. Galectin-3 may be predictive of raised pulmonary artery pressures. Elevated galectin-3 levels correlate with severe systolic dysfunction and together with pulmonary hypertension are independent markers of

  2. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  3. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  4. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury. PMID:27604741

  5. Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, and reduced the medial thickness of pulmonary arteries. MMF significantly inhibited the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, infiltration of macrophages, and expression of P-selectin and interleukin-6 on the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. The infiltration of T cells and mast cells was not affected by MMF. In vitro experiments revealed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active metabolite of MMF, dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary arterial SMCs. MMF attenuated the development of PAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These findings provide new insight into the potential role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of PAH

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial ...

  7. The Effects of Arterial Blood Pressure Reduction on Endocan and Soluble Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs and CAMs Ligands Expression in Hypertensive Patients on Ca-Channel Blocker Therapy