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Sample records for arterial oxygen desaturation

  1. A model analysis of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in preterm infants.

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    Scott A Sands

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid arterial O(2 desaturation during apnea in the preterm infant has obvious clinical implications but to date no adequate explanation for why it exists. Understanding the factors influencing the rate of arterial O(2 desaturation during apnea (Sa(O₂ is complicated by the non-linear O(2 dissociation curve, falling pulmonary O(2 uptake, and by the fact that O(2 desaturation is biphasic, exhibiting a rapid phase (stage 1 followed by a slower phase when severe desaturation develops (stage 2. Using a mathematical model incorporating pulmonary uptake dynamics, we found that elevated metabolic O(2 consumption accelerates Sa(O₂throughout the entire desaturation process. By contrast, the remaining factors have a restricted temporal influence: low pre-apneic alveolar P(O₂causes an early onset of desaturation, but thereafter has little impact; reduced lung volume, hemoglobin content or cardiac output, accelerates Sa(O₂during stage 1, and finally, total blood O(2 capacity (blood volume and hemoglobin content alone determines Sa(O₂during stage 2. Preterm infants with elevated metabolic rate, respiratory depression, low lung volume, impaired cardiac reserve, anemia, or hypovolemia, are at risk for rapid and profound apneic hypoxemia. Our insights provide a basic physiological framework that may guide clinical interpretation and design of interventions for preventing sudden apneic hypoxemia.

  2. Episodic arterial oxygen desaturation and heart rate variations following major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored continuously during the night 2 days before operation and during the first and second nights after operation (23:00 to 07:30). Mean heart rate increased by 16 beat min-1 (P less th...

  3. Sidestream Capnographic Monitoring Reduces the Incidence of Arterial Oxygen Desaturation During Propofol Ambulatory Anesthesia for Surgical Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Zongming, Jiang; Zhonghua, Chen; Xiangming, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether early intervention based on additional use of sidestream capnography could reduce the incidence of oxygen desaturation and hypoxic events in patients receiving propofol anesthesia during surgical abortion. Material/Methods We recruited 704 ASAI-III female patients, 18–52 years old and scheduled for planned painless surgical abortion, and randomized them into a control group (n=359) receiving standard monitoring and an experimental group (n=341) recei...

  4. Arterial desaturation due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after the Kawashima Operation

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    Rohit S Loomba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial desaturation may occur after the Kawashima procedure and, in the absence of venovenous collaterals is usually due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Stenting of the pulmonary arteries, oxygen therapy, and pulmonary vasodilators such as sildenafil have not been able to resolve the arterial desaturation and the only way to do this has been Fontan completion. The time course of the formation of these malformations after the Kawashima and the progression of cyanosis and its resolution after the Fontan has only been demonstrated in case reports and small case series. We pool the available data to model arterial saturations in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after the Kawashima procedure.

  5. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten;

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  6. Oxygen desaturation in 6-min walk test is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in COPD.

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    Waatevik, Marie; Johannessen, Ane; Gomez Real, Francisco; Aanerud, Marianne; Hardie, Jon Andrew; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Lind Eagan, Tomas Mikal

    2016-07-01

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is an exercise test that measures functional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and provides information on oxygen desaturation. We investigated oxygen desaturation during 6MWT as a risk factor for important COPD outcomes: mortality, frequency of exacerbations, decline in lung function and decline in lean body mass.433 COPD patients were included in the Bergen COPD Cohort Study 2006-2009, and followed-up for 3 years. Patients were characterised using spirometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, Charlson comorbidity score, exacerbation history, smoking and arterial blood gases. 370 patients completed the 6MWT at the baseline of the study. Information on all-cause mortality was collected in 2011.Patients who experienced oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT had an approximately twofold increased risk of death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), a 50% increased risk for experiencing later COPD exacerbations (incidence rate ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), double the yearly rate of decline in both forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (3.2% and 1.7% versus 1.7% and 0.9%, respectively) and manifold increased yearly rate of loss of lean body mass (0.18 kg·m(-2) versus 0.03 kg·m(-2) among those who did not desaturate).Desaturating COPD patients had a significantly worse prognosis than non-desaturating COPD patients, for multiple important disease outcomes. PMID:27076586

  7. Effect of concurrent oxygen therapy on accuracy of forecasting imminent postoperative desaturation.

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    ElMoaqet, Hisham; Tilbury, Dawn M; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna

    2015-08-01

    Episodic postoperative desaturation occurs predominantly from respiratory depression or airway obstruction. Monitor display of desaturation is typically delayed by over 30 s after these dynamic inciting events, due to perfusion delays, signal capture and averaging. Prediction of imminent critical desaturation could aid development of dynamic high-fidelity response systems that reduce or prevent the inciting event from occurring. Oxygen therapy is known to influence the depth and duration of desaturation epochs, thereby potentially influencing the accuracy of forecasting of desaturation. In this study, postoperative pulse oximetry data were retrospectively modeled using autoregressive methods to create prediction models for [Formula: see text] and imminent critical desaturation in the postoperative period. The accuracy of these models in predicting near future [Formula: see text] values was tested using root mean square error. The model accuracy for prediction of critical desaturation ([Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]) was evaluated using meta-analytical methods (sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratios and area under summary receiver operating characteristic curves). Between-study heterogeneity was used as a measure of reliability of the model across different patients and evaluated using the tau-squared statistic. Model performance was evaluated in [Formula: see text] patients who received postoperative oxygen supplementation and [Formula: see text] patients who did not receive oxygen. Our results show that model accuracy was high with root mean square errors between 0.2 and 2.8%. Prediction accuracy as defined by area under the curve for critical desaturation events was observed to be greater in patients receiving oxygen in the 60-s horizon ([Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]). This was likely related to the higher frequency of events in this group (median [IQR] [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]) than patients who

  8. Incidence and risk factors for oxygen desaturation during recovery from modified electroconvulsive therapy: A prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Surve, Rohini; Bansal, Sonia; Sriganesh, Kamath; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapur Kumaraswamy; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Umamaheswara Rao, Ganne Sesha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an established modality of treatment for severe psychiatric illnesses. Among the various complications associated with ECT, oxygen desaturation is often under reported. None of the previous studies has evaluated the predictive factors for oxygen desaturation during ECT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of oxygen desaturation during recovery from anesthesia for modified ECT and evaluate its risk factors in a large...

  9. CT scores of emphysema and oxygen desaturation during low-grade exercise in patients with emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated the usefulness of CT for assessing oxygen desaturation during walking in patients with emphysema. Material and methods: The study comprised 32 patients with emphysema (mean age 67±6 years). Serial CT images of 5 mm were obtained from the apex to the basal regions of the lung during deep inspiration. The severity of emphysema was scored by four physicians according to a visual method. A six-minute walking test and oxygen desaturation (pSO2) measurements were performed. Results and conclusion: The mean CT score of the four observers was significantly correlated with the nadir pSO2 and deltapSO2, but did not correlate with the total distance walked. These results suggest that CT may be used for the assessment of oxygen desaturation during low-grade exercise in patients with emphysema

  10. Long Oxygen Desaturation Time is a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome

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    Erdem Akbal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess metabolic syndrome (MS prevalence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and to evaluate the relationship between sleep parameters and MS incidence.Materials and Methods: Included in this study were 101 patients with complaints of snoring, witnessed apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, and no prior OSAS diagnosis. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI score ≥5 was required for the diagnosis of OSAS. The patient group included 80 cases, and the control group (AHI <5 included 21 cases. MS diagnosis was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III.Results: MS was diagnosed in 33.3% of controls (7/21 and in 66.3% of OSAS patients (53/80 (p=0.006. The MS frequency was 51.7% (15/29 in mild OSAS (AHI 5-14, 77.8% (14/18 in moderate OSAS (AHI 15-29.9, and 72.7% (24/33 in severe OSAS (AHI ≥30. In patients with oxygen desaturation time (ODT <5.75 minutes, the MS frequency was 38.9%, while it was 74.2% in patients with ODT ≥5.75 minutes (p=0.005. In the logistic regression analysis with multiple variables (including AHI ≥5, body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2, age and ODT ≥5.75, it was determined that ODT, age and BMI increase the risk of MS independent of other risk factors.Conclusions: We found that ODT, age and BMI, which are independent of other risk factors, are determinants of MS in patients with OSAS. Additionally, the time of hypoxia, which is independent of AHI, also increases the risk of MS. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 63-7

  11. Effect of oxygen on tachycardia and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Christensen, M; Schulze, S;

    1999-01-01

    through nasal prongs (2 L/min), and 20 patients breathed room air during colonoscopy. All patients were given conscious sedation and were monitored with a pulse oximeter during colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tachycardia (pulse rate>100 min(-1)) and arterial oxygen desaturation (SpO2...OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of supplementary oxygen on heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy. DESIGN: Controlled study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 40 patients having colonoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: 20 patients were given supplementary oxygen...... colonoscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences in the incidence of tachycardia or mean heart rate during endoscopy between the two groups, and no patient developed symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias or hypotensive episodes. 10 patients in the room air compared with none in the oxygen treatment group (p = 0...

  12. Comparison of six-minute walking tests conducted with and without supplemental oxygen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are contradictory reports in the literature on the supplemental oxygen administered before or after exercise tests. In light of this, we compared the results of 6-minute walking tests performed in room-air conditions (A6MWT) in patients with supplemental oxygen (O6MWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. Thirty-one patients with COPD were included in the study. The A6MWT and O6MWT were performed in randomized order on each patient. During the tests, severity dyspenia and tiring of the leg were evaluated by the Modified Borg Scale. Heart rate and pulsed oxygen saturation and blood pressure were measured by pulse oximeter. Walking distance was longer with the O6MWT than with the A6MWT (P=0.001). The O6MWT resulted in a smaller increase in dyspnea, leg fatigue and heart rate and a smaller drop in pulsed saturation than the A6MWT (P<0.05). The walking distance with O6MWT correlated with respiratory function and hemodynamic parameters (P<0.05). The O6MWT, which produced less hemodynamic stress and was safer than the A6MWT, might provide more accurate information on exercise limitations for patients with COPD. These results suggest that the O6MWT can be used as a standard walking exercise test for patients with COPd and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation. (author)

  13. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, V S; Ekong, T; Cox, S E; Makani, J; Newton, C R; Soka, D; Komba, A; Kirkham, F J; Hill, C M

    2016-04-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); pnight-time SpO2 compared with rural Kenyan children with SCA. Possible explanations include differences in the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea or asthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa. PMID:26699539

  14. Oxygen desaturation during night sleep affects decision-making in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Högl, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed decision-making and its associations with executive functions and sleep-related factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Thirty patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea and 20 healthy age- and education-matched controls performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a decision-making task under initial ambiguity, as well as an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Patients, but not controls, also underwent a detailed polysomnographic assessment. Results of group analyses showed that patients performed at the same level of controls on the Iowa Gambling Task. However, the proportion of risky performers was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. Decision-making did not correlate with executive functions and subjective ratings of sleepiness, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between advantageous performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and percentage of N2 sleep, minimal oxygen saturation, average oxygen saturation and time spent below 90% oxygen saturation level. Also, the minimal oxygen saturation accounted for 27% of variance in decision-making. In conclusion, this study shows that a subgroup of patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at risk of disadvantageous decision-making under ambiguity. Among the sleep-related factors, oxygen saturation is a significant predictor of advantageous decision-making. PMID:26899164

  15. Oxygen induces fatty acid (n-6)-desaturation independently of temperature in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

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    Thomas, K; Rutter, A; Suller, M; Harwood, J; Lloyd, D

    1998-03-20

    Induction of a microsomal oleate delta12 (n-6) desaturase which is mainly responsible for an increase in membrane lipid unsaturation at low temperature has been observed in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. In this study we show that the enzyme can also be regulated by oxygen independently of temperature in batch cultures grown to O2-limitation. Raising the oxygen concentration from below the lower limit of detection (< 0.1 microM) to approximately air-saturation (230 microM), whilst maintaining the growth temperature constant (30 degrees C), increased lipid unsaturation and elevated n-6-desaturase activity 2.3-fold. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, showed that increased desaturase activity was due to new protein synthesis rather than activation of pre-existing enzyme. These observations are important for future studies of the mechanism of temperature adaptation in poikilotherms. PMID:9541030

  16. Oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in COPD patients

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    Maria Ângela Fontoura Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the behavior of oxygen saturation curves throughout the six-minute walk test (6MWT in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 85 patients, all of whom underwent spirometry and were classified as having moderate COPD (modCOPD, n = 30 or severe COPD (sevCOPD, n = 55. All of the patients performed a 6MWT, in a 27-m corridor with continuous SpO2 and HR monitoring by telemetry. We studied the SpO2 curves in order to determine the time to a 4% decrease in SpO2, the time to the minimum SpO2 (Tmin, and the post-6MWT time to return to the initial SpO2, the last designated recovery time (RT. For each of those curves, we calculated the slope. Results: The mean age in the modCOPD and sevCOPD groups was 66 ± 10 years and 62 ± 11 years, respectively. At baseline, SpO2 was > 94% in all of the patients; none received supplemental oxygen during the 6MWT; and none of the tests were interrupted. The six-minute walk distance did not differ significantly between the groups. The SpO2 values were lowest in the sevCOPD group. There was no difference between the groups regarding RT. In 71% and 63% of the sevCOPD and modCOPD group patients, respectively, a ≥ 4% decrease in SpO2 occurred within the first minute. We found that FEV1% correlated significantly with the ΔSpO2 (r = −0.398; p < 0.001, Tmin (r = −0.449; p < 0.001, and minimum SpO2 (r = 0.356; p < 0.005. Conclusions: In the sevCOPD group, in comparison with the modCOPD group, SpO2 was lower and the Tmin was greater, suggesting a worse prognosis in the former.

  17. Retinal Artery Occlusion Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen

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    Harun Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal artery occlusion is one of the vision-threating emergency situations in ophthalmology. In this paper, a case of retinal artery occlusion is presented. Fifty seven year- old female patient presented with a sudden onset visual loss in her left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA levels were 1.0 and 0.7 in the right and left eye, respectiveley. Dilated fundus examination revealed no pathological finding in the right eye. Whereas calcified plaque was seen in upper arquat artery bifurcation in the left eye. Pallorness with retinal edema was seen in this arterial trace. Retinal artery occlusion was diagnosed and patient was referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. After a total of 20 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the calcified plaques disappeared and her BCVA increased to 20/20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is vision-saving method which should be considered in retinal artery occlusion.

  18. Oxygen transfer in human carotid artery bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.G.Zhang; Y.B.Fan; X.Y.Deng

    2007-01-01

    Arterial bifurcations are places where blood flow may be disturbed and slow recirculation flow may occur.To reveal the correlation between local oxygen transfer and atherogenesis, a finite element method was employed to simulate the blood flow and the oxygen transfer in the human carotid artery bifurcation. Under steady-state flow conditions, the numerical simulation demonstrated a variation in local oxygen transfer at the bifurcation, showing that the convective condition in the disturbed flow region may produce uneven local oxygen transfer at the blood/wall interface.The disturbed blood flow with formation of slow eddies in the carotid sinus resulted in a depression in oxygen supply to the arterial wall at the entry of the sinus, which in turn may lead to an atherogenic response of the arterial wall, and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic stenosis there.

  19. Capillary saturation and desaturation.

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    Hilfer, R; Armstrong, R T; Berg, S; Georgiadis, A; Ott, H

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment. PMID:26764820

  20. Capillary saturation and desaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfer, R.; Armstrong, R. T.; Berg, S.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.

    2015-12-01

    Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau saturation in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting saturation defined through the saturation limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.

  1. Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Joakim; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model. Methods Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventila...

  2. Does Prior Training Affect Acute O2 Supply Responses During Exercise in Desaturator COPD Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Delample, Delphine; Sabate, Meritxell; Préfaut, Christian; Durand, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effects of a prior individualized training program (TP) on the response to acute oxygen supply during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients showing exercise-induced desaturation. Methods: Twenty-two COPD patients (mean [SD] FEV1 = 52.1 [3]% predicted) who desaturated on exercise participated in a TP. Exercise tolerance while breathing compressed air or oxygen was assessed using a walking test (WT) before and after TP. Oxygen ...

  3. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

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    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  4. Guided desaturation of unactivated aliphatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, Ana-Florina; Mendoza, Abraham; Gutekunst, Will R.; Fraga, Jorge Otero; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-08-01

    The excision of hydrogen from an aliphatic carbon chain to produce an isolated olefin (desaturation) without overoxidation is one of the most impressive and powerful biosynthetic transformations for which there are no simple and mild laboratory substitutes. The versatility of olefins and the range of reactions they undergo are unsurpassed in functional group space. Thus, the conversion of a relatively inert aliphatic system into its unsaturated counterpart could open new possibilities in retrosynthesis. In this article, the invention of a directing group to achieve such a transformation under mild, operationally simple, metal-free conditions is outlined. This ‘portable desaturase’ (TzoCl) is a bench-stable, commercial entity (Aldrich, catalogue number L510092) that is facile to install on alcohol and amine functionalities to ultimately effect remote desaturation, while leaving behind a synthetically useful tosyl group.

  5. Poincaré analysis of an overnight arterial oxygen saturation signal applied to the diagnosis of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of oxygen desaturations is a basic variable in polysomnographic studies for the diagnosis of sleep apnea. Several algorithms operating in the time domain already exist for sleep apnea detection via pulse oximetry, but in a disadvantageous way—they achieve either a high sensitivity or a high specificity. The aim of this study was to assess whether an alternative analysis of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) signals from overnight pulse oximetry could yield essential information on the diagnosis of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). SaO2 signals from 117 subjects were analyzed. The population was divided into a learning dataset (70 patients) and a test set (47 patients). The learning set was used for tuning thresholds among the applied Poincaré quantitative descriptors. Results showed that the presence of apnea events in SAHS patients caused an increase in the SD1 Poincaré parameter. This conclusion was assessed prospectively using the test dataset. 90.9% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity were obtained in the test group. We conclude that Poincaré analysis could be useful in the study of SAHS, contributing to reduce the demand for polysomnographic studies in SAHS screening

  6. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    L'Esperance, V.S.; Ekong, T.; Cox, S E; Makani, J.; Newton, C R; Soka, D.; Komba, A.; Kirkham, F. J.; Hill, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); p

  7. Deoxygenation Reduces Sickle Cell Blood Flow at Arterial Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinran; Wood, David K; Higgins, John M

    2016-06-21

    The majority of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease is caused by vaso-occlusion: circulatory obstruction leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. The consequences of vaso-occlusion are seen clinically throughout the vascular tree, from the relatively high-oxygen and high-velocity cerebral arteries to the relatively low-oxygen and low-velocity postcapillary venules. Prevailing models of vaso-occlusion propose mechanisms that are relevant only to regions of low oxygen and low velocity, leaving a wide gap in our understanding of the most important pathologic process in sickle cell disease. Progress toward understanding vaso-occlusion is further challenged by the complexity of the multiple processes thought to be involved, including, but not limited to 1) deoxygenation-dependent hemoglobin polymerization leading to impaired rheology, 2) endothelial and leukocyte activation, and 3) altered cellular adhesion. Here, we chose to focus exclusively on deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes in an effort to quantify their contribution independent of the other processes that are likely involved in vivo. We take advantage of an experimental system that, to our knowledge, uniquely enables the study of pressure-driven blood flow in physiologic-sized tubes at physiologic hematocrit under controlled oxygenation conditions, while excluding the effects of endothelium, leukocyte activation, adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation. We find that deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes are sufficient to increase apparent viscosity significantly, slowing blood flow velocity at arterial oxygen tension even without additional contributions from inflammation, adhesion, and endothelial and leukocyte activation. We quantify the changes in apparent viscosity and define a set of functional regimes of sickle cell blood flow personalized for each patient that may be important in further dissecting mechanisms of in vivo vaso-occlusion as well as in assessing risk of patient

  8. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua.

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    Kiyamu, Melisa; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-06-01

    Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138-146, 2015.--Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao(2), we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18-35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio(2)=0.12), in order to measure Sao(2) (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo(2), L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO(2) (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao(2) (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao(2) (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao(2) levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao(2) levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  9. Clinical Evaluation of the Sorin Synthesis™ Oxygenator With Integrated Arterial Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Gerard J.; Gardiner, Ken; Ditmore, Steve N.; Swyer, Wilfred J.; Squires, Chris; Johnstone, David R.; Power, Clarie V.; Mitchell, Lance B.; Ditmore, Jan E.; Cook, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The use of arterial line filters has long been a standard of practice in the field of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sorin Biomedica has designed an adult hollow-fiber oxygenator that not only incorporates their Mimesys® biomimicry coating technology but also has a 40-micron arterial filter as an integrated component of this unique membrane oxygenator. We did a prospective, randomized clinical trial of 54 Synthesis® coated oxygenators and compared them with 54 uncoated Monolyth Pro® oxygenators, the...

  10. The Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids on Alveolar-Arterial Oxygen Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Synthetic cannabinoids are chemicals that produce several marijuana-like effects in humans. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on to alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Material and Method: A total of 112 patients, who admitted directly to emergency clinic with synthetic cannabinoid usage, were determined between February 2014 and August 2014. Blood gases of 41 patients were determined as arterial blood gases on room air, and included in to study. Patients were evaluated according to age, sex, decade, partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, bicarbonate, metabolic status, age consistent expected alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Results: Synthetic cannabinoid using was higher in males, mean age of patients was 23.32±6.14 years. Number of patients in the third decade were significantly higher than the other decades. The calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient value of patients was significantly higher than age consistent expected alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient value. Respiratory acidosis, was significantly higher than the other types of the metabolic disorders. The best cutoff point for calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was 12.70, with sensitivity of 90% and specifity of 85%. Area under curve was 0.70 for calculated alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Discussion: The value of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient has been increased due to synthetic cannabinoid usage. This can be used as a supportive parameter in the diagnosis of synthetic cannabinoid usage.

  11. Effect of Incentive Spirometry on Oxygenation in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    H Dehghani; MH Zahmatkesh; MH Abdullahi; A Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arterial hypoxemia is one of the main pulmonary complications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, several proceedings have been recommended to reduce the complications, and to improve arterial hypoxemia as well as arterial blood gas parameters such as incentive spirometry. This study intended to investigate the effect of incentive spirometry on patients´ oxygenation. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, a sample size of 70 patients undergoing corona...

  12. Robust classification of neonatal apnoea-related desaturations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory signals monitored in the neonatal intensive care units are usually ignored due to the high prevalence of noise and false alarms (FA). Apneic events are generally therefore indicated by a pulse oximeter alarm reacting to the subsequent desaturation. However, the high FA rate in the photoplethysmogram may desensitize staff, reducing the reaction speed. The main reason for the high FA rates of critical care monitors is the unimodal analysis behaviour. In this work, we propose a multimodal analysis framework to reduce the FA rate in neonatal apnoea monitoring. Information about oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate and signal quality was extracted from electrocardiogram, impedance pneumogram and photoplethysmographic signals for a total of 20 features in the 5 min interval before a desaturation event. 1616 desaturation events from 27 neonatal admissions were annotated by two independent reviewers as true (physiologically relevant) or false (noise-related). Patients were divided into two independent groups for training and validation, and a support vector machine was trained to classify the events as true or false. The best classification performance was achieved on a combination of 13 features with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100% in the training set, and a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 91% and an accuracy of 90% in the validation set. (paper)

  13. The role of pulmonary arterial stiffness in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Struthers, Allan D.; Lipworth, Brian J; Houston, J. Graeme

    2015-01-01

    COPD is the second most common cause of pulmonary hypertension, and is a common complication of severe COPD with significant implications for both quality of life and mortality. However, the use of a rigid diagnostic threshold of a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of ≥25mHg when considering the impact of the pulmonary vasculature on symptoms and disease is misleading. Even minimal exertion causes oxygen desaturation and elevations in mPAP, with right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatat...

  14. Changes in Arterial Oxygen Tension Correlate with Changes in End-expiratory Carbon Monoxide Level

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Patrick; Kalmanowicz, Melanie; Schwarte, Lothar A.; Weimann, Joerg; Loer, Stephan A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen compete for haemoglobin binding sites. While the effects of increased inspiratory oxygen fractions on exhaled carbon monoxide concentrations have been studied previously, the relationships between intravascular oxygen tension, blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels and expiratory CO concentrations remain unclear. We therefore studied the effects of increases in arterial oxygen tension as crucial determinant for the displacement of carbon monoxide from its ha...

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  16. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  17. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  18. Arterial blood gas analysis or oxygen saturation in the assessment of acute asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, D M; Harrison, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was undertaken to determine if arterial blood gas estimation is always necessary in the assessment of patients presenting to hospital with acute severe asthma, or whether oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry is a reliable screening test for predicting those in respiratory failure. METHODS--A prospective study was conducted in a specialist respiratory medical unit. Arterial blood gas tensions and pulse oximetry were measured in 89 consecutive patients admitted wi...

  19. Effects of different PEEP levels on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lago Borges; Vinícius José da Silva Nina; Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves Costa; Thiago Eduardo Pereira Baldez; Natália Pereira dos Santos; Ilka Mendes Lima; Eduardo Durans Figuerêdo; Josimary Lima da Silva Lula

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation indexes in the immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial in which 136 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2011 and March 2012 were divided into three groups and admitted to mechanical ventilation with different positive end-expiratory pressure levels: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=44)...

  20. Pulse oximeter and transcutaneous arterial oxygen measurements in neonatal and paediatric intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Southall, D P; Bignall, S; Stebbens, V A; Alexander, J R; Rivers, R P; Lissauer, T

    1987-01-01

    Pulse oximeter (SaO2P) measurements were compared with direct arterial line oxygen saturation (SaO2) from co-oximeters in 92 instances in 43 patients, and with arterial line oxygen measurements (PaO2) in 169 instances in 81 patients. The mean (SD) absolute difference between SaO2P and SaO2 was 2.6% (2.4) after attempt to correct for the co-oximeter falsely measuring a proportion of fetal haemoglobin as carboxy haemoglobin. For 19 infants and children greater than or equal to 5 months old, who...

  1. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijane Oliveira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32; Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26; and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20. Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion: In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  2. Prolonged postoperative desaturation in a child with Down syndrome and atrial septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report prolonged desaturation in a child with Down syndrome (DS and atrial septal defect due to undiagnosed interstitial lung disease. An 18-month-old child with DS was scheduled for bilateral lens aspiration for cataract. The child had atrial septal defect and hypothyroidism. He also had delayed milestones and hypotonia with episodes of recurrent respiratory tract infection necessitating repeated hospitalization. Preoperative evaluation was unremarkable. General anaesthesia and controlled ventilation using proseal laryngeal mask airway was instituted. He had uneventful intraoperative period. In the postoperative period, the child had desaturation 1 hour after surgery on discontinuation of oxygen supplementation by face mask, which improved with oxygen therapy. Supplemental oxygen via face mask was continued and weaned off over several days. On further evaluation, the child was diagnosed as having interstitial lung disease. He improved and discharged from the hospital 15 days after the surgery with room air saturation of 90%.

  3. Massive Hemorrhage from Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Successfully Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with Assessment of Regional Cerebral Oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 54-year-old male presented with intermittent massive hemorrhage from recurrent oropharyngeal cancer. The angiogram showed the encasements at the main trunk of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the ECA with gelatin sponge particles and microcoils was performed. However, hemorrhage recurred several hours after the initial TAE. The second angiogram showed a large pseudoaneurysm of the ICA developing at the encasement on the initial angiogram. As a simple neurologic test, regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) was assessed with and without manual compression of the common carotid artery (CCA). With compression of the left CCA, the rSO2 did not change. We therefore performed isolation of the pseudoaneurysm. We embolized proximally and distally to the ICA pseudoaneurysm with microcoils and the pseudoaneurysm disappeared. No major complications occurred and no massive hemorrhage recurred until death from the cancer. TAE was an effective treatment for massive hemorrhage caused by tumor invasion to ICA. Assessment of rSO2 was a simple and useful neurologic test predicting the cerebral blood flow to prevent complications of TAE

  4. Nocturnal hypoxia in ALS is related to cognitive dysfunction and can occur as clusters of desaturations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS. METHOD: Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared. RESULTS: Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40% had poor memory retention (p = 0.039 and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045. A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70% in the Hypoxia Group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.

  5. Dessaturação noturna: preditores e influência no padrão do sono de pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com hipoxemia leve em vigília Nocturnal desaturation: predictors and the effect on sleep patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concomitant mild daytime hypoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Claudia Zanchet

    2006-06-01

    predicting nocturnal desaturation, and to evaluate the influence of nocturnal desaturation on the sleep pattern of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were divided into two groups: those with nocturnal desaturation and those without. RESULTS: Comparing the first group (52% with the second, we found the following: age, 63 ± 5 years versus 63 ± 6 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second = 53 ± 31% versus 56 ± 19% predicted; ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity, 49 ± 14% versus 52 ± 10%; arterial oxygen tension, 68 ± 8 mmHg versus 72 ± 68 mmHg; and arterial oxygen saturation, 93 ± 2% versus 94 ± 1%. Patients in the nocturnal desaturation group presented lower daytime arterial oxygen saturation and nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the sleep patterns observed. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity was found to correlate with forced vital capacity, daytime arterial oxygen tension and daytime arterial oxygen saturation. In addition, arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry during exercise was found to correlate with nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. However, only daytime arterial oxygen saturation was predictive of nocturnal desaturation. CONCLUSION: The only variable capable of predicting nocturnal desaturation was daytime arterial oxygen saturation. Nocturnal desaturation did not influence the sleep patterns of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accompanied by mild daytime hypoxemia.

  6. Oxygen-sensing by arterial chemoreceptors: Mechanisms and medical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barneo, José; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Macías, David; Pardal, Ricardo; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acute O2 sensing is necessary for the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation), which permit the survival of individuals under hypoxic environments (e.g. high altitude) or medical conditions presenting with reduced capacity for gas exchange between the lung alveoli and the blood. Changes in blood O2 tension are detected by the arterial chemoreceptors, in particular the carotid body (CB), which act in concert with the adrenal medulla (AM) to facilitate rapid adaptations to hypoxia. The field of arterial chemoreception has undergone a considerable expansion in recent years, with many of the fundamental observations made at the molecular and cellular levels serving to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of numerous medical disorders, and even to propose advances in the treatment strategies. In this review, after a short historical preface, we describe the current model of chemosensory transduction based on the modulation of membrane K(+) channels by O2 in specialized chemoreceptor cells. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channels by O2 tension, which involves mitochondrial complex I, is also discussed. The discovery in the last few years of a specific population of neural crest-derived stem cells in the CB explains the reversible growth of this organ, an intriguing and unusual property of this type of neuronal tissue that contributes to acclimatization under chronic hypoxia. The essential homeostatic role of the CB-AM axis is clearly evident in newly generated mouse models that reach adulthood, albeit with CB and AM atrophy. These animals exhibit a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB inhibition or over-activation can have important medical consequences. Respiratory depression by general anesthetics or by opioid use is a common clinical condition that frequently causes death in susceptible individuals. An exaggerated sympathetic outflow due to over

  7. Pregestational diabetes induces fetal coronary artery malformation via reactive oxygen species signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzen, Hoda; Lu, Xiangru; Liu, Murong; Feng, Qingping

    2015-04-01

    Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is a congenital coronary artery malformation associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of hypoplastic coronary artery disease remain undefined. Pregestational diabetes increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the risk of congenital heart defects. We show that pregestational diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin significantly increased 4-hydroxynonenal production and decreased coronary artery volume in fetal hearts. Pregestational diabetes also impaired epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by analyses of the epicardium, epicardial-derived cells, and fate mapping. Additionally, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α), Snail1, Slug, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFgf), and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a2) was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic mothers. Of note, these abnormalities were all rescued by treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in diabetic females during gestation. Ex vivo analysis showed that high glucose levels inhibited epicardial EMT, which was reversed by NAC treatment. We conclude that pregestational diabetes in mice can cause coronary artery malformation through ROS signaling. This study may provide a rationale for further clinical studies to investigate whether pregestational diabetes could cause hypoplastic coronary artery disease in humans. PMID:25422104

  8. Effects of different pulmonary vasodilators on arterial saturation in a model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approved therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension can induce oxygen desaturation when administered to patients with secondary forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH, probably due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion mismatch. Thus, so far these treatments have largely failed in secondary forms of PH. METHODS: We established an animal model of heterogeneous lung ventilation to evaluate the desaturation potential of mechanistically distinct vasoactive drugs launched or currently in clinical development for the treatment of PH. Single-lung ventilation was induced in five groups (N = 6 of anesthetized minipigs (7 weeks, 4 to 5 kg BW, and their hemodynamic parameters were monitored before and after intravenous injection of control (vehicle only, endothelin antagonist (bosentan; 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; 3, 10, 30, 100 µg/kg, and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators (BAY 41-8543 and riociguat; 1, 3, 10, 30 µg/kg. Cumulative doses were administered before successive unilateral ventilation cycles. The doses were chosen to achieve equal effect on blood pressure by the different pharmacologic principles. RESULTS: Single-lung ventilation resulted in transient increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP and desaturation. In contrast to control, all drugs dose-dependently decreased hypoxic mPAP (a positive treatment effect and increased area under the arterial hemoglobin saturation curve (unwanted desaturation effect. Riociguat and bosentan reduced hypoxic mPAP to the greatest extent, while the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators riociguat and BAY 41-8543 lowered arterial oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the least. CONCLUSIONS: Future investigations will be required to confirm these findings in clinical settings.

  9. Equal ratio ventilation (1:1 improves arterial oxygenation during laparoscopic bariatric surgery: A crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxaemia and high peak airway pressure (Ppeak are common anesthetic problems during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Several publications have reported the successful improvement in arterial oxygenation using positive end expiratory pressure and alveolar recruitment maneuver, however, high peak airway pressure during laparoscopic bariatric surgery may limit the use of both techniques. This study was designed to determine whether equal I:E (inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio ventilation (1:1 improves arterial oxygenation with parallel decrease in the Ppeak values. Methods: Thirty patients with a body mass index ≥40 kg/m 2 scheduled for laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized, after creation of pneumoperitoneum, to receive I:E ratio either 1:1 (group 1, 15 patients or 1:2 (group 2, 15 patients. After a stabilization period of 30 min, patients were crossed over to the other studied I:E ratio. Ppeak, mean airway pressure (Pmean, dynamic compliance (Cdyn, arterial blood gases and hemodynamic data were collected at the end of each stabilization period. Results: Ventilation with I: E ratio of 1:1 significantly increased partial pressure of O 2 in the arterial blood (PaO 2 , Pmean and Cdyn with concomitant significant decrease in Ppeak compared to ventilation with I: E ratio of 1:2. There were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end tidal CO 2 or partial pressure of CO 2 in the arterial blood. Conclusion: Equal ratio ventilation (1:1 is an effective technique in increase PaO 2 during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. It increases Pmean and Cdyn while decreasing Ppeak without adverse respiratory or hemodynamic effects.

  10. A novel method based on two cameras for accurate estimation of arterial oxygen saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, He; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGi) that is based on camera allows acquiring photoplethysmogram and measuring physiological parameters such as pulse rate, respiration rate and perfusion level. It has also shown potential for estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). However, there are some technical limitations such as optical shunting, different camera sensitivity to different light spectra, different AC-to-DC ratios (the peak-to-peak amplitude to baseline ratio) of the PP...

  11. Effects of different PEEP levels on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lago Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure on respiratory mechanics and oxygenation indexes in the immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial in which 136 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2011 and March 2012 were divided into three groups and admitted to mechanical ventilation with different positive end-expiratory pressure levels: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=44, Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=47 and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=45. Data about respiratory mechanics were obtained from mechanical ventilator monitor and oxygenation indexes from arterial blood gas samples, collected twenty minutes after intensive care unit admission. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and patients submitted to off-pump, emergency or combined operations were not included. For statistical analysis, we used Kruskal-Wallis, G and Chi-square tests, considering results significant when P<0.05. RESULTS: Groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic, clinical and surgical variables. Patients ventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O (Group C had best compliance (P=0.04 and airway resistance values, this, however, without statistical significance. They also had best oxygenation indexes, with statistical difference in all analyzed variables, and lower frequency of hypoxemia (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in immediate postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting improved pulmonary compliance values and increased oxygenation indexes, resulting in lower frequency of hypoxemia.

  12. Equal ratio ventilation (1:1) improves arterial oxygenation during laparoscopic bariatric surgery: A crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Wesam Farid Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypoxaemia and high peak airway pressure (Ppeak) are common anesthetic problems during laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Several publications have reported the successful improvement in arterial oxygenation using positive end expiratory pressure and alveolar recruitment maneuver, however, high peak airway pressure during laparoscopic bariatric surgery may limit the use of both techniques. This study was designed to determine whether equal I:E (inspiratory-to-expiratory) ratio ventil...

  13. CT pulmonary angiography during veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) causes changes in the filling and blood flow of the cardiac chambers and pulmonary vessels as well as alterations in the path of intravenous contrast injected during CT. We present a patient with a potentially misleading CT pulmonary angiogram while on full VA ECMO. We demonstrate circulatory changes as well as alterations in contrast flow when ECMO flows are reduced.

  14. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated [18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)] fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of [1-14C]labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism

  15. Effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehri Najafi Sani; Hamid Reza Kianifar; Abdolrazagh Kianee; Gholamreza Khatami

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.METHODS: Garlic powder in a capsule form was given to 15 children with hepatopulmonary syndrome (confirmed by contrast echocardiography) at the dosage of 1g/1.73 m2 per day. Patients were evaluated clinically and by arterial blood gas every four weeks.RESULTS: The garlic capsule was administered to 15patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. There were 10 boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 9.4±3.9 years.The underlying problems were biliary tract atresia (4patients), autoimmune hepatitis (4 patients), cryptogenic cirrhosis (4 patients) and presinusoidal portal hypertension (3 patients). Eight patients (53.3%) showed an increase of 10 mmHg in their mean arterial oxygen pressure. The baseline PaO2 was 65.6±12.1 mmHg in the responder group and 47.1±11.2 mmHg in nonresponder group. At the end of treatment the mean PaO2 in responders and non-responders was 92.2±7.75mmHg and 47.5±11.87 mmHg, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Garlic may increase oxygenation and improve dyspnea in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  16. Analysis of factors which affect the relationship between inspired oxygen partial pressure and arterial oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, P G; Jones, J G

    1993-10-01

    The adoption of pulse oximetry in anaesthesia and intensive care has resulted in oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) becoming an important and widely used clinical descriptor of gas exchange, although its full potential has not been realized. We have explored the effect of impaired gas exchange on the relationship between PIO2 and SaO2. A curve of oxygen content vs PIO2 for an ideal lung was constructed using the oxygen dissociation curve and allowing for the effect of dissolved oxygen in plasma. A plot of PIO2 vs SaO2 was derived from this content curve. The effect of impaired gas exchange (shunt and V/Q effects) on this relationship was then modelled using for shunt the equation Qs/Qt = (Cc' O2-CaO2)/(Cc' O2-CvO2) and for V/Q, a graphical method using the equation V/Q = k(Cc' O2-CvO2)/ (PIO2-PAO2) and the oxygen content curve to model the effect of a spread of V/Q ratios. A total of nine compartments were used to model the scatter of V/Q, and the size of these compartments were determined by their relative blood supply. Plots of PIO2 vs SaO2 were derived for different values of shunt and V/Q. The PIO2 vs SaO2 curve reflected the shape of the oxygen dissociation curve but lay to the right by PIO2-PAO2. Shunt caused a depression of the plateau of this curve with relatively little lateral movement, whereas a low mean V/Q ratio caused a marked rightwards lateral displacement. Increased IogSD Q caused a flattening of the relationship. The combined effect of shunt and a spread of V/Q ratios caused both lateral and vertical displacements. Thus a series of simple measurements of PIO2 and SaO2 gave information about both shunt and V/Q abnormality. PMID:8260294

  17. The influence of an unilateral carotid artery stenosis on brain oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, T; Schneider, M; Pohl, U; Wohlmuth, B

    2014-07-01

    We study the impact of varying degrees of unilateral stenoses of an carotid artery on pulsatile blood flow and oxygen transport from the heart to the brain. For the numerical simulation a model reduction approach is used involving non-linear 1-D transport equation systems, linear 1-D transport equations and 0-D models. The haemodynamic effects of vessels beyond the outflow boundaries of the 1-D models are accounted for using a 0-D lumped three element windkessel model. At the cerebral outflow boundaries the 0-D windkessel model is extended by metabolic autoregulation, based on the cerebral oxygen supply. Additionally lumped parameter models are applied to incorporate the impact of the carotid stenosis. Our model suggests that for a severe unilateral stenosis in the right carotid artery the partial pressure of oxygen in the brain area at risk can only be restored, if the corresponding cerebral resistance is significantly decreased and if the circle of Willis (CoW) is complete. PMID:24780755

  18. Variability in targeted arterial oxygenation levels in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, R. M.; Grønlykke, L.; Haase, N.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen therapy is used for intensive care (ICU) patients with severe sepsis, but with no general guidelines and few safety data. The aim of this observational study was to describe the variability in oxygen administration as well as the association between partial pressure...... of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) and mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from two Scandinavian clinical trials of ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. We calculated average PaO2 and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) from trial inclusion and the following 5 days, and assessed the association...... compared to patients with an average FiO2 ≤ 0.40. CONCLUSION: Administration of oxygen in patients with severe sepsis resulted in a wide range of PaO2 . Significantly higher mortality was observed in patients with an average PaO2 < 8 kPa and FiO2 ≥ 0.60. The results do not imply causation and the...

  19. Physiologic simulator to predict the arterial oxygen saturation at extreme heights

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Reyes Lazalde; María Eugenia Pérez Bonilla; Olga Leticia Fuchs Gómez; Marleni Reyes Monreal

    2011-01-01

    A simulator («Alturas») was developed to calculate the levels of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) at heights ranging from small to extreme. The results of the simulations were compared to published experimental data in order to validate the accuracy of the simulator. Three types of cases were used in the comparison: (1) non acclimatized people at heights ranging from 20 m to 4,162 m above sea level, (2) inhabitants of mountain zones living at heights between 1,692 m and 4,230 m, (3) ...

  20. Oxygenator Exhaust Capnography for Prediction of Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, Anis; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Muallem, Eva; Jamal, Salim; Haroun-Bizri, Sania; Aouad, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is essential. A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive system is not currently available. This study was undertaken to assess whether the continuous monitoring of oxygenator exhaust carbon dioxide tension (PexCO2) can be used to reflect PaCO2 during CPB. A total of 33 patients undergoing CPB for cardiac surgery were included in the study. During normothermia (37°C) and stable hypother...

  1. Trans-abdominal monitoring of fetal arterial blood oxygenation using pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourabian, Anna; Siegel, Andrew M.; Chance, Britton; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Rode, Martha; Boas, David A.

    2000-10-01

    Pulse oximetry (oxygen saturation monitoring) has markedly improved medical care in many fields, including anesthesiology, intensive care, and newborn intensive care. In obstetrics, fetal heart rate monitoring remains the standard for intrapartum assessment of fetal well being. Fetal oxygen saturation monitoring is a new technique currently under development. It is potentially superior to electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (cardiotocography) because it allows direct assessment of both the fetal oxygen status and fetal tissue perfusion. Here we present the analysis for determining the most optimal wavelength selection for pulse oximetry. The wavelengths we chose as the most optimal are the first in the range of 670 - 720 nm and the second in the range of 825 - 925 nm. Further, we discuss the possible systematic errors during our measurements and their contribution to the obtained saturation results. We present feasibility studies for fetal pulse oximetry, monitored noninvasively through the maternal abdomen. Our preliminary experiments show that the fetal pulse can be discriminated from the maternal pulse and thus, in principle, the fetal arterial oxygen saturation can be obtained. We present the methodology for obtaining these data, and discuss the dependence of our measurements on the fetal position with respect to the optode assembly.

  2. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco, E.A.; A.G. Silva; Rocco, D.F.; M.T. Pacheco; Silva, P.F.; V. Furlan

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercis...

  3. Arterial oxygen saturation in Addis Ababa during diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streatfeild, K A; Gebremeskel, A

    1999-10-01

    Addis Ababa is situated at an altitude of approximately 8500 ft and has a barometric pressure of close to 570 mmHg. Arterial blood gas values during the administration of anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation have not been extensively studied. During the period January to July 1993, oxygen saturation was determined in 46 unpremedicated patients prior to minor surgery. Following this, patients received diazepam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg and ketamine 2 mg/kg during which a clear airway was maintained and peripheral oximetry was monitored continuously. The SpO2 was recorded for each patient at one minute intervals until 5 minutes and thence at 7, 10 and 15 minutes. The average SpO2 decreased below 90% at 2, 3 and 4 minutes and of the 46 patients, 8 (17.3%) required additional oxygen when their saturation fell below 80%. It is concluded that airway management and supplemental oxygen should be available when using this technique. PMID:11961876

  4. Renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in transient renal artery occluded rats evaluated with iron-oxide particles and oxygenation-sensitive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Michael [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Experimental Clinical Medicine; Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231; Laustsen, Christoffer [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Perot, Vincent; Grenier, Nicolas [Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux (France). Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte; Basseau, Fabrice; Moonen, Chrit [Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France). Lab. Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231

    2010-07-01

    Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2{sup *}, and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2{sup *} was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)

  5. Lactate clearance for initiating and weaning off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a child with regressed left ventricle after arterial switch operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Chauhan, Sandeep; Bisoi, A. K.; Sahoo, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    We hereby report a child with transposition of great arteries and regressed ventricle who underwent arterial switch operation (ASO) with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass and “integrated” extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit. The significance of lactate clearance as a guide to initiate and terminate veno-arterial ECMO in a post ASO child with regressed left ventricle is discussed. PMID:26750700

  6. Local changes in arterial oxygen saturation induced by visible and near-infrared light radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesman, S S; Mamilov, S O; Veligotsky, D V; Gisbrecht, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the efficiency of laser radiation on oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) rate in blood vessels and its wavelength dependence. The results of in vivo experimental measurements of the laser-induced photodissociation of HbO2 in cutaneous blood vessels in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range are presented. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured by a method of fingertip pulse oximetry, which is based on the measurement of the modulated pulse wave of the blood. The light irradiating the finger was provided by corresponding light-emitting diodes (LED) at 15 wavelengths in the 400-940 nm spectrum range. Statistical results with a value of p phototherapy of pathologies, where the elimination of local tissue hypoxia is critical. PMID:26637304

  7. T2 and T2* measurements of fetal brain oxygenation during hypoxia with MRI at 3T: correlation with fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the oxygen saturation of blood in the fetal brain based on T2 and T2* measurements in a fetal sheep model. Five sheep fetuses were investigated during normoxia and hypoxia by 3T MRI. Multi-echo gradient-echo and turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on the fetal brain. MR-determined oxygen saturation (MR-sO2) of blood in the fetal brain was calculated based on T2 and T2* values. Fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation (blood-sO2) was measured during the two experimental phases. The slope of MR-sO2 as a function of blood-sO2 was estimated and tested for compatibility using the one-sample t-test. During normoxia, mean values for carotid blood oxygen saturation were 67%, 83 ms for T2*, 202 ms for T2 and 96% for MR-sO2. During hypoxia, arterial blood oxygen saturation, T2* and calculated MR-sO2 decreased to 22%, 64 ms, and 68% respectively. The one-sample t-test revealed the slope to be significantly different from 0(T=5.023, df=4, P=0.007). It is feasible to perform quantitative T2 and T2* measurements in the fetal brain. MR-sO2 and fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation correlated significantly. However, based on these data a reliable quantification of fetal brain tissue oxygenation is not possible. (orig.)

  8. T2 and T2* measurements of fetal brain oxygenation during hypoxia with MRI at 3T: correlation with fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Adam, Gerhard [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Andreas, Thomas; Beindorff, Nicola; Hecher, Kurt [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the oxygen saturation of blood in the fetal brain based on T2 and T2* measurements in a fetal sheep model. Five sheep fetuses were investigated during normoxia and hypoxia by 3T MRI. Multi-echo gradient-echo and turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on the fetal brain. MR-determined oxygen saturation (MR-sO{sub 2}) of blood in the fetal brain was calculated based on T2 and T2* values. Fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation (blood-sO{sub 2}) was measured during the two experimental phases. The slope of MR-sO{sub 2} as a function of blood-sO{sub 2} was estimated and tested for compatibility using the one-sample t-test. During normoxia, mean values for carotid blood oxygen saturation were 67%, 83 ms for T2*, 202 ms for T2 and 96% for MR-sO{sub 2}. During hypoxia, arterial blood oxygen saturation, T2* and calculated MR-sO{sub 2} decreased to 22%, 64 ms, and 68% respectively. The one-sample t-test revealed the slope to be significantly different from 0(T=5.023, df=4, P=0.007). It is feasible to perform quantitative T2 and T2* measurements in the fetal brain. MR-sO{sub 2} and fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation correlated significantly. However, based on these data a reliable quantification of fetal brain tissue oxygenation is not possible. (orig.)

  9. Intra-breath arterial oxygen oscillations detected by a fast oxygen sensor in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, R.; McPeak, Hanne; Murison, Pamela; Matejovic, M; Hahn, Clive; Farmery, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) monitoring in physiology, and in tracking PO2 changes dynamically when it varies rapidly. For example, arterial PO2 ([Math Processing Error]) can vary within the respiratory cycle in cyclical atelectasis (CA), where [Math Processing Error] is thought to increase and decrease during inspiration and expiration, respectively. A sensor that detects these [Math Processing Error] oscillations could become a useful diagnostic...

  10. Intra-breath arterial oxygen oscillations detected by a fast oxygen sensor in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Formenti, F.; Chen, R.; McPeak, H; Murison, PJ; Matejovic, M; Hahn, CEW; Farmery, AD; Galley, HF

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in oxygen partial pressure (Po2) monitoring in physiology, and in tracking Po2 changes dynamically when it varies rapidly. For example, arterial Po2 ([Formula: see text]) can vary within the respiratory cycle in cyclical atelectasis (CA), where [Formula: see text] is thought to increase and decrease during inspiration and expiration, respectively. A sensor that detects these [Formula: see text] oscillations could become a useful diagnostic tool of CA...

  11. Prognostic role of alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the utility of the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (AaDO2) in predicting the short-term prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This study retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive patients with acute PE, diagnosed by either spiral computed tomography or high probability ventilation-perfusion lung scans. During the first 24 h of admission, all patients had initial artery blood gas collected under room air. Patient exclusion criteria were chronic lung disease, septic emboli, and moderate and low probability lung scans. Patients were assigned to 2 groups based on either 30-day death or a 30-day composite event. Receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to determine the AaDO2 cut-off value for predicting primary and composite endpoints. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in AaDO2 between the 30-day composite endpoint group and the 30-day composite event-free survival group (p=0.012). The AaDO2 had a strong trend between the 30-day death group and the survival group (p=0.062). The best cut-off value for AaDO2 was 53 mmHg and using this, the positive predictive value for 30-day death was 25% and the negative predictive value was 92%. For the 30-day composite endpoint, the positive predictive value for AaDO2 was 35%, and the negative predictive value was 84%. In this study, thrombocytopenia was also an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with acute PE. The AaDO2 measurement is a highly useful and simple measurement for predicting short-term prognosis in patients with acute PE. It has high negative predictive value and moderate positive predictive value for 30-day death and 30-day composite event. Aggressive thrombolytic treatment strategies should be considered for patients with an initial poor prognostic parameter (ie, AaDO2≥53 mmHg). (author)

  12. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  13. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Streptococcus pyogenes toxic shock syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Taro; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Abe, Ryuzo; Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Oda, Shigeto

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), an invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus) infection with hypotension and multiple organ failure, is quite rare in pregnancy but is characterized by rapid disease progression and high fatality rates. We present a case of STSS with infection-induced cardiac dysfunction in a pregnant woman who was treated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). A 24-year-old multiparous woman in the third trimester had early symptoms of high fever and diarrhea 1 day prior to admission to the hospital emergency department. On admission, she had multiple organ failure including circulatory failure. Due to fetal distress, emergency Cesarean section was carried out and transferred to intensive care units. She had refractory circulatory failure with depressed myocardial contractility with progressive multiple organ failure, despite receiving significant hemodynamic supports including high-dose catecholamine. Thus, VA-ECMO was initiated 18 h after intensive care unit admission. Consequently, ECMO provided extra time to recover from infection and myocardial depression. She was successfully weaned from VA-ECMO on day 7 and was discharged home on day 53. VA-ECMO can be a therapeutic option for refractory circulatory failure with significant myocardial depression in STSS. PMID:26758056

  14. Diffusion capacity and CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness – relation to arterial oxygen tension in COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saure, Eirunn Waatevik; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Aanerud, Marianne; Jensen, Robert Leroy; Grydeland, Thomas Blix; Johannessen, Ane; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Thorsen, Einar; Hardie, Jon Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is associated with emphysema. DLCO is also related to decreased arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), but there are limited data on associations between PaO2 and computed tomography (CT) derived measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness. Objective To examine whether CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are associated with level of arterial oxygen tension beyond that provided by measurements of diffusion capacity and spirometry. Methods The study sample consisted of 271 smoking or ex-smoking COPD patients from the Bergen COPD Cohort Study examined in 2007–2008. Emphysema was assessed as percent of low-attenuation areasCOPD patients. Emphysema score measured by chest CT, is related to decreased PaO2, but cannot replace measurements of diffusion capacity in the clinical evaluation of hypoxaemia. PMID:27178139

  15. Comparison of Neonatal Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation Rate Immediately After Birth in Normal and Elective Cesarean Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodi Fatemeh; Mobaraki Asieh; Mahmoodi Zainab; Najar Shahnaz; Haghighi Mohammad hosein; Borzoueisileh Sajad; Ebrahimpour Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ninety percent of neonates pass the transition from fetal life to outside uterus successfully, and only 1% needs intensive support for survival. The quantity of oxygen saturation immediately after birth shows the need for resuscitation immediately after birth. The present research was carried out with the objective of comparing saturation rate of arterial blood hypoxia in neonates born with normal vaginal delivery and cesarean method. Materials and Methods: 220 neonates bo...

  16. Synergy between shear-induced migration and secondary flows on red blood cells transport in arteries: considerations on oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Hedin, Ulf; Gasser, T Christian

    2014-08-01

    Shear-induced migration of red blood cells (RBCs) is a well-known phenomenon characterizing blood flow in the small vessels (micrometre to millimetre size) of the cardiovascular system. In large vessels, like the abdominal aorta and the carotid artery (millimetre to centimetre size), the extent of this migration and its interaction with secondary flows has not been fully elucidated. RBC migration exerts its influence primarily on platelet concentration, oxygen transport and oxygen availability at the luminal surface, which could influence vessel wall disease processes in and adjacent to the intima. Phillips' shear-induced particle migration model, coupled to the Quemada viscosity model, was employed to simulate the macroscopic behaviour of RBCs in four patient-specific geometries: a normal abdominal aorta, an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a normal carotid bifurcation and a stenotic carotid bifurcation. Simulations show a migration of RBCs from the near-wall region with a lowering of wall haematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) on the posterior side of the normal aorta and on the lateral-external side of the iliac arteries. A marked migration is observed on the outer wall of the carotid sinus, along the common carotid artery and in the carotid stenosis. No significant migration is observed in the AAA. The spatial and temporal patterns of wall haematocrit are correlated with the near-wall shear layer and with the secondary flows induced by the vessel curvature. In particular, secondary flows accentuate the initial lowering in RBC near-wall concentration by convecting RBCs from the inner curvature side to the outer curvature side. The results reinforce data in literature showing a decrease in oxygen partial pressure on the inner curvature wall of the carotid sinus induced by the presence of secondary flows. The lowering of wall haematocrit is postulated to induce a decrease in oxygen availability at the luminal surface through a diminished concentration of

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity and induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation with near infrared spectrophotometry: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Siebenthal, K.; Keel, M.; Dietz, V.; Fauchere, J. C.; Martin, X.; Wolf, Martin; Duc, G.; Bucher, H. U.

    1996-10-01

    Near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the neonatal brain. Using oxygen as a tracer, it is possible to calculate cerebral blood flow (cbf) and hemoglobin concentration (cHbc), which corresponds to cerebral blood volume, by inducing small changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Variability of tcpO2 is considered to be associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A preliminary analysis without control found a 51 percent incidence of ROP in infants subjected to NIRS measurements whereas among infants who were not exposed to oxygen changes, only 29 percent developed ROP. A controlled study with matched pairs was performed. Thirty-nine premature newborns who had received NIRS recordings were matched with 39 out of 172 infants who had not received NIRS. Using this controlled study design there was no difference in the incidence and severity of ROP between the two groups. The conclusions are that: 1) small changes in oxygen saturation of 3 to 10 percent to measure cbf and cHbc did not increase the incidence or the degree of severity of ROP. 2) A controlled study design is important. Analyses of uncontrolled data would have led to the conclusion that oxygen changes as used with NIRS increase the risk of ROP.

  18. The long-term effect of ambulatory oxygen in normoxaemic COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Lange, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation.......To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation....

  19. Insights on desaturation processes based on the chemistry of seepage water from boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepage waters from boreholes were collected in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (NE France) in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rich host rock. Over the first months after the drilling of the boreholes, these waters were saltier than the waters collected later on, even in the boreholes that had been drilled without oxygen. These chemical composition variations give insights on the volume of rock affected by the loss of water around the boreholes. This data will help to characterize the desaturation processes in such a rock and the consequences with respect to the composition of the water that will fill the underground works after their closure. (authors)

  20. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  1. [Two Cases of Emergency Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Children Suffering from Tracheo-innominate Artery Fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, Satoshi; Shinto, Atsushi; Matsuoka, Taku; Miyazawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula (TIF) is a relatively rare life-threating complication of long-term tracheostomy. Two patients with TIF were successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support along with advanced cardiovascular life support. The first patient was a 16-year-old boy undergoing long-term tracheostomy because of cerebral palsy, and the other patient was a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who had undergone primary tracheal tumor resection. In both cases, the onset of TIF was sudden, and the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for emergency thoracotomy under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Innominate artery division was performed under ECMO support. Adequate fluid replacement and hemorrhage control are primary treatment options for resuscitating a patient with TIF. However, hemorrhagic shock in patients with TIF is different from that in other patients, because bleeding into the trachea causes severe respiratory failure and poor oxygenation, which may worsen the resuscitation rate. Thus, ECMO can be used as an option for maintaining oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF. Anesthesiologists should pay attention to the increased risk of bleeding due to anticoagulation during ECMO initiation. In conclusion, the results of these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in TIF patients. PMID:27017768

  2. The human ear canal: investigation of its suitability for monitoring photoplethysmographs and arterial oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the last two decades, pulse oximetry has been used as a standard procedure for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). However, SpO2 measurements made from extremities such as the finger, ear lobe and toes become susceptible to inaccuracies when peripheral perfusion is compromised. To overcome these limitations, the external auditory canal has been proposed as an alternative monitoring site for estimating SpO2, on the hypothesis that this central site will be better perfused. Therefore, a dual wavelength optoelectronic probe along with a processing system was developed to investigate the suitability of measuring photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals and SpO2 in the human auditory canal. A pilot study was carried out in 15 healthy volunteers to validate the feasibility of measuring PPGs and SpO2 from the ear canal (EC), and comparative studies were performed by acquiring the same signals from the left index finger (LIF) and the right index finger (RIF) in conditions of induced peripheral vasoconstriction (right hand immersion in ice water). Good quality baseline PPG signals with high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the EC, the LIF and the RIF sensors. During the ice water immersion, significant differences in the amplitude of the red and infrared PPG signals were observed from the RIF and the LIF sensors. The average drop in amplitude of red and infrared PPG signals from the RIF was 52.7% and 58.3%. Similarly, the LIF PPG signal amplitudes have reduced by 47.52% and 46.8% respectively. In contrast, no significant changes were seen in the red and infrared EC PPG amplitude measurements, which changed by +2.5% and −1.2% respectively. The RIF and LIF pulse oximeters have failed to estimate accurate SpO2 in seven and four volunteers respectively, while the EC pulse oximeter has only failed in one volunteer. These results suggest that the EC may be a suitable site for reliable monitoring of PPGs and SpO2s even in the presence of peripheral

  3. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M.L. Prado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercise training (n=18 and interval exercise training (n=17. All patients performed graded exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis before and 3 months after the exercise-training program to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT, respiratory compensation point, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2. The OUES was assessed based on data from the second minute of exercise until exhaustion by calculating the slope of the linear relation between oxygen uptake and the logarithm of total ventilation. After the interventions, both groups showed increased aerobic fitness (P<0.05. In addition, both the continuous exercise and interval exercise training groups demonstrated an increase in OUES (P<0.05. Significant associations were observed in both groups: 1 continuous exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.57; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.57; 2 interval exercise training (OUES and peak VO2 r=0.80; OUES and VO2 VAT r=0.67. Continuous and interval exercise training resulted in a similar increase in OUES among patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that improvements in OUES among CAD patients after aerobic exercise training may be dependent on peripheral and central mechanisms.

  4. Exercise-induced desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on six-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Chauhan Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Exercise-induced desaturation (EID is associated with increased mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the relationship of EID with anthropometric and clinical parameters of resting pulmonary function test and six-minute walk test (6MWT in COPD remains unclear. The study was designed to assess the correlate of EID and to identify various possible predictors of EID in stable normoxemic patients of COPD. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with stable COPD diagnosed and staged as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines underwent 6MWT. A drop in standard pulse oximetry (SpO 2 of ≥4% or nadir up to ≤88% was defined as EID. Based on EID during 6MWT, two groups were formed: desaturators (DS and nondesaturators (NDS. DS and NDS were compared for baseline and clinical characters by the Student′s t-test while Pearson and Spearman rho correlation coefficient assessed strength of the association of anthropometric and clinical variables with EID. The predictors of EID were identified by logistic regression and receiver operator curve analysis. Result: Out of 60 patients with stable COPD, 33 patients desaturated on exercise (n = 33/60. DS had significantly lower values of FEV 1 (P < 0.001, FVC (P < 0.01 FEV 1 /FVC (P < 0.01 compared to NDS. EID had significant negative correlation with FEV 1 (r = 0.31, P < 0.01, resting oxygen saturation (r = 0.549, P < 0.001 and 6MWD (r = 0.511, P < 0.001. Resting SpO 2 ≤93% was found to a predictor of EID with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 78%, respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: The 6MWT is a safe and sensitive test to recognize EID in normoxic stable COPD patients. Resting oxygen saturation is a good predictor of EID.

  5. Inhaling one hundred percent oxygen eliminates the systemic arterial hypoxemic response of broilers to intravenous microparticle injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, A G; Wideman, R F

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) includes the development of systemic arterial hypoxemia (reduction in the saturation of hemoglobin with O(2), HbO(2)), which can be mimicked in clinically healthy broilers by i.v. injections of microparticles (MP). In experiment 1, arterial blood samples were collected from clinically healthy broilers before and after i.v. MP injections, and during a subsequent 100% O(2) inhalation period. The arterial samples were analyzed for HbO(2), partial pressure of O(2) and CO(2), and pH using a blood gas analyzer. In experiment 2, broilers that initially averaged > or =75% HbO(2) were assigned to a "high O(2)" group, whereas those that initially averaged broilers in both groups inhaled 100% O(2). In experiment 3, HbO(2) and HR were measured using a pulse oximeter before, during, and after broilers inhaled 100% O(2), after i.v. MP injections, and during a second period of 100% O(2) inhalation. The HbO(2) rapidly decreased after i.v. MP injections, and subsequently providing 100% O(2) to breathe increased the HbO(2) above preinjection control levels in experiments 1 and 3. In experiment 2, inhaling 100% oxygen eliminated the initial spontaneous differences in HbO(2) between the high O(2) and low O(2) groups, whereas the return to breathing ambient air restored the initial group differences in HbO(2). These experiments indicate that MP-induced and spontaneous hypoxemia can be attributed to a diffusion limitation rather than to arterial-venous shunts, because the hypoxemia resulting from arterial-venous shunts cannot be wholly eliminated by providing 100% O(2) to inhale. PMID:18079464

  6. Effect of nicardipine combined with esmolol on systemic and tissue oxygenation during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-long; JIANG Yan; YANG Ba-xian

    2005-01-01

    Background The hemodynamics and oxygenation severely fluctuated during the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). This study aimed at investigating whether or not nicardipine combined with esmolol (1∶ 10) can maintain systemic and tissue oxygenation during OPCABG.Methods Twenty patients scheduled for OPCABG were divided ramdomly into Group nicardipine (N) and Group nitroglycerine (X) respectively combined with esmolol (E) (Dosage ratio: 1 to 10) (Group N+E and Group X+E) with 10 patients in each group. The mixed solution of N+E or X+E were titrated to maintain mean arterial blood pressure between 70 and 80 mmHg following anesthesia induction. The variables of hemodynamics, arterial blood lactate content (Lac) and gastric intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide were measured at the following time points: after induction of anesthesia (T1), pre-revascularization (T2), grafting of left anterior descending (T3), right coronary descending (T4) and left coronary circumflexus branches (T5), post-revascularization (T6), the end of operation (T7). The delivery of oxygen (DO2), consumption of oxygen (VO2) and gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) were calculated.Results The cardiac index (CI) in Group N+E was significantly increased (P<0.05) as compared with T1 during OPCABG, while it was mildly decreased in Group X+E. The stroke volumes at T4, T5 in Group N+E and at T3-T6 in Group X+E were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The systemic vascular resistance indices in Group N+E were significantly decreased as compared with T1 (P<0.05). The heart rates in these two Groups were significantly elevated intraoperatively (P<0.05). The DO2 after the infusion of N+E was significantly increased (P<0.05) or leveled to T1, and the Lac were within the normal range. But the DO2 in Group X+E was decreased throughout the procedure, reaching significant level at T5 (P<0.05), and the Lac was significantly increased beyond normal range (P<0.05). The pHi in Group N+E was

  7. Extrauterine incubation of fetal goats applying the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation via umbilical artery and vein.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Sok Cheon; Song, Chang Hun; So, Geum Young; Jang, Chul Ho; Lee, Kook Hyun; Kim, Jee Yae

    2002-01-01

    The fetus is an unstable subject for an isolated physiological and biochemical study. To study the fetus in a controlled and stable environment, a trial was done using 12 goat fetuses. Extrauterine incubation system was devised using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system. The system consisted of a venous reservoir with a servo-controlled roller pump and a membrane oxygenator. The extra-corporeal circuit and membrane oxygenator were primed with the maternal whole blood of 200 mL. Fetal...

  8. The Influence of Endothelial Function and Myocardial Ischemia on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Bacon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired endothelial function has been shown to limit exercise in coronary artery disease (CAD patients and has been implicated in myocardial ischemia. However, the association of endothelial function and ischemia on peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2 has not been previously reported. A total of 116 CAD patients underwent standard exercise stress testing, during which VO2 was measured. On a separate day, endothelial-dependent and -independent function were assessed by ultrasound using flow-mediated arterial vasodilation (FMD and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate administration (GTNMD of the brachial artery. Patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia had lower FMD than nonischemic patients (3.64±0.57 versus 4.98±0.36, P=.050, but there was no difference in GTNMD (14.11±0.99 versus 15.47±0.63, P=.249. Analyses revealed that both FMD (P=.006 and GTNMD (P=.019 were related to peak VO2. However, neither the presence of ischemia (P=.860 nor the interaction of ischemia with FMD (P=.382 and GTNMD (P=.151 was related to peak VO2. These data suggest that poor endothelial function, potentially via impaired NO production and smooth muscle dysfunction, may be an important determinant of exercise capacity in patients with CAD, independent of myocardial ischemia.

  9. Comparison of the effects of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on cerebral oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Guray; Çukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gülay; Hergünsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Background Central nervous system complications are the most clinically important of those affecting mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. Newly developed sophisticated techniques and surgical interventions obviating the need for cardiopulmonary pumps have facilitated avoidance of these complications. In this study, we compared the impact of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods This study incl...

  10. Comparison of Neonatal Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation Rate Immediately After Birth in Normal and Elective Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ninety percent of neonates pass the transition from fetal life to outside uterus successfully, and only 1% needs intensive support for survival. The quantity of oxygen saturation immediately after birth shows the need for resuscitation immediately after birth. The present research was carried out with the objective of comparing saturation rate of arterial blood hypoxia in neonates born with normal vaginal delivery and cesarean method. Materials and Methods: 220 neonates born with elective cesarean section and normal delivery were studied in an analytical-descriptive study. Demographic questionnaire was completed. Then a pulse oxymeter with its sensor fixed on the right wrist of the neonates was used. Heart rate was recorded and the level of oxygen saturation (SaO2 under 90% was considered as hypoxia. To compare the quantitative and qualitative variable between the two groups, paired t test and chi-square test was used, respectively. Pearson correlation test was used to study the correlation between the variables. Results: The age range of mothers was 16-38 years. The mothers’ average age, gestational age and neonates’ weight were not significantly different between groups. The average SaO2 in minutes 1, 3 and 5 was 72%, 81% and 89%, respectively in vaginal delivery, which showed a significant difference compared to cesarean neonates with average of 65%, 75% and 83%, respectively. No significant difference was observed after10 minutes. Also there were not significant statistical correlation between mothers age, number of pregnancies, sex and weight of neonate with SaO2 of arterial blood after 1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes after birth. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the present research SaO2 was higher in neonates of vaginal delivery in comparison to cesarean neonates. Encouraging mothers to delivery vaginally and also using aid-oxygen is proposed for the cesarean neonates at birth.

  11. The Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Inspired Oxygen Fraction in Patients Undergoing on-pump Coronary Artery Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased inspired oxygen fractions (FiO2 have significant hemodynamic effects on consciousvolunteers. These changes may be of great importance in cardiac surgery. The inspiratory gas during open heartsurgery with on-pump technique usually consists of 100% oxygen without any N2O because the risks of bubbleembolism during these procedures. We sought to establish whether the cardiovascular effects of increased FiO2are also present in cardiac surgery patients.Patients and Methods: The present study was a randomized double- blind clinical trial on sixty adult patients(40-70 years with the cardiac ejection fraction (EF of more than 40% and ASA II or III undergoing elective onpumpcoronary artery bypass. They received either a mixture of 50% O2 with 50% air (case group=30 or 100%oxygen (control group=30 throughout the anesthesia. Cardiac index (CI was measured by non- invasive cardiacoutput (NICO technique using end tidal PCO2. Measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure aswell as heart rate (HR and central venous pressure (CVP, PaO2, arterial PH and CI were obtained at pre-bypass,post bypass, end of surgery and 2 hours after ICU admission. Intra- operative requirements for inotropic drugswere also evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test and Q-square as well as non parametrictests wherever appropriate.Results: No differences were found between the two groups with regard to age, gender, pump time, operationtime and body mass index and preoperative EF. The mean values of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressureas well as HR and CI were similar in the case and control groups (p>0.05 at all times of measurement. The meanPaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.05. The mean pH was statistically higher in the controlgroup but not clinically noticeable. The control group required more inotropic drug support than the case group(16 vs. 8 patients respectively; P < 0.05. Likewise, the mean CVP was

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-α enhances hyperbaric oxygen-induced visfatin expression via JNK pathway in human coronary arterial endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Gong-Jhe; Lin Chiu-Mei; Wang Bao-Wei; Shyu Kou-Gi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Visfatin, a adipocytokine with insulin-mimetic effect, plays a role in endothelial angiogenesis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used in medical practice. However, the molecular mechanism of beneficial effects of HBO is poorly understood. We sought to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regulation of visfatin by HBO in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). Methods Human CAECs were exposed to 2.5 atmosphere absolute (ATA) of oxygen in a hyperb...

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Cenk Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO.

  14. Theoretical considerations to optimize transabdominal monitoring of fetal arterial blood oxygenation using pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourabian, Anna; Boas, David A.

    2001-06-01

    Pulse oximetry (oxygen saturation monitoring) has markedly improved medical care in many fields, including anesthesiology, intensive care, and newborn intensive care. In obstetrics, fetal heart rate monitoring remains the standard for intrapartum assessment of fetal well being. Fetal oxygen saturation monitoring is a new technique currently under development. It is potentially superior to electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (cardiotocography) because it allows direct assessment of both fetal oxygen status and fetal tissue perfusion. Here we present the analysis for determining the most optimal wavelength selection for pulse oximetry. The wavelengths we chose as the most optimal are: the first in the range of 670-720nm and the second in the range of 825-925nm. Further we discuss the possible systematic errors during our measurements, and their contribution to the obtained saturation results.

  15. The Effect of Arterial pH on Oxygenation Persists Even in Infants Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To validate the empiric observation that pH has an important effect on oxygenation in infants receiving iNO. Study Design. Demographics, ventilator settings, arterial blood gases (ABG, and interventions for up to 96 hours of life were extracted from the charts of 51 infants receiving iNO. Need for ECMO and survival to discharge were noted. Mean blood pressure (MBP and mean airway pressure (MAP were recorded. The arterial/alveolar (a/A ratio was used as the primary outcome. Analysis was by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression analyses and Fisher's exact test. pH responsiveness was arbitrarily defined as a correlation coefficient (CC of >0.40 with 7.55. Of 11 patients requiring ECMO, only 3 exhibited responsiveness at any time in their course. Three responders required ECMO. Conclusion. This small study suggests that failure or inability to optimize pH may account for observed unresponsiveness to iNO. Maintaining a pH > 7.5 using hyperventilation is not recommended.

  16. Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Santhirapala, Vatshalan; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; James E Jackson; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without...

  17. Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Vatshalan Santhirapala; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; Jackson, James E.; Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states withou...

  18. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text]. METHODS...

  19. Distinct alterations in sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Atasever; C. Boer; P. Goedhart; J. Biervliet; J. Seyffert; R. Speekenbrink; L. Schwarte; B. de Mol; C. Ince

    2011-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (on-pump) is associated with more severe changes in the microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation as compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. An observational study. A university hospital and teaching hospital. Patient

  20. The Ratio of Partial Pressure Arterial Oxygen and Fraction of Inspired Oxygen 1 Day After Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Onset Can Predict the Outcomes of Involving Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chao, Chien-Ming; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The initial hypoxemic level of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) defined according to Berlin definition might not be the optimal predictor for prognosis. We aimed to determine the predictive validity of the stabilized ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) following standard ventilator setting in the prognosis of patients with ARDS.This prospective observational study was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan and compared the stabilized PaO2/FiO2 ratio (Day 1) following standard ventilator settings and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day patients met ARDS Berlin criteria (Day 0). Patients admitted to intensive care units and in accordance with the Berlin criteria for ARDS were collected between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2015. Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Arterial blood gas and ventilator setting on Days 0 and 1 were obtained.A total of 238 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS were enrolled, and they were classified as mild (n = 50), moderate (n = 125), and severe (n = 63) ARDS, respectively. Twelve (5%) patients who originally were classified as ARDS did not continually meet the Berlin definition, and a total of 134 (56%) patients had the changes regarding the severity of ARDS from Day 0 to Day 1. The 28-day mortality rate was 49.1%, and multivariate analysis identified age, PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1, number of organ failures, and positive fluid balance within 5 days as significant risk factors of death. Moreover, the area under receiver-operating curve for mortality prediction using PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1 was significant higher than that on Day 0 (P = 0.016).PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 1 after applying mechanical ventilator is a better predictor of outcomes in patients with ARDS than those on Day 0. PMID:27057912

  1. Severe cerebral desaturation during shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Winge, Søren; Nielsen, Henning Bay

    During shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position, cerebral ischemia may be a serious complication because prolonged hypotension may affect regional cerebral oxygen supply. We present the cases of 2 patients in whom a reduction in mean arterial pressure after anesthesia provoked a decrease ...

  2. Intra-arterial tert-Butyl-Hydroperoxide Infusion Induces an Exacerbated Sensory Response in the Rat Hind Limb and is Associated with an Impaired Tissue Oxygen Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Edward C. T. H.; van Goor, Harry; Bahrami, Soheyl; Kozlov, Andrey V; Leixnering, Martin; Redl, Heinz; Goris, R. Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative stress and oxygen extraction mechanisms in an animal model of continuous intra-arterial infusion of a free radical donor and in an in vitro model using isolated mitochondria. tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH, 25 mM) was infused for 24 h in the left hind limb of rats to induce soft tissue damage (n = 8). After 7 days, we assessed local sensory response, tissue oxygen consumption, oxygen radicals, and antioxidant levels. In vitro mito...

  3. [Early Detection of Iliac Artery Rupture by Sudden Steep Reduction of Regional Saturation of Oxygen at the Ipsilateral Foot during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation--A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shun; Ishii, Hisanari

    2016-02-01

    An 80-year-old woman with severe aortic stenosis was planned to undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) under general anesthesia. Due to severe stenosis of the femoral arteries, the left iliac artery was cut down and a 16 F Edwards SAPIEN Expandable Sheath (eSheath : Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) was inserted into the artery smoothly. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), an artificial valve was tried to deploy but stuck in the middle of eSheath. Suddenly regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) at the ipsilateral foot decreased steeply without other significant hemodynamic instabilities. At insertion site of eSheath, the left external iliac artery rupture occurred. To our surprise, there was almost no major bleeding because of the artery spasm and suppression of the large bore sheath. eSheath and the stuck valve were taken out together and TAVI was discontinued. The artery was replaced with a graft, and rSO2 of the foot recovered. Her aortic stenosis improved to moderate by balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) according to transthoracic echocardiography. The patient was discharged on foot without complications. To our knowledge, this is a first report of a silent rupture of the iliac artery during TAVI to be detected by sudden decrease of the foot rSO2 and treated with no fatal events. PMID:27017778

  4. Usefulness of decrease in oxygen uptake efficiency to identify gas exchange abnormality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in oxygen uptake efficiency (OUE, especially during exercise, is found in patients with chronic heart failure. In this study we aimed to test the validity and usefulness of OUE in evaluating gas exchange abnormality of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET with gas exchange measurements in 32 patients with confirmed IPAH. All patients also had resting hemodynamic measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT. Sixteen healthy subjects, matched by age, sex, and body size were used as controls, also had CPET and PFT measurements. RESULTS: In IPAH patients, the magnitude of absolute and percentage of predicted (%pred oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES and oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP, as well as several other CPET parameters, were strikingly worse than healthy subjects (P<0.0001. Pattern of changes in OUE in patients is similar to that in controls, In IPAH patients, OUE values at rest, warming up, anaerobic threshold and peak exercise were all significantly lower than in normal (P<0.0001. OUEP%pred, better than OUES%pred, correlated significantly with New York Heart Association (NYHA functional Class (r = -0.724, P<0.005, Total Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (TPVR (r = -0.694, P<0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO (r = 0.577, P<0.05, and the lowest ventilation versus CO2 output ratio during exercise (LowestV˙E/V˙CO2 (r = -0.902, P<0.0001. In addition, the coefficient of variation (COV of OUEP was lower (20.9% markedly than OUES (34.3% (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with IPAH, OUES and OUEP are both significantly lower than the healthy subjects. OUEP is a better physiological parameter than OUES in evaluating the gas exchange abnormality of patients with IPAH.

  5. Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-12-01

    In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

  6. Systematic review of near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation during non-cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HenningBayNielsen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is used to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2 during cardiac surgery but is less established during non-cardiac surgery. This systematic review aimed i to determine the non-cardiac surgical procedures that provoke a reduction in rScO2 and ii to evaluate whether an intraoperative reduction in rScO2 influences postoperative outcome. The PubMed and Embase database were searched from inception until April 30, 2013 and inclusion criteria were intraoperative NIRS determined rScO2 in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The type of surgery and number of patients included were recorded. There was included 113 articles and evidence suggests that rScO2 is reduced during thoracic surgery involving single lung ventilation, major abdominal surgery, hip surgery, and laparascopic surgery with the patient placed in anti-Tredelenburg’s position. Shoulder arthroscopy in the beach chair and carotid endarterectomy with clamped internal carotid artery also cause pronounced cerebral desaturation. A >20% reduction in rScO2 coincides with indices of regional and global cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Following thoracic surgery, major orthopedic and abdominal surgery the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction might be related to intraoperative cerebral desaturation. In conclusion, certain non-cardiac surgical procedures is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of regional cerebral oxygenation. Evidence for an association between cerebral desaturation and postoperative outcome parameters other than cognitive dysfunction needs to be established.

  7. Association between arterial elasticity, C-reactive protein and maximal oxygen consumption in well-trained cadets during three days extreme physical load: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regular aerobic training has beneficial effects on inflammatory pathways and on arterial elasticity, which are both important cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extreme physical load on arterial elasticity and inflammatory markers in well-trained healthy men who participated in a high-ranking combat course. Seven well-trained male cadets were examined during an international military combat course of 3.5 days duration. Small (C2) and large (C1) artery elasticity was assessed using diastolic pulse wave analysis. Inflammatory markers and arterial elasticity measurement were performed before and after the competition. The extreme prolonged physical load caused individually different responses in arterial elasticity, C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase in individual cadets. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max kg−1) correlated significantly with the change (Δ-difference between baseline and 24 h recovery period) of creatine kinase (r = −0.78; p = 0.04) and ΔC2 (r = 0.78; p = 0.04) and ΔC1 (r = 0.82; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis (R2 = 0.89, p = 0.01) the ΔC2 correlated strongly with VO2 max kg−1 (p = 0.005) and with the ΔCRP (p = 0.03), whereas the ΔC1 correlated only with VO2 max kg−1 and did not correlate significantly with the ΔCRP. Changes in small arterial elasticity induced by extreme physical load were significantly related to VO2 max kg−1 and ΔCRP, whereas the change of large artery elasticity was only associated with VO2 max kg−1. Our preliminary results indicate that acute exercise-induced inflammation may affect small artery elasticity. However, further, more extensive studies are needed in this area

  8. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  9. Statistical mapping of effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on blood flow and oxygen consumption in porcine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Sakoh, Masaharu; Andersen, Flemming; Rodell, Anders; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Østergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Cumming, Paul

    2007-02-15

    The volume of cerebral tissue perturbed in experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) can be highly variable. Thus, the territories of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) or oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) following MCAO might properly be defined using statistical parametric mapping within a population. In order to establish such a method, we mapped CBF and CMRO(2) in 18 pigs with acute MCAO. Parametric maps were flipped about the axis of symmetry, and CBF and CMRO(2) in the infarcted hemisphere were calculated as percentages of the magnitudes in mirror-image pixels. There were log-linear relationships between the volumes of affected tissue and the percentages of normal CFB or CMRO(2). This graphical analysis showed that the volume of the core deficit was smaller for CBF that for CMRO(2), but expanded more rapidly with decreasing CBF deficit than did the corresponding volumes of reduced CMRO(2). Thus, acute changes in CBF and CMRO(2) following MCAO in the pig can be defined as probabilistic volumes. PMID:17129609

  10. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthast, Silke [Unispital Basel, Inst. fuer Radiologie (Switzerland); Schulte, A. [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiooncology; Kos, S.; Bilecen, D. [Unispital Basel, Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [Unispital Basel (Switzerland). Angiologie

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  11. The effect of chronic reductions in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen on the radiation response of an experimental tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous study by the same authors has reported the effect of acute reductions in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa02) on tumour response to radiation. The results have been extended in the present paper to investigate tumour response to radiation in animals in which the Pa02 is chronically reduced. The purpose of these experiments was to simulate the condition of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy in the presence of chronically low Pa02 values as might be expected in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Mice bearing transplantable KHT sarcomas were kept in a 12% 02 environment prior to (10-16 days), during and following the radiation treatment of their tumours. During the period of low Pa02, (about 50 mm Hg) exposure, the mice were found to increase their haemoglobin (Hb) levels by approximately 50%. Because of this increase, the response, determined using a growth delay assay of the tumours irradiated at reduced Pa02 was found to be the same as that observed for tumours in mice breathing air throughout the experiment. In mice with reduced Pa02 levels maintained at normal Hb concentrations by periodic bleeding, tumour response was found to be similar to that of mice with acute Pa02 reductions. These results indicate that chronic Pa02 reductions in the absence of Hb compensation may have a detrimental effect on the success of a radiation treatment. (author)

  12. Circulação extracorpórea com desvio veno-arterial e baixa pressão parcial de oxigênio Extracorporeal circulation with venous-arterial shunt and low oxygen partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Coli Junqueira de MORAES

    2001-09-01

    da perfusão. No estudo clínico verificou-se baixo pO2 arterial e fluxo de perfusão normal. Comparando-se os resultados clínicos constatou-se que não houve diferença de mortalidade nos 2 grupos, porém no grupo com baixo pO2 e desvio veno-arterial o sangramento pós-operatório foi significativamente menor, utilizando-se três vezes menos hemoderivados. Além disso, não foi necessário o uso de misturador de gases.PURPOSE: This study is divided into 2 parts, an experimental study to establish a technique of extracorporeal circulation with low oxygen partial pressure and a clinical study to show the feasibility in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental surgery with extracorporeal circulation was performed in 20 dogs divided into 2 groups of ten. In group I, cannulation was done first in the superior vena cava, then in the inferior vena cava, keeping normal heartbeat and breathing, controlled by a respirator and pure oxygen. After passing through a heat exchanger, the blood of each vena cava was injected in the femoral artery. Blood samples from the aorta were taken above the diaphragm in every 30 minutes to check gasometric values. In group II, the right atrium was drained and half of the blood injected in the pulmonary artery with another pump and picked up through the left ventricle to the reservoir that also works as a heat exchanger. The mixed blood (50% arterial and 50% venous was re-injected by another pump in the arterial circulation. The heart was maintained fibrillating and the breathing controlled by the respirator. In the clinical study, 40 patients were divided into 2 groups of 20 each. In group A the patients were bypassed in the conventional manner, that is, compressed air and oxygen in the oxigenator with high arterial pO2. In group B, pure oxygen was used in the membrane oxigenator and venous-arterial shunt, performed between 40% to 50%. RESULTS: In both groups, from a physiologic point of view there was shunting of 50% of venous blood to the

  13. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis:effects on cerebellar function remodeling veriifed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Zhiwei Li; Peng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery oriifce stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood lfow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after inter-ventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic reso-nance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery oriifce stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treat-ment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery oriifce angioplasty and stenting+identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent function-al magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

  14. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species enhance AMP-activated protein kinase activation in the endothelium of patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Ruth M.; Salt, Ian P.; Miller, William H.; et al.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the endothelial dysfunction associated with CAD (coronary artery disease) and T2D (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) is concomitant with elevated mtROS (mitochondrial reactive oxygen species) production in the endothelium and establish if this, in turn, regulates the activity of endothelial AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). We investigated endothelial function, mtROS production and AMPK activation in saphenous veins from patients with advanced ...

  15. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26724425

  16. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-01-01

    There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebra...

  17. Propofol effect on cerebral oxygenation in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Thilo; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Stiller, Brigitte; Nagdyman, Nicole; Berger, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Propofol is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent which is used in procedural sedation in children. Propofol is known to decrease systemic vascular resistance, arterial blood pressure and can lead to desaturations and decreased systemic perfusion in children with cardiac shunting. This may result in a reduction in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor cerebral tissue oxygenation in the frontal neocortex. The objective of our study was to measure the changes in cerebral oxygen and blood supply after Propofol infusion in children with congenital heart disease. Propofol infusion may reduce cerebral oxygenation in children with congenital heart disease. The study group consisted of 32 children (f:m = 18:14), with median age of 49 (5-112) months and median weight of 15 (5-34) kg. We performed NIRS derived continuous measurement of cerebral oxygenation and cardiac output using Electrical velocimetry for 5 min before and after sedation with Propofol (1-2 mg/kg i.v.) for cardiac catheterization. Simultaneously, non-invasive arterial blood pressure and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were measured. Propofol sedation led to a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (79 ± 16 vs. 67 ± 12 mmHg) (p = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 ml/min/m(2)) (p = 0.03). In contrast, cerebral tissue oxygenation index, increased significantly from 57 ± 11 to 59 ± 10 % (p blood pressure. This may be caused by a decreased oxygen consumption of the sedated brain with intact cerebral auto-regulation. PMID:25311762

  18. Simultaneous mapping of temporally-resolved blood flow velocity and oxygenation in femoral artery and vein during reactive hyperemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langham Michael C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-occlusive hyperemia is often used as a paradigm to evaluate vascular reactivity, for example by measuring post-ischemic flow-mediated dilation, arterial blood flow or temporally resolved venous blood oxygenation (HbO2. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a simultaneous measurement of blood flow and HbO2 in the femoral circulation as part of a single procedure. Methods A multi-echo GRE pulse sequence was designed and implemented to collect velocity-encoded projections in addition to full-image echoes for field mapping as a means to quantify intravascular magnetic susceptibility. The method's feasibility was evaluated at 3T in a small pilot study involving two groups of healthy subjects (mean ages 26 ± 1.6 and 59 ± 7.3 years, N = 7 and 5, respectively in terms of six parameters characterizing the time-course of reactive hyperemia and their sensitivity to differentiate age effects. The reproducibility was assessed on two of the seven young healthy subjects with three repeated measurements. Results The physiological parameters agree with those obtained with current methods that quantify either velocity or HbO2 alone. Of the six measures of vascular reactivity, one from each group was significantly different in the two subject groups (p Conclusion The proposed method is able quantify multiple parameters that may lead to more detailed assessment of peripheral vascular reactivity in a single cuff paradigm rather than in separate procedures as required previously, thereby improving measurement efficiency and patient comfort.

  19. Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, pneumonia severity index and outcomes in patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moammar, Mahmoud Q; Azam, Hamad M; Blamoun, Adel I; Rashid, Ashraf O; Ismail, Medhat; Khan, M Anees; DeBari, Vincent A

    2008-09-01

    The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (DeltaA-a) provides a useful assessment of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) abnormalities. The objectives of the present study were to: (i) examine the correlation between the DeltaA-a and the pneumonia severity index (PSI); and (ii) determine whether these measures were comparable in predicting clinical outcomes. The present study was conducted at a 750-bed teaching hospital. It examined a retrospective cohort of 255 patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) over a 2 year period. Association between the CAP and DeltaA-a was investigated by regression models and correlation, as well as two logistic models for subjects bifurcated by low-risk/moderate-to-high risk. The decision levels (DL) for both PSI and DeltaA-a were then compared as predictors of both length of stay (LOS) and survival. The correlation between PSI and DeltaA-a was strong (rho = 0.76; P relationship. Both logistic models indicated a strong association (P < 0.001) between DeltaA-a and PSI and yielded an optimal DL for the DeltaA-a of < 89 mmHg. Inter-test agreement of DeltaA-a with PSI was 76.9% (kappa = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.72; P < 0.0001). At < 89 mmHg, the odds ratios for LOS were similar to those at PSI = 90 in predicting LOS in the range 3-7 days, inclusive. There was no significant difference in the ability of DeltaA-a and PSI to predict survival for either the low- or high-risk group (P = 0.363 and P = 0.951, respectively). The DeltaA-a correlates well with PSI and performs comparably in predicting two major outcomes in subjects hospitalized with CAP. PMID:18518885

  20. Carbogen inhalation increases oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain tissue in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease: increased oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    Sa(O2) are readily obtained with carbogen, while oxygen increases only Sa(O2). Thus, carbogen improves oxygen transport to brain tissue more efficiently than oxygen alone. Further studies with more subjects are, however, needed to investigate the applicability of carbogen for long-term inhalation and...

  1. Quantitation of platelet loss with indium-111 labeled platelets in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator and arterial filter during extracorporeal circulation in a pig model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet consumption in a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator (HFMO) and arterial filter (AF) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was quantified in five pigs using Indium-111 labeled autologous platelets. Platelet labeling was performed 20-24 hours before CPB. After general endotracheal anesthesia, the pigs were systemically heparinized and were placed on CPB via a median sternotomy. After 3 hours of CPB, radioactivity was quantified with a gamma camera and an ionization chamber. The percent of injected dose (mean ± SD) was 0.79 +/- 0.45 in the HFMO, 2.52 ± 0.93 in AF, 4.3 ± 1.2 in blood loss during CPB. Platelet consumption in HFMO during CPB was lower than in bubble oxygenators (19%) or silicone membrane oxygenators (12%) as observed in previous studies

  2. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  3. Portal Hyperperfusion after Extended Hepatectomy Does Not Induce a Hepatic Arterial Buffer Response (HABR but Impairs Mitochondrial Redox State and Hepatocellular Oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dold

    Full Text Available Portal hyperperfusion after extended hepatectomy or small-for-size liver transplantation may induce organ dysfunction and failure. The underlying mechanisms, however, are still not completely understood. Herein, we analysed whether hepatectomy-associated portal hyperperfusion induces a hepatic arterial buffer response, i.e., an adaptive hepatic arterial constriction, which may cause hepatocellular hypoxia and organ dysfunction.Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 30%, 70% and 90% hepatectomy. Baseline measurements before hepatectomy served as controls. Hepatic arterial and portal venous flows were analysed by ultrasonic flow measurement. Microvascular blood flow and mitochondrial redox state were determined by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Hepatic tissue pO2 was analysed by polarographic techniques. Hepatic function and integrity were studied by bromosulfophthalein bile excretion and liver histology.Portal blood flow was 2- to 4-fold increased after 70% and 90% hepatectomy. This, however, did not provoke a hepatic arterial buffer response. Nonetheless, portal hyperperfusion and constant hepatic arterial blood flow were associated with a reduced mitochondrial redox state and a decreased hepatic tissue pO2 after 70% and 90% hepatectomy. Microvascular blood flow increased significantly after hepatectomy and functional sinusoidal density was found only slightly reduced. Major hepatectomy further induced a 2- to 3-fold increase of bile flow. This was associated with a 2-fold increase of bromosulfophthalein excretion.Portal hyperperfusion after extended hepatectomy does not induce a hepatic arterial buffer response but reduces mitochondrial redox state and hepatocellular oxygenation. This is not due to a deterioration of microvascular perfusion, but rather due to a relative hypermetabolism of the remnant liver after major resection.

  4. Cerebral desaturation during exercise reversed by O2 supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H B; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P;

    1999-01-01

    fraction of 0.21 or 0.30 in a crossover design. During exercise with an inspired O2 fraction of 0.21, the arterial CO2 pressure (35 +/- 1 mmHg; mean +/- SE) and O2 pressure (77 +/- 2 mmHg) as well as the hemoglobin saturation (91.9 +/- 0.7%) were reduced (P <0.05). ScO2 was reduced from 80 +/- 2 to 63...... +/- 2% (P <0.05), and the near-infrared spectroscopy-determined concentration changes in deoxy- (DeltaHb) and oxyhemoglobin (DeltaHbO2) of the vastus lateralis muscle increased 22 +/- 3 microM and decreased 14 +/- 3 microM, respectively (P <0.05). Increasing the inspired O2 fraction to 0.30 did not...... affect ventilation (174 +/- 4 l/min), but arterial CO2 pressure (37 +/- 2 mmHg), O2 pressure (165 +/- 5 mmHg), and hemoglobin O2 saturation (99 +/- 0.1%) increased (P <0. 05). ScO2 remained close to the resting level during exercise (79 +/- 2 vs. 81 +/- 2%), and although the muscle DeltaHb (18 +/- 2...

  5. Influence of fatty acid desaturation on spontaneous acyl migration in 2-monoacylglycerols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of desaturation from the C9 to the C15 carbon of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) fatty acids on spontaneous acyl migration is described. Density functional calculations for 2-monooleoylglycerol (C18:cis-delta9), 2-monolinoleoylglycerol (C18:cis-delta9,12), and 2-monolinolenoylglycerol (C18:cis...

  6. Association between morphometric variables and nocturnal desaturation in sickle-cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC, and abdominal circumference (AC with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. METHODS: all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet, and CC and AC measurements. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031. The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006 and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028. There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001 and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia.

  7. Novel Desaturation Cell to Quantify Gushing Intensity: A Preliminary Study on Model Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Poštulková, Michaela; Růžička, Marek; Brányik, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2015), s. 185-189. ISSN 0361-0470 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gushing * desaturation cell * gushing matrix Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  8. Discriminating between the effect of shunt and reduced VA/Q on arterial oxygen saturation is particularly useful in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G; Jones, S E

    2000-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on methods for discriminating between an increased shunt and a reduced ratio of ventilation to perfusion. In this review we prefer the terms "VA/Q" and "reduced or low VA/Q" rather than "V/Q inequality" to refer to the effects on arterial oxygenation of reducing V/Q below 0.8 to about 0.1. Almost without exception the conventional methods for measuring shunt and reduced VA/Q are invasive as well as technically complex. For most clinicians who are dealing with a hypoxemic patient the relevance of these entities is not so obvious as to justify the time and difficulty in either understanding or measuring them. However this review shows that, while an increased shunt and a decreased VA/Q both reduce arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) at a particular inspired oxygen concentration (PIO2), the effect of shunt and reduced VA/Q have important clinical differences on the relationship between PIO2 and SaO2. The review also outlines a simple non-invasive method for measuring shunt and reduced VA/Q which illustrates the value of discriminating between them in clinical practice. PMID:12580217

  9. Long Oxygen Desaturation Time is a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Akbal; Burcu Oktay; Hikmet Fırat; Mustafa Özbek; Sadık Ardıç; Murat Kızılgün

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and to evaluate the relationship between sleep parameters and MS incidence.Materials and Methods: Included in this study were 101 patients with complaints of snoring, witnessed apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, and no prior OSAS diagnosis. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score ≥5 was required for the diagnosis of OSAS. The patient group included 80 cases, and the control group (AH...

  10. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  11. Arterial oxygen content is precisely maintained by graded erythrocytotic responses in settings of high/normal serum iron levels, and predicts exercise capacity: an observational study of hypoxaemic patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatshalan Santhirapala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2, are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. METHODOLOGY: 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96% had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5-99, median 95% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001. Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001. A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8% patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. SIGNIFICANCE: Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant

  12. Effect of desaturation and re-saturation on shale in underground galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize by experimental and numerical approaches the hydric, mechanical and hydro-mechanical effects due to the desaturation and re-saturation of the Eastern argillite, host rock of the Bure site, future underground radioactive waste disposal facility. Experimental and numerical approaches for the characterization of hydric transfers in argilites are presented. A simple identification method is proposed which uses the determination of the linearized hydric diffusivity from weight measurements performed on samples (thin tubes and plates) submitted to humidity steps according to a desaturation-re-saturation cycle. The hydric transfer is nonlinear. In order to interpret this phenomenon, a non-linear numerical model is established which takes into account the physical phenomena (hydraulic conduction, vapor diffusion, phase change..). The evolution of the physical and mechanical behaviour of the argillaceous rock with respect to the imposed humidity is then analyzed according to a desaturation-re-saturation cycle by successive steps. The hydric deformation, the velocity of ultrasonic waves propagation, the elastic properties, the rupture characteristics and the delayed phenomena depend on the hydric state of the material. The desaturation and re-saturation influence on a scale model of tunnel is analyzed. Thick tubes parallel or perpendicular to the stratification are used to show up the anisotropy of the rock. These tubes are submitted to hydric loads by blowing air with variable hygrometry through their center hole. A nonlinear poro-elastic model is used to interpret the anisotropic hydro-mechanical phenomena observed. It is shown that hydric loads can lead to the rupture of test samples which follow the anisotropic directions of the rock and which can be interpreted by the hydro-mechanical model as a violation of a rupture criterion in total pulling stress. Finally, numerical calculations for the phenomena generated by desaturation

  13. Regional changes in cerebral blood flow oxygenation can indicate global changes in cerebral blood flow during coronary artery occlusion in juvenile pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely employed method for assessment of regional cerebral oxygenation (RcStO2). RcStO2 values are expected to vary with changes in the relative amount of oxyhaemoglobin. The present experimental study aimed to assess the response of RcStO2 to controlled alterations of carotid blood flow (CQ). Landrace pigs were anesthetized followed by surgical preparation. Cyclic variations in cardiac output were accomplished by intermittently occluding the main stem of the left coronary artery. A flow measurement probe for assessing CQ was placed around the left carotid artery. One NIRS probe was placed on the left ipsilateral forehead to assess regional cerebral oximetry. Simultaneous registration of CQ and RcStO2 was conducted. There was a strong correlation for variation in CQ and RcStO2 signal values. Based on coherence analysis the fraction of power of the RcStO2 that was coherent with the CQ signal reached 0.84 ± 0.12 (P < 0.05) for frequencies lower than 0.1 Hz. The agreement of the sample-to-sample co-variation, as assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient, was 0.83 ± 0.08 (P < 0.05). One explanatory component for variations in cerebral oxygenation verified by NIRS should be attributed to variations in the cerebral blood flow. (paper)

  14. Remodeling of Aorta Extracellular Matrix as a Result of Transient High Oxygen Exposure in Newborn Rats: Implication for Arterial Rigidity and Hypertension Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michele M.; Cloutier, Anik; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Sartelet, Hervé; Germain, Nathalie; Comte, Blandine; Schulz, Richard; DeBlois, Denis; Nuyt, Anne Monique

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal high-oxygen exposure leads to elevated blood pressure, microvascular rarefaction, vascular dysfunction and arterial (aorta) rigidity in adult rats. Whether structural changes are present in the matrix of aorta wall is unknown. Considering that elastin synthesis peaks in late fetal life in humans, and early postnatal life in rodents, we postulated that transient neonatal high-oxygen exposure can trigger premature vascular remodelling. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed from days 3 to 10 after birth to 80% oxygen (vs. room air control) and were studied at 4 weeks. Blood pressure and vasomotor response of the aorta to angiotensin II and to the acetylcholine analogue carbachol were not different between groups. Vascular superoxide anion production was similar between groups. There was no difference between groups in aortic cross sectional area, smooth muscle cell number or media/lumen ratio. In oxygen-exposed rats, aorta elastin/collagen content ratio was significantly decreased, the expression of elastinolytic cathepsin S was increased whereas collagenolytic cathepsin K was decreased. By immunofluorescence we observed an increase in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 staining in aortas of oxygen-exposed rats whereas TIMP-2 staining was reduced, indicating a shift in the balance towards degradation of the extra-cellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen. There was no significant difference in MMP-2 activity between groups as determined by gelatin zymography. Overall, these findings indicate that transient neonatal high oxygen exposure leads to vascular wall alterations (decreased elastin/collagen ratio and a shift in the balance towards increased deposition of collagen) which are associated with increased rigidity. Importantly, these changes are present prior to the elevation of blood pressure and vascular dysfunction in this model, and may therefore be contributory. PMID:24743169

  15. Remodeling of aorta extracellular matrix as a result of transient high oxygen exposure in newborn rats: implication for arterial rigidity and hypertension risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Huyard

    Full Text Available Neonatal high-oxygen exposure leads to elevated blood pressure, microvascular rarefaction, vascular dysfunction and arterial (aorta rigidity in adult rats. Whether structural changes are present in the matrix of aorta wall is unknown. Considering that elastin synthesis peaks in late fetal life in humans, and early postnatal life in rodents, we postulated that transient neonatal high-oxygen exposure can trigger premature vascular remodelling. Sprague Dawley rat pups were exposed from days 3 to 10 after birth to 80% oxygen (vs. room air control and were studied at 4 weeks. Blood pressure and vasomotor response of the aorta to angiotensin II and to the acetylcholine analogue carbachol were not different between groups. Vascular superoxide anion production was similar between groups. There was no difference between groups in aortic cross sectional area, smooth muscle cell number or media/lumen ratio. In oxygen-exposed rats, aorta elastin/collagen content ratio was significantly decreased, the expression of elastinolytic cathepsin S was increased whereas collagenolytic cathepsin K was decreased. By immunofluorescence we observed an increase in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 staining in aortas of oxygen-exposed rats whereas TIMP-2 staining was reduced, indicating a shift in the balance towards degradation of the extra-cellular matrix and increased deposition of collagen. There was no significant difference in MMP-2 activity between groups as determined by gelatin zymography. Overall, these findings indicate that transient neonatal high oxygen exposure leads to vascular wall alterations (decreased elastin/collagen ratio and a shift in the balance towards increased deposition of collagen which are associated with increased rigidity. Importantly, these changes are present prior to the elevation of blood pressure and vascular dysfunction in this model, and may therefore be contributory.

  16. Non invasive tomographic imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical indications for extra-intracranial arterial bypass (EIAB) surgery are still rather ill-defined and are the matter of a randomized trial in progress currently. However, 'hemodynamic' transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are considered at present the clinical entity that should benefit most from this surgical procedure. The contribution of conventional CBF techniques in assessing both the physiological indications and the usefulness of EIAB has been only moderate, though substantial. Clearly, both CBF and regional metabolic data should be obtained, ideally in tomographic representation. We have attempted such study using the 15O continuous inhalation technique in a small number of instructive patients. Two different patterns of the CBF-OEF relationship have been defined that could be of some importance in respect to both the underlying mechanisms of 'hemodynamic' TIAs and to the rational bases for EIAB procedures

  17. Reduced blood flow response to acetazolamide reflects pre-existing vasodilation and decreased oxygen metabolism in major cerebral arterial occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to acetazolamide may indicate an increase in cerebral blood volume (CBV) caused by reduced perfusion pressure in patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions. However, a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) caused by ischemic changes may also decrease the CBF response to acetazolamide by decreasing the production of carbon dioxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the values of CBV and CMRO2 are independent predictors of the CBF response to acetazolamide in major cerebral arterial occlusive disease. We used positron emission tomography to study 30 patients with major cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions. The CBF response to acetazolamide was assessed by measuring baseline CBF and CBF 10 min after an intravenous injection of 1 g of acetazolamide. Multivariate analysis was used to test the independent predictive value of the CBV and CMRO2 at baseline with respect to the percent change in CBF during acetazolamide administration. Both increased CBV and decreased CMRO2 were significant and independent predictors of the reduced CBF response to acetazolamide. CBV accounted for 25% of the variance in the absolute change in CBF during acetazolamide administration and 42% of the variance in the percent change in CBF, whereas CMRO2 accounted for 19% and 4% of the variance, respectively. In patients with major cerebral arterial occlusive disease, a decrease in CMRO2 may contribute to the reduced CBF response to acetazolamide, although an increase in CBV appears to be the major contributing factor. (orig.)

  18. The association between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and pulse oximetric measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) in the patients with COPD: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study was aimed to explore the association between arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and spirometer parameters of disease severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with a view to identify whether the pulse oximetry can be used as an alternative to arterial values in the clinical management of COPD patients in a routine practice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with COPD were included in this study. After evaluation of each patient through his...

  19. Moisture transfer in shale samples subjected to desaturation - re-saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excavation of underground galleries is expected to create a damaged zone around the galleries. Additional damage could be induced by the desaturation-re-saturation due to the ventilation in galleries. Desaturation induced cracks have already been observed in the Tournemire shale (France) and break-up of shot-crete in the reconnaissance gallery has been caused by swelling of Opalinus clay (Switzerland) around borehole collars. The assessment of the damaged zone is of main importance to estimate the retention capacity of rock mass. The first step of understanding such as process consist s in studying the moisture transfer in rock samples, in order to access to the mass transfer kinetics and to the spatial extension of the unsaturated zone. (authors)

  20. Circulation time determined by carotid angiography in patients with chronic internal Carotid artery occlusion. Comparison with cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Inugami, Atsushi (Research Inst. for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)); Shishido, Fumio (and others)

    1994-10-01

    The degree of collateral circulation in patients with unilaterally chronic internal carotid artery occlusion was estimated by mean transit time of contrast material in rapid sequence carotid angiography (Angiographic MTT), and compared with cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured by PET. In normal density region on X-ray CT, a significant negative correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This indicates that cerebral blood flow can be estimated by Angiographic MTT. It has been reported that the ratio of cerebral blood volume (CBV) to CBF (CBV/CBF), i.e., mean transit time determined by PET well agreed with OEF, and is good indicator for brain circulation reserve. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and CBV/CBF. However, a significant positive correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and no significant correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and oxygen consumption rate (CMRO[sub 2]). These indicates that Angiographic MTT may be indicator for brain circulation reserve. (author).

  1. Left anterior descending coronary artery blood flow and left ventricular unloading during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in a swine model of acute cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Christoph; Schubert, Sarah; Carney, Elizabeth; Ghodsizad, Ali; Koerner, Michael; McCoach, Robert; El-Banayosy, Aly

    2015-02-01

    The impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support on coronary blood flow and left ventricular unloading is still debated. This study aimed to further characterize the influence of ECMO on coronary artery blood flow and its ability to unload the left ventricle in a short-term model of acute cardiogenic shock. Seven anesthetized pigs were intubated and then underwent median sternotomy and cannulation for venoarterial (VA) ECMO. Flow in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left atrial pressure (LAP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured before and after esmolol-induced cardiac dysfunction and after initiating VA-ECMO support. Induction of acute cardiogenic shock was associated with short-term increases in LAP from 8 ± 4 mm Hg to 18 ± 14 mm Hg (P = 0.9) and LVEDP from 5 ± 2 mm Hg to 13 ± 17 mm Hg (P = 0.9), and a decrease in MAP from 63 ± 16 mm Hg to 50 ± 24 mm Hg (P = 0.3). With VA-ECMO support, blood flow in the LAD increased from 28 ± 25 mL/min during acute unsupported cardiogenic shock to 67 ± 50 mL/min (P = 0.003), and LAP and LVEDP decreased to 8 + 5 mm Hg (P = 0.7) and 5 ± 3 mm Hg (P = 0.5), respectively. In this swine model of acute cardiogenic shock, VA-ECMO improved coronary blood flow and provided some degree of left ventricular unloading for the short duration of the study. PMID:24935151

  2. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoremba Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45 undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de

  3. Increased Ventricular Premature Contraction Frequency During REM Sleep in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Watanabe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are reported to have a peak of sudden cardiac death at night, in contrast to patients without apnea whose peak is in the morning. We hypothesized that ventricular premature contraction (VPC frequency would correlate with measures of apnea and sympathetic activity.Methods Electrocardiograms from a sleep study of 125 patients with coronary artery disease were evaluated. Patients were categorized by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI into Moderate (AHI 15 apnea groups. Sleep stages studied were Wake, S1, S2, S34, and rapid eye movement (REM. Parameters of a potent autonomically-based risk predictor for sudden cardiac death called heart rate turbulence were calculated.Results There were 74 Moderate and 51 Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients. VPC frequency was affected significantly by sleep stage (Wake, S2 and REM, F=5.8, p<.005 and by AHI (F=8.7, p<.005. In Severe apnea patients, VPC frequency was higher in REM than in Wake (p=.011. In contrast, patients with Moderate apnea had fewer VPCs and exhibited no sleep stage dependence (p=.19. Oxygen desaturation duration per apnea episode correlated positively with AHI (r2=.71, p<.0001, and was longer in REM than in non-REM (p<.0001. The heart rate turbulence parameter TS correlated negatively with oxygen desaturation duration in REM (r2=.06, p=.014.Conclusions Higher VPC frequency coupled with higher sympathetic activity caused by longer apnea episodes in REM sleep may be one reason for increased nocturnal death in apneic patients.

  4. Influence of environmental temperature on the fatty acid desaturation and elongation activity of fish (Pimelodus maculatus) liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torrengo, M; Brenner, R R

    1976-01-22

    The effect of environmental temperature on the activity of liver microsomes of fish (Pimelodus maculatus) to desaturate and elongate oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was studied. It was found that: 1. Fish kept at 14-15 degrees C had higher desaturation and elongation activity than animals kept at 29-30 degrees C. The ratio of activity was the same for the three fatty acids. 2. A decrease of the environmental temperature increased the V of linoleic acid desaturation to gamma-linolenic acid, but did not modify the approximate Km of the reaction. 3. The inactivation of the delta6-desaturase of microsomes separated from fish kept at 29-30 degrees C and 14-15 degrees C was the same when heated at 40 degrees C. However, the enzyme was deactivated faster when heated at 29-30 degrees C than at 14-15 degrees C. 4. The increase of the delta6-desaturation activity of the microsomes evoked by the decrease of the temperature of the aquarium was mostly compensated for by the correlative decrease of the specific reaction rate of the reaction. For this reason it is assumed that the adaptive change of the desaturation activity of the microsomes with the environmental temperature does not greatly modify the fatty acid composition of the fish. PMID:1252479

  5. Exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement has good sensitivity and specificity to detect lower extremity arterial stenosis assessed by computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Caroline; Chauve, Emmanuel; Chaudru, Ségolène; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Jaquinandi, Vincent; Mahé, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent disease diagnosed by the use of ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest. In some clinical conditions (diabetes, renal insufficiency, advanced age), ABI can be falsely normal and other tests are required for the PAD diagnosis (American Heart Association statement). This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (exercise-TcPo2) in detection of arterial stenosis ≥50% using computed tomography angiography (CTA) as the gold standard.We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients referred to our vascular unit (University Hospital, Rennes, France) for exercise-TcPo2 testing from 2014 to 2015. All included patients had a CTA performed within 3 months of the exercise-TcPo2 test. Exercise-TcPo2 was performed on treadmill (10% slope; 2 mph speed). We calculated the Delta from Resting Oxygen Pressure (DROP) index (expressed in mm Hg) at the proximal and distal levels. Two blinded physicians performed stenosis quantification on CTA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define a cutoff point to detect arterial stenosis ≥50%, stenosis ≥60%, and stenosis ≥70%.A total of 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 2 years old; 74% men) were analyzed. The highest areas under the curve (AUC) were found for 60% stenosis at both proximal and distal levels. For stenosis ≥50%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 80.9% [67.1-89.7], 81.0% [59.3-92.7] respectively. For stenosis ≥50%, sensitivity and specificity of distal minimal DROP were 73.2% [60.3-83.1], 83.3% [53.8-96.2], respectively. For stenosis ≥60%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 82.5% [67.6-91.5] and 85.7% [67.7-94.8] respectively. For stenosis ≥60%, sensitivity and specificity of distal minimal DROP were 80.4% [67.3-89.1] and 88.2% [64.2-97.7], respectively. For stenosis ≥70%, sensitivity and specificity of proximal minimal DROP were 85

  6. Heart rate is associated with markers of fatty acid desaturation: the GOCADAN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O.E. Ebbesson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine if heart rate (HR is associated with desaturation indexes as HR is associated with arrhythmia and sudden death. Study design: A community based cross-sectional study of 1214 Alaskan Inuit. Methods: Data of FA concentrations from plasma and red blood cell membranes from those ≥35 years of age (n = 819 were compared to basal HR at the time of examination. Multiple linear regression with backward stepwise selection was employed to analyze the effect of the desaturase indexes on HR, after adjustment for relevant covariates. Results: The Δ5 desaturase index (Δ5-DI measured in serum has recently been associated with a protective role for cardiovascular disease. This index measured here in plasma and red blood cells showed a negative correlation with HR. The plasma stearoyl-CoA-desaturase (SCD index, previously determined to be related to cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality, on the other hand, was positively associated with HR, while the Δ6 desaturase index (Δ6-DI had no significant effect on HR. Conclusion: Endogenous FA desaturation is associated with HR and thereby, in the case of SCD, possibly with arrhythmia and sudden death, which would at least partially explain the previously observed association between cardiovascular mortality and desaturase activity.

  7. Desaturation Maneuvers and Precise Orbit Determination for the BepiColombo Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, Elisa Maria; Milani, Andrea; Tommei, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the analysis of the consequences that desaturation maneuvers can have in the precise orbit determination corresponding to the Radio Science Experiment (MORE) of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury. This mission is an ESA/JAXA joint project with very challenging objectives regarding geodesy, geophysics and fundamental physics. In the neighborhood of Mercury, the s/c will experience strong solar radiation pressure torques; the s/c attitude is controlled by inertial wheels that after some time reach their maximum rotation state. Then they have to be slowed down by means of thruster pulses, inducing a residual acceleration on the s/c, with a desaturation (or off-loading) maneuver. In this paper, we will show how such maneuvers affect the orbit of the s/c and the radio science measurements and, also, how to include them in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. The non linear least squares fit we consider is applied on a set of observational arcs separated by interva...

  8. Trans-vaccenate is Δ13-desaturated by FADS3 in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Vincent; Pédrono, Frédérique; Blanchard, Hélène; Duby, Cécile; Boulier-Monthéan, Nathalie; Bernard, Laurence; Beauchamp, Erwan; Catheline, Daniel; Legrand, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturases play critical roles in regulating the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in all biological kingdoms. As opposed to plants, mammals are so far characterized by the absence of desaturases introducing additional double bonds at the methyl-end site of fatty acids. However, the function of the mammalian fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene remains unknown. This gene is located within the FADS cluster and presents a high nucleotide sequence homology with FADS1 (Δ5-desaturase) and FADS2 (Δ6-desaturase). Here, we show that rat FADS3 displays no common Δ5-, Δ6- or Δ9-desaturase activity but is able to catalyze the unexpected Δ13-desaturation of trans-vaccenate. Although there is no standard for complete conclusive identification, structural characterization strongly suggests that the Δ11,13-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) produced by FADS3 from trans-vaccenate is the trans11,cis13-CLA isomer. In rat hepatocytes, knockdown of FADS3 expression specifically reduces trans-vaccenate Δ13-desaturation. Evidence is presented that FADS3 is the first "methyl-end" fatty acid desaturase functionally characterized in mammals. PMID:24070791

  9. Oxygenation and release of inflammatory mediators after off-pump compared with after on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B.S.; Laugesen, Helle; Sollid, J.;

    2007-01-01

    oxygenation, shunt (%) and ventilation-perfusions mismatch, described as ΔPO2 (kPa), were estimated for up to 5 days post-operatively. Systemic release of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and -10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophils were measured in peripheral blood samples for up to 3 days post-operatively. The...... lungs participation in the cytokine response was evaluated from mixed venous blood samples taken within the first 16 h post-operatively. Results: OPCAB was followed by a higher shunt (P = 0.047), with no difference (P = 0.47) in the deterioration of ΔPO2 between the groups. OPCAB was followed by an...

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-α enhances hyperbaric oxygen-induced visfatin expression via JNK pathway in human coronary arterial endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gong-Jhe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visfatin, a adipocytokine with insulin-mimetic effect, plays a role in endothelial angiogenesis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO has been used in medical practice. However, the molecular mechanism of beneficial effects of HBO is poorly understood. We sought to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regulation of visfatin by HBO in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs. Methods Human CAECs were exposed to 2.5 atmosphere absolute (ATA of oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber. Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and promoter activity assay were performed. In vitro glucose uptake and tube formation was detected. Results Visfatin protein (2.55-fold and mRNA (2.53-fold expression were significantly increased after exposure to 2.5 ATA HBO for 4 to 6 h. Addition of SP600125 and JNK siRNA 30 min before HBO inhibited the induction of visfatin protein. HBO also significantly increased DNA-protein binding activity of AP-1 and visfatin promoter activity. Addition of SP600125 and TNF-α monoclonal antibody 30 min before HBO abolished the DNA-protein binding activity and visfatin promoter activity induced by HBO. HBO significantly increased secretion of TNF-α from cultured human CAECs. Exogenous addition of TNF-α significantly increased visfatin protein expression while TNF-α antibody and TNF-α receptor antibody blocked the induction of visfatin protein expression induced by HBO. HBO increased glucose uptake in human CAECs as HBO and visfatin siRNA and TNF-α antibody attenuated the glucose uptake induced by HBO. HBO significantly increased the tube formation of human CAECs while visfatin siRNA, TNF-α antibody inhibited the tube formation induced by HBO. Conclusions HBO activates visfatin expression in cultured human CAECs. HBO-induced visfatin is mediated by TNF-α and at least in part through JNK pathway.

  11. Systematic review of near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation during non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B

    2014-01-01

    . Shoulder arthroscopy in the beach chair and carotid endarterectomy with clamped internal carotid artery (ICA) also cause pronounced cerebral desaturation. A >20% reduction in rScO2 coincides with indices of regional and global cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Following thoracic surgery......, major orthopedic, and abdominal surgery the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) might be related to intraoperative cerebral desaturation. In conclusion, certain non-cardiac surgical procedures is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of rScO2. Evidence for an...

  12. A systematic desaturation method for images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Gabriele; Schwartz, Richard; Piana, Michele; Massone, Anna Maria; Benvenuto, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The fine spatial resolution of the SDO AIA CCD's is often destroyed by the charge in saturated pixels overflowing into a swath of neighboring cells during fast rising solar flares. Automated exposure control can only mitigate this issue to a degree and it has other deleterious effects. Our method addresses the desaturation problem for AIA images as an image reconstruction problem in which the information content of the diffraction fringes, generated by the interaction between the incoming radiation and the hardware of the spacecraft, is exploited to recover the true image intensities within the primary saturated core of the image. This methodology takes advantage of some well defined techniques like cross-correlation and the Expectation Maximization method to invert the direct relation between the diffraction fringes intensities and the true flux intensities. During this talk a complete overview on the structure of the method will be provided, besides some reliability tests obtained by its application against synthetic and real data.

  13. Pre-treatment ferritin level and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient can predict mortality rate due to acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis treated by cyclosporine a/glucocorticosteroid combination therapy: a case control study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Isoda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis (DM-A/SIP is a disease associated with a poor prognosis that resists treatment with glucocorticosteroids (GC and progresses rapidly in a period of weeks to months to death. We retrospectively studied outcomes, prognostic factors, and their relations with survival rate in patients with DM-A/SIP treated with early cyclosporine A (CSA/GC combination therapy and 2-hour postdose blood concentration monitoring. METHODS: This study comprised 32 DM-A/SIP patients who were simultaneously treated with CSA and prednisolone. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared between those who died due to DM-A/SIP and those surviving 24 weeks after beginning of therapy. Prognostic factors were extracted, and their relations with the survival rate were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 32 DM-A/SIP patients, 25 survived, 5 died of DM-A/SIP, and 2 died of infections. In those who died due to DM-A/SIP, ferritin level and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were significantly increased compared with the survivors (P<0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that ferritin and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were independent prognostic factors of poor outcome. The survival rate 24 weeks after beginning of treatment was significantly lower in those with a ferritin level of ≥ 600 ng/ml and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of ≥ 45 Torr (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. All patients with both prognostic factors died, and the outcome was significantly poorer in these patients than in those with one or neither of the prognostic factors (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pre-treatment high serum ferritin level and high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as poor prognostic factors in DM-A/SIP patients undergoing early CSA/GC combination therapy and showed that the outcomes were poor in patients with both factors.

  14. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  15. Cortical spreading depression impairs oxygen delivery and metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yuzawa, Izumi; Sakadžić, Sava; Vivek J Srinivasan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Boas, David A.; Ayata, Cenk

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with severe hypoperfusion in mice. Using minimally invasive multimodal optical imaging, we show that severe flow reductions during and after spreading depression are associated with a steep decline in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Concurrent severe hemoglobin desaturation suggests that the oxygen metabolism becomes at least in part supply limited, and the decrease in cortical blood volume implicates vasoconstriction as the mechanism. In s...

  16. SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF PERIPHERAL VENO-ARTERIAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION FOR CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION WITH SEVERE HEMODYNAMIC COMPROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR is one of the severe complications of early and late period after heart transplantation (HT. Only few case reports and studies presented of mechanical circulatory support (MCS application for refractory acute rejection causing hemodynamic compromise. Aim. We report the case of a woman with cardiogenic shock caused by severe AMR that was successfully treatment by peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO. Material and methods. In december 2014, a 60-year-old woman with dilated cardiomyopathy was operated for HT. The patient had a good initial cardiac allograft function and no and was discharged from ICU on the 4th day after HT. 1st endomyocardial biopsy (EMB (the 7th day after HT showed absence of acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection. On the 11th day after HT patient aggravated and presented clinical signs of life-threatening acute cardiac allograft dysfunction: arterial blood pressure 78/49/38 mm Hg, HR 111 in min, CVP 20 mm Hg, PAP 47/34/25 mm Hg, PCWP 25 mm Hg, CI 1.5 l/min/m2, adrenalin 110 ng/kg/min, dopamine 15 mcg/kg/min. ECG showed impairment of systolic left (LVEF 25% and right (RVEF 15% ventricle function, left and right ventricle diffuse hypokinesis, thickness of IVS, LV and RV wall 1.7, 1.4 and 0.8 cm, tricuspid and mitral valve regurgitation 2–3 degrees. EMB presented AMR. In conscience peripheral VA ECMO was installed. We used peripheral transcutaneous cannulation technique via femoral vessels – arterial cannula 15 F, venous cannula – 23 F, vascular catheter 14 G for anterograde leg’s perfusion. ACT 130–150 sec. AMR therapy included: methylprednisolon pulse-therapy (10 mg/kg for 5 day, IgG, plasmapheresis (No 7, rituximab. Results. Under MCS by VA ECMO we noted quick improvement of hemodynamic, metabolic homeostasis and organ functions. On the 6th day of VA ECMO (blood flow 1.8 l/min: arterial blood pressure 133/81/54 mm Hg, CVP 5 mm

  17. Effect of desaturation and re-saturation on shale in underground galleries; Effets de la desaturation et de la resaturation sur l'argilite dans les ouvrages souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Q.T

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this thesis is to characterize by experimental and numerical approaches the hydric, mechanical and hydro-mechanical effects due to the desaturation and re-saturation of the Eastern argillite, host rock of the Bure site, future underground radioactive waste disposal facility. Experimental and numerical approaches for the characterization of hydric transfers in argilites are presented. A simple identification method is proposed which uses the determination of the linearized hydric diffusivity from weight measurements performed on samples (thin tubes and plates) submitted to humidity steps according to a desaturation-re-saturation cycle. The hydric transfer is nonlinear. In order to interpret this phenomenon, a non-linear numerical model is established which takes into account the physical phenomena (hydraulic conduction, vapor diffusion, phase change..). The evolution of the physical and mechanical behaviour of the argillaceous rock with respect to the imposed humidity is then analyzed according to a desaturation-re-saturation cycle by successive steps. The hydric deformation, the velocity of ultrasonic waves propagation, the elastic properties, the rupture characteristics and the delayed phenomena depend on the hydric state of the material. The desaturation and re-saturation influence on a scale model of tunnel is analyzed. Thick tubes parallel or perpendicular to the stratification are used to show up the anisotropy of the rock. These tubes are submitted to hydric loads by blowing air with variable hygrometry through their center hole. A nonlinear poro-elastic model is used to interpret the anisotropic hydro-mechanical phenomena observed. It is shown that hydric loads can lead to the rupture of test samples which follow the anisotropic directions of the rock and which can be interpreted by the hydro-mechanical model as a violation of a rupture criterion in total pulling stress. Finally, numerical calculations for the phenomena generated by desaturation

  18. Arterial Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Patient Information Series Arterial Catheterization An arterial catheter is a thin, hollow tube ... PHYSICIANS: AND COPY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ■ ...

  19. Exercise-induced desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on six-minute walk test

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Chauhan Dogra; Urmil Gupta; Malay Sarkar; Anita Padam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Exercise-induced desaturation (EID) is associated with increased mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship of EID with anthropometric and clinical parameters of resting pulmonary function test and six-minute walk test (6MWT) in COPD remains unclear. The study was designed to assess the correlate of EID and to identify various possible predictors of EID in stable normoxemic patients of COPD. Materials and Methods: Sixty pati...

  20. Experimental study on nonmonotonicity of capillary desaturation curves in a 2-D pore-network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez de Castro, Antonio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Shokri, Nima [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Karadimitriou, Nikolaos [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joekar-Niasar, Vahid [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    Immiscible displacement in a porous medium is important in many applications such as soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery. When gravitational forces are negligible, two-phase immiscible displacement at the pore level is controlled by capillary and viscous forces whose relative importance is quantified through the dimensionless capillary number Ca and the viscosity ratio M between liquid phases. Depending on the values of Ca and M, capillary fingering, viscous fingering, or stable displacement may be observed resulting in a variety of patterns affecting the phase entrapment. The Capillary Desaturation Curve (CDC), which represents the relationship between the residual oils saturation and Ca, is an important relation to describe the phase entrapment at a given Ca. In the present study, we investigate the CDC as influenced by the viscosity ratio. A comprehensive series of experiments using a high-resolution microscope and state-of-the-art micromodels were conducted. The CDCs were calculated and the effects of Ca and M on phase entrapments were quantified. The results show that CDCs are not necessarily monotonic for all M.

  1. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries). The procedure is done as follows: The ... Arteries also have thicker walls and have more nerves. When the needle is inserted, there may be ...

  2. The association between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and pulse oximetric measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 in the patients with COPD: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Emami Ardestani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed to explore the association between arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and spirometer parameters of disease severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with a view to identify whether the pulse oximetry can be used as an alternative to arterial values in the clinical management of COPD patients in a routine practice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with COPD were included in this study. After evaluation of each patient through history taking, physical examination and chest X-ray, SpO2 % and data regarding spirometry (FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC % predicted in all patients were measured. Linear correlations among the variables were analyzed using the regression analysis. Results: In total 31 COPD patients according to the criteria established by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Disease (GOLD were included in the study. There was not statistically significant correlation between FEV1 % predicted and SpO2 values (P > 0.05, but a great correlation existed between FEV1/FVC % predicted and SpO2 values (r = 0.556, P < 0.001. Median SpO2 values did not differ between GOLD stages (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.17. Conclusion: The study may demonstrate that oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry appears to be independent of the degree of airways obstruction as quantified by the FEV1; although further evidence needs to be assessed these preliminary findings.

  3. Organ-Specific Alterations in Fatty Acid De Novo Synthesis and Desaturation in a Rat Model of Programmed Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Mina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small for gestational age (SGA leads to increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic syndrome. Offspring exposed to 50% maternal food restriction in utero are born smaller than Controls (FR, catch-up in growth by the end of the nursing period, and become obese adults. The objective of the study was to determine stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD1 and rates of de novo fatty acid synthesis in young FR and Control offspring tissues at the end of the nursing period, as possible contributors to catch-up growth. Methods From gestational day 10 to term, dams fed ad libitum (Control or were 50% food-restricted to produce small FR pups. Control dams nursed all pups. At postnatal day 1 (p1 and p21, offspring body tissues were analyzed by GC/MS, and desaturation indices of palmitoleate/palmitate and oleate/stearate were calculated. SCD1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR on adipose and liver. Offspring were enriched with deuterium that was given to dams in drinking water during lactation and de novo synthesis of offspring body tissues was determined at p21. Primary adipocyte cell cultures were established at p21 and exposed to U13C-glucose. Results FR offspring exhibited higher desaturation index in p1 and p21 adipose tissue, but decreased desaturation index in liver at p21. SCD1 gene expression at p21 was correspondingly increased in adipose and decreased in liver. FR subcutaneous fat demonstrated increased de novo synthesis at p21. Primary cell cultures exhibited increased de novo synthesis in FR. Conclusions Adipose tissue is the first site to exhibit increased de novo synthesis and desaturase activity in FR. Therefore, abnormal lipogenesis is already present prior to onset of obesity during the period of catch-up growth. These abnormalities may contribute to future obesity development.

  4. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed desaturation of valproic acid in vitro. Species differences, induction effects, and mechanistic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytochrome P-450-mediated desaturation of valproic acid (VPA) to its hepatotoxic metabolite, 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene-VPA), was examined in liver microsomes from rats, mice, rabbits and humans. The highest substrate turnover was found with microsomes from rabbits (44.2 +/- 2.7 pmol of product/nmol P-450/15 min), while lower activities were observed in preparations from human, mouse, and rat liver, in that order. Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital led to enhanced rates of formation of 4-ene-VPA in vitro and yielded induction ratios for desaturation ranging from 2.5 to 8.4, depending upon the species. Comparative studies in the rat showed that phenobarbital is a more potent inducer of olefin formation than either phenytoin or carbamazepine. The mechanism of the desaturation reaction was studied by inter- and intramolecular deuterium isotope effect experiments, which demonstrated that removal of a hydrogen atom from the subterminal C-4 position of VPA is rate limiting in the formation of both 4-ene- and 4-hydroxy-VPA. Hydroxylation at the neighboring C-5 position, on the other hand, was highly sensitive to deuterium substitution at that site, but not to deuteration at C-4. Based on these findings, it is proposed that 4-ene- and 4-hydroxy-VPA are products of a common P-450-dependent metabolic pathway, in which a carbon-centered free radical at C-4 serves as the key intermediate. 5-Hydroxy-VPA, in contrast, derives from an independent hydroxylation reaction

  5. Functional Oxygen Sensitivity of Astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Angelova, P. R.; Kasymov, V.; I. Christie; Sheikhbahaei, S.; Turovsky, E.; Marina, N.; Korsak, A.; Zwicker, J; Teschemacher, A. G.; Ackland, G. L.; Funk, G. D.; Kasparov, S; Abramov, A.Y.; Gourine, A V

    2015-01-01

    In terrestrial mammals, the oxygen storage capacity of the CNS is limited, and neuronal function is rapidly impaired if oxygen supply is interrupted even for a short period of time. However, oxygen tension monitored by the peripheral (arterial) chemoreceptors is not sensitive to regional CNS differences in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) that reflect variable levels of neuronal activity or local tissue hypoxia, pointing to the necessity of a functional brain oxygen sensor. This experimental...

  6. Arterialisation of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhurst, E; Helms, P; Vyas, H; Cheriyan, G

    1988-01-01

    We compared previously calculated global correction factors for oxygen and carbon dioxide arterial/transcutaneous ratios with individual in vivo calibrations from the first arterial sample. In infants beyond the neonatal period and older children in vivo calibration confers little benefit over the use of a global calibration correction factor for transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and may reduce the precision with which arterial oxygen can be estimated from transcutaneous oxygen.

  7. Exercise training improves peak oxygen consumption and haemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and inoperable chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlken, Nicola; Lichtblau, Mona; Klose, Hans; Weidenhammer, Johannes; Fischer, Christine; Nechwatal, Robert; Uiker, Sören; Halank, Michael; Olsson, Karen; Seeger, Werner; Gall, Henning; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Wilkens, Heinrike; Mertens, Dirk; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The impact of exercise training on the right heart and pulmonary circulation has not yet been invasively assessed in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right heart failure. This prospective randomized controlled study investigates the effects of exercise training on peak VO2/kg, haemodynamics, and further clinically relevant parameters in PH patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and inoperable chronic thrombo-embolic PH (...

  8. Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aschwanden, Markus; Partovi, Sasan; Jacobi, Bjoern; Fergus, Nathan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Robbin, Mark R; Bilecen, Deniz; Staub, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a result of atherosclerotic disease which is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Patients with PAOD may present with intermittent claudication or symptoms related to critical limb ischemia. PAOD is associated with increased mortality rates. Stenoses and occlusions are usually detected by macrovascular imaging, including ultrasound and cross-sectional methods. From a pathophysiological view these stenoses ...

  9. Serum Lactate Is not Correlated with Mixed or Central Venous Oxygen Saturation for Detecting Tissue Hypo Perfusion During Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbano Shahbazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:: Effective assessment of tissue perfusion is highly important during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG. Mixed venous O2 saturation (Svo2 is one of the best and routinely used markers of tissue perfusion. However, this method is costly and leads to considerable complications. Thus, the present study aimed to determine whether the Svo2 can be substituted with central venous saturation (Scvo2 and if there is any correlation between lactate level and Svo2. Methods:: This prospective observational study was conducted on 62 patients scheduled for CABG. After induction and maintenance of anesthesia, blood samples drawn from central venous, pulmonary artery, and radial artery were used to measure Scvo2, Svo2 and serum lactate level respectively before and after Cardio Pulmonary Bypass (CPB. Pearson’s correlation test was used to determine the correlation between Svo2 and Scvo2 as well as between Svo2 and serum lactate level. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results:: Overall, 62 Patients, 33 males (53.2% and 29 females (46.8% were enrolled into the present study. The most common coexisting illness was hypertension detected in 33 patients (53.2% followed by hypercholesterolemia in 28 ones (44.4%. In this study, Svo2 was positively correlated with Scvo2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001. However, no correlation was found between Svo2 and lactate (r = 0.124, P = 0.348. Conclusions:: In summary, Scvo2 is considered as the best substitute of Svo2 for detecting tissue hypo perfusion during CPB. Although the lactate level had been considered as an appropriate marker of tissue perfusion and ischemia, it was not correlated to Svo2 during CABG.

  10. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  11. Unusual systemic venous Collateral channels to left atrium causing desaturation after Fontan operation closed percutaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Marwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual cause of progressive cyanosis in a child appearing 2 years after successful Fontan surgery for tetralogy of Fallot with hypoplastic right ventricle. The cause of cyanosis was identified as one large venous channel draining into the left atrium. The channel was closed by Amplatzer vascular plug resulting in improvement of oxygen saturation.

  12. [Critical study of the indications for long-term oxygen therapy. Chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, P; Duwoos, H; Pretet, S

    1988-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that longterm oxygen therapy in hypoxaemic patients with chronic airflow obstruction (BPCO) is capable of improving the prognosis and decreasing the risk of cardio-respiratory decompensation; in addition sometimes physical capacity and intellectual capacity is improved. Another result often noted is a reduction in the mean hospital stay which corresponds to an improvement in the quality of life. A PaO2 constantly below 55 mmHg (7.3 kPa) is defined by the majority of authors as a precarious state. At this level even a small change in alveolar ventilation or disturbance of distribution would lead to an important fall in the oxygen content of the arterial blood. The stability of the PaO2 during the weeks of respiratory reeducation with specially controlled medical treatment, as well as the willing consent of the patient and his family, are indispensable conditions for the prescription of OLT. When hypoxaemia is of moderate severity (PaO2 between 50 and 60 mmHg (6.6-8 kPa), prolonged medical treatment (with abstention from tobacco) for at least two months is advised and a study of complementary criteria to further validate the indications for oxygen. Such features would include a worsening of the hypoxaemia during exercise of 30 to 40 watts (PaO2 less than 50 mmHg, 6.6 kPa), an elevated haematocrit (greater than 55%), a rise of the P (A-a)O2 (greater than 30 mmHg or 4 kPa), a nocturnal desaturation even in the absence of apnoea (oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) of less than 80% for more than 50% of the time asleep). Added to these criteria are the radiological, echographic and clinical signs of the effect of hypoxaemia on the pulmonary circulation. Frank pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in hypoxaemia of moderate severity when the PaO2 is in the region of 55 mmHg and is an argument for the prescription of OLT. Amongst the developing criteria, exacerbations of respiratory encephalopathy, intellectual deterioration, progressive wasting

  13. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  14. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Vaag, Allan; Høy, Carl-Erik; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese......OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether a very-lowcalorie dietary intervention (VLCD) may influence composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipid and composition and concentration of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) in obese subjects. The working hypothesis proposed that a VLCD...... during the VLCD. DISCUSSION: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote the...

  15. Desaturation of skeletal muscle structural and depot lipids in obese individuals during a very-low-calorie diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Vaag, A.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a very-low-calorie dietary intervention (VLCD) may influence composition of skeletal muscle cell membrane phospholipid and composition and concentration of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) in obese subjects. The working hypothesis proposed that a VLCD...... would decrease saturated fatty acids (FAs) and increase long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LCPUFAs) in muscular structural lipids, as such changes have been associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Research Methods and Procedures: Skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained from 13 obese....... Discussion: Desaturation of both muscle cell membrane phospholipid and IMTG was significant but modest during a VLCD in obese subjects. Further research must delineate whether such changes in skeletal muscle structural and depot lipid composition themselves are enough to promote the observed improvements...

  16. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  17. Arterial and venous oxygen partial pressure and utilization factor η, resp., and 133Xe muscle clearance after UV irradiation of skin or blood of healthy persons and patients with occlusive arterial disease and psoriasis, resp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In three teams of test persons series of UV irradiations of the skin (λmax 365 nm) and of the blood (λmax 254 nm) were performed, and moreover pseudoirradiations of the blood as placebo and infrared irradiations of the skin were carried out. UV irradiations of the blood increased the factor η (O2 utilization) in all test persons. In healthy persons and patients with psoriasis UV irradiations of the skin involved a homogeneous, but less distinct effect, this was, however, not the case in patients with vascular diseases. According to the results of the 133Xe muscle clearance the improved utilization of oxygen does not result from increased peripheral blood supply. (author)

  18. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation < or = 92%) and increased heart rate (> 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p < 0.002). Thus, postoperative supplementary oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  19. Desaturation of a clay-stone around a ventilated gallery: numerical modelling of pressures and water contents under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (cylindrical drift) is discretized and internalized as a 3D 'macro-porous' body within the computational porous domain. Secondly, the properties of this internal macro-porous body are adjusted in such a way that it will transmit properly the imposed suction (or pressure, or flux, as the case may be) from external to internal boundaries. Here, the suction is imposed on the entry face of the gallery (external boundary), and it is transmitted to the clay/gallery interface (internal boundary). The macro-porous body has a porosity of 100%, a large Darcy permeability compared to the clay-stone, and other special nonlinear and non-isotropic unsaturated properties. Briefly, numerical modelling was conducted with BIGFLOW 3D, an implicit finite volume solver of the saturated/unsaturated Richards equation in mixed form (moisture content 'θ', pressure head 'h'). We used the nonlinear Van Genuchten / Mualem conductivity and water retention curves (K(h); θ(h)) in the unsaturated zone. A specific elastic storativity (SS) was added in the saturated zone to take into account slight deformation mechanisms in a simplified way (the storativity model does not deal with total stress; it assumes δσEFF ∼ δp, where p is pore pressure, and σEFF is Terzaghi's effective stress taken positive when extensional). Finally, the BIGFLOW code can also handle 3D heterogeneity and nonlinear diagonal anisotropy, that is: [Kii(h,x,y,z); θ(h,x,y,z)]. We used these additional capabilities of the code in some of the tests. Figs.1 and 2 show the evolution of desaturation for a 'Type I' test, i.e., with suction imposed on a flat horizontal piece of wall located at the roof of the drift. The drift 'radius' (half-side) is R=2 m. The case shown here is only 'moderately dry': the prescribed suction is ψ=3000 m (∼30 MPa), corresponding to HR=80.74% at TAIR=25 C and PATM=1 bar (according to Kelvin's law). The imposed desaturation of the porous medium at the drift wall is significant (more than 50% drop of the

  20. [Benefits of oxygen on exercise performance in patients with chronic lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiłowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases limit exercise capacity, due to breathlessness and hypoxemia. A decrease in daily activity results in impairment of quality of life and higher mortality. Oxygen therapy improves exercise capacity. The main mechanism of this improvement in COPD patients is a reduction in dynamic hyperinflation. The benefits of oxygen therapy is present not only in patients with severe hypoxemia at rest (PaO2 exercise. An improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the administered oxygen flow. Provision of oxygen flow from ambulatory source may be continuous or intermittent only during inspiration. Both methods seem to be comparable in terms of improving exercise tolerance and reducing hypoxemia. Ambulatory oxygen should be prescribed to all patients on long-term oxygen therapy who report outdoor activity. Moreover, normoxemic patients with severe exertional desaturation and low exercise tolerance should also be prescribed ambulatory oxygen. The flow of oxygen should be titrated to prevent desaturation during activities. The long-term effects of ambulatory oxygen such as improvement of quality of life and increasing daily activity have not been confirmed and require further investigation. PMID:23609430

  1. A functional variant in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter enhances fatty acid desaturation in pork.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Estany

    Full Text Available There is growing public concern about reducing saturated fat intake. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is the lipogenic enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (18 ∶ 1 by desaturating stearic acid (18 ∶ 0. Here we describe a total of 18 mutations in the promoter and 3' non-coding region of the pig SCD gene and provide evidence that allele T at AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region enhances fat desaturation (the ratio 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 in muscle increases from 3.78 to 4.43 in opposite homozygotes without affecting fat content (18 ∶ 0+18 ∶ 1, intramuscular fat content, and backfat thickness. No mutations that could affect the functionality of the protein were found in the coding region. First, we proved in a purebred Duroc line that the C-T-A haplotype of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (g.2108C>T; g.2228T>C; g.2281A>G of the promoter region was additively associated to enhanced 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 both in muscle and subcutaneous fat, but not in liver. We show that this association was consistent over a 10-year period of overlapping generations and, in line with these results, that the C-T-A haplotype displayed greater SCD mRNA expression in muscle. The effect of this haplotype was validated both internally, by comparing opposite homozygote siblings, and externally, by using experimental Duroc-based crossbreds. Second, the g.2281A>G and the g.2108C>T SNPs were excluded as causative mutations using new and previously published data, restricting the causality to g.2228T>C SNP, the last source of genetic variation within the haplotype. This mutation is positioned in the core sequence of several putative transcription factor binding sites, so that there are several plausible mechanisms by which allele T enhances 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 and, consequently, the proportion of monounsaturated to saturated fat.

  2. Iatrogenic systemic air embolism treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas Bech; Sørensen, Allan Martini Ibsen; Jansen, Erik C.

    2008-01-01

    arterial circulation through a shunt, it may cause cerebral emboli with neurological symptoms. We present two cases with venous air emboli and concurrent cerebral arterial emboli. Both patients were successfully treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  3. Effect of oxygen flow rate during oxygen-drived heparin inhalation on the arterial blood gas and coagulation function in mechanically ventilated AECOPD patients%不同氧流量驱动肝素雾化吸入对 AECOPD 机械通气患者血气及凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛艳霞; 李亚军; 杨向东; 李建华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different amount oxygen-drived inhalation of heparin on arterial blood gas and coagulation function in mechanically ventilated patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD) .Methods Fifty-one patients with AECOPD mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into A, B, C three groups.Group A (17 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 5 L/min atomizing inhalation, group B (19 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 7 L/min, group C (15 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 9 L/min.Arterial blood gas and coagulation function were detected before and after atomizing inhalation (30 min, 1, 3, 7 days) in all patients.Results Compared with group A and C, Patients in group B had obviously improved arterial blood gas and were statistically significant (P0.05).Compared with before atomization, Patients in group B had significantly improved arterial blood gas at each time point after inhalation ( P0.05).Seven days after inhalation, prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) and fibrinogen ( FIB) were not significantly different from the level before inhalation in all three groups (P>0.05).Conclusion The best oxygen flow rate is 7 L/min for heparin inhalation in mechanically ventilated patients with AECOPD.It significantly improves the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, reducing carbon dioxide partial pressure, but has less influence on the coagulation function.%目的:探讨不同氧流量驱动肝素雾化吸入对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期( AECOPD)机械通气患者血气及凝血功能的影响。方法将51例AECOPD机械通气患者随机分为A、B、C三组,其中A组(17例)给予5 L/min氧流量雾化吸入;B组(19例)给予7 L/min;C组(15例)给予9 L/min。监测雾化前、雾化后30 min、1 d、3 d、7 d各个时间点血气及雾化前及雾化后第7天的凝血功能参数的变化情况。结果与A

  4. Novel elongase of Pythium sp. with high specificity on Δ(6)-18C desaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Cheawchanlertfa, Pattsarun; Suttiwattanakul, Sarinya; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2014-07-18

    We identified a novel elongase gene from a selected strain of the Oomycete, Pythium sp. BCC53698. Using a PCR approach, the cloned gene (PyElo) possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 834 bp encoding 277 amino acid residues. A similarity search showed that it had homology with the PUFA elongases of several organisms. In addition, the signature characteristics, including four conserved motifs, a histidine-rich catalytic motif and membrane-associated feature were present in the Pythium gene. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that it was specific for fatty acid substrates, having a double bond at Δ(6)-position, which included γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (STA), and preferentially elongated the n3-18C PUFA. This is an elongase in Oomycete fungi, which displays very high specificity on Δ(6)-18C desaturated fatty acids. This will be a powerful tool to engineer PUFA biosynthesis in organisms of interest through the n-6 series pathway for producing value-added fatty acids. PMID:24924634

  5. Monitoring oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  6. MAPA em portadores de DPOC com dessaturação no sono MAPA en portadores de EPOC con desaturación durante el sueño ABPM in COPD patients with sleep desaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Anders Aidar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipoxemia no período de sono pode, por mecanismo de ativação simpática, alterar a pressão arterial. Poucos estudos demonstram os parâmetros pressóricos em portadores de DPOC, que não têm apnéia do sono, mas que dessaturam nesse período. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os parâmetros pressóricos em pacientes com DPOC e dessaturação no sono, não causada por apnéia. MÉTODOS: Treze pacientes com DPOC foram submetidos à espirometria, gasometria arterial, polissonografia e MAPA para avaliação pressórica. Quatorze pacientes sem DPOC foram submetidos à espirometria, oximetria e MAPA. As análises pressóricas foram feitas tanto na vigília quanto no sono. Os dois grupos foram constituídos por pacientes sem antecedentes hipertensivos. RESULTADOS: Os dois grupos eram semelhantes em relação à idade, altura, peso e índice de massa corporal. Houve diferença significativa (p FUNDAMENTO: La hipoxemia en el período de sueño puede, por mecanismo de activación simpática, alterar la presión arterial. Pocos estudios demuestran los parámetros de presión en portadores de EPOC, que no tiene apnea del sueño, y que desaturan en ese período. OBJETIVO: Analizar los parámetros de presión en pacientes con EPOC y desaturación en el sueño, no causada por apnea. MÉTODOS: Trece pacientes con EPOC se sometieron a la espirometría, la gasometría arterial, la polisonografía y al MAPA para la evaluación de presión. Un total de 14 pacientes sin EPOC se sometieron a la espirometría, la oximetría y MAPA. Los análisis de presión se hicieron tanto en la vigilia como en el sueño. Los dos grupos estaban conformados por pacientes sin antecedentes hipertensivos. RESULTADOS: Los dos grupos se asemejaban respecto a la edad, la altura, el peso e el índice de masa corporal. Hubo diferencia significativa (p BACKGROUND: Sleep hypoxemia may change blood pressure by sympathetic activation. Few studies have analyzed blood pressure parameters in

  7. Nocturnal myocardial ischemic events and sleep-disordered breathing in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli ZHANG; Shiwen WANG; Caiyi LU; Peng LIU; Rui CHEN; Xian JI; Yusheng ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of nocturnal myocardial ischemia and its relationship with sleep-disordered breathing (apneas and oxygen desaturations) in patients with angina pectoris undergoing coronary angiography.Methods Eighty-two men and 14 women referred for consideration of coronary intervention were randomly selected. Observation by an overnight sleep monitor and Holter recording were performed to study sleep-disordered breathing (oxyhemoglobin desaturations≥4% and apnea-hypopneas),heart rates, and ST-segment depressions (≥ 1mm, ≥1 min).Results Nocturnal ST-segment depressions occurred in 37 % of the patients. ST-segment depression within 2 min after an apnea-hypopnea or desaturation occurred in 17% of the patients. This temporal association was seen in 21% of the patients with nocturnal ST-segment depressions, more frequently in men (P<0.05) and more frequently in those with severe disordered breathing (P<0.05).Most of these ST-segment depressions were preceded by a series of breathing events: repeated apnea-hypopneas or desaturations or both in 73% of the patients. Conclusions Episodes of nocturnal myocardial ischemia are common in patients with angina pectoris. A temporal relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and myocardial ischemia was present in some of our patients, and occurs more frequently in men and in those with severely disordered breathing. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2):90-94.)

  8. Constriction of collateral arteries induced by "head-up tilt" in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of head-up tilt on leg blood flow and segmental arterial blood pressures was studied in 21 patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the common or superficial femoral artery. Arterial pressure was measured directly in the brachial artery, common femoral artery and popliteal artery....... Relative change in blood flow in the leg during tilt was estimated by changes in arterio-venous oxygen differences and by the indicator dilution technique in nine patients. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in leg blood flow of 36% corresponding to an increase in total vascular resistance of 57%. Tilt did not...

  9. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  10. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  11. Tissue oxygenation and muscular substrate turnover in two subjects with high hemoglobin oxygen affinity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wranne, B; Berlin, G; Jorfeldt, L; Lund, N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen transport to and substrate turnover in leg muscle were studied at rest and during light and heavy upright bicycle exercise in two brothers with a hereditary hemoglobinopathy associated with high oxygen affinity (P50 = 13 mmHg). Femoral venous oxygen tension was below normal and femoral venous oxygen saturation above normal at rest and during exercise. Thus, the arterial-femoral venous oxygen saturation difference was decreased. Despite a compensatory increase in hemoglobin concentratio...

  12. Zusammenhang zwischen maximaler Sauerstoffaufnahme und arterieller Gefäßsteifigkeit in Ruhe und während eines Cold Pressure Tests // Relationship between Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Arterial Stiffness at Rest and during Cold Pressor Stress Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatz F

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available iIntroduction:/i The favorable influence of endurance exercise on arterial stiffness (AS is widely known. It is also well accepted that stress contributes the development of arterial stiffness and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and arterial stiffness (AS, quantified by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV and augmentation index (AIx, at rest, but in par- ticular during stress testing.br iMethods:/i 32 recreationally active men completed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing. aPWV and AIx were measured non-invasively at rest and during a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT using Mobil-O-Graph®. After applying partial correlation analysis, the cohort was divided into tertiles of VO2max. Thereafter, ANCOVAs adjusted for age, body mass index and height were performed. br iResults:/i In the total cohort VO2max showed negative correlations with AIx (r = –0.49, p = 0.006 at rest and with AIx (r = –0.51, p = 0.005 as well as aPWV (r = –0.55, r = 0.001 stress test-related. Subjects in the highest tertile of VO2max showed significantly lower stiffness parameters than subjects in the lowest tertile. This was true for AIx (1.1% vs 10.2%, p = 0.012 at rest and for AIx (3.3% vs 13.9%, p = 0.015 as well as aPWV (6.0 m/s vs 6.9 m/s, p = 0.006 during CPT, respectively.br iDiscussion:/i The study provides evidence for an inverse relationship between VO2max and stress test-related AS. Furthermore higher VO2max values seem to be associated with more favorable effects on arterial compliance during stress testing irrespective of known factors influencing AS. p bKurzfassung: /biEinleitung:/i Ausdauertraining besitzt bekanntermaßen günstige Effekte auf die arterielle Gefäßsteifigkeit (AS. Evidenzen aus der kardiovaskulären Forschung sprechen jedoch dafür, dass das kardiovaskuläre Risiko insbesondere durch die Gefäßcompliance während körperlicher und

  13. Palmitic acid (16:0) competes with omega-6 linoleic and omega-3 ɑ-linolenic acids for FADS2 mediated Δ6-desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hui Gyu; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; DeAllie, Christian; Liu, Lei; Liang, Allison; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Sapienic acid, 16:1n-10 is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid on human skin where its synthesis is mediated by FADS2 in the sebaceous glands. The FADS2 product introduces a double bond at the Δ6, Δ4 and Δ8 positions by acting on at least ten substrates, including 16:0, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3. Our aim was to characterize the competition for accessing FADS2 mediated Δ6 desaturation between 16:0 and the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the human diet, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3, to evaluate whether competition may be relevant in other tissues and thus linked to metabolic abnormalities associated with FADS2 or fatty acid levels. MCF7 cells stably transformed with FADS2 biosynthesize 16:1n-10 from exogenous 16:0 in preference to 16:1n-7, the immediate product of SCD highly expressed in cancer cell lines, and 16:1n-9 via partial β-oxidation of 18:1n-9. Increasing availability of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 resulted in decreased bioconversion of 16:0 to 16:1n-10, simultaneously increasing the levels of highly unsaturated products. FADS2 cells accumulate the desaturation-elongation products 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-3 in preference to the immediate desaturation products 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 implying prompt/coupled elongation of the nascent desaturation products. MCF7 cells incorporate newly synthesized 16:1n-10 into phospholipids. These data suggest that excess 16:0 due to, for instance, de novo lipogenesis from high carbohydrate or alcohol consumption, inhibits synthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids, and may in part explain why supplemental preformed EPA and DHA in some studies improves insulin resistance and other factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome aggravated by excess calorie consumption. PMID:26597785

  14. An alternate pathway to long-chain polyunsaturates: the FADS2 gene product Δ8-desaturates 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-3

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Lawrence, Peter; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian Δ6-desaturase coded by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2; HSA11q12-q13.1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. FADS2 is known to act on at least five substrates, and we hypothesized that the FADS2 gene product would have Δ8-desaturase activity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed with a FADS2 construct from baboon neonate liver cDNA gained the function to desaturate 11,14-eicosadienoic acid (20:2n-6) and 11,14,1...

  15. Non-arterial assessment of blood gas status in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Elborn, J. S.; Finch, M B; Stanford, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of blood gas status is important in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Arterial puncture is often painful and may damage the arterial wall. Measurement of oxygen saturation by transcutaneous oximetry offers a non-invasive alternative to arterial methods but does not allow assessment of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We have examined the value of oximetry and dorsal hand venous carbon dioxide as an alternative to arterial puncture. Transcutaneous oxygen ...

  16. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  17. Functional Oxygen Sensitivity of Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Plamena R; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Christie, Isabel; Sheikhbahaei, Shahriar; Turovsky, Egor; Marina, Nephtali; Korsak, Alla; Zwicker, Jennifer; Teschemacher, Anja G; Ackland, Gareth L; Funk, Gregory D; Kasparov, Sergey; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gourine, Alexander V

    2015-07-22

    In terrestrial mammals, the oxygen storage capacity of the CNS is limited, and neuronal function is rapidly impaired if oxygen supply is interrupted even for a short period of time. However, oxygen tension monitored by the peripheral (arterial) chemoreceptors is not sensitive to regional CNS differences in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) that reflect variable levels of neuronal activity or local tissue hypoxia, pointing to the necessity of a functional brain oxygen sensor. This experimental animal (rats and mice) study shows that astrocytes, the most numerous brain glial cells, are sensitive to physiological changes in PO2 . Astrocytes respond to decreases in PO2 a few millimeters of mercury below normal brain oxygenation with elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The hypoxia sensor of astrocytes resides in the mitochondria in which oxygen is consumed. Physiological decrease in PO2 inhibits astroglial mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial depolarization, production of free radicals, lipid peroxidation, activation of phospholipase C, IP3 receptors, and release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores. Hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in astrocytes trigger fusion of vesicular compartments containing ATP. Blockade of astrocytic signaling by overexpression of ATP-degrading enzymes or targeted astrocyte-specific expression of tetanus toxin light chain (to interfere with vesicular release mechanisms) within the brainstem respiratory rhythm-generating circuits reveals the fundamental physiological role of astroglial oxygen sensitivity; in low-oxygen conditions (environmental hypoxia), this mechanism increases breathing activity even in the absence of peripheral chemoreceptor oxygen sensing. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are functionally specialized CNS oxygen sensors tuned for rapid detection of physiological changes in brain oxygenation. Significance statement: Most, if not all, animal cells possess mechanisms that allow them to

  18. Germline signals deploy NHR-49 to modulate fatty-acid β-oxidation and desaturation in somatic tissues of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnappan, Ramesh; Amrit, Francis R G; Chen, Shaw-Wen; Gill, Hasreet; Holden, Kyle; Ward, Jordan; Yamamoto, Keith R; Olsen, Carissa P; Ghazi, Arjumand

    2014-12-01

    In C. elegans, removal of the germline extends lifespan significantly. We demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-49, enables the response to this physiological change by increasing the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation and fatty-acid desaturation. The coordinated augmentation of these processes is critical for germline-less animals to maintain their lipid stores and to sustain de novo fat synthesis during adulthood. Following germline ablation, NHR-49 is up-regulated in somatic cells by the conserved longevity determinants DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1. Accordingly, NHR-49 overexpression in fertile animals extends their lifespan modestly. In fertile adults, nhr-49 expression is DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1 independent although its depletion causes age-related lipid abnormalities. Our data provide molecular insights into how reproductive stimuli are integrated into global metabolic changes to alter the lifespan of the animal. They suggest that NHR-49 may facilitate the adaptation to loss of reproductive potential through synchronized enhancement of fatty-acid oxidation and desaturation, thus breaking down some fats ordained for reproduction and orchestrating a lipid profile conducive for somatic maintenance and longevity. PMID:25474470

  19. Continuous blood gas monitoring in femoral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlain, Les A.; Spar, Steven M.; Dellinger, Bart

    1995-05-01

    Continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring is a potentially valuable tool in the surgical and intensive care arenas. Patient oxygenation and acid base status can change rapidly and without warning. The ability to monitor pHa, PaCO2 and PaO2 in arterial blood will be a major medical advance for the anesthesiologist and intensivist. Intra-arterial blood gas sensors are typically placed in radial arteries. In certain patient populations accurate monitoring is not possible in radial arteries due to arterial environmental factors such as hypotension, vasoconstriction and atherosclerotic disease. These same factors can make radial cannulation difficult resulting in traumatic catheter insertion, thereby further compromising flow conditions. In situations where radial artery flow is expected to be compromised, selecting a large vessel for sensor placement is desirable. We report an initial feasibility study of our blood gas monitoring system using the femoral artery as the sensing site. Clinical results are presented as well as potential advantages and disadvantages associated with monitoring in the femoral artery.

  20. Supplemental Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > COPD > Diagnosing and Treating COPD Supplemental Oxygen Sometimes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung ... in people with severe lung disease Three Ways Oxygen Therapy Is Supplied Compressed oxygen gas and liquid ...

  1. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  2. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  3. Oxygen delivery does not limit cardiac performance during high work states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Murakami, Y; Zhang, Y; Cho, Y K; Ye, Y; Gong, G; Bache, R J; Uğurbil, K; From, A H

    1999-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the loss of myocardial high-energy phosphates (HEP), which occurs during high cardiac work states [J. Zhang, D. J. Duncker, Y. Xu, Y. Zhang, G. Path, H. Merkle, K. Hendrich, A. H. L. From, R. Bache, and K. Uğurbil. Am. J. Physiol. 268: (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1891-H1905, 1995], is not the result of insufficient intracellular O(2) availability. To evaluate the state of myocardial oxygenation, the proximal histidine signal of deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) was determined with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), whereas HEP were examined with (31)P MRS. Normal dogs (n = 11) were studied under basal conditions and during combined infusion of dobutamine and dopamine (20 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1) iv each), which increased rate-pressure products to >50,000 mmHg. beats. min(-1). Creatine phosphate (CP) was expressed as CP/ATP, and myocardial myoglobin desaturation was normalized to the Mb-delta resonance present during total coronary artery occlusion. This Mb-delta resonance appeared at 71 parts per million downfield from the water resonance. CP/ATP decreased from 2. 22 +/- 0.12 during the basal state to 1.83 +/- 0.09 during the high work state (P < 0.01), whereas DeltaP(i)/CP increased from 0 to 0.21 +/- 0.04 (P < 0.01). Despite these HEP changes, Mb-delta remained undetectable. In contrast, when a coronary stenosis was applied to produce a similar decrease in CP/ATP, Mb-delta reached 0.38 +/- 0.10 of the value present during total coronary occlusion. These data demonstrate that Mb-delta is readily detected in vivo during limitation of coronary blood flow sufficient to cause a decrease of myocardial CP/ATP. However, similar HEP changes that occur at high work states in the absence of coronary occlusion are not associated with a detectable Mb-delta resonance. The findings support the hypothesis that the myocardial HEP changes observed at high work states are not due to inadequate O(2) availability to the mitochondria

  4. Oxygen induction of a novel fatty acid n-6 desaturase in the soil protozoon, Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew J; Thomas, Katie L; Herbert, Derek; Henderson, R James; Lloyd, David; Harwood, John L

    2002-11-15

    Induction of fatty acid desaturation is very important for the temperature adaptation of poikilotherms. However, in oxygen-limited late-exponential-phase Acanthamoeba castellanii cultures, oxygen alone was able to induce increased activity of a fatty acid desaturase that converts oleate into linoleate and which has been implicated in the temperature adaptation of this organism. Experiments with Delta(10)-nonadecenoate showed that the enzyme is an n -6 desaturase rather than a Delta(12)-desaturase. It also used preferentially 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine as substrate and NAD(P)H as electron donor. The involvement of cytochrome b (5) as an intermediate electron carrier was shown by difference spectra measurements and anti-(cytochrome b (5)) antibody experiments. Of the three protein components of the desaturase complex, oxygen only increased the activity of the terminal (cyanide-sensitive) protein during n -6 desaturase induction. The induction of this terminal protein paralleled well the increase in overall oleate n -6 desaturation. The ability of oxygen to induce oleate desaturase independently of temperature in this lower eukaryotic animal model is of novel intrinsic interest, as well as being important for the design of future experiments to determine the molecular mechanism of temperature adaptation in poikilotherms. PMID:12153399

  5. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  6. Fatty acid composition of chicken breast meat is dependent on genotype-related variation of FADS1 and FADS2 gene expression and desaturating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, E; Bordoni, A; Meluzzi, A; Castellini, C; Dal Bosco, A; Sirri, F

    2016-04-01

    In Western countries the dietary guidance emphasizes the need to decrease the intake of saturated fatty acids and to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly long chain n-3 PUFA (LC-PUFA). The production of poultry meat having a lower fat content and healthier fatty acid (FA) profile is a hot topic for the poultry industry, and the possibility to identify genotypes able to produce meat with a higher LC-PUFA content deserves attention. The aims of the present study were to evidence in chicken (i) a genotype-related different expression of the desaturating enzymes delta-6 (Δ6, EC 1.14.99.25), delta-5 (Δ5, EC 1.14.19.) and delta-9 (Δ9, EC 1.14.19.1); (ii) the impact of the hypothesized different expression on the meat FA composition; (iii) the distribution of desaturase products in the different lipid classes. Slow (SG), medium (MG) and fast (FG) growing chickens fed the same diet were evaluated either for the relative expression of FADS1, FADS2 and SCD1 genes in liver (by q-PCR), or for the FA composition of breast meat. MG and particularly SG birds showed a greater expression of FADS2 and FADS1 genes, a higher Δ6 and Δ5 activity (estimated using desaturase indices), and consequently a higher LC-PUFA content in the breast meat than FG birds. The relationship between genotype and desaturating ability was demonstrated, with a significant impact on the PUFA content of breast meat. Due to the high consumption rate of avian meat, the identification of the best genotypes for meat production could represent an important goal not only for the food industry, but also for the improvement of human nutrition. PMID:26670346

  7. Calculating acid-base and oxygenation status during COPD exacerbation using mathematically arterialised venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Rychwicka-Kielek, Beate A; Andersen, Bjarne F;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission for exacerbat......Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  9. Oxygen analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  10. Instantaneous venous oxygenation estimation using the Photoplethysmograph (PPG) waveform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafqat, K; Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, London (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford (United Kingdom); Langford, R M, E-mail: k.shafqat@city.ac.uk [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, Bart' s and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    In this study oesophageal photoplethysmograph data from eight patients under positive pressure ventilation were analysed in order to test the hypothesis that the modulations created by the ventilation in the AC Photoplethysmograph (PPG) signal could be used to estimate venous oxygen saturation. In order to estimate the instantaneous arterial and venous oxygen saturation Smoothed-pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution (SPWVD) was utilised. The result from this study showed that there was no significant different in the conventional (time domain) arterial saturation and the instantaneous arterial saturation. However, the instantaneous venous oxygen saturation estimated with the ventilator modulation were significantly lower then the conventional arterial saturation (P = 0.008) and also from the instantaneous arterial saturation (P = 0.008).

  11. Effects of trans n-6 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of tissues and liver microsomal desaturation in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdeaux, Olivier

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available 18:2Δ 9c,12t and 18:2 Δ9t,12c are present in our diet, as result of heat treatment of vegetable oils. A nutritional study was carried out in order to obtain more precise information on the conversion of these two isomers into long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA by rat tissues. This in vivo study performed using rat fed with small quantities of mono trans linoleic acid isomers (0.6% of total energy showed that 18:2 Δ9c,12t was converted into 20:4 Δ5c,8c,11c,14t while 18:2 Δ9t,12c was only slightly converted into 20:4 Δ5c,8c,11t,14c. Furthermore 18:2 Δ9t,12c was preferentially elongated into 20:2 Δ11t,14c. Each C20 metabolite of these mono trans 18:2 isomers was isolated as methyl ester by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC followed by silver nitrate thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC.The structure of the components was identified using partial hydrazine reduction, AgNO3-TLC of the resulting monoenes and gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX derivatives. Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR confirmed the frans geometry. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC analyses showed that 18:2 Δ9c,12t and 18:2 Δ9t,12c were present in different tissue lipids (liver, heart, testes, brain and adipose tissue, and without any modification in the amount of 20:4n-6. 20:4 Δ5c, 8c,11c,14t was incorporated in different rat tissues except in brain. Furthermore, its incorporation followed that of its structural analogue, 20:3n-9 in liver phospholipid classes (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Finally, an in vitro study carried out with rat liver microsomes showed that dietary trans 18:2 isomers could inhibit the Δ6- desaturation of 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-6 and the Δ5-desaturation of 20:3n-6 to 20:4n-6.

  12. Medical science in Siberia: Oxygen exchange in the Far North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V.; Yegunova, M.

    1979-01-01

    Differences in oxygen conditions between the native and migrant Siberian population were studied in relation to respiratory function, arterial and venous blood indicators and acid-base indicators. Significant adaptation differences were ascertained between the two populations.

  13. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and level of C-reactive protein, which is produced only when inflammation is present. ... people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease. Amputation of a limb may be necessary if ...

  14. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  15. On Renal Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eklöf, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potentially curable cause of hypertension and azotemia. Besides intra-arterial renal angiography there are several non-invasive techniques utilized to diagnose patients with suspicion of renal artery stenosis. Removing the stenosis by revascularization to restore unobstructed blood flow to the kidney is known to improve and even cure hypertension/azotemia, but is associated with a significant complication rate. To visualize renal arteries with x-ray technique...

  16. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or atherectomy may be used to help improve blood flow. What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? How is peripheral artery disease evaluated? How ... PAD are diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Most cases occur in ... is peripheral artery disease evaluated? Several imaging tests can be used to ...

  17. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery occlusion; Branch retinal artery occlusion; CRAO; BRAO Images Retina References Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  18. Appreciating Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  19. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo Δ9-desaturation of [13C]-vaccenic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frederic; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo Delta-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using (13)C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90g sunflower-see...

  20. Duplication of hepatic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

  1. Clinical applications of transcutaneous oxygen pressure combined with ankle-brachial index in Type 2 diabetics with peripheral arterial disease%经皮氧分压联合踝臂指数在2型糖尿病合并下肢动脉病变中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦娟; 李素梅; 汝燕; 王芳; 王菊梅; 荆春艳; 王东; 董林; 任安

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较经皮氧分压(transcutaneous oxygen pressure,TcPO2)与踝臂指数(ankle--brachial index,ABI)在2型糖尿病(Type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)合并下肢动脉病变(peripheral arterial disease,PAD)中的应用价值,探讨TcPO2与ABI在PAD诊断及治疗中的意义.方法:368例T2DM患者(男性188例,女性180例),采用多通道经皮氧分压检测仪测定足背TcPO2.依据TcPO2水平分为无受损组、轻度受损组、重度受损组.同时,采用彩色双功能超声诊断仪测定踝动脉压/肱动脉压比值即ABI,依据ABI水平分为无病变组(ABI≥0.9)和PAD组(ABI <0.9).结果:PAD组与无病变组相比,年龄增大,病程延长,合并冠心痛者增多,空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、尿肌酐均升高,TcPO2减低(p<0.05).相关分析显示:年龄、病程、空腹血糖、三酰甘油、糖化血红蛋白Alc、体质量指数与TcPO2水平呈负相关(P<0.05),高密度脂蛋白、ABI与TcPO2水平呈正相关(P<0.05);TcPO2与ABI检测结果的符合率为93.9%,敏感度为90.2%,特异度约为95.2%.结论:随着年龄、病程的延长以及尿白蛋白肌酐比值的增加,糖尿病患者PAD程度越严重,PAD程度随着ABI和TcPO2减低而加重;TcPO2联合ABI对早期诊断糖尿病PAD具有较高的临床价值.%Objective To compare the clinical application in diagnosis and therapy for Type 2 diabetes patients with perpheral arterial diease ( PAD) between transcutaneous oxygen pressure ( TcPO2 ) determination and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods A total of 368 Type 2 diabetics (188 males and 180 females) were recruited into the study. TcPO2 of the acrotarsium was detected by multiple-channel transcutaneous tissue oxygen tension survey meter. According to die TcPO2 level, diese patients were divided into a non-injury group, a mild injury group, and a severe injury group. Moreover,the ankle artery pressure and brachial artery pressure were determined by Doppler color ultrasonography

  2. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  3. Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring in intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, D.; Chiu, M. C.; Paky, F; Helms, P

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco2) tensions were compared with arterial values in 23 children aged 4 months to 14 years, all requiring some form of respiratory support, but not in shock. Electrodes were placed on the upper chest and were heated to 45 degrees C. For TcPo2 and arterial oxygen (Pao2) a tight linear correlation over the range 6 to 14 kPa was found. Arterial carbon dioxide (Paco2) ranged between 2.63 and 6.8 kPa, and over this range a linear regression adequ...

  4. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  5. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H

    1990-01-01

    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias and...

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol Daniel A; Bradstreet James J; Van Dyke Kyle; Schneider Cindy; Freedenfeld Stuart H; O’Hara Nancy; Cave Stephanie; Buckley Julie A; Mumper Elizabeth A; Frye Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies...

  7. Deriving NMR surface relaxivities, pore size distributions and water retention curves by NMR relaxation experiments on partially de-saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnke, O.; Nordlund, C. L.; Klitzsch, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a method used over a wide field of geophysical applications to non-destructively determine transport and storage properties of rocks and soils. In NMR relaxometry signal amplitudes correspond directly to the rock's fluid (water, oil) content. On the other hand the NMR relaxation behavior, i.e. the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) NMR relaxation times, can be used to derive pore sizes and permeability as it is linearly linked to the pore's surface-to-volume-ratio and physiochemical properties of the rock-fluid interface by the surface relaxivity ρ_s This parameter, however, is dependent on the type and mineral constituents of the investigated rock sample and thus has to be determined and calibrated prior to estimating pore sizes from NMR relaxometry measurements. Frequently used methods to derive surface relaxivity to calibrate NMR pore sizes comprise mercury injection, pulsed field gradients (PFG-NMR) or grain size analysis. This study introduces an alternative approach to jointly estimate NMR surface relaxivity and pore radii distributions using NMR relaxation data obtained from partially de-saturated rocks. In this, inverse modeling is carried on a linked Young Laplace equation for capillary bundles and the Brownstein and Tarr equations. Subsequently, this approach is used to predict water retention curves of the investigated rocks. The method was tested and validated on simulated and laboratory transverse NMR data. Calculated inverse models are generally in a good agreement with results obtained from mercury injection and drainage measurements. Left: Measured and predicted water retention (pF) curves. Center: NMR relaxometry data, fit and error. Right: Mercury injection data (HgPor, dashed line) and jointly derived pore radii distributions and surface relaxivity by joint inverse modelling

  8. Functional optimization of the arterial network

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    We build an evolutionary scenario that explains how some crucial physiological constraints in the arterial network of mammals - i.e. hematocrit, vessels diameters and arterial pressure drops - could have been selected by evolution. We propose that the arterial network evolved while being constrained by its function as an organ. To support this hypothesis, we focus our study on one of the main function of blood network: oxygen supply to the organs. We consider an idealized organ with a given oxygen need and we optimize blood network geometry and hematocrit with the constraint that it must fulfill the organ oxygen need. Our model accounts for the non-Newtonian behavior of blood, its maintenance cost and F\\aa hr\\ae us effects (decrease in average concentration of red blood cells as the vessel diameters decrease). We show that the mean shear rates (relative velocities of fluid layers) in the tree vessels follow a scaling law related to the multi-scale property of the tree network, and we show that this scaling la...

  9. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  10. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  11. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  12. Coeliac artery compression syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    OKTAY, Özgür; MEMİŞ, Ahmet; Parildar, Mustafa; Oran, İsmail

    2003-01-01

    Celiac artery compression syndrome, also called median arcuate ligament compression syndrome, causes gastrointestinal ischemia secondary to compression of the proximal portion of the celiac artery just beyond its origin by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. This syndrome is frequently demonstrated on aortography performed in patients without complaints of intestinal angina. Isolated stenosis or even occlusion of the celiac artery is always compensated for by collateral circul...

  13. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  15. Muscle Oxygenation During Running Assessed by Broad Band NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimers, A; Vafiadou, M; Koukourakis, G; Geraskin, D; Neary, P; Kohl-Bareis, M

    2016-01-01

    We used spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) to assess calf and thigh muscle oxygenation during running on a motor-driven treadmill. Two protocols were used: An incremental speed protocol was performed in 5-min stages, while a pacing paradigm modulated the step frequency (2.3 Hz [SLow]; 3.3 Hz [SHigh]) during a constant velocity for 2 min each. A SRS-NIRS broadband system was used to measure total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (SO2). An accelerometer was placed on the hip joints to measure limb acceleration through the experiment. The data showed that the calf desaturated to a significantly lower level than the thigh. During the pacing protocol, SO2 was significantly different between the high and low step frequencies. Additionally, physiological data as measured by spirometry were different between the SLow vs. SHigh pacing trials. Significant differences in VO2 at the same workload (speed) indicate alterations in mechanical efficiency. These data suggest that SRS broadband NIRS can be used to discern small changes in muscle oxygenation, making this device useful for metabolic exercise studies in addition to spirometry and movement monitoring by accelerometers. PMID:26782193

  16. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyRichardBain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  17. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  18. Presión parcial de oxígeno, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina e índice cardíaco en pollos de engorde a 2.600 metros sobre el nivel del mar Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, hematocrit, haemoglobin, and cardiac index in broilers at 2600 m above sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. JIMENEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HP en pollosparrilleros constituye un problema económico importante. Dentrode los mecanismos de adaptación del organismo a la altitud se encuentran,además del aumento de la tensión arterial pulmonar, el incremento de la masa muscular ventricular derecha, la policitemía y posiblemente la hiperventilación con la subsecuente alcalosis respiratoria. Es factible que el alto nivel de energía en la ración incremente la hipoxemia derivada de la hipoxia; con lo anterior, el grado de policitemia se puede elevar y producirse un efecto agravante de la HP. Para establecer valores de pO2, Ht, Hb e IC en pollos parrilleros residentes a 2.600 m de altura sobre el nivel del mar, se estudiaron 24 aves de ambos sexos, de una población de 400 animales. Los valores promedios obtenidos fueron los siguientes: a pO2: 67.21 mmHg ± 5.21. Hubo diferencias estadísticas (pWideman y Buss (1985y Julian y col. (1985. La correlación inversa entre el IC y la pO2 arterial indican el efecto de la hipoxia de las vías aéreas en la hipoxemia y en el grado de hipertrofia e hiperplasia ventricular derecha.High incidence of cardiac failure in broilers due to hypoxic pulmonaryhypertension (PH, produces huge economical losses. Adaptive responsesinclude right ventricular hypertrophy and polycythemia. High energy levelin feed could increase hypoxemia and therefore the degree of polycythemia,thus increasing PH. To establish normal values in arterial oxygen partialpressure (pO2, pH, hematocrit (Ht, haemoglobin (Hb, and cardiacindex (CI, 24 broilers (12 males and 12 females, chosen at random, froma population of 400 birds, were studied in Bogotá, Colombia, 2600m above sea level. Mean values obtained were as follows: a pO2:67.21 ± 5.21 mmHg; statistical differences between sexes and among ages were found (p<0.05; b pH: 7.5 ± 0.05; c Ht: 37.13 ± 3.27%. In males, Ht values were higher at 24 and 37 days. In females, therewas a

  19. Dynamic Determination of Oxygenation and Lung Compliance in Murine Pneumonectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gibney, Barry; Lee, Grace S; Houdek, Jan; Lin, Miao; Miele, Lino; Chamoto, Kenji; Konerding, Moritz A; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic surgical procedures in mice have been applied to a wide range of investigations, but little is known about the murine physiologic response to pulmonary surgery. Using continuous arterial oximetry monitoring and the FlexiVent murine ventilator, we investigated the effect of anesthesia and pneumonectomy on mouse oxygen saturation and lung mechanics. Sedation resulted in a dose-dependent decline of oxygen saturation that ranged from 55–82%. Oxygen saturation was restored by mechanical v...

  20. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared. PMID:20307350

  1. Improvement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation by Inhalation of Carbogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, M.; Borghammer, P.; Gjedde, A.; Ostergaard, L.; Vafaee, M.

    2008-01-01

    confirmed by statistical cluster analysis. Oxygen and carbogen were equally potent in increasing oxygen saturation of arterial blood (Sa(O2)). The present data demonstrate that inhalation of carbogen increases both CBF and Sa(O2) in healthy adults. In conclusion we speculate that carbogen inhalation is...... sufficient for optimal oxygenation of healthy brain tissue, whereas carbogen induces concomitant increases of CBF and Sa(O2).......Hyperoxic therapy for cerebral ischemia is suspected to reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF), due to the vasoconstrictive effect of oxygen on cerebral arterioles. We hypothesized that vasodilation predominates when 5% CO(2) is added to the inhaled oxygen (carbogen). Therefore, we used positron emission...

  2. Intramucosal–arterial PCO 2 gap fails to reflect intestinal dysoxia in hypoxic hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Murias, Gastón; Estenssoro, Elisa; Canales, Héctor; Badie, Julio; Pozo, Mario; Sottile, Juan P; Barán, Marcelo; Pálizas, Fernando; Laporte, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    Introduction An elevation in intramucosal–arterial PCO 2 gradient (ΔPCO 2) could be determined either by tissue hypoxia or by reduced blood flow. Our hypothesis was that in hypoxic hypoxia with preserved blood flow, ΔPCO 2 should not be altered. Methods In 17 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, oxygen delivery was reduced by decreasing flow (ischemic hypoxia, IH) or arterial oxygen saturation (hypoxic hypoxia, HH), or no intervention was made (sham). In the IH group (n = 6), blood...

  3. Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Hartwich, Doreen; Seifert, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) were measured. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular vein and brachial artery to determine concentration differences for oxygen (O(2......We evaluated cerebral perfusion, oxygenation, and metabolism in eleven young (age 22 ± 1 years) and nine older (age 66 ± 2 years) individuals at rest and during cycling exercise at low (25% W(max)), moderate (50% W(max)), high (75% W(ma)) and exhaustive (100% W(max)) workloads. Mean middle cerebral...

  4. Clinical evaluation of contemporary oxygenators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Roger D P; Henderson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Advances in cardiopulmonary bypass equipment have played a critical role in improving outcomes for cardiac surgery patients. Recent advancements include reduced priming volumes, biocompatible coatings and gaseous microemboli handling, as well as the incorporation of an arterial filter into the oxygenator.The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive clinical evaluation of adult oxygenators on the market. Oxygenators assessed included the Sorin Synthesis(®) (n = 30), the Sorin Inspire 6F(®) (n = 10) and Inspire 8F(®) (n = 30), the Terumo FX15(®) (n = 13) and FX25(®) (n = 30), the Maquet Quadrox-i(®) (n = 30) and the Medtronic Fusion(®) (n = 30). Parameters assessed included functional prime volumes, gas exchange, pressure gradients and the effects on patient hematology.The Synthesis had the largest functional prime volume (1426 ml), the FX15 the lowest (956 ml). The Inspire 6F, 8F and Fusion had the greatest O2 transfer. The Sorin oxygenators required the lowest sweep gas flows to obtain a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg. The Sorin oxygenators had the largest pressure gradients. While no differences were observed for hemoglobin and platelet levels post cross-clamp removal, the Sorin Synthesis and Inspire 8F had the largest increases in white blood cell (WBC) counts (122% and 141% of baseline, respectively) and neutrophils (162% and 185% of baseline, respectively).The data demonstrate that no single product is superior in all aspects. The choice of ideal oxygenator depends on the aspect(s) of oxygenator performance the perfusion team believes most clinically acceptable based on available data. PMID:26407816

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  6. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    OpenAIRE

    Rangappa Pradeep; Uhde Britta; Byard Roger; Wurm Alex; Thomas Peter

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 ) she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  7. Fatal cerebral arterial gas embolism after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangappa Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 50-year-old woman undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, who developed coma and hemiparesis secondary to severe cerebral artery gas embolism. Despite prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO 2 she developed severe cerebral edema and died within 24 h.

  8. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  9. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  10. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  11. Carotid artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have had a stroke or TIA, a nervous system (neurological) exam will show other problems. You may also have the following tests: Blood cholesterol and triglycerides test Blood sugar (glucose) test Ultrasound of the carotid arteries ( carotid ...

  12. The effect of phenylephrine on arterial and venous cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Overgaard, Morten; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic regulation of the cerebral circulation remains controversial. Although intravenous phenylephrine (PE) infusion reduces the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-determined measure of frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c) O(2) ) and increases middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V(mean......(mean) ), suggesting α-adrenergic-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction, this remains unconfirmed by evaluation of arterial and venous cerebral blood flow.......Sympathetic regulation of the cerebral circulation remains controversial. Although intravenous phenylephrine (PE) infusion reduces the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-determined measure of frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c) O(2) ) and increases middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...

  13. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera; Alison Goodwin; Yanzhong Wang; James Goodman; Akash Deep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 ) as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values o...

  14. Mga2 Transcription Factor Regulates an Oxygen-responsive Lipid Homeostasis Pathway in Fission Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Risa; Stewart, Emerson V; Shao, Wei; Zhao, Shan; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S; Espenshade, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic lipid synthesis is oxygen-dependent with cholesterol synthesis requiring 11 oxygen molecules and fatty acid desaturation requiring 1 oxygen molecule per double bond. Accordingly, organisms evaluate oxygen availability to control lipid homeostasis. The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors regulate lipid homeostasis. In mammals, SREBP-2 controls cholesterol biosynthesis, whereas SREBP-1 controls triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the SREBP-2 homolog Sre1 regulates sterol homeostasis in response to changing sterol and oxygen levels. However, notably missing is an SREBP-1 analog that regulates triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid homeostasis in response to low oxygen. Consistent with this, studies have shown that the Sre1 transcription factor regulates only a fraction of all genes up-regulated under low oxygen. To identify new regulators of low oxygen adaptation, we screened the S. pombe nonessential haploid deletion collection and identified 27 gene deletions sensitive to both low oxygen and cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic. One of these genes, mga2, is a putative transcriptional activator. In the absence of mga2, fission yeast exhibited growth defects under both normoxia and low oxygen conditions. Mga2 transcriptional targets were enriched for lipid metabolism genes, and mga2Δ cells showed disrupted triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid homeostasis, most notably with an increase in fatty acid saturation. Indeed, addition of exogenous oleic acid to mga2Δ cells rescued the observed growth defects. Together, these results establish Mga2 as a transcriptional regulator of triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid homeostasis in S. pombe, analogous to mammalian SREBP-1. PMID:27053105

  15. The relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation changes and post operative neurologic complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation changes and postoperative neurologic complications. Seventy two adult patients with ASA class II, III who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, were randomized into three groups: Group I: with CPB (on -pump) Group II: without CPB (off- pump) Group III: valve surgery. Neuropsychological outcome was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cerebral oxygen saturation was also measured. There was no statistical difference in desaturation of more than 20% among three groups (P=0.113) but it was significant between group I and II (P=0.042). Changes of rSo/sub 2/ in different hours of surgery was significant in group I and group II (P=0.0001 in both) but it was not significant in group III ( P=0.075) . Although cerebral oximetry is a noninvasive and useful method of monitoring during cardiac surgery, it has low accuracy to determine postoperative neurologic complications. (author)

  16. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from arterialized earlobe blood gas values in patients treated with mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honarmand Azim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is useful in evaluation of the clinical condition of critically ill patients; however, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter may sometimes be difficult and cause many complications. Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. Purpose: This study evaluates whether pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 , base excess (BE, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 values of arterialized earlobe blood samples could accurately predict their arterial blood gas analogs for adult patients treated by mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU. Setting: A prospective descriptive study Methods: Sixty-seven patients who were admitted to ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and arterialized earlobe of each patient. Results: Regression equations and mean percentage-difference equations were derived to predict arterial pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 -values from their earlobe analogs. pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 all significantly correlated in ABG and earlobe values. In spite of a highly significant correlation, the limits of agreement between the two methods were wide for PO 2 . Regression equations for prediction of pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO3- values were: arterial pH (pHa = 1.81+ 0.76 x earlobe pH (pHe [r = 0.791, P < 0.001]; PaCO 2 = 1.224+ 1.058 x earlobePCO 2 (PeCO 2 [r = 0.956, P < 0.001]; arterial BE (BEa = 1.14+ 0.95 x earlobe BE (BEe [r= 0.894, P < 0.001], and arterial HCO 3 - (HCO 3 -a = 1.41+ earlobe HCO 3 (HCO 3 -e [r = 0.874, P < 0.001]. The predicted ABG values from the mean percentage-difference equations were derived as follows: pHa = pHe x 1.001; PaCO 2 = PeCO 2 x 0.33; BEa = BEe x 0.57; and HCO 3 -a = HCO 3 -e x 1.06. Conclusions: Arterialized

  17. [Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for critically ill adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Kunihiko; Gando, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO) is an artificial life support for severe respiratory and/or cardiac failure, and refractory cardiac arrest. It consists of a hollow-fiber membrane that oxygenates the blood and removes carbon dioxide and a centrifugal pump that drain blood from central venous circulation, pump through membrane, and return to the patients. Veno-venous ECMO provides gas change in hemodynamically stable patients with respiratory failure. Veno-arterial ECMO offers hemodynamic support in addition to gas change for cardiac failure or refractory cardiac arrest. We describe the physiological principles and the clinical evidence supporting the use of ECMO in critically ill adult patients. PMID:26915254

  18. Transcutaneous oxygen tension in imminent foot gangrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H

    1978-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs......) from the arterioles into the tissue sink and counter current gas shunting. The hypoxia in spite of a positive perfusion pressure up to 50 mmHg explains our experience that ischemic ulcers in feet such low pressures never heal.......Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs...... with moderate obstruction, the oxygen tension reached zero at a toe systolic blood pressure of 5--10 mmHg (tilt toe up) and reached arterial oxygen tension at about 50 to 70 mmHg (tilt toe down). In legs withsevere arterial obstruction and ischaemic rest pain, oxygen tension rose from zero not before...

  19. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  20. Effects of early postoperative lung recruitment maneuver on pulmonary oxygenation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting%术后早期肺复张对非体外循环冠状动脉旁路移植术病人肺氧合功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明; 周晔; 周啸; 罗智敏; 万久贺; 王滨; 宋铁鹰; 王红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of early postoperative lung alveolar recruitment (LRM) on pulmonary oxygenation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG).Methods One hundred and twenty-six ASA physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ patients of both sexes,aged 44-70 yr,of NYHA class Ⅱ or Ⅲ patients,scheduled for elective OPCABG,were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n =63 each):control group (group C) and LRM group.In group LRM,LRM was performed using pressure control method at 1 and 2 h after operation based on conventional mechanical ventilation.Both distending pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure were 20 cmH2O.Peak airway pressure was limited to 40 cmH2O and maintained at this level for 30 s,and then the original mode of ventilation was restored.At the end of operation,at 3 h alter operation and immediately after weaning from mechanical ventilation,blood samples were collected from the radial artery for blood gas analysis and oxygenation index was calculated.The development of postoperative hypoxemia,atelectasis,pulmonary infection,delayed removal of endotracheal tubes,and prolonged duration of intensive care unit stay,and ventilation time were recorded.Results LRM was stopped in no patients for unstable hemodynamics.Compared with group C,oxygenation index was significantly increased at 3 h after operation and immediately after weaning from mechanical ventilation,the incidence of postoperative hypoxemia,atelectasis,pulmonary infection,and delayed removal of endotracheal tubes was significantly decreased,the ventilation time was shortened,and no significant change was found in the incidence of prolonged duration of intensive care unit stay in LRM group.Conclusion Early postoperative LRM can improve pulmonary oxygenation in patients undergoing OPCABG.%目的 评价术后早期肺复张(LRM)对非体外循环冠状动脉旁路移植术(OPCABG)病人肺氧合功能的影响.方法 择期行OPCABG病人126例,性别不限,年龄44

  1. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  2. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  3. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  4. Coronary arterial fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Shakeel A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between one or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation. Its exact incidence is unknown. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in origin although they may occasionally be detected after cardiac surgery. They do not usually cause symptoms or complications in the first two decades, especially when small. After this age, the frequency of both symptoms and complications increases. Complications include 'steal' from the adjacent myocardium, thrombosis and embolism, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, rupture, endocarditis/endarteritis and arrhythmias. Thrombosis within the fistula is rare but may cause acute myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysmal fistula causing haemopericardium has also been reported. The main differential diagnosis is patent arterial duct, although other congenital arteriovenous shunts need to be excluded. Whilst two-dimensional echocardiography helps to differentiate between the different shunts, coronary angiography is the main diagnostic tool for the delineation of the anatomy. Surgery was the traditional method of treatment but nowadays catheter closure is recommended using a variety of closure devices, such as coils, or other devices. With the catheter technique, the results are excellent with infrequent complications. Disease name and synonyms Coronary arterial fistulas Coronary arterial fistulas or malformations

  5. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  6. Fetal oxygenation measurement using wireless near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew; Shadgan, Babak; Janssen, Patricia; Rurak, Dan

    2012-03-01

    Background: Fetal well-being is determined in large part by how well the placenta is able to supply oxygen and nutrients, but current technology is unable to directly measure how well a placenta functions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) utilizes optical methods to measure tissue oxygenation. This pilot project evaluated the feasibility of NIRS for fetal monitoring through the maternal abdominal wall using a sheep model. Methods: A miniature wireless 2-wavelength NIRS device was placed on the abdominal skin over the placenta of a pregnant ewe whose fetus had been chronically catheterized to allow arterial sampling for measurement of arterial oxygen saturation. The NIRS device has 3-paired light emitting diodes and a single photodiode detector; allowing measurement of an index of tissue oxygen saturation (TSI%). Fetal limb TSI% values were compared before and during fetal breathing movements. Correlation was made during these events between arterial values and placental TSI% monitored continuously in real time. Results: Serial measurements were obtained in a single experiment. The correlation between transcutaneous NIRS derived TSI% and direct arterial oxygen saturation was very high (R2=0.86). Measures of fetal limb TSI% were declined after episodes of fetal breathing (P<0.005). Conclusions: This correlation suggests that NIRS is sensitive enough to detect changes in fetal tissue oxygenation noninvasively through the maternal abdominal wall in real-time in a sheep model. NIRS data confirmed that fetal breathing movements decrease arterial oxygen saturation in fetal lambs. If validated by further study this optical methodology could be applied as means of monitoring fetal wellbeing in humans.

  7. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    -infrared spectroscopy-derived frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) at rest and during exercise. At rest, nine healthy male subjects received bolus injections of phenylephrine (0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg), and changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), MCA Vmean, internal jugular venous O2 saturation (SjvO2), ScO2), and arterial...

  8. Gas enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum using carbon dioxide and oxygen - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Ohlhues, Anders;

    meninges may obscure the signal from the arteries of interest. It is known that oxygen enhances the T1-weighted signal and that carbon dioxide increases the arterial blood flow. This paper presents preliminary results of gas enhanced MRA using combinations of atmospheric air, O2 and CO2. Subjects and...

  9. Effect of chest physiotherapy on oxygen saturation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, J A; Webber, B. A.; Hodson, M E

    1990-01-01

    Decreasing arterial oxygen saturation has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis during postural drainage when this was combined with other manoeuvres, which did not, however, include thoracic expansion exercises or pauses for relaxation and breathing control. When these features were included in an active cycle of breathing techniques during postural drainage in 20 patients with cystic fibrosis there was no fall in arterial oxygen saturation during the procedure (mean values 87.1%, 8...

  10. Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation in newborns : implications for brain and lung

    OpenAIRE

    Heijst, Adrianus Franciscus Jacobus van

    2004-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue treatment for newborns with severe respiratory insufficiency. In veno-arterial ECMO, venous blood is drained from the right atrium, oxygenated in an artificial lung and reinfused in the aorta. For vascular access the right internal jugular vein and right common carotid artery are ligated permanently. This invasive treatment may have major complications. In this thesis we described the results of ECMO treatment in the University Medical Ce...

  11. Effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmaed Shaaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A debate has appeared in the recent literature about the optimum rewarming strategy (slow vs. rapid for the best brain function. This study was designed to compare the effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO 2 in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients undergoing valve and adult congenital heart surgery were randomly allocated equally to rapid rewarming group 0.5 (0.136°C/min and slow rewarming group 0.219 (0.055°C/min in jugular bulb sampling was taken before, during and after surgery. Surgery was done at cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB temperature of 28-30°C and rewarming was performed at the end of the surgical procedure. Results: CPB time, rewarming period were significantly longer in the slow rewarming group. Significant difference was observed in the number of the desaturated patients (SjO 2 ≤ 50% between the two groups; 14 (35% in rapid rewarming versus 6 (15% in the slow rewarming group; P = 0.035 by Fisher′s exact test. Conclusions: Slow rewarming could reduce the incidence of SjO 2 desaturation during rewarming in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery.

  12. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Badri, Kadhem Helo Abbas; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Christiansen, Evald H;

    2015-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk...

  13. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  14. Carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  15. Carotid artery stenting; Karotisangioplastie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum

    2009-09-15

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  16. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  17. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  18. Systemic arterial air embolism after percutaneous lung biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, S.S., E-mail: samanjit@btinternet.com [Ottawa Hospital, Ontario (Canada); Gupta, A.; Goncalves, A.T.C.; Souza, C.A.; Matzinger, F.; Seely, J.M. [Ottawa Hospital, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Systemic arterial air embolism is a rarely encountered but much feared complication of percutaneous lung biopsy. We present a comprehensive review of iatrogenic air embolism post-lung biopsy, a complication that is often suboptimally managed. This review was inspired by our own institutional experience and we use this to demonstrate that excellent outcomes from this complication can be seen with prompt treatment using hyperbaric oxygen chamber therapy, after initial patient stabilization has been achieved. Pathophysiology, clinical features, and risk factors are reviewed and misconceptions regards venous versus arterial air embolism are examined. An algorithm is provided for radiologists to ensure suspected patients are appropriately managed with more favourable outcomes.

  19. Interventional therapy of complications after liver transplantation: hepatic artery thombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolution of the complications after liver transplantation is one of the important factors related to prognosis. Hepatic artery thombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation can lead directly to trans- planted liver undergone necrosis, biloma formation and liver functional exhaustion. The early diagnosis with Color Doppler which should be the first method of choice, CTA, MRA and angiography could lead to exact demonstration, and proper treatment can result in better prognosis. The microinvasive techniques such as local thrombolysis, balloon dilatation and stent placement are safe and effective for treatment of hepatic artery thombosis. The vascular reconstruction and oxygen hyperbaric are effective therapeutic methods. Repeat liver transplantation is still the last important choice for survival. (authors)

  20. Dense pulmonary opacification in neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiographic findings in three neonates with respiratory failure secondary to meconium aspiration treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are described. The degree of pulmonary opacification on the chest radiographs failed to correlate with the patients' clinical status as measured by the arterial oxygen levels but correlated well with the peak airway pressure (PAP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) settings on the mechanical ventilator. Because a variable portion of the arterial blood oxygenation is performed by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and unusually large fluctuations in airway pressure settings can occur in these patients while on ECMO, it is important to realize that the chest radiography may not be an accurate predictor of the patients' clinical status. (orig.)

  1. Dense pulmonary opacification in neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Cornish, J.D.; Null, D.M.

    1986-09-01

    Chest radiographic findings in three neonates with respiratory failure secondary to meconium aspiration treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are described. The degree of pulmonary opacification on the chest radiographs failed to correlate with the patients' clinical status as measured by the arterial oxygen levels but correlated well with the peak airway pressure (PAP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) settings on the mechanical ventilator. Because a variable portion of the arterial blood oxygenation is performed by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and unusually large fluctuations in airway pressure settings can occur in these patients while on ECMO, it is important to realize that the chest radiography may not be an accurate predictor of the patients' clinical status.

  2. Combination of rare right arterial variation with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H; San Millán Ruíz, D; Abdo, G; Asakura, F; Yilmaz, H; Lovblad, K O; Rüfenacht, D A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  3. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  4. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (me

  5. Boron PLA for oxygen sensing & hypoxia imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Fraser

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is essential for many forms of life and its depletion in the body and the environment can lead to deleterious effects. Low oxygen conditions, even anoxia, are associated with eutrophication of lakes and rivers, wherein an over abundance of nutrients often caused by pollution result in excessive plant growth and decay, threatening water quality, ecosystem balance, and aquatic life. In the body, low oxygen conditions or hypoxia may be generalized, as can occur at high altitude or during strenuous exercise, or localized in particular tissues, when there is a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Hypoxia is present in many important diseases as well. Low oxygen levels in tumors are often associated with biochemical changes, increased invasiveness, cancer progression, and resistance to radiation and chemotherapies. Vascular blockage in strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral artery disease, which is common in diabetes, are other situations where oxygen levels can drop precipitously and cause great damage to affected tissues. Clearly, innovative sensing technologies that provide new insight into these many oxygen dependent processes can impact global society in significant ways.

  6. Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijo T George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal artery is the commonest of the four primitive anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system that may rarely persist in adults, with an angiographic incidence of 0.1 - 0.6%. We present the CT and MR angiograms of a patient who presented with a minor stroke and was detected to have this anomaly and briefly discuss the significance

  7. Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G.B.; Conti, M.L.M.; Veiga, J.C.E.; Jory, M.; Souza, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:22005697

  8. Skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields in artificially ventilated, critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MDO (Mehrdraht Dostmund Oberflaeche) oxygen electrode was used in a study of skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields, presented as histograms, in critically ill patients artificially ventilated with gas mixtures of different oxygen concentrations. The histograms were compared with forearm blood flow measurements performed with strain gauge plethysmography. Local blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) were also studied by the simultaneous clearances of 133xenon and 51Cr-EDTA. The histogram distribution type was normal, i.e. approximately Gaussian, at arterial oxygen pressure levels between 10 and 18 kPa. At arterial oxygen pressures outside this range the histogram distribution types were abnormal, i.e. they showed a non-symmetrical distribution of oxygen pressure values, but their mean was approximately the same as in the normal histogram. However, there were significantly higher tissue oxygen pressure mean values in the patients (3.43 kPa) than in a group of healthy human volunteers (2.25 kPa). Mean forearm blood flow and the clearances of 133xenon and 51Cr-EDTA showed marked variations during the measurements both intraindividually and interindividually. Mean forearm blood flow and mean clearances of 133xenon showed opposite trends compared with arterial oxygen pressures. Mean clearances of 51Cr-EDTA and mean PS showed minor variations at the different arterial oxygen pressure levels. (author)

  9. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oxygen Therapy Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... oxygen is so cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let ...

  10. Cerebral oxygenation and metabolism during exercise following three months of endurance training in healthy overweight males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P;

    2009-01-01

    Endurance training improves muscular and cardiovascular fitness, but the effect on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism remains unknown. We hypothesized that 3 mo of endurance training would reduce cerebral carbohydrate uptake with maintained cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. Healthy...... overweight males were included in a randomized, controlled study (training: n = 10; control: n = 7). Arterial and internal jugular venous catheterization was used to determine concentration differences for oxygen, glucose, and lactate across the brain and the oxygen-carbohydrate index [molar uptake of oxygen...... training attenuates the cerebral metabolic response to submaximal exercise, as reflected in a lower carbohydrate uptake and maintained cerebral oxygenation....

  11. Modelling of the Effect of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation in Beach Chair Position under General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Chae, Dong Woo; Chun, Yong-Min; Jeong, Kyu Hee; Park, Kyungsoo; Han, Dong Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position (BCP) under general anaesthesia may be at risk of cerebral desaturation. Increasing end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ) is the most convenient and powerful method for the management of cerebral desaturation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative relationship between EtCO2 and cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) and to identify the associated influencing factors. Fifty-one patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the BCP under general anaesthesia completed this study. Desflurane and remifentanil were used, and EtCO2 was steadily increased and then decreased by adjusting the ventilator settings every 3 min. so that time lag of rSO2 response to EtCO2 changes could be delineated. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor rSO2 response. An indirect response model was used to examine the relationship between EtCO2 and rSO2 . To determine the relevant covariates, a stepwise approach was used. There was a linear relationship between rSO2 and EtCO2 with a slight delay in the peak of rSO2 relative to EtCO2 . Increase in end-tidal desflurane concentration led to a slower response of rSO2 to the changes of EtCO2 (p = 0.0002). The presence of diabetes mellitus reduced the reactivity of rSO2 to EtCO2 changes (p < 0.0001). This model-based approach revealed that diabetes mellitus attenuates the response of rSO2 to changes in EtCO2 . The management of cerebral desaturation by hypercapnia in patients with diabetes may be less effective than in non-diabetic patients under general anaesthesia with BCP. PMID:26707006

  12. A theoretical model for the effects of reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity on tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for oxygen delivery to tumors, and to use the model to simulate the effects of changing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen on tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Hemoglobin affinity is expressed in terms of P50, the partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) at half saturation. Effects of changing P50 on arterial Po2 are predicted using an effective vessel approach to describe diffusive oxygen transport in the lungs, assuming fixed systemic oxygen demand and fixed blood flow rate. The decline in oxygen content of blood as it flows through normal tissue before entering the tumor region is assumed fixed. The hypoxic fraction of the tumor region is predicted using a three-dimensional simulation of diffusion from a network of vessels whose geometry is derived from observations of tumor microvasculature in the rat. Results: In air-breathing rats, predicted hypoxic fraction decreases with moderate increases in P50, but increases with further increases of P50, in agreement with previous experimental results. In rats breathing hyperoxic gases, and in humans breathing either normoxic or hyperoxic gases, increased P50 is predicted to improve tumor oxygenation. Conclusions: The results support the administration of synthetic agents to increase P50 during radiation treatment of tumors

  13. STUDY OF POLYSOMNO G RAPHY IN CURE POST - TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhise Dhondiba

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have various Comorbidities like cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. There is an association between pulmonary hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with nocturnal arterial oxygen desaturation. During apnea the increa sed vagal tone induces hypoxia and by mechanical effects of obstructive sleep apnea associated with intrathoracic pressure swings leads to bradyca...

  14. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, N J; Kitslaar, P; Janevski, B K

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called "functional" PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. PMID:2837797

  15. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology.

  16. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.)

  17. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.; Farber, Harrison W.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality....

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Amy L.; Mandel, Jess; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved understanding of the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it remains a severe and progressive disease, usually culminating in right heart failure, significant morbidity and early mortality. Over the last decade, some major advances have led to substantial improvements in the management of PAH. Much of this progress was pioneered by work in animal models. Although none of the current animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) completely recapitulate the hum...

  19. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should ...

  1. Robotic coronary artery bypass for aberrant right coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Teefy, Patrick; Kiaii, Bob; Vezina, William C; Chu, Michael Wa

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries that course between the aorta and pulmonary artery are subject to compressive forces and can manifest angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. The current report presents a young, female patient who presented with a short duration of severe, rapidly progressive angina despite optimal medical therapy. Combined computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scanning identified an anomalous dominant right coronary artery that appeared kinked at its origin between the aorta and main pulmonary artery. A robot-assisted right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery bypass was performed, which was confirmed to be widely patent (FitzGibbon grade A) on routine intraoperative angiography. The procedure completely resolved the patient's angina symptoms. PMID:20931103

  2. Frontal lobe oxygenation is maintained during hypotension following propofol-fentanyl anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Nielsen, H.B.;

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses cerebral oxygen saturation (Sco2) as a balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption. In 71 patients, we evaluated whether marked reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during propofol-fentanyl anesthesia induction affects frontal lobe Sco2...

  3. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  4. Tissue remodeling of rat pulmonary arteries in recovery from hypoxic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuangjie; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Zong Lai; Gregersen, Hans; Fung, Yuan-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    The reversibility of tissue remodeling is of general interest to medicine. Pulmonary arterial tissue remodeling during hypertension induced by hypoxic breathing is well known, but little has been said about the recovery of the arterial wall when the blood pressure is lowered again. We hypothesize that tissue recovery is a function of the oxygen concentration, blood pressure, location on the vascular tree, and time. We measured the changes of blood pressure, vessel lumen, vessel wall thickness...

  5. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  6. Secondary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Treated with Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sat; Kashour, Tarek; Philipp, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension (SPAH) is an adverse outcome of a variety of systemic disorders. These include collagen vascular diseases, chronic thromboembolism, human immunodeficiency virus, portopulmonary hypertension, and other diseases. Progression of SPAH may persist despite stabilization of the causative disease, thereby contributing to the poor quality of life and unfavorable survival in these patients. Treatment of the underlying cause and oxygen supplementation may allevi...

  7. Training is Medicine for Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Eivind

    2009-01-01

    The objective in the present thesis was to evaluate possible improvements when using training as a treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients and to study possible mechanisms behind the adaptations to training. During exercise patients with PAD are limited by muscle pain in the lower extremities, distal to the atherosclerotic lesions, due to lack of oxygen. In the first experiment high aerobic intensity whole body treadmill endurance training was found to be superior to previous...

  8. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Air or Gas Embolism; Carbon Monoxide Poisoning; Clostridial Myositis and Myonecrosis (Gas Gangrene); Crush Injury, Compartment Syndrome & Other Acute Traumatic Ischemias; Decompression Sickness; Peripheral Arterial Insufficiency and Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; Severe Anemia; Intracranial Abscess; Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections; Osteomyelitis (Refractory); Delayed Radiation Injury (Soft Tissue and Bony Necrosis); Compromised Grafts and Flaps; Acute Thermal Burn Injury; Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

  10. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  11. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J;

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed that the...... lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  12. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  13. Leg oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise is slowed by a marked reduction in oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings with moderate intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics during intense exercise (86±3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26±1 years, mean±SEM) performed one-legged knee......-extensor exercise (60±3 W) for 4 min in a control setting (CON) and with arterial infusion of L-NMMA and indomethacin in the working leg to reduce blood flow by inhibiting formation of nitric oxide and prostanoids (double blockade; DB). In DB leg blood flow (LBF) and oxygen delivery during the first minute of...

  14. [Experience of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in critical care of respiratory failure in newborn with congenital diaphragmatic hernia in perinatal center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, A A; Nikiforov, D V; Podurovskaia, Iu L; Dorofeeva, E I; Abramian, M A; Makhalin, M V; Shatalov, K V; Nikiforov, V S; Degtiarev, D N

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with an experience of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in preterm infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia during postoperative period in the perinatal center. PMID:24749262

  15. Using broadband spatially resolved NIRS to assess muscle oxygenation during altered running protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Georg; Vafiadou, Maria; Steimers, André; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    We used spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) to assess calf and thigh muscle oxygenation during running on a motor-driven treadmill. Two protocols were used: An incremental speed protocol (velocity = 6 - 12 km/h, ▵v = 2 km/h) was performed in 3 minute stages, while a pacing paradigm modulated step frequency alternatively (2.3 Hz [SLow]; 3.3 Hz [SHigh]) during a constant velocity for 2 minutes each. A SRS-NIRS broadband system (600 - 1000 nm) was used to measure total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (SO2). An accelerometer was placed on the hip joints to measure limb acceleration through the experiment. The data showed that the calf (SO2 58 to 42%) desaturated to a significantly lower level than the thigh (61 to 54%). During the pacing protocol, SO2 was significantly different between the SLow vs. SHigh trials. Additionally, physiological data as measured by spirometry were different between the SLow vs. SHigh pacing trials (VO2 (2563+/- 586 vs. 2503 +/- 605 mL/min). Significant differences in VO2 at the same workload (speed) indicate alterations in mechanical efficiency. These data suggest that SRS broadband NIRS can be used to discern small changes in muscle oxygenation, making this device useful for metabolic exercise studies in addition to spirometry and movement monitoring by accelerometers.

  16. Pulse oximetry in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston Smith, S G; Glass, U H; Acharya, J; Pearson, T C

    1989-01-01

    The place of pulse oximetry in monitoring arterial oxygen saturation in sickle cell disease has been evaluated. In four admissions of patients with sickle cell anaemia with varying degrees of arterial haemoglobin oxygen desaturation, pulse oximetry was compared with a simultaneous assessment of oxygen saturation by arterial blood gas measurement and oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) analysis. Close agreement was found between the oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and that calculated from the measured arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) with reference to the patient's own ODC. Calculation of oxygen saturation by the blood gas analyser assuming a normal ODC was erroneous. Pulse oximetry is an accurate and effective non-invasive method for monitoring the arterial oxygen saturation in sickle cell disease. PMID:2591150

  17. Triple spontaneous cervical artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old healthy man had several transient ischaemic attacks suggesting left internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. There were no vascular risk factors and no preceding trauma. Colour-coded duplex sonography suggested a pseudo-occlusion of the left ICA, and cerebral angiography demonstrated dissection of the left ICA and both vertebral arteries. Angiography 6 months later was completely normal. This underlines the importance of four vessel angiography in young patients with dissections of cervical arteries. (orig.)

  18. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  19. Pulmonary arterial remodeling revealed by microfocal x-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Johnson, Roger H.; Dhyani, Anita H.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2001-05-01

    Animal models and micro-CT imaging are useful for understanding the functional consequences of, and identifying the genes involved in, the remodeling of vascular structures that accompanies pulmonary vascular disease. Using a micro-CT scanner to image contrast-enhanced arteries in excised lungs from fawn hooded rats (a strain genetically susceptible to hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension), we found that portions of the pulmonary arterial tree downstream from a given diameter were morphometrically indistinguishable. This 'self-consistency' property provided a means for summarizing the pulmonary arterial tree architecture and mechanical properties using a parameter vector obtained from measurements of the contiguous set of vessel segments comprising the longest (principal) pathway and its branches over a range of vascular pressures. This parameter vector was used to characterize the pulmonary vascular remodeling that occurred in rats exposed to a hypoxic (11.5% oxygen) environment and provided the input to a hemodynamic model relating structure to function. The major effect of the remodeling was a longitudinally (pulmonary artery to arterioles) uniform decrease in vessel distensibility that resulted in a 90% increase in arterial resistance. Despite the almost uniform change in vessel distensibility, over 50% of the resistance increase was attributable to vessels with unstressed diameters less than 125 microns.

  20. Glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply-demand ratio in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed on eight young pigs to test the hypothesis that glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply to a greater extent than hepatic oxygen uptake, providing a better hepatic oxygen supply-demand relationship. The experiments were performed under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia and controlled ventilation. Splanchnic blood flow was studied using radioactive microspheres. Glucagon was administered in doses of 1 and 5 μg x kg-1 x min-1. During glucagon infusion, hepatic arterial blood flow substantially increased, splenic and pancreatic blood flows increased moderately, while stomach and intestinal blood flows, as well as portal blood flow did not change significantly. Shunting of both 9- and 15-μm spheres through preportal tissues did not change significantly. Oxygen content in arterial or portal venous blood did not change significantly, while it increased in hepatic venous blood by 30%. There were no differences in the effects between the doses of glucagon administered. There was no correlation found between changes in hepatic oxygen supply and cardiac output or blood pressure. The changes observed during glucagon administration resulted in an increase in oxygen delivery to the liver and hepatic oxygen supply-uptake ratio

  1. Interruption of pulmonary arterial flow with inadequate ventilation leads to pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano; Shibayama, Y; Fukunshi, K; Nariyama, K; Ohsawa, N

    1996-03-01

    We examined the effect of interruption of pulmonary arterial flow and inadequate ventilation on the development of pulmonary infarction in rats. Pulmonary arterial flow was blocked by the injection of agar into the inferior vena cava and inadequate ventilation was produced by obstructing the left main bronchus with a polypropylene tip. Histological and angiographic examination of the lung demonstrated that: pulmonary artery embolism alone does not induce pulmonary infarction; obstruction of a bronchus does not induce significant changes, but that pulmonary infarction develops when pulmonary artery embolism and obstruction of a bronchus occur simultaneously. It has been thought that pulmonary infarction is caused by acute obstruction of a pulmonary artery, however, the alveolar walls are supplied with oxygen by both the pulmonary circulation and by ventilation. Interruption of pulmonary arterial flow alone is probably not sufficient to induce pulmonary infarction, which is probably caused by deficiency of oxygen supply to the alveolar walls by a synergy between interruption of pulmonary arterial flow and inadequate ventilation. PMID:8605572

  2. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography

  3. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  4. Noninvasive optical characterization of muscle blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in women with fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Yu; Gurley, Katelyn; Symons, Brock; Long, Douglas; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Crofford., Leslie J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Women with fibromyalgia (FM) have symptoms of increased muscular fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance, which may be associated with alterations in muscle microcirculation and oxygen metabolism. This study used near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies to noninvasively evaluate muscle blood flow, blood oxygenation and oxygen metabolism during leg fatiguing exercise and during arm arterial cuff occlusion in post-menopausal women with and without FM. Methods Fourteen women with...

  5. Helium-oxygen mixture does not improve gas exchange in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Matthew F; Spear, Robert M.; Peterson, Bradley M

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Heliox has been found to reduce both the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and work of breathing in children and adults with status asthmaticus. We hypothesized that, in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis, increasing the ratio of helium:oxygen concentrations would improve both ventilation and oxygenation. Objective: To examine the effect of varying concentrations of heliox mixtures on ventilation and oxygenation in mechanically ventilated children with bro...

  6. [The single coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  7. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  8. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  9. Parent Artery Occlusion for Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoya, K.; Nagaishi, M.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Morikawa, E.; H. Takahashi(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA)

    2006-01-01

    We review four cases of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm, of which three showed intolerance of parent artery occlusion. In two, balloon test occlusion (BTO) indicated poor opaci- fication of the PCA branches from the anastomoses, and therefore, permanent occlusion was not attempted.

  10. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  11. Dual anterior descending coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Luciane da L. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a male with risk factors for coronary artery disease, who was referred for cardiac catheterization after acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall. The patient underwent transluminal coronary angioplasty in the right coronary artery with successful stent implantation.

  12. Anemia and Oxygen Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    Clinical assessment of tissue oxygenation is challenging. Anemia reflects a decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and its significance in the perioperative setting relates largely to the associated risk of insufficient oxygen delivery and cellular hypoxia. Until meaningful clinical measures of tissue oxygenation are available in veterinary practice, clinicians must rely on evaluation of a patient's hemodynamic and ventilatory performance, along with biochemical and hemogasometric measurements. Blood transfusion is used commonly for treatment of perioperative anemia, and may improve tissue oxygenation by normalizing the rheologic properties of blood and enhancing perfusion, independent of increases in oxygen carrying capacity. PMID:26033442

  13. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance of...... at high altitude. This conceals the fact that there are structural changes and that placental oxygen consumption is reduced. The underlying mechanisms are a current focus of research. One intriguing possibility is that increased anaerobic metabolism of glucose in the placenta spares oxygen for the...... fetus but reduces its supply of substrate and thereby limits fetal growth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1381-1403, 2015....

  14. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  15. Development of pulmonary vascular response to oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb to respond to a rise in oxygen tension was studied from 94 to 146 days of gestation. The unanesthetized ewe breathed room air at normal atmospheric pressure, followed by 100% oxygen at three atmospheres absolute pressure in a hyperbaric chamber. In eleven near-term lambs, fetal arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) increased from 25 to 55 Torr, which increased the proportion or right ventricular output distributed to the fetal lungs from 8 to 59%. In five very immature lambs fetal PaO2 increased from 27 to 174 Torr, but the proportion of right ventricular output distributed to the lung did not change. In five of the near-term lambs, pulmonary blood flow was measured. For each measurement of the distribution of blood flow, approximately 8 x 105 spheres of 15-μm diameter, labeled with either 153Gd, 113Sn, 103Ru, 95Nb, or 46Sc were injected. It increased from 34 to 298 ml · kg fetal wt-1 · min-1, an 8.8-fold increase. The authors conclude that the pulmonary circulation of the fetal lamb does not respond to an increase in oxygen tension before 101 days of gestation; however, near term an increase in oxygen tension alone can induce the entire increase in pulmonary blood flow that normally occurs after the onset of breathing at birth

  16. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  18. Impaired blood pressure response to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: possible contribution of attenuated reflex vasoconstriction in non-exercising muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamatsu, S; Takeshita, A; Nakamura, M.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups according to whether their blood pressure decreased (eight, group 1) or increased (10, group 2) in response to treadmill exercise testing. Age and the extent and distribution of coronary artery disease were similar in the two groups. At rest, blood pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, cardiac index, forearm vascular resistance, and oxygen consumption were similar in the two groups. During supine leg exercise on ...

  19. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  1. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  2. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of...

  3. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  4. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  5. Comparative study between the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on cerebral oxygenation during sedation at pediatric cardiac catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, assessment of brain oxygen saturation, which is simply appliable and noninvasive method, can provide the anesthesia plans to be optimized according to the needs of the brain, which is the main target organ. Brain may be exposed to hypoxia due to supply-demand imbalance of oxygen not only in general anesthesia procedures but also in sedation practices. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol which are widely used agents for pediatric catheterization procedures on brain oxygen saturation using Fore-Sight. Material and Methods: A total of 44 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization between 1 and 18 years old were included in the study. All patients, who were randomly divided into two groups, had ASA physical status I-II. In Group Propofol (Group P, n = 22,induction of sedation was made by midazolam (0.5 mg,iv + propofol (1m/kg,iv, and in Group Dexmedetomidine (Group D, n = 22, induction of sedation was made by midazolam (0.5 mg,iv +dexmedetomidine (1mcg/kg, iv. Throughout the sedation, cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO 2 was recorded by Fore-Sight in addition to routine monitoring. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographic data, hemodynamic data and sedation scores. On other hand, statistically significant decreases in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation were detected especially at 5th and 10th minutes, in Group D, while cerebral oxygenation level did not decrease in Group P. Though, statistically significant difference was determined between two groups in terms of cerebral oxygen saturation, the obtained data was not interpreted as cerebral desaturation. Conclusion: As a conclusion, there was a statistically significant but clinically insignificant decrease in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation in dexmedetomidine group compared to propofol group. Although it does not seem to be important in hemodynamic

  6. A crossover study of short burst oxygen therapy (SBOT for the relief of exercise-induced breathlessness in severe COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulakal Siddiq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous small studies suggested SBOT may be ineffective in relieving breathlessness after exercise in COPD. Methods 34 COPD patients with FEV1 Results Average oxygen saturation fell from 95.0% to 91.3% after exercise. The mean time to subjective recovery was 3.3 minutes with no difference between treatments. The mean Borg breathlessness score was 1.5/10 at rest, rising to 5.1/10 at the end of exercise (No breathlessness = 0, worst possible breathlessness = 10. Oxygen therapy had no discernable effect on Borg scores even for 14 patients who desaturated below 90%. 15 patients had no preferred treatment, 7 preferred oxygen, 6 preferred the fan, 3 preferred air via a mask and 3 preferred room air. Conclusions This study provides no support for the idea that COPD patients who are not hypoxaemic at rest derive noticeable benefit from oxygen therapy after exercise. Use of air from a mask or from a fan had no apparent physiological or placebo effect.

  7. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  8. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  9. A case of primitive persistent hypoglossal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. K.; Koh, B. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, S. R. [Hangyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Three kinds of carotid-basilar anastomosis have been found, they were named as persistent primitive trigeminal artery, persistent primitive acoustic (or otic) artery and persistent primitive hypoglossal artery, among them, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery is by far the least common type of the internal carotid-basilar anastomosis which have been demonstrate in human postembryonic stages. Persistent primitive by hypoglossal artery is usually found incidentally. This vascular anomaly, however,have been reported to be associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery hypoplasia, absence of the posterior communicating artery, hypoplasia of the proximal portion of the posterior cerebral artery, aneurysm of the circle of Willis, the origin of both pericallosal arteries from a single anterior cerebral artery, retarded mental development dating from infancy, carotid-cavernous fistula formation etc. A case of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in an young Korean male was reported with brief review of the literature.

  10. The experimental study of oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility and basic technology of the oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging in lung. Methods: Six canine lungs were scanned by using inversion recovery pulse sequence with turbo spin echo acquisition before and after inhalation of the 100% oxygen as T1 contrast agent, and the T1 values were measured. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each inversion recovery time was compared and the relationship between arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) and T1 relaxation rate was observed. Subtraction technique was employed in the postprocessing of pre- and post-oxygen conditions. Results: Molecular oxygen could shorten the pulmonary T1 value (average 13.37%, t=2.683, P1 value of pre- and post-oxygen conditions. The relaxtivity of T1 resulted in excellent linear correlation (r2=0.9974) with PaO2. Through the subtraction of pre- and post-oxygen image, the oxygen contrast MR ventilation -image was obtained. Conclusion: The oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging has the feasibility and clinical potential for the assessment of regional pulmonary function

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  12. Coronary artery disease (CAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of myocardial ischemia is the most relevant indication of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. P. Marie exposes the sensibility and specificity of the method, based on an analysis of literature. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy gives prognostical informations: among them, should be highlighted the excellent prognosis of a normal perfusion scintigraphy even in patients with significant coronary stenosis and the poor prognosis of extensive perfusion defects at stress. P. Rigo details echocardiographic techniques and nuclear medicine techniques to assess patients with coronary artery disease. He analyses the pathophysiological principles and clinical indications of these techniques. Then, he exposes a quantification analysis software based on bull'eyes representation. M. Slama points out the complementarity of coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (authors)

  13. Peripheral artery atherectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal atherectomies were performed with the Simpson catheter. Evaluation included clinical examination, Doppler ultrasonography (ankle-arm index, before and immediately and 1,3 and 6 months after atherectomy), and angiography (6 months after or for clinical worsening). Twenty of 21 procedures achieved satisfactory vessel patency, with the addition of complementary angioplasty for residual stenosis over 30% (one of three cases). Early thrombosis occurred in only one of 21 cases (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy), and no distal embolization occurred. Six-month follow-up showed stable improvements in 11 of 12 patients and restenosis in only one (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy). Preliminary results indicate that atherectomy is the method of choice for restoring large lumens, with minimal arterial wall injury and fewer cases of restenosis than with angioplasty

  14. Continuous assessment of oxygen saturation and subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Ullstad, T; Larsen, P N; Moesgaard, F; Kehlet, H

    1990-01-01

    stimulation test (10 l/min by face mask) was carried out in eight of the 10. Median SpO2 was 91% (range 82-95) on the second, and 91% (86-95) on the third, postoperative nights, respectively. Six patients had intermittent episodes of desaturation to less than 80%, each of less than one minute's duration. Ptc...

  15. Brain Oxygenation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A mismatch between cerebral oxygen supply and demand can lead to cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and deleterious outcomes. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring is an important aspect of multimodality neuromonitoring. It is increasingly deployed whenever intracranial pressure monitoring is indicated. Although there is a large body of evidence demonstrating an association between cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and poor outcomes, it remains to be determined whether restoring cerebral oxygenation leads to improved outcomes. Randomized prospective studies are required to address uncertainties about cerebral oxygenation monitoring and management. This article describes the different methods of monitoring cerebral oxygenation, their indications, evidence base, limitations, and future perspectives. PMID:27521197

  16. Iatrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, L; Cummins, C; Maischberger, E; Katz, L

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mi...

  17. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe Lucy; Cummins Carolyn; Maischberger Eva; Katz Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation...

  18. Endothelial dysfunction impairs vascular neurotransmission in tail arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana B; Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study intends to clarify if endothelium dysfunction impairs vascular sympathetic neurotransmission. Electrically-evoked tritium overflow (100 pulses/5 Hz) was evaluated in arteries (intact and denuded) or exhibiting some degree of endothelium dysfunction (spontaneously hypertensive arteries), pre-incubated with [(3)H]-noradrenaline in the presence of enzymes (nitric oxide synthase (NOS); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; xanthine oxidase; cyclooxygenase; adenosine kinase) inhibitors and a nucleoside transporter inhibitor. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with L-NIO dihydrochloride reduced tritium overflow in intact arteries whereas inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase with Nω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride was devoid of effect showing that only endothelial nitric oxide synthase is involved in vascular sympathetic neuromodulation. Inhibition of enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species or prostaglandins production with apocynin and allopurinol or indomethacin, respectively, failed to alter tritium overflow. A facilitation or reduction of tritium overflow was observed in the presence of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or of 5-iodotubericidin, respectively, but only in intact arteries. These effects can be ascribed to a tonic inhibitory effect mediated by A1 receptors. In denuded and hypertensive arteries, 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine (SCH 58261) reduced tritium overflow, suggesting the occurrence of a tonic activation of A2A receptors. When endogenous adenosine bioavailability was increased by the nucleoside transporter inhibitor, S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine, tritium overflow increased in intact, denuded and hypertensive arteries. Among the endothelium-derived substances studied that could alter vascular sympathetic transmission only adenosine/adenosine receptor mediated mechanisms were clearly impaired by endothelium injury

  19. Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery from Distal Left Circumflex Artery: A Very Rare Variant of Single Coronary Artery Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Gholoobi

    2016-01-01

    Among coronary anomalies, Single Coronary Artery (SCA) is a rare anomaly in which one coronary artery stems from a single coronary ostium from the aortic sinuses, nourishing the entire heart. A very rare subtype of this anomaly is the anomalous origin of the Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from the distal Left Circumflex (LCx) artery.

  20. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Ho [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation.

  1. STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan P Havaldar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper knowledge of the course and ramification of blood vessels of lower limbs is very important for surgeons and interventional radiologist. Medial circumflex femoral artery usually originates from posteromedial aspect of the profunda femoris, but often originates from femoral artery itself. It has an important role in supplying blood to femoral neck and head, fatty tissue in acetabular fossa and used in flaps reconstructive surgery. Methods: 50 adult lowerlimbs were procured from embalmed cadavers of J.J.M. Medical College and S.S.I.M.S & R.C, Davangere, Karnataka, India for the study. Dissection of femoral triangle was carried out according to Cunningham’s manual. Site and mode of origin of the branches of femoral artery were studied, configuration of the femoral origins of medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery and their prevalence were studied. Results: Out of 50 extremities, Medial circumflex femoral artery took origin from profunda femoris in 41 specimens and from femoral artery in 9 specimens. Conclusion: The knowledge of normal origin and variation of medial circumflex femoral artery is very valuable in preventing iatrogenic injury to these vessels during surgical procedures of femoral triangle.

  2. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  3. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method. PMID:26771318

  5. Peripheral arterial stenosis and coronary artery disease coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic slow-developing condition affecting medium-size and large blood vessels. It is the principal underlying pathology of coronary heart disease and stroke. In some countries, coronary artery disease (CAD is the cause of nearly half (48% of the deaths and, loss of productivity life. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is defined as atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries instead of coronary arteries. CAD and PAD have same risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes. Therefore, patient with CAD should be considered for PAD. Ankle brachial index (ABI, duplex sonography, and some other non-invasive techniques are recommended for PAD diagnosis in patients with the history of CAD. Pharmacotherapy, endovascular interventions, and surgical management could be chosen according to the patient’s situation. Cardiologists and general practitioners should consider PAD in a patient with CAD or DM as a strong correlated disease.      

  6. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule...

  7. Local Intra-Arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Kitajima, H.; Tamakawa, N.; Iwama, T

    2007-01-01

    Acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion is typically associated with poor outcome; however newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have the potential to improve prognosis. In this study, six patients with acute BA occlusion were followed and the effectiveness of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) and subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with a balloon catheter were assessed. Of the six patients with BA occlusion observed in this study, two had extended brain stem infarcti...

  8. Effects of nebulized terbutaline on oxygen saturation in acute asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y Z; Hsieh, K H; Shih, T Y; Chen, W; Wu, K W

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the paradoxical effect of oxygen desaturation following beta-2 bronchodilator nebulization treatment in acute asthmatic children, a total of 47 patients, aged between 1.8 and 14 years, 27 males and 20 females, were studied. Twenty ml of nebulized normal saline (NS), followed by 10 mg (4 ml) of terbutaline sulphate solution (TSS) in 20 ml NS, were delivered by an ultrasonic nebulizer in 10 min to each patient through a connecting air tube placed in front of the nose and mouth. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) and pulse rate were monitored, using a pulse oximeter, before study and every two minutes until the end of the study. The clinical severity score and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were checked before the study, at the end of inhalation of NS, and at the end of inhalation of TSS. SaO2 was increased both after nebulized NS and TSS when compared with the pre-study data (p 0.9). No SaO2 decrease after nebulized TSS was observed in any of the seven severe asthmatic children with a prestudy SaO2 < or = 90%. The clinical severity score and PEFR were also significantly improved both after nebulized NS and TSS (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively for NS, and both p < 0.0001 for TSS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7942023

  9. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with extra ... be delivered to your lungs in several ways. Oxygen Therapy Systems Oxygen is supplied in three forms: ...

  10. Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing Liberates Obese Hypoxemic Patients from Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Povitz; Hanly, Patrick J; Pendharkar, Sachin R; James, Matthew T; Willis H. Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Background Obese hypoxemic patients have a high prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). It is unclear to what extent treatment of SDB can improve daytime hypoxemia. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of obese hypoxemic individuals, all of whom underwent polysomnography, arterial blood gas analysis, and subsequent initiation of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy for SDB. Patients were followed for one year for change in partial pressure of arterial oxygen and the nee...

  11. The effect of phenylephrine on arterial and venous cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Fisher, James P;

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic regulation of the cerebral circulation remains controversial. Although intravenous phenylephrine (PE) infusion reduces the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-determined measure of frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c) O(2) ) and increases middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...

  12. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  13. Arterial compliance, systolic pressure and heart rate in elderly women at rest and on exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebban, C; Berthaux, P; Lenoir, H; Eugene, M; Venet, R; Memin, Y; de la Fuente, X; Reisner, C

    1981-01-01

    In two groups of elderly women, the relationships between arterial compliance estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and systolic blood pressure (SP), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption and the time taken to run 400 m have been studies. Both at rest and with increasing levels of exercise, faster PWVs are associated with higher SPs. These is a tendency for resting HR to be higher with faster PWVs. The changes in HR and oxygen consumption from resting values are strikingly increased with faster PWVs. The time taken over 400 m rises as arterial compliance falls. Therefore, it seems that, with aging, reduced arterial compliance is a major factor affecting cardiovascular responses to exercise. PMID:7274682

  14. Aberrant ovarian artery arising from the common Iliac artery: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A 46-year-old Vietnamese woman received embolization therapy in order to control postpartum hemorrhage. Angiography revealed an aberrant ovarian artery arising from the right common iliac artery. Superselective catheterization and subsequent embolization of the aberrant ovarian artery and bilateral uterine arteries were performed. Precise knowledge of the anatomic variations of the ovarian artery is important for successful embolization.

  15. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  16. Revascularisation of atherosclerotic mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max Greve; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    25 patients, chronic ischaemia in 53 and prophylactic reconstruction in connection with aortic surgery in 12 patients. The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was revascularised in 87 patients and the coeliac axis or common hepatic artery in six. Thus, only three patients had both territories......OBJECTIVES: Visceral artery surgery is well known to vascular surgeons, but most have limited personal experience. We report our experience with 90 patients treated for atherosclerotic lesions of the visceral arteries during a 25-year period 1968-1993. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING...... revascularised. Thromboendarterectomy was performed in 15 patients, transposition of the SMA directly into the infrarenal aorta in 30 and bypass in 48 patients. CHIEF OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative symptom-free and survival rates. MAIN RESULTS: The overall perioperative (30 days) mortality rate was 13%, mainly...

  17. MRI of brain tissue oxygen tension under hyperbaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Eric R; Cardenas, Damon P; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-06-01

    The brain depends on a continuous supply of oxygen to maintain its structural and functional integrity. This study measured T1 from MRI under normobaric air, normobaric oxygen, hyperbaric air, and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) conditions as a marker of tissue pO2 since dissolved molecular oxygen acts as an endogenous contrast agent. Brain tissue T1 decreased corresponding to increased pO2 with increasing inhaled oxygen concentrations, and tissue oxygenation was estimated from the T1 changes between different inhaled oxygen levels. Tissue pO2 difference maps between different oxygen conditions showed heterogeneous pO2 changes in the brain. MRI-derived tissue pO2 was markedly lower than the arterial pO2 but was slightly higher than venous pO2. Additionally, for comparison with published extracellular tissue pO2 data obtained using oxygen electrodes and other invasive techniques, a model was used to estimate extracellular and intracellular pO2 from the MRI-derived mean tissue pO2. This required multiple assumptions, and so the effects of the assumptions and parameters used in modeling brain pO2 were evaluated. MRI-derived pO2 values were strongly dependent on assumptions about the extra- and intracellular compartments but were relatively less sensitive to variations in the relaxivity constant of oxygen and contribution from oxygen in the cerebral blood compartment. This approach may prove useful in evaluating tissue oxygenation in disease states such as stroke. PMID:27033683

  18. PERIPHERAL VENO-ARTERIAL ECMO AS MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT BEFORE HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Spirina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our clinical study was evaluation own initial experience of high-urgency ortotopic heart transplantation (OHT in recipients, who were bridged on peripheral Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA ECMO. Materials and methods. In this study was included 17 patients (14/3 M/F, age 16–66 (40.1 ± 4.2 yrs who underwent OHT while on peripheral ECMO support. In all cases we used peripheral surgical can- nulation technique via femoral vessels – arterial cannula 15–19 Fr, venous cannula – 21–25 Fr, arterial cannula or vascular catheter 8–10 Fr for anterograde leg’s perfusion. Results. Duration Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation before OHT was 81 ± 17 h. VA ECMO support was blood flow 4.8 ± 0.6 l/min or 2.63 ± 0/04 l/min/m2, gas flow 4.8 ± 0.6 l/min, FiO2 0.86 ± 0.07. Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation support was continued in “protective mode” (blood flow 1.9 ± 0.2 l/min 4.3 ± 0.5 days after OHT. Thirteen pa- tients (76.4% were weaned from VA ECMO successfully and survived to be discharged. ICU and hospital LOS after orthotopic heart transplantation was respectively 6.7 ± 0.8 and 32.3 ± 4.6 days in group of survived patients. The reasons of a lethal outcome (n = 4, 23.5% were sepsis and multiorgan failure (n = 3, sudden cardiac arrest (n = 1. Conclusion. Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation is a favorable short-term method of circulatory support in patients who needed in high-urgency heart transplantation. 

  19. Irradiation injury to large arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of irradiation injury to large arteries following radiotherapy treatment are presented and the literature is reviewed. Three patterns of injury have emerged: 1) intimal damage resulting in mural thrombosis presenting within 5 years of irradiation, 2) fibrotic occlusion presenting within 10 years of injury, and 3) a predisposition to the development of atheroma together with periarterial fibrosis associated with a latent interval of 20 or more years. The treatment of choice is a bypass procedure of the arterial lesion. (author)

  20. Biomarkers of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, John P.; Wilson, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease affecting the lower extremities is also known as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This disorder affects 8 to 12 million individuals in the United States, and is also increasingly prevalent in Europe and Asia (1–4). Unfortunately, most patients are not diagnosed and are not optimally treated. A blood test for PAD, if sufficiently sensitive and specific, would be expected to improve recognition and treatment of these individuals. Even a biomarker pan...

  1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hoendermis, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and specific histological changes. It is a progressive disease finally resulting in right heart failure and premature death. Typical symptoms are dyspnoea at exercise, chest pain and syncope; furthe...

  2. Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Ho, David; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mice for the evaluation and study of cardiovascular pathophysiology is growing rapidly, primarily due to the relative ease for developing genetically engineered mouse models. Arterial pressure monitoring is central to the evaluation of the phenotypic changes associated with cardiovascular pathology and interventions in these transgenic and knockout models. There are four major techniques for measuring arterial pressure in the mouse: tail cuff system, implanted fluid filled catheter...

  3. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  4. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  5. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated the superselective intra-arterial infusion method which is composed of carboplatin infusion, administration of tegafur/uracil (UFT) and concomitant radiotherapy (twice a day) for oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study was conducted in three institutions, and the results were compared with those of Robbins et al. (RADPLAT). Tumor volume and blood vessel density play a significant role in predicting local control and they may help to know the limit of the treatment by collecting data. We consider that superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy with concomitant radiotherapy is the most efficacious method for treating cases with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck. For these cases, however, our method needs further investigation to improve several aspects in order to produce the best results. Additionally, radiotherapy after hyperbaric oxygen therapy was found to be effective for the control of T4 tumors. For this purpose, it is recommended that irradiation be conducted within 15 minutes after decompression. (author)

  6. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens H Henriksen; Soren Moller

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin),and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin, calcitonin generelated peptide, nitric oxide, and other vasodilators,and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area.This constitutes an effective (although relative)counterbalance to increased arterial blood pressure.This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  8. Sediment Oxygen Demand Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Olinde, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Hypolimnetic oxygen diffusers increase sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and, if not accounted for in design, can further exacerbate anoxic conditions. A study using extracted sediment cores, that included both field and laboratory experiments, was performed to investigate SOD kinetics in Carvinâ s Cove Reservoir, a eutrophic water supply reservoir for Roanoke, Virginia. A bubble-plume diffuser is used in Carvinâ s Cove to replenish oxygen consumed while the reservoir is thermally stratified. ...

  9. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  10. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Novović Miloš; Topić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG) values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial o...

  11. Relationship between mean arterial pressure and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide during hemorrhagic shock and volume resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between partial end-tidal CO2 (pet) and mean arterial pressure in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock, who were receiving constant minute ventilation. Methods. In 61 patients we continuously measured pet CO2 with a capnograph, direct arterial pressure via a cannula, oxygen levels via pulse oximetry and body temperature. Results. We observed significant changes in pet CO2 (increase) after volume resuscitation and a quantitative linear relati...

  12. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng JS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  13. Automated oxygen titration and weaning with FreeO2 in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lellouche F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available François Lellouche,1 Pierre-Alexandre Bouchard,1 Maude Roberge,1 Serge Simard,1,2 Erwan L’Her,1,3 François Maltais,1 Yves Lacasse1 1Research Centre, 2Biostatistics Department, Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, 3Emergency Medicine, Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada Introduction: We developed a device (FreeO2 that automatically adjusts the oxygen flow rates based on patients’ needs, in order to limit hyperoxia and hypoxemia and to automatically wean them from oxygen. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using FreeO2 in patients hospitalized in the respiratory ward for an acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing FreeO2 vs manual oxygen titration in the respiratory ward of a university hospital. We measured the perception of appropriateness of oxygen titration and monitoring in both groups by nurses and attending physicians using a Likert scale. We evaluated the time in the target range of oxygen saturation (SpO2 as defined for each patient by the attending physician, the time with severe desaturation (SpO2 <85%, and the time with hyperoxia (SpO2 >5% above the target. We also recorded length of stay, intensive care unit admissions, and readmission rate. Fifty patients were randomized (25 patients in both groups; mean age: 72±8 years; mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 1.00±0.49 L; and mean initial O2 flow 2.0±1.0 L/min. Results: Nurses and attending physicians felt that oxygen titration and monitoring were equally appropriate with both O2 administration systems. The percentage of time within the SpO2 target was significantly higher with FreeO2, and the time with severe desaturation and hyperoxia was significantly reduced with FreeO2. Time from study inclusion to hospital discharge was 5.8±4.4 days with FreeO2 and 8.4±6.0 days with usual oxygen administration (P=0.051. Conclusion: FreeO2 was deemed as an

  14. Internal carotid-cerebellar artery anastomosis. So-called persistent trigeminal artery variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohata, Kazunori; Maehara, Tadayuki; Noda, Masanobu; Katoh, Hiromi

    1987-09-01

    Five cases of internal carotid-cerebellar artery anastomosis are presented. These anomalous vessels are identical to the so-called persistent trigeminal artery variant (PTAV). In our cases, two superior cerebellar arteries (SCAs), two anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICAs) and one posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) arose from the precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We discuss the embryolgical and neuroradiological aspects of this anomaly.

  15. Deep circumflex iliac artery as a free arterial graft for myocardial revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma, G; Sakurai, M; Meguro, T; Ota, K; Abe, K

    2000-02-01

    When complete revascularization cannot be obtained with the internal thoracic artery and the other arterial grafts, the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) may be an excellent alternative conduit. The deep circumflex iliac artery was used as a free graft for direct myocardial revascularization in 4 patients from January to July 1999. We describe our experience with this arterial conduit, review the anatomy of the artery, and present our harvesting technique. PMID:10735725

  16. Livergraftvascularvariantwith 3 extra-hepatic arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo N Martins

    2010-01-01

     Vascular anatomy of the liver is varied, and the"standard"anatomy is seen in 55%-80%of cases. It is very important that extrahepatic arteries are identiifed precisely at the time of graft procurement to avoid injuries that might compromise the liver function. In the present case the liver donor had the vascular anatomy of Michels type Ⅶ, e.g. a hepatic artery originating from the celiac trunk and going to the left lobe, an accessory left hepatic artery coming from the left gastric artery, and a replaced right hepatic artery coming from the superior mesenteric artery. This pattern of vascular supply is uncommon, representing less than 5%of cases. The replaced hepatic artery was reconstructed in the back-table with polypropylene suture 7.0 by connecting it to the stump of the splenic artery, and the celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient common hepatic artery.

  17. Presence of a median cubital arterial arch associated with high origin of radial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty SD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of a median cubital arterial arch is very rare. We saw a superficially placed median cubital arterial arch associated with high level of origin of radial artery. The radial artery took origin from the brachial artery in the upper third of the arm and crossed median nerve and ulnar artery from medial to lateral side. The course and distribution of the vessels in the forearm was normal. In the cubital fossa, the radial and ulnar arteries were connected to each other by an arterial arch. The variations reported here are very useful for the radiologists as these variations can cause problems in invasive procedures.

  18. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jing LI; Yang, Yiquan; Yang, Diya; Liu, Xiangxiang; Sun, Yunxiao; Wei, Shifei; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements. Methods Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first ex...

  19. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  20. Traveling with Portable Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is right for you depends on your travel plans, your health requirements, and your personal preferences. Compressed Oxygen Compressed ... notice before your ight if you plan to travel with oxygen. For this ... to review procedures and complete all necessary paperwork required by ...

  1. A Model of Anterograde Oxygenated Lung Blood Flow in Acardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Sotirios; Burki, Marco; Abdel-Sayed, Saad; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2016-01-01

    In extreme situations such as hyperacute rejection of heart transplant or major heart trauma, heart explantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) hemodynamic support might be the only means for survival. In our previous model of acardia, pulmonary artery (PA) was clamped and did not receive any anterograde blood flow. A model of anterograde PA perfusion might be necessary to avoid ischemic pulmonary damage in prolonged ECMO in acardia. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and to determine the feasibility of an anterograde lung perfusion in acardia through the anastomosis of the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) to the PA. A venoarterial cardiopulmonary bypass was established in three pigs (72 ± 2.6 kg) by the transjugular insertion to the caval axis of a double-staged cannula with carotid artery return. Heart was excised and ECMO was established as previously reported. Right internal mammary artery was harvested and after measurement of its output (93.3 ± 5.8 ml/min, representing 2.17% ± 0.15% of total pump flow), it was anastomosed to PA. Right internal mammary artery anastomosis to PA is a feasible, safe, and easy to perform maneuver assuring an anterograde lung perfusion in acardia. PMID:27442854

  2. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  3. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  4. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in basilar artery occlusions combination of intra-arterial thrombolytics and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors in basilar artery thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basilar artery thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality. Though intra-arterial thrombolytics have proven efficacy in the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion, the elevation of procoagulant factors in the blood after intra-arterial thrombolysis could result in subsequent thrombus formation and clinical deterioration. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have been shown to reduce this elevation in procoagulants. We present a pilot study of three cases of acute basilar artery occlusion treated with a combination of intra-arterial thrombolytics and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor with remarkable clinical recovery seen in all the patients.

  5. The Effects of Surfactant on Oxygenation in Term Infants with Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Beken

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant on respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.Methods: Consecutive 18 mechanically ventilated term infants, who received a single dose of exogenous surfactant were retrospectively included into the study. The respiratory outcome of surfactant rescue therapy was evaluated by comparing respiratory indices before and six hours after surfactant administration.Findings: Median oxygenation index (OI, mean alveolar pressure (MAP and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 values were significantly decreased (P<0.001; median arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 values were significantly increased six hours after surfactant treatment (P<0.001.Conclusion: Rescue therapy with surfactant was found to be effective in the improvement of early respiratory indices in term infants with respiratory failure.

  6. Increased norepinephrine release from dog pulmonary artery caused by nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nitrous oxide on the release and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) at neuroeffector junctions in dog pulmonary artery were examined. Helical strips of artery were incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution containing L-(3H)NE and mounted for superfusion. The arterial strips were studied in the presence of 95% oxygen-5% carbon dioxide, 70% nitrogen-30% oxygen, or 70% nitrous oxide-30% oxygen. During the 60 min of each experiment, five samples of superfusion fluid were collected for analysis and the effluxes of (3H)NE and its radiolabeled metabolites were measured before and during electrical stimulation and during recovery from stimulation. (3H)Norepinephrine was separated from its metabolites in the superfusate and in extracts of artery by column chromatography and quantitated by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Nitrous oxide significantly increased the fractional loss of total radioactivity and the amount of NE in the superfusate both during resting conditions and during stimulation. Nitrous oxide had no effect on the proportions of radioactivity among metabolites of NE in the superfusate or on the profile of NE metabolites remaining in the tissue after experimentation. These findings are consistent with increased NE release as a direct effect of nitrous oxide on nerve endings

  7. Determination of oxygen tension in the subcutaneous tissue of cosmonauts during the Salyut-6 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, S.; Bloszczynski, R.; Hermaszewski, M.; Kubiczkowa, J.; Piorko, A.; Saganiak, R.; Sarol, Z.; Skibniewsky, F.; Stendera, J.; Walichnowski, W.

    1982-01-01

    A polarographic technique was used to measure the oxygen tension in subcutaneous tissue of the forearm of a cosmonaut prior to, after, and on the fourth day of a space mission performed by Salut-6. A drop in the oxygen exchange rate in the peripheral tissues during weightlessness was observed. The mechanisms of this change are studied, taking into consideration the blood distribution in the organism and microcirculation disorders reflected by a decreased blood flow rate in arterial-venous junctions.

  8. Effects of carvedilol and propranolol on circulatory regulation and oxygenation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming; Hansen, Erik F; Møller, Søren

    2014-01-01

    =16) or propranolol (n=13). Cardiac, systemic and splanchnic parameters along with oxygen saturation and plasma renin were measured at inclusion and after 3 months. RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output decreased equally, central circulation time and systemic vascular...... oxygen gradient remained constant in both groups. Hepatic venous pressure gradient decreased equally in the carvedilol and propranolol groups (-17% and -20%, non significant). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic haemodynamics and pulmonary effects of carvedilol and propranolol are modest and this study could not...

  9. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the nervous system. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawski Sławomir; Kujawska Agnieszka; Kozakiewicz Mariusz; Olszański Romuald; Siermontowski Piotr; Zalewski Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is found among the interests of researchers who seek new methods of treatment of diseases of the nervous system. An increase of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood within the appropriate range leads to numerous changes in the cells of the brain tissue. In this paper we analyse the results of selected articles describing HBOT used on pathologies of the nervous system such as stroke, autism, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as in the co...

  10. Neonatal oxygenation, pulmonary hypertension, and evolutionary adaptation to high altitude (2013 Grover Conference series)

    OpenAIRE

    Niermeyer, Susan; Andrade-M, Mario Patricio; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.

    2015-01-01

    Andeans and Tibetans have less altitude reduction in birth weight than do shorter-resident groups, but only Tibetans are protected from pulmonary hypertension and chronic mountain sickness (CMS). We hypothesized that differences in neonatal oxygenation were involved, with arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) being highest in Tibetans, intermediate in Andeans, and lowest in Han or Europeans, and that improved oxygenation in Andeans relative to Europeans was accompanied by a greater postnatal decline ...

  11. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2012-09-01

    A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, usually arising from the cavernous or precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and connecting to the distal basilar artery. There are two types of PTA, lateral and medial. We present the first case of a lateral-type PTA arising from the large arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the left ICA with findings from both magnetic resonance angiography and selective catheter angiography. PMID:22215430

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, F K; Hagan, C; Murphy-Lavoie, H

    2008-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a primary or adjunctive therapy for a variety of medical disorders including some involving the eye. This paper is the first comprehensive review of HBOT for ocular indications. The authors recommend the following as ocular indications for HBOT: decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism with visual signs or symptoms, central retinal artery occlusion, ocular and periocular gas gangrene, cerebro-rhino-orbital mucormycosis, periocular necrotizing fasciitis, carbon monoxide poisoning with visual sequelae, radiation optic neuropathy, radiation or mitomycin C-induced scleral necrosis, and periorbital reconstructive surgery. Other ocular disorders that may benefit from HBOT include selected cases of ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic central retinal vein occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion with central vision loss, ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion, cystoid macular edema associated with retinal venous occlusion, post-surgical inflammation, or intrinsic inflammatory disorders, periocular brown recluse spider envenomation, ocular quinine toxicity, Purtscher's retinopathy, radiation retinopathy, anterior segment ischemia, retinal detachment in sickle cell disease, refractory actinomycotiC lacrimal canaliculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum of the orbit and refractory pseudomonas keratitis. Visual function should be monitored as clinically indicated before, during, and after therapy when HBOT is undertaken to treat vision loss. Visual acuity alone is not an adequate measure of visual function to monitor the efficacy of HBOT in this setting. Ocular examinations should also include automated perimetry to evaluate the central 30 degrees of visual field at appropriate intervals. Interpretation of the literature on the efficacy of HBOT in treating ocular disorders is complicated by several factors: frequent failure to include visual field examination as an outcome measure, failure to adequately address the interval from symptom onset

  13. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  14. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Waleed; Delashaw, Johnny; Mohammed, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The trigeminal artery is the largest of the fetal carotid-basilar anastomotic arteries, and it persists for the longest embryonic period. The artery usually involutes after the development of the posterior communicating artery. The exact causes of persistence of this primitive vessel into adulthood are not completely clear. Angiographic and anatomical descriptions of the various persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) configurations and their relation to the remainder of the cerebrovascular tree and the other surrounding structures have been reported. Persistent trigeminal artery can be associated with many other vascular anomalies and disorders including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and carotid-cavernous fistulae. A thorough understanding of the anatomical and angiographic features of this persistent embryonic arterial channel is of utmost importance when making therapeutic decisions and embarking on surgical or endovascular intervention for any pertinent pathological condition. We review the embryology, angiographic features, microsurgical anatomy and associated vascular anomalies and disorders of the persistent trigeminal artery. PMID:22843453

  15. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as this. Come up. We have this 21 French cardio arterial cannula for arterial profusion. On this right side, this is the 25 French quick-draw Venus cardiac visions cannula as well, ...

  16. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Great Arteries Overview Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a rare but serious congenital (present at ... P. Goldberg, MD Causes of TGA Causes of TGA Congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the ...

  17. Renal artery stenosis due to neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Malav Ishwar; Kothari S

    2009-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy with hypertension due to renal artery stenosis and neurofibromatosis type 1 is presented for its rarity. Renal artery stenosis due to neurofibromatosis is underrecognized and may masquerade Takayasu′s arteritis in Asian children.

  18. Anomalous origin of left vertebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Vidya Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery arises from the upper surface of the first part of subclavian artery on both sides. The morphological variations of the vertebral artery are of immense importance in surgery, angiography and all non-invasive procedures. During the routine dissection of a male cadaver aged about 65 years, we observed a variation in the branching of arch of aorta. The arch of aorta gave off four branches-brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA, left vertebral artery (LVA and left subclavian artery. LVA was arising between left CCA and left subclavian artery.The knowledge of variations in the vertebral artery is of great clinical interest to the neurosurgeon and radiologist for diagnostic investigation and surgical procedures of the neck.

  19. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  20. PERIPHERAL VENO-ARTERIAL ECMO AS MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT BEFORE HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Spirina; R. S. Saitgareev; D. V. Shumakov; V. M. Zakharevitch; V. V. Slobodyannik; M. G. Minina; V. V. Pchelnikov; O. A. Eremeeva; P. G. Lavrenov

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our clinical study was evaluation own initial experience of high-urgency ortotopic heart transplantation (OHT) in recipients, who were bridged on peripheral Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA ECMO). Materials and methods. In this study was included 17 patients (14/3 M/F, age 16–66 (40.1 ± 4.2 yrs)) who underwent OHT while on peripheral ECMO support. In all cases we used peripheral surgical can- nulation technique via femoral vessels – arterial cannula 15–19 Fr, venou...

  1. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect the...... optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen at...... similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  2. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transportation carrier (for example, the airline or bus company). If you need oxygen while traveling, plan in ... NEXT >> Updated: February 24, 2012 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA OIG CONTACT ...

  3. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  4. Moyamoya disease associated with an anterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from a persistent trigeminal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan); Koizumi, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors present a case of moyamoya disease associated with a persistent trigeminal artery from which the anterior inferior cerebellar artery arose. We reviewed previously reported cases of moyamoya disease associated with persistent carotid-basilar arterial anastomosis and investigated the embryology of this rare arterial variation. (orig.)

  5. Cardioembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery presented with infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Su-fang; JIA Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ Posterior circulation stroke may rarely be associated with occlusive disease in the anterior circulation, such as in the context of a direct (fetal) origin of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA), or in the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) or persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA).1,2

  6. Phrenic Nerve Injury during Coronary Artery Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Guinn, Gene A.; Beall, Arthur C.; Lamki, Neela; Heibig, Jacques; Thornby, John

    1990-01-01

    After coronary artery bypass, some patients have diaphragmatic elevation, usually on the left side. To test our hypothesis that this phenomenon is due to phrenic nerve injury resulting from either 1) dissection of the proximal portion of the left internal mammary artery or 2) topical cooling of the heart with icy slush, we performed the following 2-part study. First, we reviewed our hospital records of 99 coronary artery bypass patients, 55 of whom had received left internal mammary artery gr...

  7. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least ri...

  8. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; D’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramur...

  9. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  10. Utilization of Extracorporeal Pump during Local Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in the Treatment of Acute Cerebral Arterial Occlusion: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumaru, Y; Sonobe, M.; Mashiko, R.; Sugimorp, M.; Takahashi, S.; Nose, T

    2000-01-01

    Local intra-arterial fibrinolysis may improve the outcome of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. A favorable prognosis is thought to be related to early re-establishment of blood flow into the affected brain. To minimize the time to revascularization during local intraarterial fibrinolysis, we employed an extracorporeal pump to deliver oxygenated blood into the affected brain through a microcatheter. The patient, a 57-year-old man, showed disturbance of consciousness with left hem...

  11. A single coronary artery with the right coronary artery originating from the left anterior descending artery detected by cardiac CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The right coronary artery arising from the left anterior descending artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly. In a 56 year old female, an anomaly with the right coronary artery, originating from the left anterior descending artery, coursing anteriorly to the pulmonary artery was detected by cardiac CT. Therefore, we hereby report a case of the single left coronary artery diagnosed by a 64 slice multidetector cardiac CT

  12. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And the bypass vessel is the so-called “internal mammary artery.” That’s an artery, as opposed to ... you very much. -- while I’m preparing the internal mammary artery for bypass. Good. All right. We ...

  13. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  14. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

  15. Hyperoxia Increases Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) Expression and Activity in Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, Kathryn N.; Groh, Beezly S.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Czech, Lyubov; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Russell, James A.; Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2007-01-01

    In the pulmonary vasculature, cGMP concentrations are regulated in part by a cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase, PDE5. Infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) are often mechanically ventilated with high oxygen concentrations. The effects of hyperoxia on the developing pulmonary vasculature and PDE5 are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (FPASMC) to high levels of oxygen for 24 hours leads to decreased re...

  16. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other

  17. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, Stefanos; Møller, K.; Secher, N. H.; Gjedde, A.

    2010-01-01

    reduced by 15 +/- 13% (P < 0.05). During exercise with heat stress, RPE increased to 19 (19-20; P < 0.05); the RPE correlated inversely with P(mito)O(2) (r(2) = 0.42, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These data indicate that strenuous exercise in the heat lowers cerebral P(mito)O(2), and that exercise capacity in......Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flow...... (CBF). Heat stress challenges exercise capacity as expressed by increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods: This study evaluated the effect of heat stress during exercise on P(mito)O(2) calculated based on a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF and the arterial-to-jugular venous oxygen differences in...

  19. Arterio-venous shunts or low oxygen utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2010-02-01

    An idea of arteriovenous shunts (AVS) was proposed for explanation of dynamic regulation of oxygenation and venous hyperoxia. A formula enabling calculation of AVS and real CO2 production has recently been derived by comparing data of arterial and venous blood gases. Regarding venous hyperoxia, there is a need to differentiate capillary to tissue transport defect (low oxygen utilisation-LOU) from AVS, which may exist simultaneously. The AVS may be associated with normal or relatively high oxygen utilization from the capillary vessels and increased CO2 production. AVS is proposed to carry protective and 'stealing' properties including renal, cardiac, and pulmonary hemodynamic. Calculations of the AVS may be important for dynamic assessment of vascular and metabolic status and in emergency medicine. PMID:20026514

  20. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA

  1. Management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with a high mortality. Management of this disease is underpinned by supportive and general therapies delivered by multidisciplinary teams in specialist centres. In recent years, a number of PAH-specific therapies have improved patient outcomes. This article will discuss the management of PAH in the context of relevant recently published studies in this area.

  2. Giant superior mesenteric artery aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Temiz, Ahmet; Bostan, Mehmet; Şatıroğlu, Ömer; Çetin, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Engin

    2011-01-01

    Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare condition and most of them are symptomatic. Gradu­ally increasing abdominal pain, intestinal ischemic symp­toms and rupture are the most common symptoms. We herein report a giant SMA aneurysm detected in a patient with complaint of abdominal discomfort.

  3. Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Blann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent ultimate cause of death is myocardial arrest. In many cases this is due to myocardial hypoxia, generally arising from failure of the coronary macro- and microcirculation to deliver enough oxygenated red cells to the cardiomyocytes. The principle reason for this is occlusive thrombosis, either by isolated circulating thrombi, or by rupture of upstream plaque. However, an additionally serious pathology causing potentially fatal stress to the heart is extra-cardiac disease, such as pulmonary hypertension. A primary cause of the latter is pulmonary embolus, considered to be a venous thromboembolism. Whilst the thrombotic scenario has for decades been the dominating paradigm in cardiovascular disease, these issues have, until recently, been infrequently considered in cancer. However, there is now a developing view that cancer is also a thrombotic disease, and notably a disease predominantly of the venous circulation, manifesting as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Indeed, for many, a venous thromboembolism is one of the first symptoms of a developing cancer. Furthermore, many of the standard chemotherapies in cancer are prothrombotic. Accordingly, thromboprophylaxis in cancer with heparins or oral anticoagulation (such as Warfarin, especially in high risk groups (such as those who are immobile and on high dose chemotherapy, may be an important therapy. The objective of this communication is to summarise current views on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of arterial and venous thrombosis in cancer.

  4. Deep plantar arteries of some mammals, with special reference to the plantar metatarsal arteries.

    OpenAIRE

    Horie,Masashi; Murakami,Takuro; Kikuta,Akio

    1988-01-01

    The plantar metatarsal arteries of some mammals were studied. In the dog, raccoon dog and cat, the second proximal perforating branch was fully developed and produced the plantar metatarsal arteries. These plantar metatarsal arteries ran on the plantar surfaces of the interosseous muscles along the metatarsal bones or intermetatarsal spaces, and gave rise to the digital arteries of the second to fifth toes. In the rabbit, a branch of the medial plantar artery ran transversely on the plantar s...

  5. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  6. Endovascular rescue from arterial rupture and thrombosis during middle cerebral artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravascular stents are being used with increasing frequency in interventional neuroradiology. Iatrogenic arterial rupture is an uncommon but serious complication. We present a case of arterial rupture and subarachnoid haemorrhage during middle cerebral artery stenting, treated by emergency additional, overlapping stenting and balloon tamponade of the dissected vessel. Thrombotic occlusion of the artery was managed by intra-arterial abciximab. Normal vessel patency was re-established within 20 min and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  7. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  8. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  9. Outcomes of acute exacerbations in COPD in relation to pre-hospital oxygen therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas J; Terkelsen, Jakob; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: In an audit of 405 consecutive patients with AECOPD arriving by ambulance to Hvidovre Hospital, details of transit time, oxygen administration, saturation, and arterial blood gases were registered. Outcomes were respiratory acidosis, need of supported ventilation, length of hospitalisation, and...

  10. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit;

    2006-01-01

    The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake (Vv(o2max)within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O(2) extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia, and is...... the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial...... muscle O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...

  11. Determination of arterial wall shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The arteries can remodel their structure and function to adapt themselves to the mechanical environment. In various factors that lead to vascular remodeling, the shear stress on the arterial wall induced by the blood flow is of great importance. However, there are many technique difficulties in measuring the wall shear stress directly at present. In this paper, through analyzing the pulsatile blood flow in arteries, a method has been proposed that can determine the wall shear stress quantitatively by measuring the velocity on the arterial axis, and that provides a necessary means to discuss the influence of arterial wall shear stress on vascular remodeling.

  12. Oxygen saturation limits and evidence supporting the targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Katherine M

    2014-12-01

    Supplemental oxygen use in the preterm infant is required for survival. Evidence supports a narrow therapeutic window between the helpful and harmful effects of supplemental oxygen in this vulnerable population. The clinical question was-what are the recommended oxygen saturation targets for the preterm infant and the preterm infant corrected to term? Multiple databases were searched for published research in English from 2008 to 2014 using key search terms. A total of 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Early neonatal research linked high levels of supplemental oxygen with retinopathy of prematurity and blindness. Years later, correlations between high arterial oxygen levels and oxidative stress leading to pulmonary and/or neurologic insults were established. Three large multicentered, international studies have recently been published (BOOST II, COT, and SUPPORT), which support oxygen saturation target ranges of 87% to 94% until vascular maturation of the retina is achieved. Two of the 3 studies reported a significant correlation between low saturation limits (85%-89%) and death in the extremely preterm population. Identified best care strategies to prevent states of hypoxia and/or hyperoxia include establishing clear target saturation limits according to recommendations, which are supported by the multidisciplinary team, adequate nurse to patient ratio, improve knowledge deficits, improve bedside compliance, and finally visual cues to remind caregivers of target saturation ranges. PMID:25422926

  13. Relaxin deficiency attenuates pregnancy-induced adaptation of the mesenteric artery to angiotensin II in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sarah A; Leo, Chen Huei; Senadheera, Sevvandi N; Girling, Jane E; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with reduced peripheral vascular resistance, underpinned by changes in endothelial and smooth muscle function. Failure of the maternal vasculature to adapt correctly leads to serious pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin regulates the maternal renal vasculature during pregnancy; however, little is known about its effects in other vascular beds. This study tested the hypothesis that functional adaptation of the mesenteric and uterine arteries during pregnancy will be compromised in relaxin-deficient (Rln(-/-)) mice. Smooth muscle and endothelial reactivity were examined in small mesenteric and uterine arteries of nonpregnant (estrus) and late-pregnant (day 17.5) wild-type (Rln(+/+)) and Rln(-/-) mice using wire myography. Pregnancy per se was associated with significant reductions in contraction to phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and ANG II in small mesenteric arteries, while sensitivity to endothelin-1 was reduced in uterine arteries of Rln(+/+) mice. The normal pregnancy-associated attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries did not occur in Rln(-/-) mice. This adaptive failure was endothelium-independent and did not result from altered expression of ANG II receptors or regulator of G protein signaling 5 (Rgs5) or increases in reactive oxygen species generation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with l-NAME enhanced ANG II-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries of both genotypes, whereas blockade of prostanoid production with indomethacin only increased ANG II-induced contraction in arteries of pregnant Rln(+/+) mice. In conclusion, relaxin deficiency prevents the normal pregnancy-induced attenuation of ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction in small mesenteric arteries. This is associated with reduced smooth muscle-derived vasodilator prostanoids. PMID:26936785

  14. Effects of nicardipine on ventriculo-arterial coupling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Oshita, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Kawahito, S; Park, Y C; Sakabe, T

    1998-08-01

    The ratio of effective arterial elastance (Ea) to left ventricular elastance (Ees) is an indicator of the coupling between ventricular properties and arterial load properties. Another criterion for the coupling between an energy source and its load is the principle of economical fuel consumption, or mechanical efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of stroke work (SW) to myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (MVO2). It has been revealed that SW of ventricular contraction is maximized when Ea/Ees = 1, while mechanical efficiency is maximized when Ea/Ees = 0.5. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ventriculo-arterial coupling during hypertension, and the effects of nicardipine on this relationship in surgical patients using Ea/Ees and SW/MVO2 as indicators. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl. Radial artery pressure was displayed on a polygraph, and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined by use of transoesophageal echocardiography. Ees was calculated as MAP/(ESVI-4), where MAP is mean arterial pressure and ESVI is end-systolic volume index. Ea was calculated as the ratio of MAP to stroke volume index (SVI). Stroke work index (SWI) was calculated as the product of MAP and SVI. MVO2 was assessed by estimating the ventricular pressure-volume area index (PVAI), which is expressed as the sum of SWI and the end-systolic potential energy index. Before (baseline), and 3, 10, 20, and 30 min after i.v. nicardipine (30 micrograms kg-1), Ea/Ees and SWI/PVAI were determined in 14 surgical patients with intraoperative hypertension. Before nicardipine (during hypertension), Ea was almost equal to Ees, whereas Ea/Ees was significantly reduced to about 0.5-0.6 at 3, 10, and 20 min after nicardipine. SWI/PVAI was maximized and significantly greater than the baseline value at 3 min after nicardipine. These results suggest that, during hypertension, ventricular and arterial properties were so

  15. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  16. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  17. Exercise training restores coronary arteriolar dilation to NOS activation distal to coronary artery occlusion - Role of hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Shipley, Robert; Ren, Yi; Parker, Janet; Kuo, Lih

    2007-01-01

    Objective - Exercise training has been shown to restore vasodilation to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation in arterioles distal to coronary artery occlusion. Because reactive oxygen species are generated during NOS uncoupling and the production of vasodilator H2O2 is increased during exercise in

  18. Alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen measured by a helium washout technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordanoglou, J.; Tatsis, G; Danos, J; Gougoulakis, S; Orfanidou, D; Gaga, M

    1990-01-01

    A non-invasive technique was developed for measuring alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tension during tidal breathing. This was achieved by solving the Bohr equations for mean alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions (PACO2, PAO2) from known values of the dead-space:tidal volume ratio measured by helium washout, and from the mixed expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The derived values of wPACO2 and wPAO2 were compared with PaCO2 obtained from arterial gas analysis and P...

  19. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration...... influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level of...

  20. Electrochemical oxygen meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical (electrolytic cell) device is specified for measuring the concentration of oxygen in a liquid alkali metal (e.g. in the liquid sodium heat transfer loops of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors). The oxygen content is determined by measuring the e.m.f. generated between a reference electrode and the molten metal by the conduction of oxygen ions there between through a solid electrolyte. A salient feature of the invention is the use, for the reference electrode, of a uniform mixture of either Ga, In or Sn and its oxide, the mixture being liquid at the temperature of operation and in intimate contact with the solid electrolyte. Another salient feature of the invention is the use, for the solid electrolyte, of high purity thoria doped with yttria, the material being sintered and fired to a high temperature to obtain a density of 98 to 99% theoretical. (U.K.)

  1. Hyperdensity of the Basilar Artery on Postmortem CT: A Potential Indicator for Basilar Artery Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jack; Tse, Rexson; Beh, Raymond J; Lyons, Timothy J; Cala, Allan D

    2016-06-01

    Basilar artery thrombosis constitutes 1% of all types of stroke, carries a mortality rate of up to 90%, and is one of the rarer causes of sudden death. It leads to brain stem ischemia and commonly presents with impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, hemiplegia or quadriplegia, and sudden collapse. Clinically, the diagnosis of basilar artery thrombosis is made on clinical symptoms, along with a hyperdense basilar artery in antemortem computed tomography (CT) scan. To our knowledge, whether a hyperdense basilar artery indicates basilar artery thrombosis on postmortem CT scan is not documented in the literature. We present a case report of a 55-year-old man who on postmortem CT scan showed a hyperdense basilar artery and was subsequently confirmed to be a fatal basilar artery thrombosis. We suggest that a hyperdense basilar artery on postmortem CT should prompt the pathologist to consider basilar artery thrombosis. PMID:27049662

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, R. [Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R. [Whipps Cross Hospital, Leytonstone, London (United Kingdom). Hyperbaric Unit; Kleij, A.J. van der [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Surgery] [and others

    2005-02-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of renal artery stenosis using color Doppler sonography in young patients with multiple renal arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wei; ZHANG Xin; YANG Min; ZHONG Xu-hui; ZHAO Ming-hui

    2011-01-01

    Background Some individuals have multiple renal arteries. Severe stenosis in one of the arteries may cause refractory hypertension. The detection of stenosis within one of the multiple renal arteries usually required invasive procedures, such as computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This study reported the application of color Doppler sonography (CDS) in the detection of severe stenosis in one of the multiple arteries.Methods Patients with multiple renal arteries and one of the arteries with severe stenosis were retrospectively studied. Peak systolic velocities (PSV) of renal arteries and the intrarenal CDS patterns were collected and compared. The diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA).Results Four children with multiple renal arteries and one of the arteries with stenosis were investigated. They were admitted due to refractory hypertension. CDS screening identified two renal arteries in one kidney of each patient with one of the two renal arteries having stenosis >70%. The PSV of the stenosed arteries were much higher, and the intrarenal CDS patterns supplied by the stenosed arteries changed into T-P patterns.Conclusion Non-invasive CDS technology may be a useful method to identify severe stenosis in one of multiple renal arteries in young patients.

  5. Stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging in coronary artery disease: preliminary study progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the result of the imbalance between coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen demand. Using stenosis of coronary artery alone to diagnose CAD could not accurately reflect the status of myocardial ischemia, nor make accurate warning of ischemic cardiac events. Stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging (stress CT-MPI) can assess the myocardial blood flow qualitatively and quantitatively and detect the myocardial microcirculation and myocardial viability, which can predict the occurrence of cardiac events and provide an objective basis for early intervention. This review provided an overview of the stress CT-MPI, including its detection principles, methods, and clinical study progress in the patients with coronary artery disease. (authors)

  6. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Alessandro [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Quaresima, Valentina [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Pifferi, Antonio [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Biscotti, Giovanni [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Spinelli, Lorenzo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Taroni, Paola [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Marco [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Cubeddu, Rinaldo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO{sub 2} was 73.0 {+-} 0.9 and 70.5 {+-} 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO{sub 2} decreased (69.1 {+-} 1.8 and 63.8 {+-} 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO{sub 2} and tHb.

  7. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  8. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  9. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen...... through a mechanism of vasodilatation and lowering of the intraocular pressure. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduces the removal of CO2 from the tissue and the CO2 accumulation induces vasodilatation resulting in increased blood flow and improved oxygen supply. This effect is inhibited by the cyclo...

  10. The Appropriate Use of Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Stan

    1988-01-01

    The scientific evidence for the efficacy of oxygen therapy in acute hypoxemia is limited. In chronic hypoxemia continuous oxygen therapy appears to decrease mortality. Current indications for oxygen treatment are PaO2 less than 60 in acute hypoxemia and less than 55 in chronic hypoxemia. Physical and physiological hazards of oxygen are reviewed. Three syndromes of pulmonary oxygen toxicity are described: tracheobronchitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  11. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    OpenAIRE

    René M. Werkmeister; Doreen Schmidl; Gerold Aschinger; Veronika Doblhoff-Dier; Stefan Palkovits; Magdalena Wirth; Gerhard Garhöfer; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Rainer A. Leitgeb; Leopold Schmetterer

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal b...

  12. Chronic intersticial lung disease in the horse- Findings in arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 horses chronic interstitial lung disease was diagnosed. All horses were referrred because of unexplained loss of performance. In general there was no history of respiratory problems; 4 horses showed nasal discharge and 2 horses coughed. Results of arterial bloodgas analysis, tracheobronchial mucus cytology and radiological examination of the lungs were found in a typical combination, and they were different from results found generally in horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean value of arterial partial pressure of oxygen was 100,6 mm Hg, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 45,1 mm Hg and alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen 5,1 mm Hg, respectively. In tracheobronchial aspirates pulmonary alveolar macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes were found in a relation of 2,6 : 1. Chest radiographs of all horses showed diffuse interstitial pattern throughout the lung

  13. Noninvasive alternatives to arterial blood sampling in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography is commonly employed for the quantitative assessment of regional biochemistry. The determination of glucose and oxygen utilization rates using [F-18] 2FDG and [0-15] 0/sub 2/ demand accurate measurement of the driving function producing the observed tissue response. Conventional techniques consist of an arterial or venous puncture with either discrete or continuous sampling of blood label concentrations. A time-of-flight (TOF) probe and expired gas detector have been developed as alternatives to these invasive techniques. The acquisition of serial spectra with the TOF pair (4 x 4cm BaF/sub 2/;XP2020Q;380 psec FWHM), sampling a line through the cardiac chambers, reveals the spatial distribution of activity in the heart and surrounding tissue as a function of time. Region-of-interest analysis of the temporally resolved spectra produce the activity time courses required for analysis of tissue response data. Multigated TOF acquisition using a pulsewatch (LED-phototransistor pair which detects finger-tip blood volume changes) as the gating mechanism promises to provide an easy and accurate method for positioning the TOF probe. Dynamic techniques for the measurement of oxygen utilization rates require both the arterial [0-15] 0/sub 2/ and [0-15] H/sub 2/O concentrations. A heated flow-through plastic (NE 102) beta detector was developed to measure the concentration of label in the alveolar gas which was equilibrated with the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Combining the TOF probe and expired gas data allows the separation of the oxygen and water components of the input function

  14. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous P ET CO 2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05. The P ET CO 2 values were higher than PaCO 2 in 142 observations (22.7%. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-aO 2 ] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001. There was a fixed bias between the P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76. Conclusions: The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation.

  15. Mineralization (calcification) of coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, M; Pfitzner, R; Wachowiak, J

    1994-01-01

    Mineralogical investigations of calcifications located in coronary vessels were performed on the material obtained from the endarterectomized arteries of 18 patients (15 M, 3 F, aged 36-65) during surgical revascularization procedures consisting in coronary artery bypass grafting. The samples were tested using scanning microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe and neutron activation spectroscopy. The results of analyses were calculated with the use of computer programmes. Two types of mineralization were determined: 1. secret mineralization identified as higher than normal content of elements in biological tissues, not demonstrating any mineral grains, and 2. apparent mineralization, appearing micro- and macroscopically as grains composed mainly of hydroxyapatite containing admixture of carbonate groups, i.e. a mineral identical with apatite present in bones, or as calcification of other tissues (heart valves, lungs etc.). The authors suggest that the phenomenon of mineralization should be taken into consideration in the preventive treatment of coronary atheriosclerosis. PMID:7808039

  16. Physiological growth of arteries in the rat heart parallels the growth of capillaries, but not of myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, G; Gharehbaghi, H; Amann, K; Simon, T; Mattfeldt, T; Mall, G

    1992-12-01

    Maladaption to hemodynamic overload, especially to arterial hypertension, has important clinical implications, and it is necessary to obtain criteria in order to discriminate physiological and pathological growth processes. We investigated the physiological growth of intramyocardial arteries in the rat heart. A new stereological method was introduced to determine the length of intramyocardial arteries from counts on histological sections. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were investigated. The growth rate of arteries was characterized by the growth coefficient b according to the exponential function y = axb (allometric growth function). Analysis of left ventricular weights (LVW) and total lengths of left ventricular intramyocardial arteries (L) revealed Lv = constant.LVW0.71 (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The growth coefficient b < 1 indicates that the arterial supply of the heart, i.e. the length density of arteries Lv (length per unit myocardial volume), decreases during normal growth. Empirically, we found L = constant.LVW-0.28 (r = 0.43, P < 0.01). Previously, we estimated growth rates of b = 0.33 for the total length of left ventricular myocytes and b = 0.71 for the total length of capillaries. Thus, growth of intramyocardial arteries considerably exceeds the length increase of myocytes, but is proportional to the length increase of capillaries. Growth analysis of total mitochondrial volume using historical data of our group revealed proportionality to arteries, as well (b = 0.76). This indicates that growth of arteries and capillaries may be determined by oxygen consumption. PMID:1293316

  17. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA infarction, no aetiological cause was identified. Unlike the transient nature of symptoms in some cases following unilateral infarction, his deficits persisted on 2-month follow-up. PMID:22798298

  18. Coronary artery aneurysm: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhart Harold M; Everett Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are rare with an incidence of 0.1% in large angiographic series. The majority are atherosclerotic in origin. Other causes include connective tissue disorders, trauma, vasculitis, congenital, mycotic and idiopathic. The primary complication is myocardial ischemia or infarction, with rupture being rare. Treatment options include anticoagulation, custom made covered stents, reconstruction, resection, and exclusion with bypass. Case...

  19. Infectious and coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Tohidi, Mohammad; Amin SABOURI; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Sadeghi-Ghahrodi, Mohsen; Einollahi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerotic event is one of the most causes of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one manifestation of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that several risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension (HTN), have effects on it. It is proposed that infection can lead to atherosclerosis or even make its process faster. Here, we discuss about the effect of some of infectious agents on the atherosclerosis and CAD. METHODS In this study, first we d...

  20. Collagen turnover in arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sluijter, J.P.G.

    2004-01-01

    Increased atherosclerotic plaque formation can lead to lumen reduction and finally to lumen obstruction. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or balloon angioplasty (dilation) are approaches generally used to treat coronary, but also peripheral atherosclerotic disease. Their goal is to restore the blood supply. The repair process or restructuring of the artery after balloon angioplasty comprises two major features, neointimal formation and geometrical remodeling, and results in a decre...

  1. Digital subtraction angiography of a persistent trigeminal artery variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizöz, Osman; Genchellac, Hakan; Unlü, Ercüment; Cağli, Bekir; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Demir, M Kemal

    2010-09-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery variants are described as cerebellar arteries that directly originate from the precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. This has been observed in 0.18% of cerebral catheter angiograms. On the other hand, a persistent trigeminal artery variant feeding both the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory is very rare. We present this uncommon anomalous artery along with digital subtraction angiography findings and discuss its clinical significance in light of the literature. PMID:19821254

  2. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  3. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  4. Influence of erythrocyte oxygenation and intravascular ATP on resting and exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Vissing, John; González-Alonso, José

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) extraction is impaired in exercising skeletal muscle of humans with mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the muscle hemodynamic response to exercise has never been directly investigated. This study sought to examine the extent to which human skeletal muscle perfusion can...... healthy control subjects: 1) at rest during normoxia, hypoxia, hyperoxia and intra-femoral artery ATP infusion, and 2) during passive and dynamic one-legged knee-extensor exercises. At rest, blood flow (LBF), femoral arterial and venous blood oxygenation and plasma ATP were similar in the two groups...

  5. Thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the method and result of thyroid artery embolization as a new therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods: Twenty-two patients with hyperthyroidism underwent selective thyroid artery embolization. Totally 52 thyroid arteries were embolized with microspheres. The indications to this therapy were following: hyperthyroid patients having indications to surgical and 131I therapy, clinically being difficult to complete the preparation for subtotal thyroidectomy and having high risk for surgical process because of their huge thyroid gland. Results: Serum level of thyroid hormones dropped significantly [median T3 from 8.8 nmol/L (4.3-43.0 nmol/L) to 4.0 nmol/L (1.1-9.2 nmol/L), median T4 from 206.4 nmol/L (77.4-748.2 nmol/L) to 144.5 nmol/L (25.8-279.9 nmol/L), P 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism. A long term follow-up study is still needed

  6. Morphology of atherosclerotic coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Margaret N.; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Hieber, Simone Elke; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the narrowing of vessel diameter and build-up of plaques in coronary arteries, leads to an increase in the shear stresses present, which can be used as a physics-based trigger for targeted drug delivery. In order to develop appropriate nanometer-size containers, one has to know the morphology of the critical stenoses with isotropic micrometer resolution. Micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast mode provides the necessary spatial resolution and contrast. The present communication describes the pros and cons of the conventional and synchrotron radiation-based approaches in the visualization of diseased human and murine arteries. Using registered datasets, it also demonstrates that multi-modal imaging, including established histology, is even more powerful. The tomography data were evaluated with respect to cross-section, vessel radius and maximal constriction. The average cross-section of the diseased human artery (2.31 mm2) was almost an order of magnitude larger than the murine one (0.27 mm2), whereas the minimal radius differs only by a factor of two (0.51 mm versus 0.24 mm). The maximal constriction, however, was much larger for the human specimen (85% versus 49%). We could also show that a plastic model used for recent experiments in targeted drug delivery represents a very similar morphology, which is, for example, characterized by a maximal constriction of 82%. The tomography data build a sound basis for flow simulations, which allows for conclusions on shear stress distributions in stenosed blood vessels.

  7. Cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic changes in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the positron emission tomography, with the O15 inhalation technique, the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) were studied in 37 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. In the territory of the occluded ICA, two pattern of focal anomaly have been observed: a CBF decrease with a ''compensatory'' OEF increase or a matched CBF and CMRO2 decrease. On the other hand, as compared to age matched control values, CMRO2 is significantly decreased in the territory of the occluded carotid only in patients with extensive neck vessels obstructive disease

  8. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  9. The clinical anatomy of the conal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Patel, Swetal; Cesmebasi, Alper; Muresian, Horia; Tubbs, R Shane; Spicer, Diane; Dabrowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, in the clinical setting, the recognition of the conal artery is essential during coronary angiography, as well as certain congenital heart conditions such as tetralogy of Fallot. In order to provide a complete anatomic and physiologic correlation of the actual incidence and distribution of the conal artery we examined 300 formalin fixed hearts with gross dissections and 300 coronary angiograms. The conal artery was identified in all hearts examined and five main patterns were recognized. In Type A (193, 32.1%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA); in Type B (96, 16%), the conal artery arose from the common coronary ostium with the RCA; in Type C (242, 40.3%), the conal artery took origin from the right aortic sinus as an independent artery; in Type D (48, 8%), multiple conal arteries were present and arose from the RCA as separate branches (32, 66.6%), from a common ostium with the RCA (8, 16.6%) or from the aortic sinus (8, 16.6%); in Type E (22, 3.6%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right ventricular branch (17, 2.8%) or acute marginal artery (5, 0.8%). The relative prevalence of the five patterns as well as the morphology and the topography of the conal artery varied significantly with the degree of coronary luminal stenosis (as observed during angiography) and also with the degree of hypertrophied ventricular wall (as observed during gross dissections). Clin. Anat. 29:371-379, 2016. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25255889

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T;

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  11. Calibration Of Oxygen Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalenski, M. A.; Rowe, E. L.; Mcphee, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Readings corrected for temperature, pressure, and humidity of air. Program for handheld computer developed to ensure accuracy of oxygen monitors in National Transonic Facility, where liquid nitrogen stored. Calibration values, determined daily, based on entries of data on barometric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Output provided directly in millivolts.

  12. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  13. Effect of Combined Treatment with Alpha Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Vascular Function and Blood Pressure in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    McMackin, Craig J.; Widlansky, Michael E.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Huang, Alex L.; Weller, Susan; Holbrook, Monika; Gokce, Noyan; Hagen, Tory M.; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In a double blind, crossover study, we examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid /acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (eight weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3...

  14. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto Kei; Nishioka Makiko; Miyashita Yumi; Hiki Yoshito; Sasaki Takashi; Nishimura Rimei; Nemoto Masami; Sakuma Toru; Ohashi Toya; Fukuda Kunihiko; Eto Yoshikatsu; Tajima Naoko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery c...

  15. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  16. The increase in pulmonary arterial pressure caused by hypoxia depends on iron status

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Thomas G.; Balanos, George M; Quentin P P Croft; Talbot, Nick P; Dorrington, Keith L; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Robbins, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension. Gene expression activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is central to this process. The oxygen-sensing iron-dependent dioxygenase enzymes that regulate HIF are highly sensitive to varying iron availability. It is unknown whether iron similarly influences the pulmonary vasculature. This human physiology study aimed to determine whether varying iron availability affects pulmonary arterial pressure and the pulmonary...

  17. Does exercise alter anaerobic threshold in coronary artery disease during beta blockade?

    OpenAIRE

    Koyal, S N; Stuart, R. J.; Lundstrom, R; Thomas, V; Ellestad, M H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of propranolol on cardiac patients undergoing exercise training is reported to increase exercise tolerance and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) but its effect on anaerobic threshold (AT) is unknown. It was the purpose of this study to determine the role of exercise training with propranolol on AT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Eight men and one woman with significant (CAD) were selected for this study. Each patient completed a maximum treadmill stress test (MTST) fo...

  18. Gradual reintroduction of oxygen reduces reperfusion injury in cat stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals are responsible for a major portion of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the stomach. The oxygen radicals are produced during perfusion when oxygen delivery to the tissue increases. In the present study the authors investigate the effect on mucosal injury of regulating the rate of reintroduction of oxygen to the stomach after ischemia. Local gastric ischemia was achieved by reducing celiac artery pressure to 30 mmHg for 1 h. Ischemic injury was assessed by measuring the loss of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells across the gastric mucosa. Mucosal blood loss was negligible before and during the ischemia period but increased during reperfusion. When blood flow to the stomach was gradually returned to normal after ischemia, the mucosal blood loss was reduced. If the stomach was vascularly perfused with low Po2 blood for 1 h after ischemia before being returned to normal arterial perfusion, the mucosal blood loss was also reduced. When the stomach was made hypoxemic for 1 h rather than ischemic by perfusing the vasculature with low Po2 blood then reperfused with normoxic blood, there was very little mucosal bleeding. The data indicate that gastric mucosal bleeding after ischemia is reduced if the tissue is returned slowly to a normal Po2. These findings support the concept that reperfusion injury is due largely to the production of oxygen radicals. The low level of injury produced by hypoxemia indicates that hypoxia per se makes only a minor contribution to reperfusion injury in the stomach

  19. Typology of abdominal arteries, with special reference to inferior phrenic arteries and their esophageal branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, D X; Ohtsuka, A; Murakami, T

    1998-08-01

    Origins and distribution of the human inferior phrenic arteries were studied by dissecting 68 Japanese adult cadavers. The inferior phrenic arteries were usually observed as paired (left and right) vessels. Their origins were summarized as follows: a) the aorta itself (85/138 cases, 61.6%), b) the ventro-visceral arteries (celiaco-mesenteric system of the aorta) including the celiac trunk (39/138 cases, 28.2%) and the left gastric artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%), and c) the latero-visceral arteries (adreno-renal system of the aorta) including the middle adrenal artery (4/138 cases, 2.9%) and the renal artery (6/138 cases, 4.3%). The left and right arteries occasionally originated in common trunk from the aorta, celiaco-mesenteric system or adreno-renal system (22/138 cases, 15.9%). A typological diagram explaining these variations is given. The inferior phrenic arteries, especially the left ones, sometimes issued visceral or esophageal branches. This fact indicates that the inferior phrenic arteries are homologous with the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries. It is further discussed that the celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries are originally paired vessels, through introduction of our previous typological diagram of the abdominal arteries. PMID:9781269

  20. Segmented Coronary Artery Aneurysms and Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghaemi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute vasculitis syndrome of unknown etiology. It occurs in infants and young children,affecting mainly small and medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. Generalized microvasculitis occurs in the first 10 days, and the inflammation persists in the walls of medium and small arteries, especially the coronary arteries, and changes to coronary artery aneurysms.We report the case of a 10-month-old girl referred to our center three months after the onset of disease due to the aneurysmsof the coronary arteries. During the acute phase of her illness, she received 2 gr/kg intravenous gamma globulin; and afterher referral to us, the patient was treated by antiaggregant doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA (5 mg/kg and Warfarin (1 mg/daily. At three months’ follow-up, the aneurysms still persisted in the echocardiogram.