WorldWideScience

Sample records for arterial highways

  1. CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

  2. Highway 12

    OpenAIRE

    Probasco, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Highway 12 is undoubtedly one of not only America's but the world's most scenic highways. From its intersection on the west with Highway 89 south of Panguitch, Utah, it runs up through Red Canyon onto the Paunsagunt Plateau and across Bryce Canyon National Park. It then drops into the Paria River Valley, passes through several tiny villages, crosses some extraordinary (for anywhere but this region) badlands, and descends the Escalante River into Potato Valley. While a driver may justifiably f...

  3. DOT Official County Highway Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The County Highway Map theme is a scanned and rectified version of the original MnDOT County Highway Map Series. The cultural features on some of these maps may be...

  4. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  5. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  6. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  7. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  8. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  9. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  10. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  11. National Highway Planning Network (NHPN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NHPN (NTAD 2015) is a Geographical Information System (GIS) database that contains line features representing over 450,000 miles of current and planned highways...

  12. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  13. The ELETTRA field highway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELETTRA is a third generation Synchrotron Light Source under construction in Trieste (Italy); it consists of a full energy linac injector and a storage ring with beam energies between 1.5 and 2 GeV. The ELETTRA control system has a distributed architecture, hierarchically divided into three layers of computers; two network levels provide communication between the adjacent computer layers. The field highway adopted for the connection of the middle-layer local process computers with the bottom-layer equipment interface units is the MIL-1553B multidrop highway. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the main communication services developed on the MIL-1553B field highway for accelerator control. As an additional feature, typical LAN utilities have been added on top of the basic MIL-1553B communication software allowing remote logic and file transfer; these tools are currently used for software development in our laboratory. (author)

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHWAY LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS AND THEIR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Vitrinskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The constituent elements of highway landscape are determined. Six models of highway landscape are offered. Recommendations concerning effective landscape design for application in highway construction are presented.

  15. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EVENTS Exploring new approaches to safer drivers, safer cars and safer roads SAFETY IN NUMBERS Our highway safety newsletter - get the ... inches Enter height(feet) Enter height(inches) Safer Car NHTSA 5-Star Safety Rating Be prepared when you buy your next ...

  16. Highway Companies Deny Windfall Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Securities Daily

    2011-01-01

    @@ There is no denying that the real estate industry sees huge profits, but it is hard to imag-ine that the gross profits of highway companies have reached a very high level, becoming another typical industry of huge profits.The sky-high road toll is attracting more and more public concerns about the seemingly low-profile and stable industry.

  17. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, S.M.

    2002-07-31

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary

  18. Arterial Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY Patient Information Series Arterial Catheterization An arterial catheter is a thin, hollow tube ... PHYSICIANS: AND COPY Why Do I Need Arterial Catheterization? Common reasons an arterial catheterization is done include: ■ ...

  19. The network of information on highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents findings from a research concerning the contents framework, organisation and development of information – promotion centres along the highways in Slovenia. The goal of the research was to present an adequate framework and content for an information – promotion network on the highways. Examples from abroad are shown, as well as proposals for designing information – promotion points on the highways, also for economic and tourist purposes.

  20. Do highways fragment small mammal populations?

    OpenAIRE

    Yale Conrey, Reesa C.; Mills, L. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Small mammal populations separated by highways may be partially or completely isolated from one another due to low dispersal capabilities, low probability of surviving highway crossing attempts, and/or avoidance of areas adjacent to highways. Threats to small mammals are problematic at the ecosystem level because of their importance as seed dispersers and their role as prey for predators, such as marten, wolverine, and raptors. Our objective is to determine how movement and gene flow are affe...

  1. Forecasting urban highway travel for year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaou, Shaw-Pin (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K.; Southworth, F.; Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    As part of a study aimed at estimating suburban highway needs for year 2005, models were developed for forecasting daily vehicle miles of travel (DVMT) for urban areas and its distribution by highway functional class, urban location, and urban area size. A regression model combining both time series and cross-sectional data is used to establish the relationship between the per capita DVMT of 339 urban areas in the United States and a set of explanatory variables including real income, employment, number of persons per household, number of driver licenses per 1000 persons, a variable representing highway supply deficiency, and a time variable. The dynamic shift over time in share of travel between urban locations and highway functional classes as urban areas grow in size is represented by conditional logit models. This paper presents the major findings from the forecasting and distribution models for urban highway travel in year 2005. 30 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. HOV on the information highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Sick of rush-hour traffic jams? Tired of bottlenecks that keep you from getting where you want to go? Frustrated by sluggish drivers who tie you up on your way to work? The National Science Foundation (NSF) is hoping to put scientists back in the fast lane—of the Internet, that is.The recent boom in the popularity of the Internet has brought traffic on some parts of the information highway to a crawl. Since all packets of information sent across the Internet are treated equally, e-mail love letters and playful web browsing can interfere with scientific data transfers and high-performance on-line experiments and conferences.

  3. Arterial stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the main arteries in the forearm (radial and ulnar arteries). The procedure is done as follows: The ... Arteries also have thicker walls and have more nerves. When the needle is inserted, there may be ...

  4. State Maintained Highways in Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, LDOTD (2007) [state_highways_ldotd_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State Highways. This dataset...

  5. Driver behavior and congestion on highways

    OpenAIRE

    Rouwendal, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Congestion on highways often occurs by sudden transitions from free flow traffic to synchronized traffic. Associated with such phase transitions are large decreases in speed. Such phase transitions seem to be often caused by temporal distortions in traffic flows, such as a short peak in the flow of traffic entering a highway from a ramp. If the traffic flow on the ramp has decreased after the peak, congestion on the highway may persist for a longer period. The paper develops a model of conges...

  6. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, S.M.

    2004-11-10

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, railroad crossings, large trucks loading/unloading in urban areas, and other factors such as toll collection facilities and sub-optimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. In response to this need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), made an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events (Chin et al. 2002). This study, called the Temporary Loss of Capacity (TLC) study, estimated capacity loss and delay on freeways and principal arterials resulting from fatal and non-fatal crashes, vehicle breakdowns, and adverse weather, including snow, ice, and fog. In addition, it estimated capacity loss and delay caused by sub-optimal signal timing at intersections on principal arterials. It also included rough estimates of capacity loss and delay on Interstates due to highway construction and maintenance work zones. Capacity loss and delay were estimated for calendar year 1999, except for work zone estimates, which were estimated for May 2001 to May 2002 due to data availability limitations. Prior to the first phase of this study, which was completed in May of 2002, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity by type of capacity-reducing event had

  7. Highway damage due to subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwall mining has received considerable attention recently. This is mainly because it is one of the most economical methods that may be used to obtain a great amount of coal at a high extraction rate. In this study subsidence profiles over three longwall panels, which were mined beneath state highways in Southeastern Ohio, were obtained. Immediate and short term subsidences were recorded. A video camera probe was lowered into two core holes before and after longwall mining took place, and visual inspections were performed to examine the nature of cracking. A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the strength and elastic properties of rock strata above the mine. Displacements and strains predicted by the National Coal Board of Britain (NCB) graphical method and by the profile method using empirical constants determined for the Appalachian Region were compared with the field measurements. The NCB method predicts a conservative subsidence trough. Excellent subsidence agreement was found with the profile method. Neither method adequately predicts strains. Surface and strata cracking revealed a definite pattern with respect to mining, stratigraphy, and topography

  8. Highway travel time estimation with data fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a simple, innovative approach for the measurement and short-term prediction of highway travel times based on the fusion of inductive loop detector and toll ticket data. The methodology is generic and not technologically captive, allowing it to be easily generalized for other equivalent types of data. The book shows how Bayesian analysis can be used to obtain fused estimates that are more reliable than the original inputs, overcoming some of the drawbacks of travel-time estimations based on unique data sources. The developed methodology adds value and obtains the maximum (in terms of travel time estimation) from the available data, without recurrent and costly requirements for additional data. The application of the algorithms to empirical testing in the AP-7 toll highway in Barcelona proves that it is possible to develop an accurate real-time, travel-time information system on closed-toll highways with the existing surveillance equipment, suggesting that highway operators might provide...

  9. 2004 Alaska highway invasive plants pilot survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We investigated the distribution and abundance of non-native invasive plants along a section of the Alaska Highway adjacent to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, 20...

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  11. Forecasting of Highway Revenues Under Various Options

    OpenAIRE

    Agbelie, Bismark R. D. K.; Bai, Qiang; Labi, Samuel; Sinha, Kumares C

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the United States, state highway revenue, which is dominated by receipts from fuel taxes, has failed to keep up with expected investments required for infrastructure preservation and improvement. The reasons for this trend include the increasing fuel efficiency of vehicles, slowing of the growth in vehicle-miles of travel, and the erosion of the purchasing power of the dollar due to inflation. This development motivates highway agencies not only to seek revisions of existing fundin...

  12. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-01-01

    According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the s...

  13. An Approach to Driverless Vehicles in Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Godoy, Jorge; Villagra, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents AUTOPIA program results towards autonomous vehicles in highways. Based on our previous experience in automatic driving systems, a high-speed controller has been developed to perform vehicle's guidance autonomously. The map is generated in real time by the leading vehicle via vehicle-to-vehicle communications, permitting the vehicle equipped with the automatic system driving in any real circumstance in highways as can be lane-change maneuver. The s...

  14. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  15. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R and D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R and D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with

  16. Arterial Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiabl...

  17. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  18. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  19. Stories About Highways in Tibet (Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BENGYI

    2005-01-01

    Tibet's First International Highway The China-Nepal Highway is Tibet's only international highway. It extends 1,036 krn from Lhasa to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal. The Tibetan section extends 827 km. Construction of the highway lasted 10 years. Between March 1951 and October 20, 1955, the Lhasa-Xigaze Highway was constructed, bringing to an end a history of the Xigaze region possessing no proper roads. In 1955 the 90-km Xigaze-Gyangze section was constructed, being opened to traffic in October 1955. In 1956, the Lhasa-Yadong Highway was constructed, extending 547 km. In 1958, the Xigaze-Tingri Highway was completed, followed in 1960 by the Lhasa-Burang Highway.

  20. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department...

  1. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  2. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  3. Impact of nuclear waste traffic on highways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system was developed to evaluate the impact of nuclear waste traffic on the structural performance of highway pavements throughout the state of Nevada. The associated needs of maintenance and rehabilitations can also be evaluated along with their costs. This paper summarizes the system and provides two sample analyses

  4. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  5. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Procedures of the Department (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979). It is also not considered a major rule for... Department of Transportation receive funding to execute the research component of the program in order to... Marine Highway under this program. In crafting this definition, the Department of Transportation...

  6. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  7. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  8. A Highway Travel Information System: Forecasting and Publicizing Delays in the Indiana State Highway Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shu-Ling; Fricker, Jon D.

    2004-01-01

    The Highway Travel Information System (HTIS) is a long-term pre-trip information system providing information about expected events, such as road construction. The HTIS can be beneficial to both highway travelers and roadway project schedulers. Project schedulers can use the HTIS to check the forecasted traffic impacts of a proposed construction project schedule. If the schedule would cause unacceptable delays, a scheduler can try new schedules to reduce the delay. Travelers who have flexible...

  9. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  10. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  11. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  12. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  13. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  14. Approximating Mexican highways with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Chapa-Vergara, Sergio V; Asomoza-Palacio, Rene; Stephens, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. During its foraging behavior the cell spans spatially distributed sources of nutrients with a protoplasmic network. Geometrical structure of the protoplasmic networks allows the plasmodium to optimize transport of nutrients between remote parts of its body. Assuming major Mexican cities are sources of nutrients how much structure of Physarum protoplasmic network correspond to structure of Mexican Federal highway network? To find an answer undertook a series of laboratory experiments with living Physarum polycephalum. We represent geographical locations of major cities by oat flakes, place a piece of plasmodium in Mexico city area, record the plasmodium's foraging behavior and extract topology of nutrient transport networks. Results of our experiments show that the protoplasmic network formed by Physarum is isomorphic, subject to limitations imposed, to a network of principle highways. Ideas and results of the paper may contribute tow...

  15. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges of...... single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport....... Measurements of water and pollutant transport are carried out in different highway systems. A geometrically well-defined test pond is established, wherein the deposition of particulate matter can be measured. The result from the test pond is transferred to real detention ponds in which the three...

  16. Seismic Evaluation of Highway Bridges - Phase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.A.; Pan, Austin D.; Mwakasisi, Frank Thompson

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to establish the guidelines for screening, assessing, and ranking Indiana bridges for seismic upgrade. The outcome of the study is a complete strategy for the detailed structural assessment of Indiana highway bridges subjected to seismic forces. The structural evaluation is conducted using a nonlinear time-history analysis of the bridge for simulated or actual records. The specific soil conditions at the site are accounted in terms of the ground motio...

  17. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHWAYS

    OpenAIRE

    ЛІСНІЧЕНКО, Т. В.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2016-01-01

    It proposed and studied the life cycle of the construction of public roads. We considere allphases of construction: from design to repiar. The scheme of the life cycle of the constructionof public roads is proposed. Construction of highway is seen as a project. The life cycle of theproject, known as a set of logically interrelated works in the completion of which achieved oneof the main results of the project. The complex of road construction works related to construction,reconstruction and r...

  18. Management Considerations for Designing Carnivore Highway Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Ruediger, William Bill C.

    2007-01-01

    Many agencies are contemplating building wildlife crossings to reduce wildlife mortality, to improve habitat connectivity, and to reduce vehicle collisions. For this to occur without problems and interagency disagreements, relationships between agencies and key individuals must be well-developed. Once relationships are in-place highway improvements and wildlife habitat objectives are more easily integrated. The second step in coordinating wildlife issues with transportation is development of ...

  19. The Full Cost of Intercity Highway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; David Gillen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the cost structure of the provision of intercity highway transportation and specify and estimate our own cost functions . We develop a full cost model which identifies the key cost components and then estimate costs component by component: user costs, infrastructure costs, time and congestion costs, noise costs, accident costs, and pollution costs. The total long run average cost is $0.34 per vehicle kilometer traveled. The s...

  20. Organic Computing in Off-highway Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Wünsche, Micaela; Mostaghim, Sanaz; Schmeck, Hartmut; Kautzmann, Timo; Geimer, Marcus [Hrsg.

    2010-01-01

    Machine management systems in off-highway machines such as tractors or wheel loaders are designed for efficient operation and reduced fuel consumption in some predefined scenarios for which the machine has been developed. In this paper, we outline how concepts from Organic Computing may be used to realize a self-organizing, reliable, adaptive, and robust machine management system that is capable of adjusting to new situations. We propose an architecture for a machine management system based o...

  1. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  2. GPS assisted helicopter photogrammetry for highway profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Christopher Iain Harold

    1998-01-01

    Roads are an integral part of today's lifestyle. Indeed, a modern and efficient economy requires a satisfactory road network. The road network in the United Kingdom faces ever-increasing demands with 94% of passenger travel and 92% of freight transport undertaken by road. Maintenance of the network is essential. Prior to the commencement of any maintenance scheme, an accurate highway profile is measured by undertaking a detailed topographic survey of the road surface and the adjacent verges. ...

  3. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During the....... The impacts included an increased awareness of the world outside of the Yukon, imported ideas and technology, improved health care, highway transportation, telecommunications, and the development of more mining and tourist-related industries....

  4. Enhancing Highway Traffic Safety Through Intelligent Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The transportation domain has already moved towards intravehicle intelligent spaces. In this paper, wewill use various wireless technologies for traffic safety. This safety will be provided by developing a model for intelligent transportation system applications using emerging wireless communication technology in emergency situations. The performance analysis of the proposed model will be carried out. The experimental results will be also demonstrated. In this paper, we also propose some improvements in infrastructure of highway for better traffic control and safety.

  5. Degradation prediction model for friction in highways

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adriana; Freitas, Elisabete F.; Faria, Susana; Oliveira, Joel; Ana Maria A C Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a multiple linear regression model that describes the pavement’s friction behaviour using a degradation evo- lution law that also considers the effects of weather, vertical alignment and traf- fic factors. This study is based on real data obtained from two different highways with an approximate total length of 43 km. These sections present different alignment features (plan/profile), different Annual Average Daily Traffic and are subject- ed to differen...

  6. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  7. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increases ...

  8. Evaluation of a Citizen-Science Highway Wildlife Monitoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Kylie; Broberg, Len; Servheen, Christopher; Quinn, Michael S

    2007-01-01

    The Crowsnest Pass in southwestern Alberta, Canada has been highlighted as a critical area for wildlife movement. There are plans to upgrade Highway 3, which cuts through the Pass, to four lanes, with resulting increased traffic volume and speed. Currently, highway traffic volume is between 2,500 to 10,500 vehicles/day. Highway 3 may already be acting as a barrier to large carnivore and ungulate movements patterns, and wildlife mortality from animal/vehicle collisions on Highway 3 is approxim...

  9. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will...

  10. 23 CFR 1.3 - Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway departments. 1.3 Section 1.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.3 Federal-State cooperation; authority of State highway...

  11. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  12. CAUSES OF HIGHWAY FAILURES IN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the road networks in the developing countries of Africa are in deplorable conditions. Nigeria being one of these countries is not an exception. The conditions of the roads in Nigeria were examined. The causes of these conditions of the roads in Nigeria were articulated and their effects to the citizen, government and theeconomy of the country were highlighted and solutions to these problems given in the form of recommendations that will remedy the situation. Some of the identified causes were; poor design and construction, poor maintenance of already built highways, use of low quality materials in construction, poor workmanship and poorsupervision of construction work and the plying of heavy traffic that were not meant for the road on the road. Some of the recommendations to remedy the situation are; Use of the appropriate design of the roads, avoiding unnecessary congestion of the roads with traffic especially heavy traffics that were not meant for the roads inthe first place, prompt maintenance of the roads, application of suitable construction material in the construction of the roads, applying appropriate tests to the soil in road construction, use of qualified engineering personnel in road construction and the application of sanctions for highway failures.

  13. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the soil. In that case, an optimization process will be needed to minimize the overall cost of cut and fill rather than to minimize their quantities. This paper proposes a nonlinear optimization model to select optimum vertical curve parameters based on individual cost items of cut and fill. The parameters selected by the optimization model include the initial grade, the final grade, the station and elevation of the point of vertical curvature (PVC, and the station and elevation of the point of vertical tangency (PVT. The model is flexible to include any design constraints for particular design problems. Different application examples are provided using the Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel’s Solver add-in. The application examples validated the model and demonstrated its advantage of minimizing the overall cost rather than minimizing the overall volume of cut and fill quantities.

  14. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  15. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore

  16. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...

  17. 49 CFR 325.39 - Measurement procedure; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement procedure; highway operations. 325.39... CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations §...

  18. Research progress and development trends of highway tunnels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan He; Bo Wang

    2013-01-01

    The highway tunnel system in China has in recent years surpassed Europe, the United States, and other developed countries in terms of mileage, scale, complexity, and technical achievement. Much scientific research has been conducted, and the results have greatly facilitated the rapid development of China’s highway tunnel building capacity. This article presents the historical development of highway tunneling in China, according to specific charac-teristics based on construction and operation. It provides a systematic analysis of the major achievements and chal-lenges with respect to construction techniques, operation, monitoring, repair, and maintenance. Together with future trends of highway tunneling in China, suggestions have been made for further research, and development prospects have been identified with the aim of laying the foundation for a Chinese-style highway tunnel construction method and technical architecture.

  19. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.;

    expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types is......As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  20. Interaction study of permafrost and highway along Qinghai-Xizang Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青柏; 施斌; 刘永智

    2003-01-01

    Eight monitoring sites are set along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway (QXH) to investigate the characteristics and process of interaction between permafrost and highway, including the upper and down boundaries of active layer under natural surface, seasonally freezing-thawing depth under asphalt pavement, permafrost table temperature and roadbed stability. The investigation results show that the changes of active layer thickness and permafrost table temperature under asphalt pavement are greater than these under natural surface due to the absorbing heat action and less evaporation of asphalt pavement, as a result, the engineering geological problems such as thaw settlement and frost heave present frequently along QXH line and produce the adverse impact on roadbed stability.

  1. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs. PMID:18362049

  2. Micropollutants Identification Affecting the Nearby Environment from Highway Runoff: The Case Study of Cyprus Highway

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIS A. ZORPAS; Lampis A. Ilia; Irene Voukkali; Vassilis Inglezakis

    2015-01-01

    Road/highway surfaces accumulate significant quantities of pollutants including nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic hydrocarbon aromatic (PHAs). Traffic characteristics (vehicle speed, traffic load, etc.), climate, long dry wet periods, and rainfall event intensity and duration are regarded as important factors in generating pollutants in high way runoff (HRO). Regarding rainfall control, most of the road is served by drainage ditches which collect the runoff and direct it to the nearest ...

  3. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  4. An Innovative Strategy for Maintenance of Highway Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Highway pavement are deteriorating fast due to lack of timely maintenance, leading to higher vehicle operating costs, increasing number of accidents etc. Thus, timely maintenance of the highway pavement is essential. Because, once pavements start to deteriorate; they deteriorate rapidly beyond the point where maintenance is effective. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a strategy for maintenance of pavement in a huge highway network. In this study, an innovative strategy for maintenance of highway pavement is proposed. A two stage maintenance strategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed to determine priority of highway sections. In Stage II, priority of various maintenance activities to be carried out on various sections will be determined. Maintenance priority of the pavement is based on importance of the road sections, present road conditions, and future road conditions. The methodology proposed in this study is illustrated with the help of example of some hypothetical highway network consisting of 4 sections. Analysis results indicated that the proposed strategy is considered to be more rational, innovative & logical. Some strategies for maintenance of urban roads are also presented in this study. Therefore, it is expected that this study will be useful for maintenance of huge highway network in India and thus will be useful for preserving huge asset of pavement infrastructure.

  5. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.;

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  6. Modeling the highway transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There will be a substantial increase in the number of spent fuel shipments on the nation's highway system in the next thirty years. Most of the spent fuel will be moving from reactors to a spent fuel repository. This study develops two models that evaluate the risk and cost of moving the spent fuel. The Minimum Total Transport Risk Model (MTTRM) seeks an efficient solution for this problem by finding the minimum risk path through the network and sending all the spent fuel shipments over this one path. The Equilibrium Transport Risk Model (ETRM) finds an equitable solution by distributing the shipments over a number of paths in the network. This model decreases the risk along individual paths, but increases society's risk because the spent fuel shipments are traveling over more links in the network. The study finds that there is a trade off between path risk and societal risk. As path risk declines, societal risk rises. The cost of shipping also increases as the number of paths expand. The cost and risk of shipping spent fuel from ten reactors to four potential repository sites are evaluated using the MTTRM. The temporary monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in Tennessee is found to be the minimum cost and minimum risk solution. When direct shipment to the permanent sites is considered, Deaf Smith, Texas is the least cost and least incident free transport risk location. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the least risk location when the focus is placed on the potential consequences of an accident

  7. Hydraulic design of pervious concrete highway shoulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahl, Nathan Andrew

    Stormwater drainage has been a factor in roadway design for years. Now stormwater quantity and quality are also becoming regulated for roadways. As regulations of stormwater management continue to increase so does the need for more viable and effect management practices. The research presented and discussed in this thesis presents the option of using pervious concrete in highway shoulders as a best management practice for stormwater management. Research focused on the hydraulic response of pervious concrete pavements exposed to sheet flowing water. Pervious concrete samples were placed in a hydraulic flume to determine capture discharges, infiltration rates, and by-pass flowrates for a broad range of void contents, across a broad range of pavement cross slopes. The results demonstrate that the capture discharge and infiltration rates are inversely related to the cross slope of the pavement. Results also showed the infiltration rate of the permeable pavement exposed to sheet flowing water, in the model, is significantly lower than the measured infiltration rate. Pervious concrete samples were also tested to determine hydraulic response when exposed to clogging associated with sand used in roadway de-icing. The results of the clogging of the permeable pavements followed similar trends as the unclogged samples, with the only difference being a more significant reduction in infiltration rates at higher applications of sand. Preliminary discussion of a design methodology is included with a design example.

  8. Permanent Deformation of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and preliminary testing performed on a subgrade soil, a testing methodology for repeated load testing was established. This testing protocol was verified using data from subgrade soil. The successful application of this testing protocol on the two subgrade soils proves that it can provide consistent, reliable results. A power model was used to fit the accumulated axial strain over load repetitions with the first hundred cycles excluded from the data set. A number of factors influencing the accumulation of permanent deformation were investigated. The results indicate that confining pressure, load frequency and density are relatively minor contributors to deformation accumulation. Moisture content, deviator stress and first cycle freeze-thaw are major factors governing permanent deformation. The effects of stress history resulting from staged loading are dependent upon the level of applied deviator stress. The interpretation of the rich and consistent deformation data derived from this testing protocol provide valuable insights for transportation engineers relative to the design, construction, operation and maintenance strategy of highway subgrades as well as railway roadbeds.

  9. Road and Street Centerlines - MO 2010 Highway Patrol Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a representation of current Missouri Highway Patrol Districts. Derived from TIGER/Line Files this shapefile and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  10. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  11. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by...

  12. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by...

  13. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transport Federally owned or generated cargo using waterborne transportation along the Marine Highway... offer the maximum potential public benefit in congestion-related emissions reduction, energy efficiency... are not limited to, reduced emissions, including greenhouse gases, reduced energy...

  14. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise... types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current highway traffic noise analyses rely on... (OGAC), and Portland cement concrete (PCC). Prediction of future noise levels is based on the...

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity... TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs Pt. 230, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 230—State Highway Agency Equal Employment...

  16. Improving Highway Safety Through Pavement Friction Management Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, K. L.; Larson, Roger M.; Flintsch, Gerardo W.; Sherwood, J

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a major increase in activities related to improving highway safety in the U.S. Much of the emphasis has been placed on driver behavior (e.g., addressing aggressive, distracted, and impaired driving and the neglected use of seat belts) and roadway design (e.g., geometrics, roadside, and traffic control features), and this has led to updated FHWA regulations and guidance regarding the Highway Safety Improvement Program and major research publications, such as the...

  17. A Practical Model for Deformation Prediction of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a practical constitutive relation for highway subgrade soils. The proposed model is derived based on the laboratory repeated-load testing of four subgrade soils. Statistical parameters generally used in the power model of subgrade permanent strain are expanded into material constants with engineering significance. The constitutional relation reported in this paper can be used in the mechanistic-based pavement design of highway flexible pavements and railroad tracks.

  18. A historical overview of thedevelopment of highways in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Birol

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the highway transportation system which currently became the dominated transportation system in Turkey is examined. The development of this system between the foundation of the Republic and the present is investigated periodically. According to the results of this study the transportation policies for the highway transportation had been seen as a system integrating with the railway transportation until 1950s. However, after 1950s, the railways had been nearly ignored and the hi...

  19. Evaluation Of Work Crew And Highway Hazard Conspicuity

    OpenAIRE

    Misener, Jim

    1998-01-01

    The report quantitatively addresses conspicuity of highway features, particularly in work zones, from the perspective of driver detection and driver decision making. The study focuses on evaluating the detection process, selecting and exercising human perception-acquisition models suitable for quick running and larger scale microsimulations to evaluate system effectiveness of pre-Automated Highway System (AHS) driver-assist systems. The report describes this process and provides a detection e...

  20. Regulation and hydraulic design of highway stormwater drainage system

    OpenAIRE

    Žibret, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The present work handles treatment of storm water from highways and its cleaning facilities hydraulic design according to Slovenian and German guidelines and directives. First part contains basic data that we have to take into consideration in order to achieve good hydraulic design for cleaning facilities. Road and highway categorization and their typical features in Slovenia and Germany are also written as basics for runoff hydraulic design. Following, most of the storm water cleaning facili...

  1. Size fractionation of heavy metals in highway runoff waters

    OpenAIRE

    BECHET, Béatrice; Durin, Bertrand; Legret, Michel; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Highway runoff waters may contain pollutants that have accumulated on the carriageway. Numerous field surveys have demonstrated that heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) are common pollutants in highway runoff waters that degrade the quality of natural water bodies [16]. These hazardous pollutants have been found to be attached to particles, especially finer particles than 100 μm, usually quantified by dissolved, suspended and settleable solids measurements [7]. Clay minerals, very fine...

  2. The locations and types of complementary activities on Slovene highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jagodič

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a summary of a few chapters of the research The locations and types of complementary activities on Slovene highways. The number of complementary locations, regulations concerning construction and types of complementary locations are thoroughly discussed. Emphasis is given to the modification of criteria, which apply to the positioning of complementary activities on highways, amongst other because of characteristics of the terrain and the polycentric pattern of settlements.

  3. Carotid Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  4. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

  5. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  6. Micropollutants Identification Affecting the Nearby Environment from Highway Runoff: The Case Study of Cyprus Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road/highway surfaces accumulate significant quantities of pollutants including nutrients, heavy metals, and polycyclic hydrocarbon aromatic (PHAs. Traffic characteristics (vehicle speed, traffic load, etc., climate, long dry wet periods, and rainfall event intensity and duration are regarded as important factors in generating pollutants in high way runoff (HRO. Regarding rainfall control, most of the road is served by drainage ditches which collect the runoff and direct it to the nearest natural water courses. This paper focuses on the estimation of pollutant that is coming from two several highways (to the airport and to the biggest industrial area in Cyprus. Overall, more than 100 different samples were collected and analysed over a period of two years. Several parameters were determined like PHA, COD, electronic conductivity (EC, total suspended solid (TSS, total dissolved solid (TDS, pH, fats and oils (FOG, T. Coliforms, NO3, NO2, NH4, SO4, Cl, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, and Zn. The results indicated that the first flush consists of major pollution due to the fact that all parameters are in high levels. As the rainfall continues the pollution decreases but the influence to the nearby areas of the runoff is high.

  7. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  8. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  9. Prioritizing Highway Safety Manual's crash prediction variables using boosted regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2015-06-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) recommends using the empirical Bayes (EB) method with locally derived calibration factors to predict an agency's safety performance. However, the data needs for deriving these local calibration factors are significant, requiring very detailed roadway characteristics information. Many of the data variables identified in the HSM are currently unavailable in the states' databases. Moreover, the process of collecting and maintaining all the HSM data variables is cost-prohibitive. Prioritization of the variables based on their impact on crash predictions would, therefore, help to identify influential variables for which data could be collected and maintained for continued updates. This study aims to determine the impact of each independent variable identified in the HSM on crash predictions. A relatively recent data mining approach called boosted regression trees (BRT) is used to investigate the association between the variables and crash predictions. The BRT method can effectively handle different types of predictor variables, identify very complex and non-linear association among variables, and compute variable importance. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 on two urban and suburban facility types, two-lane undivided arterials and four-lane divided arterials, were analyzed for estimating the influence of variables on crash predictions. Variables were found to exhibit non-linear and sometimes complex relationship to predicted crash counts. In addition, only a few variables were found to explain most of the variation in the crash data. PMID:25823903

  10. Prizing on Paths: A PTAS for the Highway Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Grandoni, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In the highway problem, we are given an n-edge line graph (the highway), and a set of paths (the drivers), each one with its own budget. For a given assignment of edge weights (the tolls), the highway owner collects from each driver the weight of the associated path, when it does not exceed the budget of the driver, and zero otherwise. The goal is choosing weights so as to maximize the profit. A lot of research has been devoted to this apparently simple problem. The highway problem was shown to be strongly NP-hard only recently [Elbassioni,Raman,Ray-'09]. The best-known approximation is O(\\log n/\\log\\log n) [Gamzu,Segev-'10], which improves on the previous-best O(\\log n) approximation [Balcan,Blum-'06]. In this paper we present a PTAS for the highway problem, hence closing the complexity status of the problem. Our result is based on a novel randomized dissection approach, which has some points in common with Arora's quadtree dissection for Euclidean network design [Arora-'98]. The basic idea is enclosing the ...

  11. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  12. Highway Incident Detection Research Based on Lipschitz Exponent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of traffic flow on highway is analyzed in this paper firstly. According to Catastrophe Theory, the function of occupancy time and volume is established. Then a highway traffic incident detection method based on Lipschitz exponent is advanced by using Wavelet Theory, whose core is to judge the singular points of traffic flow accurately. When the value of Lipschitz exponent is near to “one”, the singularity character of traffic flow function is in the pink and the probability of traffic incident is more. Take the data of Changchang-highway as an example, the superiority of the new method advanced is testified. The result shows that the false alarm rate is only 2.1% and the delay time is 12mins, when the detection rate is 95%.

  13. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  14. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  15. Toll Roads: A New Direction for U.S. Highways?

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Toll financing is emerging as a major means of paying for new highways in the United States. Some 1200 miles (1900 km) of new toll facilities are under study, design, or construction, with some thirty-five projects in seventeen states. While toll roads are not new to the US - a number were constructed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and those built in the 1940s and 1950s serve today as the major interregional highways in many states - the current crop of projects will add as much ...

  16. Brief Analysis on Highway Construction and Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; XU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of studying influence of means of transportation on urban distribution and form,this paper focuses on influence of highway on modern urban areas. Results show that construction of highway accelerates urbanization,forms organic traffic network connecting large, medium and small cities and towns,and promotes development of modern urban agglomeration. Finally,it presents rational ideas of strengthening planning,integrating urban and rural development,preventing blind expansion of urban areas,and building ecological and garden cities.

  17. Energy consumption and intensity of toll highway transport in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Pedro; Miranda, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the energy consumption of toll highway transport on a number of Spanish roads. Regression parameters are balanced according to coefficients from an empirical analysis based on survey data by vehicle type. The mean energy consumption and subsequent CO2 emissions on the toll highway sections are estimated as 1895 MJ/h/lane-km and 0.15 tCO2 eq./h/lane-km, values that increase to 2644 and 0.22 when energy and carbon emissions of transport infrastructure are considered based on the lif...

  18. Effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Bervoets, Adriana C; de Klerk, Suzanne; Vreman, Rick A; Olivier, Berend; Roth, Thomas; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance. METHODS: Driving performance of forty-two social drinkers was tested the morning following an evening of consuming on average 10.2 (SD = 4.2) alcoholic drinks (alcohol hango

  19. Effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C.; Bervoets, Adriana C.; de Klerk, Suzanne; Vreman, Rick A.; Olivier, Berend; Roth, Thomas; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance. Methods Driving performance of forty-two social drinkers was tested the morning following an evening of consuming on average 10.2 (SD=4.2) alcoholic drinks (alcohol hangover)

  20. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to eva...

  1. Risk of death in crashes on Ontario’s highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeznikiewiz Damian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs that result in one or more fatalities on the 400-series Highways represent a serious public health problem in Ontario, and were estimated to have cost $11 billion in 2004. To date, no studies have examined risk factors for fatal MVCs on Ontario’s 400 series highways. The investigate how demographic and environmental risk factors are associated with fatal MVCs on Ontario’s 400-Series Highways. Methods Data were provided from the Ontario Ministry of Transport database, and included driver demographics, vehicle information, environmental descriptors, structural descriptors, as well as collision information (date and time, and severity of the collision. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with the odds of dying in a collision. Results There were 53,526 vehicles involved in collisions from 2001 to 2006 included in our analysis. Results from the multivariate analysis suggest that collisions with older age and male drivers were associated with an increased risk of involving a fatality. Highway 405 and an undivided 2-way design proved to be the most fatal structural configurations. Collisions in the summer, Fridays, between 12 am-4 am, and in drifting snow conditions during the wintertime were also shown to have a significantly increased risk of fatality. Conclusion Our results suggest that interventions to reduce deaths as a result of MVCs should focus on both driver-related and road-related modifications.

  2. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  3. 78 FR 71715 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 37093), the agency requested comments on the proposed revisions... Patrol (CHP), Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA), the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA... burden on the States. The CHP suggested adding the expiration date, motive power, number of...

  4. Education in Transportation Systems Planning: Highway Research Record No. 462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Transportation Research Board.

    The papers contained in the issue of Highway Research Record focus on current and emerging patterns of education and training related to transportation systems planning. The five papers are: Transportation Centers and Other Mechanisms to Encourage Interdisciplinary Research and Training Efforts in Transportation (Frederick J. Wegmann and Edward A.…

  5. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  6. Type 2 diabetes express highway, where is the 'U' turn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S R

    2003-05-01

    The 'U' turn in Type 2 Diabetes Express Highway probably lies in lifestyle modifications--going back to traditional lifestyle with use of modern technology to achieve happiness. There is a difference between technology for comfort and technology for happiness. PMID:12974434

  7. 49 CFR 1.48 - Delegations to Federal Highway Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Act of September 21, 1966, Public Law 89-599, relating to certain approvals concerned with a... accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian and bicycle safety. (6) Exercise the...). (10) Carry out the functions vested in the Secretary by Public Law 98-229, 98 Stat. 55, insofar as...

  8. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... patent offices. Originally, the PPH program was limited to the utilization of search and examination... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...

  9. Highway Expenditures and Associated Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT. A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from the financial data warehouse of the NDOT was used to evaluate expenditures. Multinomial probit models were estimated to study the correlations between customers’ opinion and the government expenditures in transportation. The results indicate the customer satisfaction is decreasing with respect to traffic safety throughout Northwestern and Southern Nevada highways. In addition, users of Northwestern highways are more likely to be satisfied, compared to their counterparts, with increasing construction spending to reduce the time taken to complete construction projects. In Southern Nevada highways, customers’ satisfaction increases with the expenditures associated with reduction of congestion. These insights are examples of the conclusions that were obtained as a consequence of simultaneously considering customer satisfaction and the corresponding expenditures in transportation.

  10. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke;

    2005-01-01

    rainfalls. The modelling will take place in a special version of the MIKE URBAN. The modelling is calibrated and validated on measurements from selected highway catchments. The removal of pollutants in the ponds is studied by local measurements in combination with CFD modelling using the MIKE 21 and MIKE 3...

  11. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  12. Rail-Highway Crossing Safetty Program in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Knoke, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Indiana is one of the top five states in the nation for the number of rail crossings and for the number of serious crashes at rail crossings. This presentation will cover rail-highway crossing safety performance trends, the safety investigation process, and a discussion of rail safety programs.

  13. Highway efficiency improvement : Thailand´s route no 4 - Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Charupa, Thanarit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The economic growth in Thailand has spread from the metropolitan area to other region of the country. This has led to the development of regional highway to serve as the connection link between the main port city, Bangkok and other part of the country. However, the project did not foresee the population growth situated along the highway. New dwellings on roadside are common throughout the highway. This increase demand for accessibility to the highway results in disruption of the main...

  14. Evaluation of a wildlife underpass on Vermont State Highway 289 in Essex, Vermont

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, John M.; Garland, Larry

    2001-01-01

    State Highway 289 (a.k.a. circumferential highway) in Essex, Vermont, was constructed in 1993 as a means of shifting growing traffic volumes in the area around Burlington, Vermont, to reduce traffic congestion in some areas. This highway bisects streams, wetlands, upland and deer winter habitats important for the survival of area wildlife such as white-tailed deer, beaver, mink and otter. A divided concrete underpass was installed under the highway to accommodate an existing stream channel on...

  15. Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata) from the rest areas of Hungarian highways

    OpenAIRE

    Kontschán, Jenő; Karap, Anita; Kiss, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The mesostigmatid mite family Phytoseiidae was surveyed in rest areas of Hungarian highways by examination of leaves collected from arboreal plants. All together 15 species, ca. 20 % of the Hungarian Phytoseiid fauna were recorded. Seven species were collected from the ring highway around Budapest (M0), ten species were found alongside the northwestern highway (M1), six-six species were recorded from the north-eastern and south-eastern highways (M3 and M5), and five species from t...

  16. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and level of C-reactive protein, which is produced only when inflammation is present. ... people with occlusive peripheral arterial disease also have coronary artery disease. Amputation of a limb may be necessary if ...

  17. 26 CFR 48.6421-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6421-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6421, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business...

  18. 26 CFR 48.6427-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6427-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6427, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business...

  19. 75 FR 2187 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... project, US Highway 50 between Robbins Run Sidehill to Rockwall Sidehill near Echo Summit in the County El... deteriorating masonry rock wall parapets at seven locations on US Highway 50 for the primary purpose of improving safety along the section of US Highway 50 known as Upper Meyers Grade at Echo Summit. The...

  20. 32 CFR 644.422 - Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authorized widening of a public highway, street... and Easement Interests § 644.422 Authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. 40 U.S.C... authorized widening of a public highway, street, or alley. The conveyance may be made with or...

  1. The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways: The Road to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Elisheva

    2010-01-01

    The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways was an innovation that changed America. The highway system, the greatest public works project in American history, made travel faster, easier, and safer. However, there were serious negative effects of the highways; they hindered the growth of cities, destroyed…

  2. 23 CFR 500.204 - TMS components for highway traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS components for highway traffic data. 500.204 Section... INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.204 TMS components for highway traffic data. (a) General. Each State's TMS, including those using alternative...

  3. Combination of Rare Right Arterial Variation with Anomalous Origins of the Vertebral Artery, Aberrant Subclavian Artery and Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H.; San Millán Ruíz, D.; Abdo, G.; Asakura, F.; Yilmaz, H.; Lovblad, K.O.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  4. On Renal Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eklöf, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potentially curable cause of hypertension and azotemia. Besides intra-arterial renal angiography there are several non-invasive techniques utilized to diagnose patients with suspicion of renal artery stenosis. Removing the stenosis by revascularization to restore unobstructed blood flow to the kidney is known to improve and even cure hypertension/azotemia, but is associated with a significant complication rate. To visualize renal arteries with x-ray technique...

  5. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or atherectomy may be used to help improve blood flow. What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? How is peripheral artery disease evaluated? How ... PAD are diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Most cases occur in ... is peripheral artery disease evaluated? Several imaging tests can be used to ...

  6. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery occlusion; Branch retinal artery occlusion; CRAO; BRAO Images Retina References Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  7. A Study on Road Users' Overall Perceptions of Highway Maintenance Service Quality and the Variables that Define the Highway Maintenance Service Quality Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Burde, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The concept of involving the public in the development of transportation solutions was built in the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, the legislation that authorized the construction of the Interstate Highway System. Better plans, transparent process, and public support are some of the benefits that road managers can obtain by educating and involving the general public. During the last two decades the volume of research performed related to the topic of customer-driven highway maintenance sugg...

  8. Duplication of hepatic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

  9. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  10. A study of speed limits and speed control measures for the urban arterial road

    OpenAIRE

    Wichuda Satiennam; Phongphan Tankasem; Thaned Satiennam

    2015-01-01

    Speed limits in accordance with environment and road functions have been used as a fundamental tool for speed management and road safety. This paper presents literatures review of speed limits measure and results from the study on speed limits problem and driver attitude toward the speed limit and speed control measure. Area of study is on the arterial road where the Mittaprab Highway passed through Khon Kaen City. The study found that improper designation of road functions is the main cause ...

  11. Measurements of air pollution from a Danish highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P. Massling, A.

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the results from a measurement campaign carried out at the Holbaek Highway during 2008. The objective of the campaign was to determine the emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} due to highway traffic. The campaign included measurements of NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, TEOM PM{sub 2.5}, TEOM PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, particle size distribution and local meteorology. The emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were determined to 45 and 155 mg/(vehicle km), respectively. This is comparable to the emission factors previously determined for H. C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen and somewhat higher than found at Jagtvej, Copenhagen. (author)

  12. Kinematical analysis of highway tunnel collapse using nonlinear failure criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小礼; 杨子汉; 潘秋景; 李育林

    2014-01-01

    For different kinds of rocks, the collapse range of tunnel was studied in the previously published literature. However, some tunnels were buried in soils, and test data showed that the strength envelopes of the soils followed power-law failure criterion. In this work, deep buried highway tunnel with large section was taken as objective, and the basic expressions of collapse shape and region were deduced for the highway tunnels in soils, based on kinematical approach and power-law failure criterion. In order to see the effectiveness of the proposed expressions, the solutions presented in this work agree well with previous results if the nonlinear failure criterion is reduced to a linear Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The present results are compared with practical projects and tunnel design code. The numerical results show that the height and width of tunnel collapse are greatly affected by the nonlinear criterion for the tunnel in soil.

  13. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  14. Risk assessment of wind turbines close to highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the minimum distance from wind turbines to highways based on risk assessments of the consequences due to total or partial failure of a wind turbine and due to ice throw in case of over-icing. Data has been collected from a large number of modern wind turbines...... parts 'thrown away' from a wind turbine in events with total or partial failure. The risk is expressed as a probability per kilometer. It is assumed that a row of wind turbines is placed along a highway with a typical total height of 120m (equivalent to wind turbines in the underlying data base...... is stopped. Both for pieces from the wind turbine and for ice the throwing distances are determined from ballistic computations assuming an average drag coefficient of 0.6. This number is based on results from a more elaborate model that takes into account the full 6 degrees of freedom movement...

  15. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Pavement Structure in Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chun-xiang; GUO Zhong-yin

    2008-01-01

    A linear full 3D finite element method (FEM) was performed in order to present the key design parameters of highway tunnel asphalt pavement under double-wheel load on rectangular loaded area considering horizontal contact stress induced by the acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. The key design parameters are the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the surface of the asphalt layer, the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the bottom of the asphalt layer and the maximum vertical shear stresses at the surface of the as- phalt layer were calculated. The influencing factors such as double-wheel weight; asphalt layer thickness; base course stiffness modulus and thickness; and the contact conditions among the structure layers on these key design parameters were also examined separately to propose construction procedures of highway tunnel asphalt pavement.

  17. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  18. Ground Improvement for Liquefaction Mitigation at Existing Highway Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Harry G.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of using ground improvement at existing highway bridges to mitigate the risk of earthquake-induced liquefaction damage has been studied. The factors and phenomena governing the performance of the improved ground were identified and clarified. Potential analytical methods for predicting the treated ground performance were investigated and tested. Key factors affecting improved ground performance are the type, size, and location of the treated ground. The improved groun...

  19. Characteristics and Utilization Principle of Native Plants in Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Zequan

    2015-01-01

    Highway greening projects, in essence, is a kind of ecological restoration project. Plant as the prerequisite and important material basis of ecological restoration, the choice and utilization of plant is the key to the success of green. In the current green design, this part also has many problems. Therefore, this paper puts forward the definition of native plants in ecological theory, and summarizes the characteristics and the use of different types of plants.

  20. The Design of Logistics Information Matching Platform for Highway Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Tong, Bing; Shen, Xiahong; Feng, Tao

    The development status of logistics in the financial crisis requires the shippers and carriers' overall goal focus on cost reduction. This paper firstly analyzes the problem of information mismatch between shipper and carrier in nowadays, and describes the shippers and carriers' demand for information platform. Then based on requirement investigation and questionnaire statistics, the specific demands for logistics information matching platform are analyzed. Finally, logistics information matching platform system for highway transportation is designed.

  1. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity and prediction of the remaining life. However, the parameters, which are involved in the evaluation process, are random variable. Therefore, a considerable research effort has been directed at the development o...

  2. Capacity Of Automated Highway Systems: Effect Of Platooning And Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H. S. Jacob; Hall, Randolph; Hongola, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the capacity of key Automated Highway Systems (AHS) operating scenarios. The effect of the lane-flow rule, platooning or free-agent, as well as the lane barriers, on AHS capacity are studied. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the lane-flow rule and the lane change requirement. The paper consists of two major components, analytical models and AHS simulation. After a brief introduction of AHS operating strategies, analytical models are develop...

  3. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  4. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  5. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  6. Importance of risk management in highway and railway constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Rozsypal, Alexandr

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role and importance of the risk management during construction of highways and railways. For this purpose the engineering riskn will be defined. The main principles of geotechnical risk will be explained. Some cases stories of undesirables events during construction of underground works will be presented and discussed. In the conclusion author will underlines main conditions of succesfull risk management principles to be respected.

  7. Wetland Replacement Practices and Procedures for Indiana Highway Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alleman, James E.; Graves, Steve M.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that Indiana has already lost more than 80% of its original, native wetlands, and concerns have been expressed that some fraction, and perhaps even a sizable fraction, of these losses can be historically linked to highway construction associated with INDOT-related activities. These wetlands are important for several reasons, in that they help keep ground water and surface water clean, serve as reservoirs for floodwaters, help recharge groundwater, provide habitats for many spe...

  8. Wetlands Replacement Practices and Procedures for Indiana Highway Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alleman, James E.; Graves, Steve M.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that Indiana has already lost more than 80% of its original, native wetlands, and concerns have been expressed that some fraction, and perhaps even a sizable fraction, of these losses can be historically linked to highway construction associated with INDOT-related activities. These wetlands are important for several reasons, in that they help keep ground water and surface water clean, serve as reservoirs for floodwaters, help recharge groundwater, provide habitats for many spe...

  9. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  10. Electricity, Highways and Manufacturing Growth: A Cost Based Estimate

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Castañeda Sabido

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the rqle of electricity and highways on the Mexican manufacturing sector. The paper uses a weighted aggregate in put of labor and capital (with weights equal to their share in costs) and a weighted measure of infrastructure to estimate jointly the elasticity of infrastructure and the degree of internal returns to scale. 1 pool two digit industries to obtain the estimates for the whole manufacturing sec tor. This paper follows the first order tradition initiated by Solow (19...

  11. An Empirical Evaluation of Deep Learning on Highway Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Huval, B.; Wang, T.; S Tandon; Kiske, J.; Song, W.; Pazhayampallil, J.; Andriluka, M.; Rajpurkar, P.; Migimatsu, T.; Cheng-Yue, R.; Mujica, F.; Coates, A.; Ng, A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous groups have applied a variety of deep learning techniques to computer vision problems in highway perception scenarios. In this paper, we presented a number of empirical evaluations of recent deep learning advances. Computer vision, combined with deep learning, has the potential to bring about a relatively inexpensive, robust solution to autonomous driving. To prepare deep learning for industry uptake and practical applications, neural networks will require large data sets that repres...

  12. Heavy metal dispersion and soil pollution alongside two french highways

    OpenAIRE

    LEGRET, M; Pagotto, C.

    2002-01-01

    Road traffic and maintenance induce a chronic heavy metal pollution of runoff water an roadside soil. Part of the pollutants could be dispersed in the atmosphere or deposited onto soils due to wind dispersion. The atmospheric deposition and the quality of roadside soil have been investigated alongside two major rural highways. Metal deposition decrease rapidly and seem to reach the background level at a distance less than 25 m. Zinc deposition are the most important, followed by Pb and Cu dep...

  13. Using mobile monitoring to visualise diurnal variation of traffic pollutants across two near-highway neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Woodrow; Longley, Ian; Kingham, Simon

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that concentrations of primary traffic pollutants can vary substantially across relatively small urban areas. Fixed-site monitors have been shown to be largely inadequate for representing concentrations at nearby locations, resulting in the increasing use of spatial modelling or mobile sampling methods to achieve spatial saturation. In this study, we employ the use of a simple bicycle to sample concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) at two small areas (shopping zones. Concentrations of PM10 appeared to be strongest in the residential areas during mornings and late evenings, suggesting an influence of wood burning for home heating. For all timings combined, for all three pollutants, it appears the arterial roads featuring shops and numerous intersections with traffic lights, had a stronger influence on concentrations than the busier but more free-flowing highways. This study provides not only an insight into microspatial hotspot variation across suburbs, but also how this variation shifts diurnally.

  14. National Highway Alignment from Namakkal to Erode Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The vision of the Highway Alignment is to increase the capacity, connectivity, efficiency and safety of the Highways System so as to enable balanced socioeconomic development of all sections of the people and all regions from NAMAKKAL to ERODE via and to reduce the traffic and travelling of the state. It is to establish shortest path for road network time in the roads which provide a better and comfortable base for updating the traffic and other related information in road administration. It is to identify the short route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE and to reduce the time travel for the vehicles with possible paths or routes or places for laying eco-friendly highway. To optimize the route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE using GIS with Network analysis tools. From this we can find the suitable route for peoples to carry out without any traffic disturbances and protecting the environment. It also took advantages of GIS capabilities that offer the ability to overlay maps, merge them, and perform spatial analysis on various layers of information in either two or three dimensions:

  15. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  16. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  17. Coeliac artery compression syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    OKTAY, Özgür; MEMİŞ, Ahmet; Parildar, Mustafa; Oran, İsmail

    2003-01-01

    Celiac artery compression syndrome, also called median arcuate ligament compression syndrome, causes gastrointestinal ischemia secondary to compression of the proximal portion of the celiac artery just beyond its origin by the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. This syndrome is frequently demonstrated on aortography performed in patients without complaints of intestinal angina. Isolated stenosis or even occlusion of the celiac artery is always compensated for by collateral circul...

  18. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  20. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  1. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety. PMID:26922287

  2. An Integer Nonlinear Goal Programming Model for the Deployment of State Highway Patrol Units

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard W. Taylor, III; Laurence J. Moore; Edward R. Clayton; K. Roscoe Davis; Terry R. Rakes

    1985-01-01

    A number of models have been developed in recent years for the allocation and deployment of urban police units. However, these models are not directly applicable to the state highway patrol counterparts. Although urban police and the state highway patrol are both law enforcement agencies, an urban police force typically operates by reacting to crimes already committed (i.e., a reactive mode of operation) while the state highway patrol attempts to maintain a visible presence to prevent infract...

  3. Study on Evaluation Models of Highway Safety Based on Catastrophe Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hezheng Bi; Linjun Lu; Jian Lu; Chen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating safety performance of first-class highways in China is important due to their high mortality rates. Traditional models for statistical crash prediction and traffic conflict techniques require long periods of data collection which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. This paper introduces a safety evaluation method based on catastrophe theory for highways in China. The method firstly divides the highway into multiple road sections and uses video-based road detection (VRD) system t...

  4. Intelligent Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles in an Automated Highway System: Learning Methods and Interacting Vehicles Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Unsal, Cem

    1997-01-01

    One of today's most serious social, economical and environmental problems is traffic congestion. In addition to the financial cost of the problem, the number of traffic related injuries and casualties is very high. A recently considered approach to increase safety while reducing congestion and improving driving conditions is Automated Highway Systems (AHS). The AHS will evolve from the present highway system to an intelligent vehicle/highway system that will incorporate communication, ve...

  5. Movement pattern of Moose (Alces alces) in southwestern Sweden in relation to highway traffic intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Lars-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Abstract GPS telemetry is a method with good accuracy to determine animal movements in the terrain. It is necessary to determine locations of free-ranging animals in order to understand movement patterns and habitat use, and to understand the consequences of human impacts like highways. This study aims to describe moose movement patterns and to evaluate the effect of highway traffic intensity on moose movements across a highway. Moose in Southwestern Sweden have different movement rates throu...

  6. Development of a Highway Safety Management System for Indiana: Phase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, Omar; Sinha, Kumares C.; Nagle, John; James, Dwayne Stanley; Jiang, Yi

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the work plan for the development of a highway safety management system for Indiana. It identifies major activities and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a formal, statewide, interactive safety decision-making process. The safety management system of Indiana is perceived as a continuous process of considering all opportunities to improve highway safety in all phases of highway planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation. The primary ...

  7. Bilateral popliteal arterial dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Liang; Ko, Shih-Yu; Tan, Ken-Hing

    2012-01-01

    A clinical feature of bilateral popliteal arterial dissection without involving the descending aorta, bilateral iliac, as well as femoral arteries has never been reported in the past literature. We report a 56-year-old man with hypertension and coronary artery disease who presented to our emergency department with complaints of bilateral knee pain after long-distance walking. Physical examination was notable for elevated blood pressure, but there was no palpable pulsation over dorsalis pedis arteries on his feet. Laboratory evaluation revealed a d-dimer level of 35.2 mg/L (FEU) on the day of the test and 1.2 mg/L one and a half months ago (normal level, <0.55). These findings were suggestive of a recent-onset peripheral arterial occlusive disorder. Computed tomography of the aorta showed bilateral popliteal arterial dissection with arterial intimal flap. Abdominal aorta, bilateral iliac, and femoral arteries remained intact with only arteriosclerotic change. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafting was then performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:21106320

  8. Highway of dreams a critical view along the information superhighway

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, A Michael

    2013-01-01

    This important volume reviews the history of the telecommunication superhighway pointing out its beginnings in the interactive TV and broadband highway of the wired cities more than two decades ago. It explains the technological uncertainties of the superhighway and many of its futuristic services, and also gives an understandable review of the technological principles behind today's modern telecommunication networks and systems. Recognizing that technology is only one factor in shaping the future, the author, a well-recognized telecommunications expert, analyzes the financial, policy

  9. Assessment of highway slope failure using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-lin LEE; Hung-ming LIN; Yuh-pin LU

    2009-01-01

    An artificial intelligence technique of back-propagation neural networks is used to assess the slope failure. On-site slope failure data from the South Cross-Island Highway in southern Taiwan are used to test the performance of the neural network model. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of artificial neural networks in the evaluation of slope failure potential based on five major factors, such as the slope gradient angle, the slope height, the cumulative precipitation, daily rainfall and strength of materials.

  10. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress with the...... situation of a "real" spatial non-uniform shear stress distribution on the surface of the pond. The result of this paper shows that wind plays a dominant role for the retention time and flow pattern. Furthermore, the results shows that the differences in retention time between the use of uniform and non...

  11. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity and...... prediction of the remaining life. However, the parameters, which are involved in the evaluation process, are random variable. Therefore, a considerable research effort has been directed at the development of probability-based methodology. The research projects considered in the paper include the development...

  12. Integrated Evaluation on Highway Engineering Geological Hazard in Mountainous Area of Enshi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Bin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the geological features of highway engineering in mountainous area of Enshi, Hubei Province, the principles to set up an integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard are formulated. Then, the integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi is established. In the evaluation system, the first-level evaluation indices are geological development degree, geological conditions, and damaging power, whereas the second-level indices including key factors affecting main kinds of geological hazard. Meanwhile, the borders of indices are determined. At last, the method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) is adopted to quantitatively evaluate the highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi.

  13. Highway three-dimensional modeling based on Vehicle-borne laser data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The of Vehicle-borne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) scanning technology is an efficiently practical approach on the acquisition and application of 3D information and its geographic elements of highway(including road surface, rails, attached facilities, slopes, ditches, etc.). The acquired information is significant on many aspects such as road maintenance, reconstruction, survey, landscape design, visualized modelling and highway hazard supervision and prevention. The initial laser data cannot be directly used to construct highway 3D model, operations of pre-processing are necessary. This paper presented a set of procedure about pre-processing laser data and constructing TIN (Triangle Irregular Net) model of highway

  14. Highway three-dimensional modeling based on Vehicle-borne laser data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weili, Sun; Ruofei, Zhong; Jiangxia, Wei; Fanyang, Zeng

    2014-03-01

    The of Vehicle-borne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) scanning technology is an efficiently practical approach on the acquisition and application of 3D information and its geographic elements of highway(including road surface, rails, attached facilities, slopes, ditches, etc.). The acquired information is significant on many aspects such as road maintenance, reconstruction, survey, landscape design, visualized modelling and highway hazard supervision and prevention. The initial laser data cannot be directly used to construct highway 3D model, operations of pre-processing are necessary. This paper presented a set of procedure about pre-processing laser data and constructing TIN (Triangle Irregular Net) model of highway.

  15. Hydrological modeling using high resolution dem to level control on highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Zeynep; Cömert, Çetin

    2016-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that must be managed, controlled and taken precautions before it happens considering the damage they inflicted to environment and human lives. As to highways, the main vein of urban life flow, must be taken into consideration as a different entity that affected by excessive rainfalls and floods. Due to inadequate drainage that allow rainfall to form water ponds on highways cause vehicles to lose control and that lead vehicles to have traffic accidents. To reduce the traffic accidents caused by ponding waters on highways we need to know area of inundation and water depths. In this context we used FLO-2D Basic Model (2009) to hydrological modeling of Black Sea Coastal Highway with meteorological and hydrological data using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this study, ponding areas on highways determined by simulating the rainfall with a high resolution DEM that can represent the actual road surface correctly. With this information, General Directorate of Highways (GDH) in Turkey can adjust the cross-sectional and longitudinal slope or build better and bigger drainage structures where water accumulated to prevent ponding. With the results obtained from Hydrological Model, GDH can rapidly control highways conformity to regulations before highways come into service. Also these ponding areas acquired by reveals where to prioritize in flood risk managements. Key Words: Area of Inundation, Digital Elevation Model, FLO-2D, Hydrological Modeling, Highway, Rainfall-Runoff Simulation, Water Depth.

  16. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  17. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  18. Pollution by lead near the Turin--Milan highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C.; Arduino, E.

    1973-10-01

    Soil samples taken at 5 to 50 m from the Turin-Milan highway at depths ranging from 0 to 30 cm on two different sites were analyzed for lead residues by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following extraction by means of ammoniacal EDTA at pH 9. Soil samples from the surface layer taken in one well-ventilated site contained 11.5 to 12.4 ppM lead, while subsoil samples had 5.7 to 9.8 ppM. Soil samples taken in the other site with poor ventilation contained 23.5 to 43.3 ppM lead in the surface layer, and 9.2 to 15.4 ppM in the subsoil. Decrease of the lead concentrations in the soil with increasing depth and distance from the highway was noted. Plant samples taken from the same sites contained 6.4 to 32.2 ppM lead. Lead was fixed predominantly to the exchange complex; partly to the clay fraction, and partly to the humic fraction.

  19. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Highways rank as critical transportation infrastructures that are at risk of landslides in many areas worldwide (e.g., Hungr et al., 1999; Bhandary et al., 2013). Safe and affordable operations of traffic routes constitute the two main criteria for transportation planning in landslide-prone terrain. A right balancing of these often conflicting priorities requires profound knowledge of landslide locations across highway networks and the costs caused by landslides in the past (e.g., Saha et al., 2005). Much of the direct costs affecting transportation departments relate to capital investments for landslide repair or mitigation and operational expenditures in connection with maintenance works. A systematic collection and inventory of such data sets combined with an acquisition of hazard information on vulnerable road sections is still rarely the case in engineering practice. This is despite significant cost impacts and budgetary burdens, especially in peripheral mountain areas where financial resources are naturally limited (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). The present contribution introduces a regional inventory of landslides along highways in the Harz Mountains, NW Germany. As subset of a landslide database for the entire country, this focused GIS-based inventory has been compiled in close collaboration with the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation. The inventory includes data sets gathered by archive studies and relies on high-quality information sources such as maintenance protocols, geotechnical reports, and documents from tendering, controlling, and accounting. A mapping tool in ArcGIS format is used to specify and visualize road sections affected by landslides. This spatial information on hazard exposure is complemented by narrative risk profiles for landslide sites showing a long history of damage events. By summarizing the occurrence dates of landslides, the associated damages, and the types and costs of repair or prevention, such risk profiles are useful to

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  1. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. PMID:27372441

  2. Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway: Part III. Rolls Royce, Ford, or Dune Buggy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    "Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway" follows the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. In this article, Palmer is put in charge of a task force to determine what should…

  3. Road Tripping down the Digital Preservation Highway: Part IV--Classic Rides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    "Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway" follows the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. Palmer's problem this month was somewhat more philosophical. As manager of the…

  4. 76 FR 43121 - Highway Use Tax; Filing and Payment for Taxable Period Beginning July 1, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... only if the full amount of the tax for the 2011 taxable period (determined under the law in effect as... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 41 RIN 1545-BK36 Highway Use Tax; Filing and Payment for Taxable... on the filing of Form 2290 (``Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return'') and payment of the...

  5. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule adopted in 2001... Emissions of Air Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel (69 FR 38958). III. Direct Final Rule In... Cylinder, 73 FR 25098, May 6, 2008, and republished to correct typographical errors on June 30, 2008, 73...

  6. 75 FR 49017 - America's Marine Highway Grant Notice of Funding Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... on April 9, 2010, at 75 FR 18095. It is neither the purpose nor the intent of these grants to shift... Program, 75 FR 18095 (April 9, 2010), including the designation of Marine Highway Projects (Section 393.4.... Chapter 35), the America's Marine Highway (AMH) information collection was previously approved by...

  7. 76 FR 44649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 1899 ; and Land and Water Conservation Fund . 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of Wetlands; E... ; Farmland Protection Policy Act [7 U.S.C. 4201-4209]. 7. Wetlands and Water Resources: Clean Water Act [33 U... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas...

  8. 78 FR 58381 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 288 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... U.S.C. 4201-4209]. 7. Wetlands and Water Resources: Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251- 1387; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604. 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 288 in Texas...

  9. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose....

  10. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level...

  11. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule...\\ Control of Emissions of Air Pollution from Nonroad Diesel Engines and Fuel (69 FR 38958). III. Emergency... companies requesting relief from power or speed inducements related to low levels of DEF for SCR systems...

  12. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hong-Liang; Tian, Wei-Ping; Li, Jia-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation. PMID:26528994

  13. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  15. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  16. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  17. Carotid artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have had a stroke or TIA, a nervous system (neurological) exam will show other problems. You may also have the following tests: Blood cholesterol and triglycerides test Blood sugar (glucose) test Ultrasound of the carotid arteries ( carotid ...

  18. HIGHWAY, a transportation routing model: program description and revised users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized transportation routing model has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be used for predicting likely routes for shipping radioactive materials. The HIGHWAY data base is a computerized road atlas containing descriptions of the entire Interstate System, the federal highway system, and most of the principal state roads. In addition to its prediction of the most likely commercial route, options incorporated in the HIGHWAY model can allow for maximum use of Interstate highways or routes that will bypass urbanized areas containing populations greater than 100,000 persons. The user may also interactively modify the data base to predict routes that bypass any particular state, city, town, or specific highway segment

  19. An application of stochastic processes for analyzing risks in highway projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meysam Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The successes on highway projects are uncertain because of organizational features, improper scope definitions and long lasting complicated processes. Highway projects under uncertain environment can effectively be managed with the application of risk management throughout their life cycles. Risk management within highway projects, therefore, has been recognized vital to improve their performances and increase the success of these projects. Processes of the projects are dynamic by nature. Therefore, commonly used static techniques do not analyze the potential risks properly. The stochastic process is a highly effective tool to quantitatively deal with the risk analysis. In this paper, a new approach based on Markov chain is proposed to assess the potential risks of highway projects in a dynamic framework. The approach takes advantage of the capability of probabilistic tools. Furthermore, using an application example in highway projects, the proposed approach is demonstrated in detail. Finally, the risk management effectiveness of using the stochastic processes is illustrated.

  20. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...... histories, which correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark. Both the results that have been obtained in the test series carried through and the results of fracture mechanics analysis...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative....

  1. Using Fuzzy Inference Systems to Optimize Highway Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dell’Acqua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the research project is to explore innovations in integrating infrastructure and land use planning for transportation corridors. In contexts with environmental impact, the choice of transportation routes must address the sensitivity of current and preexisting conditions. Multi-criteria analyses are used to solve problems of this nature, but they do not define an objective approach on a quantitative basis taking into account some important, but often intrinsically unmeasurable parameters. Fuzzy logic becomes a more effective model as systems become more complex. During the preliminary design phase, fuzzy inference systems offer a contribution to decision-making which is much more complete than a benefits/and costs analysis. In this study, alternative alignment options are considered, combining engineering, social, environmental, and economic factors in the decision-making. The research formalizes a general method useful for analyzing different case studies. The method can be used to justify highway alignment choices in environmental impact study analysis.

  2. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results that are unconservative. The validity. of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 810-840 MPa. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which...

  3. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize highway capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-Ming; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps by using a cellular automata traffic flow model. We investigate how to improve the system capacity by assigning traffic flow to the two ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and different regions are classified. It is shown that in region I, in which both ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the ramps is in congestion, assigning a higher proportion of the demand to the upstream on-ramp could improve the overall flow, which is consistent with previous studies. This is explained through studying the spatiotemporal patterns and analytical investigations. In contrast, optimal assignment has not been observed in other regions. We point out that our result is robust and model independent under certain conditions.

  4. Intelligent Management of Highways Congestion based SensorNetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guezouli Lyamine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to enable congestion prediction on urban freeways and objectively measure its impact on daily life. Indeed, cars€™ trafic becomes increasingly difficult and, often causes traffic jams that can last for hours, because of growing number of used cars, in addition to the unforeseen events that may complicate more and more this problem (weather, accidents, road works .... This is mainly due to the lack of efficient management of roads' congestions. This paper attempts to bring a technological response to significantly reduce the congestion problem. Our approach is based on smart sensors which allow traffic jam detecting and relaying such critical information. Thus, while providing the drivers with context aware information such as those related to the highway status before crossing, we enable them to make decision and select another road avoiding the congested one and reducing, by the way, the congestion itself.

  5. Automotive fuels distribution on highways: 2007 statistical inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) is in charge of the follow up of the French market of petroleum products distribution. Each year, a statistical inquiry is carried out with the suppliers and published in the annual report of the petroleum industry. A particular emphasis is laid on fuel sales at highway service stations which give some additional information. The 2007 sales remain stable with respect to 2006 but they show a significant progress of diesel with respect to gasoline. The super-ethanol (E85) sales remain modest but show an import rise all along the year. And finally, 70% of the market is in the hands of 3 suppliers only. (J.S.)

  6. Prevention of damage to highways and railroads in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roads and railways, a distinctive part of Civil Engineering, when situated in subsidence areas, are subjected to the multiparameter reactions of soil due to subgrade deformation. The essence of technical degradation of such objects due to mining-induced subsidence entail changes in their functional and stability-strength properties. These changes take place within the structural system itself and, also in its subgrade. The linear character of such objects as a highway or a railroad creates a specific type of interaction between the subgrade and the elongated structure. The type of mining-induced contact reactions and the magnitude of service loads determine the operating capability of structures under these specific conditions. The need to maintain the proper geometrical parameters of the system (grade line, slope, superelevation, horizontal and/or vertical curvatures) arises from the necessity to maintain safe and uninterrupted traffic. The paper is based primarily on the author's broad and lengthy research experience

  7. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  8. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa.The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which correspond......In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis.In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results...

  9. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 810-840 MPa. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both the...

  10. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...... the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) compared to neighbouring counties was less than fifty percent per square meter. Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on reliable weather forecasts and on staff well trained in the art of interpreting this information....... The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...

  11. The Federal Highway Administration Gasohol Consumption Estimation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-28

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is responsible for estimating the portion of Federal highway funds attributable to each State. The process involves use of State-reported data (gallons) and a set of estimation models when accurate State data is unavailable. To ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable, FHWA periodically reviews the estimation models. Estimation of the use of gasohol is difficult because of State differences in the definition of gasohol, inability of many States to separate and report gasohol usage from other fuel types, changes in fuel composition in nonattainment areas to address concerns over the use of certain fuel additives, and the lack of a valid State-level surrogate data set for gasohol use. Under the sponsorship of FHWA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reviewed the regression-based gasohol estimation model that has been in use for several years. Based on an analytical assessment of that model and an extensive review of potential data sets, ORNL developed an improved rule-based model. The new model uses data from Internal Revenue Service, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, ORNL, and FHWA sources. The model basically consists of three parts: (1) development of a controlled total of national gasohol usage, (2) determination of reliable State gasohol consumption data, and (3) estimation of gasohol usage for all other States. The new model will be employed for the 2004 attribution process. FHWA is currently soliciting comments and inputs from interested parties. Relevant data, as identified, will be pursued and refinements will be made by the research team if warranted.

  12. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  13. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... of Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Warning Systems and Wayside Signal Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad.... FRA has found that serious highway-rail grade crossing accidents and false proceed signal failures... safety procedures for the temporary removal of highway-rail grade crossing systems and wayside...

  14. Coronary arterial fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Shakeel A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between one or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation. Its exact incidence is unknown. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in origin although they may occasionally be detected after cardiac surgery. They do not usually cause symptoms or complications in the first two decades, especially when small. After this age, the frequency of both symptoms and complications increases. Complications include 'steal' from the adjacent myocardium, thrombosis and embolism, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, rupture, endocarditis/endarteritis and arrhythmias. Thrombosis within the fistula is rare but may cause acute myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysmal fistula causing haemopericardium has also been reported. The main differential diagnosis is patent arterial duct, although other congenital arteriovenous shunts need to be excluded. Whilst two-dimensional echocardiography helps to differentiate between the different shunts, coronary angiography is the main diagnostic tool for the delineation of the anatomy. Surgery was the traditional method of treatment but nowadays catheter closure is recommended using a variety of closure devices, such as coils, or other devices. With the catheter technique, the results are excellent with infrequent complications. Disease name and synonyms Coronary arterial fistulas Coronary arterial fistulas or malformations

  15. Effects of heavy metal pollution of highway origin on soil nematode guilds in North Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dechang; ZHANG Xiaoke; TOMAR Vijay Vikram Singh; LI Qi; WEN Dazhong; LIANG Wenju

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected with distance at 5, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 m from the Shen-Ha Highway, Northeast China, to investigate the effect of heavy metals of highway origin on soil nematode guilds. The contents of soil Pb, Cu and Zn and the nematode community structure in this investigation were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of total and available Pb, Cu and Zn varied significantly with the different distances from the highway. Pb was the main pollutant in the soils in the vicinity of Shen-Ha Highway and the zone from 20 to 40 m away from the highway was the most polluted area. The highest abundance of soil nematodes was found at 5 m while the lowest at 20 m away from the highway. Thirty six genera of nematodes belonging to 23 families were identified. Nematode guilds having different responses to soil heavy metals were classified into four types. Soil nematode guilds may act as a prominent indicator to heavy metal pollution of highway origin.

  16. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sreenivas Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old male patient presented with acute myocardial infarction involving left anterior descending and right coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram showed a single coronary artery with right coronary artery arising from left anterior descending artery (LAD, which coursed anterior to right ventricular outflow tract and thrombotic lesion in mid left anterior descending artery before origin of right coronary artery. The patient was treated with thrombolytic therapy and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery as a branch of LAD is a very rare type of congenital coronary artery anomalies. It is important to recognize this anomaly as it can be associated with extensive myocardial ischemia and sudden cardiac death in young persons even without atherosclerosis.

  17. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ascensão

    Full Text Available Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages. We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  18. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  19. Design of a Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Girault, Alain

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do not communicate with each other nor with the infrastructure. Two problems have to be dealt with: A vehicle driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering the highway at a designated entry junction mustb e able to merge from the merging lane to the main lane, again without any collision. To sol...

  20. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  1. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqr, Khalid M., E-mail: mmdmskhalid2@live.utm.my [High-Speed Reacting Flow Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Musa, Md. Nor [Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  2. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Badri, Kadhem Helo Abbas; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Christiansen, Evald H;

    2015-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk...

  3. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  4. Carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  5. Carotid artery stenting; Karotisangioplastie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neuroradiologische Diagnostik und Intervention, Diagnostikzentrum

    2009-09-15

    An ipsilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery is found in 10 - 15 % of all ischemic strokes and indicates an increased risk of a second stroke. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a therapy that is established for many years. CAS reveals complication rates and long-term efficacy comparable to carotid endarterectomy (TEA). Especially younger patients seem to benefit from CAS. Abilities and experiences of the therapist and the choice of the techniques used are critical for patient safety. The efficacy of CAS for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis is probable but still unproven in prospective-randomized trial. (orig.)

  6. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Mar 23,2016 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) ... critical regions of the body. Quick Facts about PAD View an illustration of PAD The most common ...

  7. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  8. Combination of rare right arterial variation with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, H; San Millán Ruíz, D; Abdo, G; Asakura, F; Yilmaz, H; Lovblad, K O; Rüfenacht, D A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman hospitalized for subarachnoid hemorrhage showed rare arterial variation on the right side with anomalous origins of the vertebral artery, aberrant subclavian artery and persistent trigeminal artery. Angiography showed the right vertebral artery to originate from the right common carotid artery, the right subclavian artery to arise separately from the descending aorta, and persistent trigeminal artery on the right side. The possible embryonic mechanism of this previously unreported variant combination is discussed. PMID:22005696

  9. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  10. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  11. Assessment of Traffic Noise on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Assessment of traffic noise pollution in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and noise levels (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of noise by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car noise unit. Extent of noise pollution and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using noise pollution level and traffic noise index, respectively. Noise levels were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic noise, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) noise. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between noise levels and honking while negative correlation was observed between noise levels and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of noise abatement measures.

  12. Analysis of Yearly Traffic Fluctuation on Latvian Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, A.; Paeglı¯tis, A.

    2015-11-01

    Average annual daily traffic and average annual truck traffic are two most used metrics for road management decisions. They are calculated from data gathered by continuous counting stations embedded in road pavement, manual counting sessions or mobile counting devices. Last two usually do not last longer than a couple of weeks so the information gathered is influenced by yearly traffic fluctuations. Data containing a total of 8,186,871 vehicles or 1989 days from 4 WIM stations installed on highways in Latvia were used in this study. Each of the files was supposed to contain data from only 1 day and additional data were deleted. No other data cleaning steps were performed, which increased the number of vehicles as counting systems sometimes split vehicles into two. Weekly traffic and weekly truck traffic was normalized against respective average values. Each weekly value was then plotted against its number in a year for better visual perception. Weekly traffic amplitudes were used to assess differences between different locations and standard deviations for fluctuation comparison of truck and regular traffic at the same location. Results show that truck traffic fluctuates more than regular traffic during a year, especially around holidays. Differences between counting locations were larger for regular traffic than truck traffic. These results show that average annual daily traffic could be influenced more if short term counting results are adjusted by factors derived from unsuitable continuous counting stations, but truck traffic is more influenced by the time of year in which counting is done.

  13. Visual tracking strategies for intelligent vehicle highway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E.; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Brandt, Scott A.; Richards, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The complexity and congestion of current transportation systems often produce traffic situations that jeopardize the safety of the people involved. These situations vary from maintaining a safe distance behind a leading vehicle to safely allowing a pedestrian to cross a busy street. Environmental sensing plays a critical role in virtually all of these situations. Of the sensors available, vision sensors provide information that is richer and more complete than other sensors, making them a logical choice for a multisensor transportation system. In this paper we present robust techniques for intelligent vehicle-highway applications where computer vision plays a crucial role. In particular, we demonstrate that the controlled active vision framework can be utilized to provide a visual sensing modality to a traffic advisory system in order to increase the overall safety margin in a variety of common traffic situations. We have selected two application examples, vehicle tracking and pedestrian tracking, to demonstrate that the framework can provide precisely the type of information required to effectively manage the given situation.

  14. Persistent Trigeminal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijo T George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal artery is the commonest of the four primitive anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar system that may rarely persist in adults, with an angiographic incidence of 0.1 - 0.6%. We present the CT and MR angiograms of a patient who presented with a minor stroke and was detected to have this anomaly and briefly discuss the significance

  15. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  16. The Administrative and Compliance Cost of Manual Highway Toll Collection: Evidence From Massachusetts and New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, David A.; Waldfogel, Joel

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of highway toll collection costs in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Compares manual collection with other compliance costs (electronic tolls, income and sales taxes), factors in the time value of driver delays, and calculates rush-hour compliance costs.

  17. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  18. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiFa-bin; WeiFang-qiang; CuiPeng; ZhouWan-cun

    2003-01-01

    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control engineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Siehuan-Tibet Highway.

  19. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian and bicycle... from Separate Calculation Requirement; (6) Section 131(b)(2) and (c)(1), Plug-in Electric Drive...

  20. 77 FR 1551 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... proposed transportation corridor project (Provo Westside Connector) in Provo, Utah County in the State of... following highway project in the State of Utah: the Provo Westside Connector in Provo, Utah County,...

  1. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  2. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fa-bin; Wei Fang-qiang; Cui Peng; Zhou Wan-cun

    2003-01-01

    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control ergineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

  3. Fuzzy Decision Support System to Determine Swell/Shrink Factor Affecting Earthwork Optimization of Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Göktepe, A.; Lav, A.; Altun, Selim; Altıntaş, Gökhan

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of cut and fill volumes of a highway infrastructure is crucial for minimizing the total earthwork cost. Borrow material swells after excavation and shrinks when mechanical compaction is applied

  4. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... safety; an overview of industry voluntary standards applicable to Li-ion battery-powered vehicles... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement...

  5. Study on preventing frost heave methods for highway foundation in seasonal frozen area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI

    2006-01-01

    In order to resolve the frost-heave problem of highway foundation, firstly, the author discussed the law to frost heave of highway roadbed and gave an analysis on its influencing factors, such as soil, water and temperature. Meanwhile, sand clay and silt are given a classification according to frost heave ratio. Secondly, the roadbed frozen damage shows to frost heave and froze boiling based on the frost heave law and its influencing factors. In addition, taking some highway as an example and some principle suggestion was given through the theory on providing frostbite methods for highway foundation frost heave in seasonal frozen area. Specially, an effective method, STYROFOAM extruded polystyrene foam was introduced.

  6. Road and Street Centerlines, MajorHighways, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'MajorHighways'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate...

  7. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  8. Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G.B.; Conti, M.L.M.; Veiga, J.C.E.; Jory, M.; Souza, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature. PMID:22005697

  9. Determination of INDOT Highway Construction Production Rates and Estimation of Contract Times

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Wu, Hongbo

    2004-01-01

    The duration of a highway construction project depends primarily on the quantity or magnitude of the construction work and the productivity of the construction crew. In addition, many other factors may also affect the construction duration, such as the type of construction, traffic features, location (urban or rural site), and weather conditions. When a state highway construction project contract is bid, a reasonable time must set and specified in the contract documents for completion of the ...

  10. Comprehensive Monitoring of Wildlife Mortality on British Columbia Highways Using the WARS System (1978 to 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been operating its Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) for almost three decades. Detailed information on motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality is systematically collected on a daily basis on major highways throughout British Columbia. Since its inception, WARS has become an increasingly valuable tool for highway planning and operational purposes. With WARS, BCMoT is able to support the British Columbia Government’s commitmen...

  11. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  12. Common law restrictions on commercial and political use of the highway

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the uses which the citizen is entitled to make of the public highway. This is an issue of constitutional and cultural significance in a system in which all land is privately owned,1 for public space becomes the arena in which much social, political and commercial activity takes place. Highways are an important public resource offering opportunities not only for travel, but also social interaction, recreation, commerce, and, of course, protest. A walk ...

  13. Difference Between the Urban Road Landscape Design and the Highway Landscape Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yiling; Jia Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the grade highway construction has entered a rapid development stage, the negative impact of road construction on the natural environment has received increasing attention.In the urban road construction, sight design is an indispensable part.Combined with the landscape design’s principle , concept and the concrete design method, this paper analyzes the difference between the urban road landscape design and the highway landscape design.

  14. Innovative partnerships that address highway impacts to wildlife habitat connectivity in the Northern Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Deborah K.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains are comprised of three large and sparsely populated states. They are also exceedingly highway-oriented places, with one of the highest rates of rural travel in the country. High volumes of traffic along transportation corridors can block, deflect, or delay daily, seasonal and lifetime wildlife movements. Highways and the vehicles that travel upon them are resulting in habitat fragmentation, habitat loss and direct mortality to the region’s signature species, ...

  15. The performance and perception of wetland systems for the treatment of highway runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Mungur, Arvind S.

    1997-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are increasingly being seen as a viable solution to the treatment of highway runoff although currently there are no established design and performance criteria for highway runoff treatment systems. In order to assess the heavy metal removal performance by different wetland systems receiving urban runoff, a natural and constructed wetland site were monitored for metal removal performance and metal accumulation by the sediment and four macrophyte species. Although there is ...

  16. CBVANET: A Cluster Based Vehicular Adhoc Network Model for Simple Highway Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, B; Dr. R. S. Rajesh; R.S. Shaji

    2011-01-01

    VANET is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network. VANET is mainly used to model communication in a Vehicular environment where the vehicles are considered as VANET nodes with wireless links. In this paper an attempt has been made to create a new cluster model for efficient communication among the VANET nodes. For this purpose, taking the Simple Highway Vehicular model concept into consideration, a clustering model has been created. The proposed mobility model is called simple highway mobili...

  17. An Imaginary Musical Road Movie : Transmedial Semiotic Structures in Brad Mehldau's Concept Album "Highway Rider"

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    An Imaginary Musical Road Movie revolves around two integrated objects: on the one hand, the programmatic and cyclic concept album Highway Rider (2010), which is jazz pianist and composer Brad Mehldau’s most complex instrumental work, and on the other hand transmediality, both as a concept and phenomenon. Musicologist Mats Arvidson claims that a deep understanding of an intermedial music culture is a prerequisite for knowing how to interpret a work like Highway Rider. Having such an intermedi...

  18. Removal of Dissolved Pollutants from Highway Stormwater with Low-cost Adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Luz, Martin Georg

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall and snowmelt generate large quantities of storm water from urban surfaces and highways. This stormwater contains pollutants such as suspended particles, heavy metals, organic chemicals and even pathogenic bacteria. The pollutants in highway runoff are often persistent and may contaminate fresh water resources and bio-accumulate in aquatic organisms. Therefore, polluted stormwater has been identified as one of the serious threats to aquatic ecosystems, and low cost onsite-treatment is...

  19. Root-zone amendments for highway right-of-way tree plantings: a demonstration project

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Beverly

    2001-01-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and the Texas Transportation Institute’s (TTI) Environmental Management Program work with TxDOT Districts to develop roadside management practices that mitigate the highway right-of-way environment and promote healthier, more rapid plant establishment. This research study compared the effects of different root-zone soil amendments on tree establishment and growth within the highway right-of-way environment. The demonstration project site was sele...

  20. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Liang Qi; Wei-Ping Tian; Jia-Chun Li

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China). The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of...

  1. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  2. Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata from the rest areas of Hungarian highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontschán, Jenő

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesostigmatid mite family Phytoseiidae was surveyed in rest areas of Hungarian highways by examination of leaves collected from arboreal plants. All together 15 species, ca. 20 % of the Hungarian Phytoseiid fauna were recorded. Seven species were collected from the ring highway around Budapest (M0, ten species were found alongside the northwestern highway (M1, six-six species were recorded from the north-eastern and south-eastern highways (M3 and M5, and five species from the area of south-western highway (M7, finally two species were found on the newly built southern highway (M6. Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans, 1915 was present in most of the sampling sites, while other common species were Phytoseius macropilis (Banks, 1909; Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans, 1930; Neoseiulella aceri (Collyer, 1957 and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus tiliae Oudemans, 1929. Typhloseiulus peculiaris (Kolodochka, 1980 was shown at the first time from Hungary in the framework of our study, thus a short description and new illustrations are given to this species.

  3. Impact of new highways on road deaths: a case study in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E D; Ben-Michael, E; Reingold, S M; Weinberger, Z; Ginsberg, G

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologists have generally avoided to assess risk for road deaths from high-speed highways. We examined the validity of the claim that the Trans-Israel Highway, a six-lane 320 km toll road with higher design speed, and raised speed limits (120 kph), will reduce road deaths. We used models showing that death tolls vary with the fourth power of rise in driving speed. Risk assessments was derived from estimates of increase in the highway-induced traffic, the impact of higher speed limits (from 110 to 120 kph) and the so-called spillover effect from speed habituation. We predict a large rise in the number of killed or injured, even if the death risks per vkm is low on the Highway itself. With the Trans-Israel Highway, death tolls--some 550 fatalities per year in 1995, could rise to as high as 900-1000 per year in 2010. Congestion produced by induced traffic will partially offset these effects. By contrast, death tolls from alternative strategies based on sustainable transportation policies could be reduced to less than 300 deaths per year. Risk assessment based on explicitly defined assumptions predicts high death tolls from the nationwide impact of raised speed on the Highway and its connecting roads. There is a need for new frameworks which impose the Code of Helsinki type requirements for the assessment and authorization of social decisions with adverse public health impacts. PMID:10846845

  4. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as CODcr, TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO3, TP, PO4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m3/event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m3/event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  5. “DOSSA”, highway to energy self-sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present a new model to achieve zero energy emissions. ► We compared with the strategic plan implemented by the University of Hawai’i at Manoa. ► Comparison scenarios are created using projections of the involved 13 variables. ► The most probable three projections are used for each variable. ► DOSSA reaches energy institutional self-sustainability an average of 23 years earlier. -- Abstract: Emphasis has been put forth in the field of applied energy towards reducing consumption, using renewable energy sources and mitigating pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Although these strategies are striving to achieve the same goal, there is no logical model that clearly establishes their pathway to success; therefore, DOSSA, a new and innovative model, has been developed to provide this necessary central bridge of multiple pathways through five easy and adaptable steps: (1) Data inventory; (2) Objectives; (3) Staff/Committee; (4) Strategy; and (5) Accountability (DOSSA). In this study, the DOSSA model was applied and compared to the University of Hawai’i at Manoa’s (UHM’s) current strategic energy plan: to achieve zero emissions in terms of energy by the year 2050. Under proper execution of each step from the model, this study shows the effectiveness of the application of DOSSA to any goal or objective by increasing efficiency and creative and innovative approaches to problems, specifically, environmental initiatives. Through the application of DOSSA in this case study at UHM, it was projected that UHM has the potential to be completely self-sustainable in terms of energy consumption approximately 23 years earlier to its expected “strategic plan” date of 2050. Thus, DOSSA cannot only be used as an instigator for achieving reduction goals but also as an accelerator for various green initiatives – a highway to energy self-sustainability.

  6. Modeling highway travel time distribution with conditional probability models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Freight Management and Operations, the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) has developed performance measures through the Freight Performance Measures (FPM) initiative. Under this program, travel speed information is derived from data collected using wireless based global positioning systems. These telemetric data systems are subscribed and used by trucking industry as an operations management tool. More than one telemetric operator submits their data dumps to ATRI on a regular basis. Each data transmission contains truck location, its travel time, and a clock time/date stamp. Data from the FPM program provides a unique opportunity for studying the upstream-downstream speed distributions at different locations, as well as different time of the day and day of the week. This research is focused on the stochastic nature of successive link travel speed data on the continental United States Interstates network. Specifically, a method to estimate route probability distributions of travel time is proposed. This method uses the concepts of convolution of probability distributions and bivariate, link-to-link, conditional probability to estimate the expected distributions for the route travel time. Major contribution of this study is the consideration of speed correlation between upstream and downstream contiguous Interstate segments through conditional probability. The established conditional probability distributions, between successive segments, can be used to provide travel time reliability measures. This study also suggests an adaptive method for calculating and updating route travel time distribution as new data or information is added. This methodology can be useful to estimate performance measures as required by the recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP 21).

  7. The optimization of concrete mixtures for use in highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mohamadreza

    Portland cement concrete is most used commodity in the world after water. Major part of civil and transportation infrastructure including bridges, roadway pavements, dams, and buildings is made of concrete. In addition to this, concrete durability is often of major concerns. In 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that an annual investment of 170 billion on roads and 20.5 billion for bridges is needed on an annual basis to substantially improve the condition of infrastructure. Same article reports that one-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition [1]. However, portland cement production is recognized with approximately one cubic meter of carbon dioxide emission. Indeed, the proper and systematic design of concrete mixtures for highway applications is essential as concrete pavements represent up to 60% of interstate highway systems with heavier traffic loads. Combined principles of material science and engineering can provide adequate methods and tools to facilitate the concrete design and improve the existing specifications. In the same manner, the durability must be addressed in the design and enhancement of long-term performance. Concrete used for highway pavement applications has low cement content and can be placed at low slump. However, further reduction of cement content (e.g., versus current specifications of Wisconsin Department of Transportation to 315-338 kg/m 3 (530-570 lb/yd3) for mainstream concrete pavements and 335 kg/m3 (565 lb/yd3) for bridge substructure and superstructures) requires delicate design of the mixture to maintain the expected workability, overall performance, and long-term durability in the field. The design includes, but not limited to optimization of aggregates, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), chemical and air-entraining admixtures. This research investigated various theoretical and experimental methods of aggregate optimization applicable for the reduction of cement content

  8. Methodology and Significance of Studies of Atmospheric Deposition in Highway Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Rice, Karen C.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and the processes that are involved in causing and altering atmospheric deposition in relation to highway surfaces and runoff were evaluated nationwide. Wet deposition is more easily monitored than dry deposition, and data on wet deposition are available for major elements and water properties (constituents affecting acid deposition) from the inter-agency National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Many trace constituents (metals and organic compounds) of interest in highway runoff loads, however, are not included in the NADP/NTN. Dry deposition, which constitutes a large part of total atmospheric deposition for many constituents in highway runoff loads, is difficult to monitor accurately. Dry-deposition rates are not widely available. Many of the highway-runoff investigations that have addressed atmospheric-deposition sources have had flawed investigative designs or problems with methodology. Some results may be incorrect because of reliance on time-aggregated data collected during a period of changing atmospheric emissions. None of the investigations used methods that could accurately quantify the part of highway runoff load that can be attributed to ambient atmospheric deposition. Lack of information about accurate ambient deposition rates and runoff loads was part of the problem. Samples collected to compute the rates and loads were collected without clean-sampling methods or sampler protocols, and without quality-assurance procedures that could validate the data. Massbudget calculations comparing deposition and runoff did not consider loss of deposited material during on-highway processing. Loss of deposited particles from highway travel lanes could be large, as has been determined in labeled particle studies, because of resuspension caused by turbulence from passing traffic. Although a cause of resuspension of large particles, traffic turbulence may increase the rate of deposition for small particles and

  9. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, N J; Kitslaar, P; Janevski, B K

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called "functional" PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. PMID:2837797

  10. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology.

  11. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.)

  12. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.; Farber, Harrison W.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality....

  13. Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Amy L.; Mandel, Jess; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite improved understanding of the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), it remains a severe and progressive disease, usually culminating in right heart failure, significant morbidity and early mortality. Over the last decade, some major advances have led to substantial improvements in the management of PAH. Much of this progress was pioneered by work in animal models. Although none of the current animal models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) completely recapitulate the hum...

  14. Myocardial arterial spin labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kober, Frank; Jao, Terrence; Troalen, Thomas; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, c...

  15. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should ...

  16. Robotic coronary artery bypass for aberrant right coronary artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-chin Jean; Teefy, Patrick; Kiaii, Bob; Vezina, William C; Chu, Michael Wa

    2010-10-01

    Anomalous coronary arteries that course between the aorta and pulmonary artery are subject to compressive forces and can manifest angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. The current report presents a young, female patient who presented with a short duration of severe, rapidly progressive angina despite optimal medical therapy. Combined computed tomography and myocardial perfusion scanning identified an anomalous dominant right coronary artery that appeared kinked at its origin between the aorta and main pulmonary artery. A robot-assisted right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery bypass was performed, which was confirmed to be widely patent (FitzGibbon grade A) on routine intraoperative angiography. The procedure completely resolved the patient's angina symptoms. PMID:20931103

  17. Impact of Lane Width of Road on Passenger Car Unit Capacity under Mix Traffic Condition in Cities on Congested Highways

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Khanorkar; S.D.Ghodmare

    2014-01-01

    Passenger car units are used to represent the effects of varying mixed vehicle types on traffic stream. The traffic volume information about roads which is important for, design and planning analysis for that roadway system. Traffic on congested highways is of the mixed nature to assess the different types of vehicles on highways. This study is concerned with determine the PCU values of vehicles in under mixed nature traffic flow at on congested highways. PCU is the different ...

  18. Status of road safety and possibilities of improvement in Nepal : a study of Muglin-Kathmandu section of Prithvi Highway

    OpenAIRE

    Duwadi, Bhola

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accident has been a major challenge in Prithivi highway to ensure travel safety. A heterogeneous traffic mix sharing the road with vulnerable road users as well as unsafe road infrastructure and vehicles that are in poor condition contributed to the high fatality rates in this busiest highway in Nepal. The objective of the study was mainly to: identify the various causes of road accidents in the Prithivi highway, examine the factors that how people perceive various aspects of roa...

  19. Wetlands mitigation issues related to reconstruction of U.S. Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Mary B.

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Highway 93 traverses some of the most ecologically sensitive wetland, riparian and aquatic habitat on the Flathead Indian Reservation. In December 2000, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the Montana Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration entered into a Memorandum of Agreement for the Highway 93 Evaro to Polson Project. The MOA identifies the three governments’ preferred conceptual roadway improvements including alignment, lane configuration, design...

  20. Segmentation and Recognition of Highway Assets using Image-based 3D Point Clouds and Semantic Texton Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Golparvar-Fard, Mani; Balali, Vahid; de la Garza, Jesus M.

    2013-01-01

    This dataset was collected as part of research work on segmentation and recognition of highway assets in images and viedo. The research is described in detail in Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering - ASCE paper "Segmentation and Recognition of Highway Assets using Image-based 3D Point Clouds and Semantic Texton Forests". The dataset include: 12 highway asset catgegories, 3 different dataset which is divided in three groups: (a)Ground Truth images with #_#_s_GT.jpg filename...

  1. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J;

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed that the...... lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  2. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  3. Triple spontaneous cervical artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year-old healthy man had several transient ischaemic attacks suggesting left internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. There were no vascular risk factors and no preceding trauma. Colour-coded duplex sonography suggested a pseudo-occlusion of the left ICA, and cerebral angiography demonstrated dissection of the left ICA and both vertebral arteries. Angiography 6 months later was completely normal. This underlines the importance of four vessel angiography in young patients with dissections of cervical arteries. (orig.)

  4. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  5. Gulf-Wide Information System, Louisiana Highways, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_primaryroads_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State...

  6. Seasonal and diurnal variation in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations along a highway in Eastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L. [University of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Vartiainen, M. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Environmental Health, Air Research Laboratory; Pasanen, P. [University of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2000-07-01

    In this study the concentrations of the most important carbonyl compounds, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, are measured in a highway environment in spring, summer and winter. Measurements were carried out in May, July and January along a two-lane highway, with daily traffic density 27 500 vehicles. Four sampling points were selected: (1) one from east and (2) west sides of the highway, (3) one at the central reservation of the highway and (4) one background site. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured at both sides of a two-lane highway and at the central reservation suggest that the motor vehicle emissions are the source of these compounds throughout the year. The concentrations were, however, significantly lower at the roadsides than at the central reservation, especially in July. This could indicate rapid dilution of these compounds in the air. It is also possible that the vegetation along the roadside in summer may play a role as a sink or as a biogenic source for these compounds. The concentrations measured along the roadside in this study are comparable to those measured in polluted urban areas. The diurnal variation showed significant decrease of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations in the night indicating a decrease in primary source, i.e. traffic emissions. The seasonal variation was great as well, concentrations being lower in winter time, indicating lower secondary production of aldehydes. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde effects on plants remains to be studied, since the formaldehyde and acetaldehyde pose a noteworthy risk to the vegetation exposed. (author)

  7. Landscape eco-environment risk assessment of highway in arid area of Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of analyses to landscape ecology in the highway region of the arid area in Xinjiang of China, vegetation type, soil type and land-use type were ascertained as environmental factors of highway landscape ecosystem fragility, and seasonal flood, blown-wind sand and alkali-salinization as disaster factors of highway engineering. All items of these factors constitute an objective hierarchy of evaluating landscape ecosystem risk of the highway region in the arid area. The weighted values of the items were determined according to the number of occupied area or length by them against each unit. The area or length was interpreted with the aids of GIS technology and gained by measuring in the highway reconnaissance. The results of the eco-environmental risk assessment of G315 Yitunbulake-Qiemo section in Xinjiang shows that eight units of landscape ecology can be sorted into four categories according to the differences of the fragility indices (Σxiwi) and the disaster indices (Σyiwj).

  8. Study on the technology for highway construction and engineering practices in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuangJie Wang; JianBing Chen; JiLin Qi

    2009-01-01

    In order to systemically summarize and integrate technology of highway construction in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we studied disciplines and mechanisms of formation and development of problems and challenges in highway engineering in high-altitude permafrost regions based on construction experiences for 50 years and on 30 years of research regarding the Qinghai-Tibet and Xikang highways. Embankments, pavements, bridges, and countermeasures for ecosystem protection in permafrost regions were the main study objects. We combined extensive analysis of key problems of engineering stability with interaction between permafrost and highways, theoretical models, indoor tests, and field tests to reveal the interaction between embankments, pavements, bridge piles, and permafrost. In this paper, we propose a series of engineering measures for highway stability, design parameters, key indexes for pavement durability in low temperature, relationships between re-freezing time of bridge-pile foundation and strength development as well as ecosystem recovery in high-latitude cold regions; these eventually form a construction technology package for permafrost regions.

  9. Study on the technology for highway construction and engineering practices in permafrost regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to systemically summarize and integrate technology of highway construction in permafrost regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,we studied disciplines and mechanisms of formation and development of problems and challenges in highway engineer-ing in high-altitude permafrost regions based on construction experiences for 50 years and on 30 years of research regarding the Qinghai-Tibet and Xikang highways.Embankments,pavements,bridges,and countermeasures for ecosystem protection in per-mafrost regions were the main study objects.We combined extensive analysis of key problems of engineering stability with inter-action between permafrost and highways,theoretical models,indoor tests,and field tests to reveal the interaction between em-bankments,pavements,bridge piles,and permafrost.In this paper,we propose a series of engineering measures for highway sta-bility,design parameters,key indexes for pavement durability in low temperature,relationships between re-freezing time of bridge-pile foundation and strength development as well as ecosystem recovery in high-latitude cold regions;these eventually form a construction technology package for permafrost regions.

  10. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined. PMID:26318222

  11. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography

  12. [The single coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  13. Patent arterial duct

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Robin P; Elmasry Ola A; Forsey Jonathan T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavi...

  14. Parent Artery Occlusion for Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoya, K.; Nagaishi, M.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Morikawa, E.; H. Takahashi(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA)

    2006-01-01

    We review four cases of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm, of which three showed intolerance of parent artery occlusion. In two, balloon test occlusion (BTO) indicated poor opaci- fication of the PCA branches from the anastomoses, and therefore, permanent occlusion was not attempted.

  15. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  16. Dual anterior descending coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Luciane da L. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a male with risk factors for coronary artery disease, who was referred for cardiac catheterization after acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall. The patient underwent transluminal coronary angioplasty in the right coronary artery with successful stent implantation.

  17. Vehicles In Highway Communication System Using ZigBee And Bluetooth Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EiThuzarKhin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally many vehicle types operate on the highway system. And highway infrastructure stakeholders have developed a number of products intended to facilitate the identification of critical assets and provide guidance for conductiong security planning. Many of these productsare conducted as joint efforts between the state highway agencies.The main aim of the system is to have a network between Roadside Unit RSU and On-Board Unit OBU and between On-Board Unit OBU and another On-Board Unit OBU . ZigBee is a consortium of software hardware and services companies having improved a common standard for wireless networking of sensors and microcontrollers.Bluetooth is a technology of wireless standard for exchanging data for short distances. In this article we point out sending data to the drivers via not only ZigBee module but also Bluetooth module.

  18. The Application of Trapezoidal Fuzzy AHP on Evaluation Item Weight Calculation of Highway Network Programming Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qiong; SHAO Shi-huang; PU Fang

    2004-01-01

    The fuzzy theory is invited in this paper to calculate weights of evaluation items, which is a very important stage in highway network evaluation. Highway network evaluation is a composite of various attributes that lack of pertinency and comparability, and their commonality is that they are more or less tainted with uncertainty, with different daily decision making problems of diverse intensity, the results can be misleading if the fuzziness of human decision-making is not taken into account. So we introduce fuzzy theory into the measurement of evaluating weights to overcome the issue and Analytic Hierarchy Process in scheme ranking. It is testified to be a more reliable way through the case study of Yangtze River Delta highway network evaluation.

  19. Analysis on Traffic Conflicts of Two-lane Highway Based on Improved Cellular Automation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiru Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic traffic characteristics of two-lane highway and different driving characteristics for drivers, the characteristics of drivers and vehicle structure are introduced into Cellular Automation model for establishing new Cellular Automation model of two-lane highway. Through computer simulation, the paper analyzes the effect of the promotion of different vehicles, drivers and arrival rates on traffic conflicts of two-lane highway, which gets the relationship between the parameters such as road traffic and velocity variance and collision. The results indicate that the frequency of traffic conflicts has close relationship with the product of traffic flow and velocity variation. When the traffic flow and velocity variation are great, the frequency of the conflict is the greatest, and when the traffic flow and velocity variation are little, the frequency of the conflict is the least.

  20. Bilateral Internal Thoracic Artery Configuration for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodhwani, Munir; Hanet, Claude; de Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-01-01

    Background— Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) have demonstrated superior patency and improved survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the optimal configuration for BITA utilization and its effect on long-term outcome remains uncertain. Methods and Results— We randomly assigned 304 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using BITA to either in situ or Y grafting configurations. The primary end point was 3-year angiographic patency. Secondary end points included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) at 7 years. More coronary targets were able to be revascularized using internal thoracic arteries in patients randomized to Y grafting versus in situ group (3.2±0.8 versus 2.4±0.5 arteries/patient; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01666366. PMID:27406988

  1. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  2. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  3. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  4. Statistical description of heavy truck accidents on representative segments of interstate highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, W.F.; Davidson, C.A.; Foley, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Any quantitative analysis of the risk of transportation accidents requires the use of many different statistical distributions. Included among these are the types of accidents which occur and the severity of these when they do occur. Several previous studies have derived this type of information for truck traffic over U. S. highways in general; these data are not necessarily applicable for the anticipated LMFBR spent fuel cask routes. This report presents data for highway segments representative of the specific LMFBR cask routes which are anticipated. These data are based upon a detailed record-by-record review of filed reports for accidents which occurred along the specified route segments.

  5. Statistical description of heavy truck accidents on representative segments of interstate highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any quantitative analysis of the risk of transportation accidents requires the use of many different statistical distributions. Included among these are the types of accidents which occur and the severity of these when they do occur. Several previous studies have derived this type of information for truck traffic over U. S. highways in general; these data are not necessarily applicable for the anticipated LMFBR spent fuel cask routes. This report presents data for highway segments representative of the specific LMFBR cask routes which are anticipated. These data are based upon a detailed record-by-record review of filed reports for accidents which occurred along the specified route segments

  6. Night-Time Highway Construction or Maintenance/Upgrading Works: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Wahid A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of interview sessions conducted with the general objective of studying night-time highway construction or maintenance/upgrading works. This includes any work; construction, maintenance or upgrading, that involves the closure of highway lanes and traffic mitigation. Such works might be disadvantageous to be conducted during daytime, thus requiring them to be conducted at night. Data were collected by conducting interviews to relevant industry players with the objective of identifying reasons for such works to be conducted at night. The answers obtained were the gathered and the most famous themes are selected.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  8. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of...... cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of...

  9. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  10. Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway, Part II: Road Signs, Billboards, and Rest Stops along the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    In this second of a two-part article on road tripping down the Digital Preservation Highway, the authors follow the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. In the authors' last visit with…

  11. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 222 - Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess Risk Estimates for Public Highway-Rail Grade Crossings G Appendix G to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt. 222, App. G Appendix G to Part 222—Excess Risk Estimates for...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection... the National Highway Systems Designation Act of 1995. If Utah County fails to start its program...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.20 - Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX-18-22).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.20 Highway grade crossings (accounts XX-17-22 and XX-18-22). Separate running and switching common expenses according to distribution of the...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Federal-Aid Highway Construction Summary of Employment Data (Form PR-1392)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (23 U.S.C. sec. 140(a), 315, 49 CFR 1.48(b)) ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-Aid Highway Construction Summary of Employment..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. I Appendix I to Part 600—Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving...

  16. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  17. A case of primitive persistent hypoglossal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. K.; Koh, B. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, S. R. [Hangyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Three kinds of carotid-basilar anastomosis have been found, they were named as persistent primitive trigeminal artery, persistent primitive acoustic (or otic) artery and persistent primitive hypoglossal artery, among them, the persistent primitive hypoglossal artery is by far the least common type of the internal carotid-basilar anastomosis which have been demonstrate in human postembryonic stages. Persistent primitive by hypoglossal artery is usually found incidentally. This vascular anomaly, however,have been reported to be associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery hypoplasia, absence of the posterior communicating artery, hypoplasia of the proximal portion of the posterior cerebral artery, aneurysm of the circle of Willis, the origin of both pericallosal arteries from a single anterior cerebral artery, retarded mental development dating from infancy, carotid-cavernous fistula formation etc. A case of persistent primitive hypoglossal artery in an young Korean male was reported with brief review of the literature.

  18. Occurrence of lead and zinc in soils and plants at the margins of a highway with heavy traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Celso da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of lead (Pb and zinc (Zn were determined in soil and grasses collected at three points on stretch of 143 km of the Presidente Dutra highway between the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The soil and plant samples were collected by sampling transections perpendicular to the highway at distances of 0, 10, 20, 35 and 50 m from the highway edge. Concentrations of Pb and Zn were higher in samples closest to the highway edge, decreasing with increasing distance from the road. There were positive correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the soil and the metal concentration in the plant. Concentrations of Pb found in soil samples were below the reference value established for the soil quality in the state of São Paulo, while for Zn, up to 10 m away from the highway edge, the concentration was higher than the reference value.

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  20. Coronary artery disease (CAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of myocardial ischemia is the most relevant indication of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. P. Marie exposes the sensibility and specificity of the method, based on an analysis of literature. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy gives prognostical informations: among them, should be highlighted the excellent prognosis of a normal perfusion scintigraphy even in patients with significant coronary stenosis and the poor prognosis of extensive perfusion defects at stress. P. Rigo details echocardiographic techniques and nuclear medicine techniques to assess patients with coronary artery disease. He analyses the pathophysiological principles and clinical indications of these techniques. Then, he exposes a quantification analysis software based on bull'eyes representation. M. Slama points out the complementarity of coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (authors)

  1. Peripheral artery atherectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal atherectomies were performed with the Simpson catheter. Evaluation included clinical examination, Doppler ultrasonography (ankle-arm index, before and immediately and 1,3 and 6 months after atherectomy), and angiography (6 months after or for clinical worsening). Twenty of 21 procedures achieved satisfactory vessel patency, with the addition of complementary angioplasty for residual stenosis over 30% (one of three cases). Early thrombosis occurred in only one of 21 cases (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy), and no distal embolization occurred. Six-month follow-up showed stable improvements in 11 of 12 patients and restenosis in only one (absence of platelet inhibitor pretherapy). Preliminary results indicate that atherectomy is the method of choice for restoring large lumens, with minimal arterial wall injury and fewer cases of restenosis than with angioplasty

  2. Anomalous Origin of Right Coronary Artery from Distal Left Circumflex Artery: A Very Rare Variant of Single Coronary Artery Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Gholoobi

    2016-01-01

    Among coronary anomalies, Single Coronary Artery (SCA) is a rare anomaly in which one coronary artery stems from a single coronary ostium from the aortic sinuses, nourishing the entire heart. A very rare subtype of this anomaly is the anomalous origin of the Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from the distal Left Circumflex (LCx) artery.

  3. Road Tripping down the Digital Preservation Highway, Part I: Hitting the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    In this inaugural column, the authors introduce Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University who is being tasked with managing the library's and university's digital content as he begins his journey down the Digital Highway. As head of access services at Bellaluna University, Peter had been, by default, made responsible for managing…

  4. Real time remote monitoring and pre-warning system for Highway landslide in mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Hongxu; Sheng, Qian; Wu, Kai; Chen, Guoliang

    2011-06-01

    The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter with precision of 1 mm and the grid pluviometer with precision of 0.1 mm are used to monitor the surface displacement and rainfall for Highway slope, and the measured data are transferred to the remote computer in real time by general packet radio service (GPRS) net of China telecom. The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter, grid pluviometer, data acquisition and transmission unit, and solar power supply device are integrated to form a comprehensive monitoring hardware system for Highway landslide in mountain area, which proven to be economical, energy-saving, automatic and high efficient. Meantime, based on the map and geographic information system (MAPGIS) platform, the software system is also developed for three dimensional (3D) geology modeling and visualization, data inquiring and drawing, stability calculation, displacement forecasting, and real time pre-warning. Moreover, the pre-warning methods based on monitoring displacement and rainfall are discussed. The monitoring and forecasting system for Highway landslide has been successfully applied in engineering practice to provide security for Highway transportation and construction and reduce environment disruption. PMID:25084567

  5. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objecti...

  6. Ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff using brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) as an indicator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2010-03-01

    The ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was studied in an in situ experiment consisting of four 24 h simulated runoff episodes. Fish were maintained in 5 tanks and exposed to highway runoff from a sedimentation pond close to E6 outside the city of Oslo, Norway. The tanks had the following contaminant loadings during the episodes: stream water (control), pond inlet, pond outlet, pond inlet + stream water and pond outlet + stream water. Opposite to road salt and compared to earlier findings, the first two episodes had rather low concentrations of trace metals, hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A heavy rainfall before episode 3 increased the concentrations of all the contaminants except road salt which was diluted. In addition, lowered oxygen levels led to hypoxic conditions. Overall the fish exposed to highway runoff had, compared to the control fish, higher concentrations of trace metals in gills and liver, increased activity of the antioxidant defense system represented by superoxide dismutase, catalase and metallothionein, problems with the regulation of plasma Cl and Na, as well as increased levels of blood glucose and pCO(2). Finally, this seemed to affect the metabolism of the fish through reduced condition factor. The observed effects were likely caused by multiple stressors and not by a single contaminant. The sedimentation pond clearly reduced the toxicity of the highway runoff. But even in the least polluted exposure tank (pond outlet + stream water) signs of physiological disturbances were evident. PMID:20445854

  7. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  8. Migration and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) along highway corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    1989-05-01

    The east-west density gradient and the pattern and mode of migration of the wetland exotic, purple loosestrife ( Lythrum salicaria L.), were assessed in a survey of populations along the New York State Thruway from Albany to Buffalo to determine if the highway corridor contributed to the spread of this species. During the peak flowering season of late July to early August, individual colonies of purple loosestrife were identified and categorized into three size classes in parallel belt transects consisting of the median strip and highway rights-of-way on the north and south sides of the road. Data were also collected on the presence of colonies adjacent to the corridor and on highway drainage patterns. Although a distinct east-west density gradient existed in the corridor, it corresponded to the gradient on adjacent lands and was greatly influenced by a major infestation at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The disturbed highway corridor served as a migration route for purple loosestrife, but topographic features dictated that this migration was a short-distance rather than long-distance process. Ditch and culvert drainage patterns increased the ability of purple loosestrife to migrate to new wetland sites. Management strategies proposed to reduce the spread of this wetland threat include minimizing disturbance, pulling by hand, spraying with glyphosate, disking, and mowing.

  9. Empirical Features of Spontaneous and Induced Traffic Breakdowns in Free Flow at Highway Bottlenecks

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Rehborn, Hubert; Leibel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Based on an empirical study of real field traffic data measured in 1996--2014 through road detectors installed on German freeways, we reveal physical features of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks. It is shown that the source of a nucleus for traffic breakdown is the solely difference between empirical spontaneous and induced traffic breakdowns at a highway bottleneck. Microscopic traffic simulations with a stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase theory explain the empirical findings. It turns out that in the most cases, a nucleus for empirical spontaneous traffic breakdown occurs through an interaction of one of waves in free flow with an empirical permanent speed disturbance localized at a highway bottleneck. The wave is a localized structure in free flow, in which the total flow rate is larger and the speed averaged across the highway is smaller than outside the wave. The waves in free flow appear due to oscilations in the percentage...

  10. The physics of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Koller, Micha; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Leibel, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Based on an empirical study of real field traffic data measured in 1996-2014 through road detectors installed on German freeways, we reveal physical features of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks. A microscopic stochastic three-phase traffic model of the nucleation of spontaneous traffic breakdown presented in the article explains the empirical findings. It turns out that in the most cases a nucleus for the breakdown occurs through an interaction of one of waves in free flow with an empirical permanent speed disturbance localized at a highway bottleneck. The wave is a localized structure in free flow, in which the total flow rate is larger and the speed averaged across the highway is smaller than outside the wave. The waves in free flow appear due to oscillations in the percentage of slow vehicles; these waves propagate with the average speed of slow vehicles in free flow. Any of the empirical waves exhibits a two-dimensional asymmetric spatiotemporal structure: Wave's characteristics are different in different highway lanes.

  11. Using 4D CAD to visualize the impacts of highway construction on the public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanen, P.P.A.; Hartmann, T.; Al-jibouri, S.H.S.; Heijmans, H.W.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highway construction activities have a multitude of impacts on the public that change over time and with location. In devising strategies to manage and minimize these impacts, gaining an in-depth understanding about timing and spatial extents of them is crucial. However, in practice gaining such und

  12. Boundary Layer Model for Air Pollutant Concentrations Due to Highway Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Kenneth W.; Peirce, J. Jeffrey

    1975-01-01

    A numerical solution of the three-dimensional steady-state diffusion equation for a finite width line source is presented. The wind speed and eddy diffusivity as a function of height above the roadway are obtained. Normalized ground level and elevated concentrations near a highway are obtained for winds perpendicular, parallel, and at 45 degrees.…

  13. 77 FR 24255 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highways in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... given by the Federal Transit Administration on September 23, 2010 related to U.S. 36 (75 FR 58017). This... AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on claims for judicial... approximately 18 miles. The project includes the reconstruction of U.S. 36 road surface, one buffer-...

  14. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Ben D; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2015-12-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia. PMID:26520639

  15. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil;

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume pr...

  16. Aspects of Applying Weather Radar-Based Nowcasts of Rainfall for Highways in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Quist, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates three different approaches to nowcasting rainfall for highways. The simplest method is based on using the observed precipitation field at the beginning of the trip. The most developed nowcast is based on a COTREC nowcaster, which is dynamically adjusted to online raingauges...

  17. Analysis of Data Interruption in an LTE Highway Scenario with Dual Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Michaelsen, Per-Henrik; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    evaluated by means of system level simulations for a high-speed scenario. The scenario models a highway covered by a macro layer and an ultra dense network of small cells distributed on both sides of the road. Results reveal that for single connectivity, and due to the large amount of handovers, terminals...

  18. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. PMID:27183516

  19. Impact Factors and Risk Analysis of Tropical Cyclones on a Highway Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Saini; Hu, Fuyu; Jaeger, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Coastal areas typically have high social and economic development and are likely to suffer huge losses due to tropical cyclones. These cyclones have a great impact on the transportation network, but there have been a limited number of studies about tropical-cyclone-induced transportation network functional damages, especially in Asia. This study develops an innovative measurement and analytical tool for highway network functional damage and risk in the context of a tropical cyclone, with which we explored the critical spatial characteristics of tropical cyclones with regard to functional damage to a highway network by developing linear regression models to quantify their relationship. Furthermore, we assessed the network's functional risk and calculated the return periods under different damage levels. In our analyses, we consider the real-world highway network of Hainan province, China. Our results illustrate that the most important spatial characteristics were location (in particular, the midlands), travel distance, landfalling status, and origin coordinates. However, the trajectory direction did not obviously affect the results. Our analyses indicate that the highway network of Hainan province may suffer from a 90% functional damage scenario every 4.28 years. These results have critical policy implications for the transport sector in reference to emergency planning and disaster reduction. PMID:26385797

  20. RURAL HIGHWAY SERVICE CENTRES AND RURAL LIVELIHOODS DIVERSITY: A CASE OF NGUNDU HALT IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Chazovachii

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to assess the impact of rural high way service centres on livelihood diversity. The establishment of Ngundu rural highway service centre was an approach to assist highway travelers and local residents in accessing essential services without going off-route. Since the establishment of these highway service centers, little has been realized in terms of their utility. Data was collected using questionnaires; participatory observation and interviews and presented in the form of graphs; pie charts and tables. The rural highway service centre benefited local residents in its sphere of influence through social welfare provision; employment creation; recreation and as agricultural inputs collection centres. However the opportunity on livelihoods diversity by locals and travelers to enjoy their need has been abused .Both locals and travelers have turned the centre into risk livelihood strategies arena, crime and deviant behavior proliferated turning it into life threatening zone. Therefore need is there to reinforce overnight surveillance through the neighborhood watch for security and welfare of genuine dealers and travelers for sustainable and investment confident and promotion climate.

  1. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles? 1051.105 Section 1051.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

  2. 76 FR 2947 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... a relocated County Road 90 and at County State Aid Highway 25, median and driveway closures, and new... Transportation Road, Willmar, MN 56201, Telephone: (320) 214-6367, e-mail: Lowell.Flaten@state.mn.us . The Mn... Transportation Act of 1966 ; Landscaping and Scenic Enhancement (Wildflowers) . 3. Wildlife: Endangered...

  3. 75 FR 68022 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... relate to a proposed highway project, Red Gate Road Extension and Bridge Crossing over the Fox River... Road and construction of a two-lane bridge and bicycle/pedestrian trail across the Fox River from... and Scenic Rivers Act [16 U.S.C. 1271- 1287]. 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of...

  4. 76 FR 38266 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... proposed highway project (Interstate Route 75 and adjacent road network and interchanges) in the Cities of Cincinnati, Arlington Heights, Evendale, Glendale, Lincoln Heights, Lockland, Reading, and Sharonville, in....C. 469-469(c)]; Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) . 6. Social...

  5. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  6. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on September 17, 2009 (74 FR 47762). This final rule amends sections 772.1, 772... Noise and Construction Noise AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of...

  7. Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

  8. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  9. Identification and Level 1 Damage Detection of the Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Cantieni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case with a relatively large number of sensors. Changes in frequencies, damping ratios and MAC values were determined. An...

  10. Identification of the Swiss Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modal identification of the Swiss highway bridge Z24. A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on the bridge before it was demolished in autumn 1998, and the ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. In this paper the modal...

  11. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Ho [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation.

  12. STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan P Havaldar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper knowledge of the course and ramification of blood vessels of lower limbs is very important for surgeons and interventional radiologist. Medial circumflex femoral artery usually originates from posteromedial aspect of the profunda femoris, but often originates from femoral artery itself. It has an important role in supplying blood to femoral neck and head, fatty tissue in acetabular fossa and used in flaps reconstructive surgery. Methods: 50 adult lowerlimbs were procured from embalmed cadavers of J.J.M. Medical College and S.S.I.M.S & R.C, Davangere, Karnataka, India for the study. Dissection of femoral triangle was carried out according to Cunningham’s manual. Site and mode of origin of the branches of femoral artery were studied, configuration of the femoral origins of medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery and their prevalence were studied. Results: Out of 50 extremities, Medial circumflex femoral artery took origin from profunda femoris in 41 specimens and from femoral artery in 9 specimens. Conclusion: The knowledge of normal origin and variation of medial circumflex femoral artery is very valuable in preventing iatrogenic injury to these vessels during surgical procedures of femoral triangle.

  13. Short-term variation in near-highway air pollutant gradients on a winter morning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Durant

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near highways is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the scales of temporal variation of pollutant gradients. The goal of this study was to characterize short-term temporal variation of vehicular pollutant gradients within 200–400 m of a major highway (>150 000 vehicles/d. Monitoring was done near Interstate 93 in Somerville (Massachusetts from 06:00 to 11:00 on 16 January 2008 using a mobile monitoring platform equipped with instruments that measured ultrafine and fine particles (6–1000 nm, particle number concentration (PNC; particle-phase (>30 nm NO3, SO42−, and organic compounds; volatile organic compounds (VOCs; and CO2, NO, NO2, and O3. We observed rapid changes in pollutant gradients due to variations in highway traffic flow rate, wind speed, and surface boundary layer height. Before sunrise and peak traffic flow rates, downwind concentrations of particles, CO2, NO, and NO2 were highest within 100–250 m of the highway. After sunrise pollutant levels declined sharply (e.g., PNC and NO were more than halved and the gradients became less pronounced as wind speed increased and the surface boundary layer rose allowing mixing with cleaner air aloft. The levels of aromatic VOCs and NO3, SO42− and organic aerosols were generally low throughout the morning, and their spatial and temporal variations were less pronounced compared to PNC and NO. O3 levels increased throughout the morning due to mixing with O3-enriched air aloft and were generally lowest near the highway reflecting reaction with NO. There was little if any evolution in the size distribution of 6–225 nm particles with distance from the highway. These results suggest that to improve the accuracy of exposure estimates to near-highway pollutants

  14. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  15. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  16. Peripheral arterial stenosis and coronary artery disease coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic slow-developing condition affecting medium-size and large blood vessels. It is the principal underlying pathology of coronary heart disease and stroke. In some countries, coronary artery disease (CAD is the cause of nearly half (48% of the deaths and, loss of productivity life. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is defined as atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries instead of coronary arteries. CAD and PAD have same risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes. Therefore, patient with CAD should be considered for PAD. Ankle brachial index (ABI, duplex sonography, and some other non-invasive techniques are recommended for PAD diagnosis in patients with the history of CAD. Pharmacotherapy, endovascular interventions, and surgical management could be chosen according to the patient’s situation. Cardiologists and general practitioners should consider PAD in a patient with CAD or DM as a strong correlated disease.      

  17. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  18. Wildlife Mortality on National Highway 72 and 74 Across Rajaji National Park, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh JOSHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the road impact on resident wildlife is one of the important aspects of future conservation planning and of management related actions. Expanding a motor road network in and around protected habitats is considered to be a major threat that can cause the extinction of endangered species. We assessed vertebrate fauna mortality on two inter–state national highways: No. 72 (Haridwar–Dehradun and 74 (Haridwar–Bijnor and an ancillary road running across the Rajaji National Park and Haridwar Conservation area, North India. Field data on wildlife mortality was collected from June 2009 to May 2011. A total of 352 individuals of 39 species (3 amphibians, 9 reptiles, 18 mammals and 9 avian species were found dead on the national highways 72 & 74 and Haridwar–Chilla–Rishikesh motor road, which is running in between Rajaji National Park. Among all the mortalities, avian species were the most affected accounting for 38%, followed by mammals (27%. During Maha–Kumbh 2010, road accidents increased. It was an event that caused tremendous disturbance in animal migratory corridors and in drinking sites. The evaluation of vehicle traffic pressure on national highways revealed that ±14100 and ±9900 vehicles had been moving across these highways every day. In addition to that, expanding the motor roads network and increasing vehicle traffic pressure is disrupting ecological connectivity and impeding the movement of wild animals. In addition, wildlife mortality rate was observed to be increasing. Further studies are needed to understand the ecological impacts of increasing vehicle traffic on various national highways and roads and on animal behavioral responses, in order to take proper conservation actions

  19. Local Intra-Arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Kitajima, H.; Tamakawa, N.; Iwama, T

    2007-01-01

    Acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion is typically associated with poor outcome; however newer diagnostic and treatment modalities have the potential to improve prognosis. In this study, six patients with acute BA occlusion were followed and the effectiveness of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis (LIF) and subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with a balloon catheter were assessed. Of the six patients with BA occlusion observed in this study, two had extended brain stem infarcti...

  20. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmer, B; Jogestrand, T; Laska, J; Lund, F

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence of peripheral vascular disease in patients with coronary artery disease has been investigated in many different ways and depends on the diagnostic methods and the definition of the atherosclerotic manifestations in the different vascular beds. In this study we used the non-invasive methods digital volume pulse plethysmography and ankle and toe blood pressure measurements to identify arterial abnormalities in the lower limbs in 58 patients (49 males and 9 females; age 37-72 years) examined with coronary angiography. The prevalence of peripheral artery disease was 22%, in agreement with the results of most previous investigations. There was a tendency towards increasing prevalence of peripheral artery disease with more advanced coronary artery disease: 14% of the patients with no or minimal coronary atheromotous lesions, 18% of the patients with moderate coronary atheromotous lesions and 32% of the patients with marked coronary atheromotous disease. For this reason a non-invasive investigation of the peripheral arterial circulation should be included early in the clinical consideration of patients with chest pain or similar symptoms suggesting coronary heart disease. Toe pressure measurement appears to be the most appropriate technique being rather simple in management and also in evaluation of results. PMID:7658111

  1. Aberrant ovarian artery arising from the common Iliac artery: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A 46-year-old Vietnamese woman received embolization therapy in order to control postpartum hemorrhage. Angiography revealed an aberrant ovarian artery arising from the right common iliac artery. Superselective catheterization and subsequent embolization of the aberrant ovarian artery and bilateral uterine arteries were performed. Precise knowledge of the anatomic variations of the ovarian artery is important for successful embolization.

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  3. Revascularisation of atherosclerotic mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max Greve; Lorentzen, Jørgen Ewald; Schroeder, T V

    1994-01-01

    25 patients, chronic ischaemia in 53 and prophylactic reconstruction in connection with aortic surgery in 12 patients. The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was revascularised in 87 patients and the coeliac axis or common hepatic artery in six. Thus, only three patients had both territories......OBJECTIVES: Visceral artery surgery is well known to vascular surgeons, but most have limited personal experience. We report our experience with 90 patients treated for atherosclerotic lesions of the visceral arteries during a 25-year period 1968-1993. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING...... revascularised. Thromboendarterectomy was performed in 15 patients, transposition of the SMA directly into the infrarenal aorta in 30 and bypass in 48 patients. CHIEF OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative symptom-free and survival rates. MAIN RESULTS: The overall perioperative (30 days) mortality rate was 13%, mainly...

  4. Irradiation injury to large arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of irradiation injury to large arteries following radiotherapy treatment are presented and the literature is reviewed. Three patterns of injury have emerged: 1) intimal damage resulting in mural thrombosis presenting within 5 years of irradiation, 2) fibrotic occlusion presenting within 10 years of injury, and 3) a predisposition to the development of atheroma together with periarterial fibrosis associated with a latent interval of 20 or more years. The treatment of choice is a bypass procedure of the arterial lesion. (author)

  5. Biomarkers of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, John P.; Wilson, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease affecting the lower extremities is also known as peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This disorder affects 8 to 12 million individuals in the United States, and is also increasingly prevalent in Europe and Asia (1–4). Unfortunately, most patients are not diagnosed and are not optimally treated. A blood test for PAD, if sufficiently sensitive and specific, would be expected to improve recognition and treatment of these individuals. Even a biomarker pan...

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hoendermis, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and specific histological changes. It is a progressive disease finally resulting in right heart failure and premature death. Typical symptoms are dyspnoea at exercise, chest pain and syncope; furthe...

  7. Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Ho, David; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mice for the evaluation and study of cardiovascular pathophysiology is growing rapidly, primarily due to the relative ease for developing genetically engineered mouse models. Arterial pressure monitoring is central to the evaluation of the phenotypic changes associated with cardiovascular pathology and interventions in these transgenic and knockout models. There are four major techniques for measuring arterial pressure in the mouse: tail cuff system, implanted fluid filled catheter...

  8. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens H Henriksen; Soren Moller

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin),and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin, calcitonin generelated peptide, nitric oxide, and other vasodilators,and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area.This constitutes an effective (although relative)counterbalance to increased arterial blood pressure.This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel.

  9. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies having shown respiratory health effects from traffic exhaust were conducted in urban areas with a complex mixture of air pollution sources. This study has investigated the potential impact of traffic exhaust on respiratory symptoms among adults living along a Swiss alpine highway corridor, where traffic exhaust from the respective trans-Alpine highway is the predominate source of air pollution. Methods In summer 2005, we recruited 1839 adults aged 15 to 70 from a random sample of 10 communities along the Swiss alpine highway corridors. Subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory health (asthmatic and bronchitic symptoms, risk factors, and potential confounding variables. We used logistic regression models to assess associations between respiratory symptoms and traffic exposure being defined a as living within 200 m of the highway, and b as a bell-shaped function simulating the decrease of pollution levels with increasing distance to the highway. Results Positive associations were found between living close to a highway and wheezing without cold (OR = 3.10, 95%-CI: 1.27-7.55 and chronic cough (OR = 2.88, 95%-CI: 1.17-7.05. The models using a bell-shaped function suggested that symptoms reached background levels after 400-500 m from the highway. The association with chronic cough was driven by a subgroup reporting hay fever or allergic rhinitis. Conclusions Highway traffic exhaust in alpine highway corridors, in the absence of other industrial sources, showed negative associations with the respiratory health of adults, higher than those previously found in urban areas.

  10. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng JS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  11. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  12. 高速公路养护管理模式的探讨%Study of Highway Maintenance Management Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀梅

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the disadvant ages of current highway maintain management mode, and discusses the necessity and superiority of the highway marketing maintenance management mode, further proposed the measures of the highway marketing maintenance management.%本文分析了当前高速公路养护管理模式的弊端,论述了高速公路市场化养护管理模式的必要性和优越性,并提出了高速公路市场化养护的完善措施。

  13. Internal carotid-cerebellar artery anastomosis. So-called persistent trigeminal artery variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohata, Kazunori; Maehara, Tadayuki; Noda, Masanobu; Katoh, Hiromi

    1987-09-01

    Five cases of internal carotid-cerebellar artery anastomosis are presented. These anomalous vessels are identical to the so-called persistent trigeminal artery variant (PTAV). In our cases, two superior cerebellar arteries (SCAs), two anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICAs) and one posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) arose from the precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. We discuss the embryolgical and neuroradiological aspects of this anomaly.

  14. Deep circumflex iliac artery as a free arterial graft for myocardial revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma, G; Sakurai, M; Meguro, T; Ota, K; Abe, K

    2000-02-01

    When complete revascularization cannot be obtained with the internal thoracic artery and the other arterial grafts, the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) may be an excellent alternative conduit. The deep circumflex iliac artery was used as a free graft for direct myocardial revascularization in 4 patients from January to July 1999. We describe our experience with this arterial conduit, review the anatomy of the artery, and present our harvesting technique. PMID:10735725

  15. Livergraftvascularvariantwith 3 extra-hepatic arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo N Martins

    2010-01-01

     Vascular anatomy of the liver is varied, and the"standard"anatomy is seen in 55%-80%of cases. It is very important that extrahepatic arteries are identiifed precisely at the time of graft procurement to avoid injuries that might compromise the liver function. In the present case the liver donor had the vascular anatomy of Michels type Ⅶ, e.g. a hepatic artery originating from the celiac trunk and going to the left lobe, an accessory left hepatic artery coming from the left gastric artery, and a replaced right hepatic artery coming from the superior mesenteric artery. This pattern of vascular supply is uncommon, representing less than 5%of cases. The replaced hepatic artery was reconstructed in the back-table with polypropylene suture 7.0 by connecting it to the stump of the splenic artery, and the celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient common hepatic artery.

  16. Presence of a median cubital arterial arch associated with high origin of radial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty SD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of a median cubital arterial arch is very rare. We saw a superficially placed median cubital arterial arch associated with high level of origin of radial artery. The radial artery took origin from the brachial artery in the upper third of the arm and crossed median nerve and ulnar artery from medial to lateral side. The course and distribution of the vessels in the forearm was normal. In the cubital fossa, the radial and ulnar arteries were connected to each other by an arterial arch. The variations reported here are very useful for the radiologists as these variations can cause problems in invasive procedures.

  17. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan; McBride, M.; Liu, Bing

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  18. Aspects of Applying Weather Radar Based Nowcast for Highways in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Quist, MIchael; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    The Danish road network consists of 73.331 km. of roads. 3.790 km. of these roads are state roads and are considered as major lines of transportation. Although these roads only represent 5% of the total network, 45% of all traffic is moving along these roads. Application of weather radar based...... scenarios. The first is often related to extreme rain intensities while the second can also include less extreme intensities (but maybe higher volume). In both the case of deteriorated traffic conditions and construction phase, a nowcast based on weather radar can provide valuable information on the...... on the movement direction of the precipitation and the direction and speed of the road users. The paper compares and discusses the performance of the nowcast for a selected section of the highway to illustrate the potential in weather radar based forecast for highway applications over long distances....

  19. Structures of subgrade/pavement and construction techniques for the Taklimakan Desert Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志农; 金昌宁

    2002-01-01

    With lots of indoor and outdoor experiments, several key technical issues in construc-tion of the Desert Highway have been solved satisfactorily, on the basis of great achievements ofthe studies in respects of dry compaction on sand base, design parameters, structure combinationof subgrade and pavement, stabilization analysis of sand base strengthened with geotextile and acomplete set of construction techniques. It is the first time the achievements of the study weresuccessfully applied in the Taklimakan Desert where the natural condition is extremely harsh. Ithas been proved that it is economic and reasonable with reliable techniques and simple construc-tion methods. The Desert Highway constructed with the achievements is the first-grade highwayrunning through huge migratory desert for long distance in the world.

  20. The Performance of Disbursement Procedures in Highway Public Works in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B. Israngkura Na Ayudhya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed performance of disbursement procedure of highway public works projects in Thailand. The results of research were summarized and compared which based on contracts, submitted invoice,inspection dated, copies of payment dated between client and their main contractor and interviewed with persons involved in government project during 1994-2008. The data collection was to investigate the reasons related to delaying in payment during construction project (Actual duration of exercise the payment in each month were compared with contract agreement. Literature review, interview and a questionnaire survey targeted at government and local government agencies had been used as the tools to carry out this study. A graphical presentation of a duration analysis of the projects illustrated significant disbursement formation in each project. It was established that the source of fund, the financial stability of clients, method of disbursement and economics situation has play major role on efficiency of disbursement to main contractors in highway public works projects.

  1. Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring ADB's Contribution to the Asian Highway Network

    OpenAIRE

    Madhur, Srinivasa; Wignaraja, Ganeshan; Darjes, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Against the backdrop of growing momentum for regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in Asia, this paper examines the link between regional roads and Asian Development Bank (ADB) support between 1966 and 2008. The novel methodology used in this paper includes an Asia-wide definition of regional roads that fall on the Asian Highway (AH) network. The AH network is a system of about 140,000 kilometers (km) of standardized roads crisscrossing many Asian countries and with linkages to Europe. T...

  2. Highway Truck Parking Prediction System and Statistical Modeling Underlying its Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Konár, Ondřej; Kasanický, Ivan; Pelikán, Emil; Malý, Marek

    Belgrade: City Net Scientific Research Center, 2014 - (Čokorilo, O.), s. 164-170 ISBN 978-86-916153-2-1. [ICTTE 2014. International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering /2./. Belgrade (RS), 27.11.2014-28.11.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02031411 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : highway truck parking * prediction system * dynamical statistical modeling * generalized additive model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  3. 75 FR 1114 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...The FHWA, on behalf of Caltrans, is issuing this notice to announce actions taken by Caltrans that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, State Route 16 between the town of Brooks and Interstate 505 in the County Yolo, State of California. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for the...

  4. The Effect of Government Highway Spending on Road Users' Congestion Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Ashley; Winston, Clifford

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers attempt to reduce the growth of congestion by spending billions of dollars annually on our road system. We evaluate this policy by estimating the determinants of congestion costs for motorists, trucking operations, and shipping firms. We find that, on average, one dollar of highway spending in a given year reduces the congestion costs to road users only eleven cents in that year. We also find that even if the allocation of spending were optimized to minimize congestion costs that...

  5. Efficiency of the Traffic Control and Management System measures in potentially dangerous situations on highway

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič Demšar, Metka

    2011-01-01

    The Traffic Control and Management System (TCMS) is implemented on the five most critical sections of Slovenian highways with the purpose to re-establish the optimal traffic conditions in case of potentially dangerous situations on the road. The main goal of the informing and the traffic management is to increase traffic safety as well as decrease congestions and minimise negative impact on the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficiency of the TCMS measures in the area...

  6. Evaluation of Traffic Model as a part of the Traffic Management System on highways

    OpenAIRE

    Pirc, Jure

    2008-01-01

    The present work focuses on the traffic model for the level of service determination as a part of the Traffic Management System on highways in Slovenia. Based on the traffic data acquisition from various types of detectors (microwave detectors, video detection cameras) the system is capable of determining the levels of service in real time. Using Variable Message Signs, the information is then provided to the end users-the drivers. The first part of the work summarizes the traffic flow theory...

  7. Forecasting development of the network of highways with hard surface with consideration of competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchuk Yaroslav V.

    2013-01-01

    The article uses Lotka-Volterra equations to analyse competition between the highway and railway transportation networks and competitive ability of the network with the cement concrete and asphalt concrete road coverings. Modelling the process of development by the Lotka-Volterra equations lies in selection of parameters of the model in such a manner, so that model trajectories would be very similar to approximating trends by factual data. In accordance with the results of model forecasting o...

  8. Seismic Response Analysis of Highway Overcrossings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Makris, Nicos

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for the seismic response analysis of highway overcrossings. The study employs an elementary stick model and a more sophisticated finite element formulation to compute response quantities. All dynamic stiffnesses of approach embankments and pile groups are approximated with frequency-independent springs and dashpots that have been established elsewhere. A real eigenvalue analysis confirms the one-to-one correspondence between modal characteristics obt...

  9. Spring-block model for a single-lane highway traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Jarai-Szabo, Ferenc; Sandor, Bulcsu; Neda, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional spring-block chain with asymmetric interactions is considered to model an idealized single-lane highway traffic. The main elements of the system are blocks (modeling cars), springs with unidirectional interactions (modeling distance keeping interactions between neighbors), static and kinetic friction (modeling inertia of drivers and cars) and spatiotemporal disorder in the values of these friction forces (modeling differences in the driving attitudes). The traveling c...

  10. Preserving a spirit of place: U.S. Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshik, Joel; Renz, Lyle; Sipes, Jim; Becker, Dale; Paulson, Dale

    2001-01-01

    US Highway 93 traverses the Flathead Indian Reservation, which is located on the west side of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana. Picturesque mountains and mountain valleys, with the broad Flathead Valley to the North and the majestic Mission Mountains to the East, characterize this part of Montana. The area is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including grizzly bear, white-tailed deer, mule deer, pronghorn, elk, painted turtles, bighorn sheep, and a number of fish and bird species. It ...

  11. PLAN DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT STUDY OF KAO-133 HIGHWAY AFTER TYPHOON MORAKOT DISASTER

    OpenAIRE

    GUAN, Chang-Ching; JUAN, Cheng-Hsing; HSIEH, Cheng-Chang; TSAI, Tung-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Typhoon Morakot was the most damaging typhoon to make rainfall in half a century, caused serious damages to southern Taiwan. Most major highways and bridges located in the area suffered severe damages such as landslides, rockfalls and debris flows in addition. It caused significant loss of lives, property and an economic loss of over US$5 billion. The administration system identified 675 dead and 24 persons missing in addition. One of the most important watersheds on the island (Taiwan), the ...

  12. A Comparable Systems Analysis Of San Francisco's BART: Lessons For Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the lessons to be learned from the experience of the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, particularly as applied to the growing research on automated highway systems (AHS). The first section of the report briefly motivates the analogy of BART by comparing some of the technical and non-technical performance factors surrounding both AHS and BART. Several pertinent technical and non- technical issues surrounding BART are described in more detail, emphasizing t...

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Renewable Energy Technologies for Highway Maintenance Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Taylor

    The interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years as attempts to reduce energy costs as well the consumption of fossil fuels are becoming more common. Companies and organizations are recognizing the increasing reliance on limited fossil fuels' resources, and as competition and costs for these resources grow, alternative solutions are becoming more appealing. Many federally run buildings and associations also have the added pressure of meeting the mandates of federal energy policies that dictate specific savings or reductions. Federal highway maintenance facilities run by the Department of Transportation fall into this category. To help meet energy saving goals, an investigation into potential renewable energy technologies was completed for the Ohio Department of Transportation. This research examined several types of renewable energy technologies and the major factors that affect their performance and evaluated their potential for implementation at highway maintenance facilities. Facilities energy usage data were provided, and a facility survey and site visits were completed to enhance the evaluation of technologies and the suitability for specific projects. Findings and technology recommendations were presented in the form of selection matrices, which were designed to help make selections in future projects. The benefits of utilization of other tools such as analysis software and life cycle assessments were also highlighted. These selection tools were designed to be helpful guides when beginning the pursuit of a renewable energy technology for highway maintenance facilities, and can be applied to other similar building types and projects. This document further discusses the research strategies and findings as well as the recommendations that were made to the personnel overseeing Ohio's highway maintenance facilities.

  14. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yingwei Ren; Jingsong Shan

    2014-01-01

    It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thickn...

  15. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture and Salinity in the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Huang; Yongdong Wang; Ying Zhao; Xinwen Xu; Jianguo Zhang; Congjuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Salinization and secondary salinization often appear after irrigation with saline water. The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt has been irrigated with saline ground water for more than ten years; however, soil salinity in the shelterbelt has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and salinity in the shelterbelt system. Using a non-uniform grid method, soil samples were collected every two days during one ten-da...

  16. Wetland Purification Pattern for Surface Runoff Pollution of Coastal Highway in Liaoning Province

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanbo; YAN, Wenzhi; Yan, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Taking surface runoff of Coastal Highway in Liaoning Province as research object, this paper analyzed water quality characteristics of runoff and flow rules of pollutants. It proposed using constructed wetland treatment technique in the drainage system from the perspective of effectively removing major pollutants. Using the constructed wetland k-C* model and relevant experience, parameters of constructed wetland can be obtained. The basic model is as follows: constructed wetland lies in two s...

  17. A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Garrick, Norman W.; Amlan Sen; Malla, Ramesh B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from an investigation on a special optical fiber as a load sensor for application in Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems to measure wheel loads of vehicles traveling at normal speed on highways. The fiber used has a unique design with two concentric light guiding regions of different effective optical path lengths, which has the potential to enable direct measurement of magnitudes as well as locations of forces acting at multiple points along a single fiber. The optical ...

  18. Land Conflicts and Cooperatives along Pune's Highways: Managing India's Agrarian to Urban Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Sai Swarna

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years has been a decade of land wars in India. Rapid urbanization is spilling beyond city boundaries into the highways connecting large cities, instigating a frenzied consolidation and conversion of agricultural lands into urban/industrial lands. This process is fraught with conflict, as different social groups compete to stake their claims on the land value increments - the increases in land value due to the change in land use from agricultural to non-agricultural - of these new...

  19. Implementing Congestion Pricing on Metropolitan Highway Networks with Self-Financing Public- Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    DeCorla-Souza, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new public-private partnership model for road pricing applications either at the facility level or on a region-wide highway network. The model addresses issues of monopoly power and efficiency of delivery of transportation services. The paper also addresses issues relating to financial self-sufficiency of integrated multimodal pricing strategies and assesses the financial self-sufficiency of an ambitious region-wide pricing concept that integrates multimodal mobility cho...

  20. Architecture, Control and NVH Development of Digital Hydraulics for Off-Highway Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, QingHui; Jogada, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Digital hydraulics is one of promising technologies having a huge potential to significantly improve energy efficiency in the fluid power industry. In this paper, we present a digital hydraulics solution for mobile market with a large ammount of energy usage by hydraulic components and systems. Specifically, a novel hydraulic architecture, Multiplex Digital Valve (MDV) system that employs digital valves to meet multiple service pressure/flow requirement in off highway vehicles, is introduced....

  1. Research on Design for Prevention of Ditch Erosion on Virginia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Diplas, P.; Duncan, J M; J.K. Mithcell; Coffey, J.; Smith, C; Stallings, S

    1999-01-01

    Roadside ditch erosion has been problematic on Virginia highways. VDOT, through the Virginia Transportation Research Council, requested that roadside ditch erosion be investigated by means of a research project. Virginia Tech was selected to conduct this study. In support of this research, design guidance documents were surveyed to learn the current established policy and procedures for soil data collection and reporting, and the design practice for hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of roadsi...

  2. Highway Electrification And Automation Technologies - Regional Impacts Analysis Project: Phase I: Baseline Scenario Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scag; Path

    1993-01-01

    The Highway Electrification and Automation Technologies Regional Impacts Analysis Project addresses the transportation-related problems of freeway congestion, air pollution, and dependence on fossil fuels in southern California. This report presents a documentation of the basis for the impacts analysis. It contains sections on data collected, baseline forecast for 2025, and electrification and automation specification scenarios. This report constitutes the final report for Phase I of the proj...

  3. Heavy metal deposition and soil pollution along two major rural highways

    OpenAIRE

    LEGRET, M; Pagotto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic and maintenance induce a chronic heavy metal pollution in runoff water and roadside soil. A portion of these pollutants could be dispersed into the atmosphere or deposited onto soils as a result of wind dispersion. The atmospheric deposition and quality of roadside soil have been investigated alongside two major rural highways. Metal deposition decreases rapidly and seems to reach the background level at a distance of less than 25 m. The deposition of zinc was found to be the mos...

  4. DETERMINED MODEL FOR COORDINATED REGULATION OF MOTOR TRANSPORT MOVEMENT ON HIGHWAY WITH T-SHAPE CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines variants of higher control efficiency in respect of road traffic by creating coordinated regulation  with the help of a determined module. Model application conditions have been determined for specific traffic situations with due account of transport-pedestrian load. The paper contains proposals for the model optimization directed on reduction of  motor vehicle delay in front of the in-traffic light  stop-line along the main highway direction.

  5. DETERMINED MODEL FOR COORDINATED REGULATION OF MOTOR TRANSPORT MOVEMENT ON HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ivanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines certain parameters of a determined model and its response to changes in these parameters. The determined model for bidirectional movement has been developed in the paper. The paper contains proposals for an optimization of the developed model which are intended for reduction of motor vehicle delays in front of an in-traffic light stop line along the main highway direction.

  6. BIOINDICATION OF THE HEAVY METALS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF HIGHWAY «KYIV-WARSAW»)

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Voloschynska

    2008-01-01

    The state of pollution of natural environment along the highway «Kyiv – Warsaw» is analysed. It is indicated on the variety of plants’ species and on the basic pollutant of the environment. The peculiarities of Pb distribution in the soil and Pb concentration in the vegetative organs of predominant vegetation are lighted up. Dynamics of the toxicant distribution in crops is presented. The comparative analysis of pigments’ contents in the plants’ laminas was carried out.

  7. Wildlife Mortality on National Highway 72 and 74 Across Rajaji National Park, North India

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh JOSHI; Dixit, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the road impact on resident wildlife is one of the important aspects of future conservation planning and of management related actions. Expanding a motor road network in and around protected habitats is considered to be a major threat that can cause the extinction of endangered species. We assessed vertebrate fauna mortality on two inter–state national highways: No. 72 (Haridwar–Dehradun) and 74 (Haridwar–Bijnor) and an ancillary road running across the Rajaji National Park and Har...

  8. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Highways passing through natural reserves have adverse impact on wild animals. We evaluated the road kill of vertebrate fauna by vehicular traffic on highways at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. In a fortnight’s survey over 248km across three public roads and opportunistic sampling method, a minimum of 180 road kills belonging to 40 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were recorded between December 1998 and March 1999. Amphibians were the most affected taxa (53% of road kills followed by reptiles (22%, mammals (18%; including a leopard (Panthera pardus and birds (7%. Amphibians and reptiles are slow to react to vehicles and this along with the drivers’ ignorance probably leads to higher mortality among these species. Road kills are significantly higher on highway stretches along rivers than those without water bodies nearby. We suggest the construction of flyovers, speed limits, speed breakers and signposts along the highways to reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortalities.

  9. 25 CFR 170.130 - How can tribes use Federal highway funds for toll and ferry facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... To initiate construction of a . . . A tribe must . . . (1) Toll highway, bridge, or tunnel (i) Meet... into a self-tunnel governance agreement or self-determination contract with the Secretary of...

  10. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in basilar artery occlusions combination of intra-arterial thrombolytics and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors in basilar artery thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basilar artery thrombosis has high morbidity and mortality. Though intra-arterial thrombolytics have proven efficacy in the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion, the elevation of procoagulant factors in the blood after intra-arterial thrombolysis could result in subsequent thrombus formation and clinical deterioration. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have been shown to reduce this elevation in procoagulants. We present a pilot study of three cases of acute basilar artery occlusion treated with a combination of intra-arterial thrombolytics and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor with remarkable clinical recovery seen in all the patients.

  11. A highway's road-effect zone for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarman, W.I.; Sazaki, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roads and highways can affect populations of animals directly (e.g. due to road mortality) and indirectly (e.g. due to fragmentation of habitat and proliferation of non-native or predatory species). We investigated the effect of roads on threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations in the Mojave Desert, California, and attempted to determine the width of the road-effect zone by counting tortoise signs along transects at 0, 400, 800, and 1600 m from the edge of a highway. Mean sign count was 0.2/km at 0 m, 4.2/km at 400 m, 5.7/km at 800 m, and 5.4/km at 1600 m from the highway edge. The differences between all pairs of distances, except 800 and 1600 m, were statistically significant, suggesting that tortoise populations in our study area are depressed in a zone extending at least 400 m from roadways. We speculate that the major cause for this depression zone is road mortality.

  12. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  13. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.

    2015-06-01

    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation ( P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  14. Assessment of palladium footprint from road traffic in two highway environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, N; Muresan, B; Hedde, M; François, D

    2015-12-01

    Palladium (Pd) is an emerging eco-toxic pollutant from vehicle catalytic converters, emitted worldwide for more than two decades. Nowadays, the spatial extent of Pd fallout is growing along roads, but its subsequent fate in neighboring terrestrial ecosystems has not been extensively addressed yet. Two sites representative of contrasted natural environments (field, forest) but located under similar ambient conditions were selected to isolate and analyze the specific impact of vehicular Pd, along highway A71, France. Pd impregnation was assessed along 200-m-long transects perpendicular to the highway. Contents were measured in soils, earthworms, plant communities of the right of way (ROW), and the neighboring field (crop weeds), as well as in a moss, and bramble and ivy leaves in the forest. The direct impact of Pd fallouts appears to be confined in the grassy verge of the highway: ROW soils ([Pd] = 52-65 ng g(-1)), earthworms ([Pd] = 18-38 ng g(-1)), and plant community ([Pd] = 10-23 ng g(-1)). Pd footprint is pointed out by the accumulation index calculated for earthworms and plant communities even though transfer coefficients indicate the absence of bioaccumulation (TCs organic matter. PMID:26298342

  15. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2016-01-01

    In a mini-review [Physica A {\\bf 392} (2013) 5261--5282] it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown -- a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters o...

  16. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  17. Source attributions of heavy metals in rice plant along highway in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfei; Wang, Yinxi; Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Liqun; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian

    2011-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from traffic has been considered as a critical issue to crop production and food safety, however, few efforts have been paid on distinguish the source origin of traffic-related contaminants in rice plant along highway. Therefore, we investigated metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) concentrations and stable Pb isotope ratios in rice plants exposed and unexposed to highway traffic pollution in Eastern China in 2008. Significant differences in metals concentrations between the exposed and unexposed plants existed in leaf for Pb, Cd and Zn, in stem only for Zn, and in grain for Pb and Cd. About 46% of Pb and 41% of Cd in the grain were attributed to the foliar uptake from atmosphere, and there were no obvious contribution of atmosphere to the accumulations of Cr, Zn and Cu in grain. Except for Zn, all of the heavy metals in stem were attributed to the root uptake from soil, although significant accumulations of Pb and Cd from atmosphere existed in leaf. This indicated that different processes existed in the subsequent translocation of foliar-absorbed heavy metals between rice organs. The distinct separation of stable Pb isotope ratios among rice grain, leaf, stem, soil and vehicle exhaust further provided evidences on the different pathways of heavy metal accumulation in rice plant. These results suggested that further more attentions should be paid to the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals from traffic emission when plan crop layout for food safety along highway. PMID:22125909

  18. Analytical Framework for End-to-End Delay Based on Unidirectional Highway Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinda Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sparse vehicular ad hoc network, a vehicle normally employs a carry and forward approach, where it holds the message it wants to transmit until the vehicle meets other vehicles or roadside units. A number of analyses in the literature have been done to investigate the time delay when packets are being carried by vehicles on both unidirectional and bidirectional highways. However, these analyses are focusing on the delay between either two disconnected vehicles or two disconnected vehicle clusters. Furthermore, majority of the analyses only concentrate on the expected value of the end-to-end delay when the carry and forward approach is used. Using regression analysis, we establish the distribution model for the time delay between two disconnected vehicle clusters as an exponential distribution. Consequently, a distribution is newly derived to represent the number of clusters on a highway using a vehicular traffic model. From there, we are able to formulate end-to-end delay model which extends the time delay model for two disconnected vehicle clusters to multiple disconnected clusters on a unidirectional highway. The analytical results obtained from the analytical model are then validated through simulation results.

  19. Forecasting development of the network of highways with hard surface with consideration of competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchuk Yaroslav V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article uses Lotka-Volterra equations to analyse competition between the highway and railway transportation networks and competitive ability of the network with the cement concrete and asphalt concrete road coverings. Modelling the process of development by the Lotka-Volterra equations lies in selection of parameters of the model in such a manner, so that model trajectories would be very similar to approximating trends by factual data. In accordance with the results of model forecasting of development of highway and railway networks the article makes a model forecasting of development of highway and railway networks by 2080. Within the framework of the Lotka-Volterra equations, the article conducts modelling of development of earth roads and roads with hard surface and studies competition between the roads with cement concrete and asphalt concrete road coverings (type 1, on the one hand, and road-mix and bituminous macadam roads (type 2. The article establishes that earth roads do not compete with the roads with hard surface, although this type of roads was viable in the post-war period due to its cheapness.

  20. Highway traffic segmentation using super-resolution and Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Amr Hussein; Flora, Jeff; Iftekharuddin, Khan

    2013-09-01

    One benefit of employing computer vision techniques to extract individual vehicles from a highway traffic scene is the abundance of networked, traffic surveillance cameras that may be leveraged as the input video. However, the acquisition sensors that are monitoring the highway traffic will have very limited quality. Additionally, video streams are heavily compressed, causing noise and, in some cases, visible artifacts to be introduced into the video. Further challenges are presented by external environmental and weather conditions, such as rain, fog, and snow, that cause video blurring or noise. The resulting output of a segmentation algorithm yields poorer results, with many vehicles undetected or partially detected. Our goal is to extract individual vehicles from a highway traffic scenes using super-resolution and the utilization of Gaussian mixture model algorithm (GMM). We used a speeded-up enhanced stochastic Wiener filter for SR reconstruction and restoration. It can be used to remove artifacts and enhance the visual quality of the reconstructed images and can be implemented efficiently in the frequency domain. The filter derivation depends on the continuous-discrete-continuous (CDC) model that represents most of the degradations encountered during the image-gathering and image-display processes. Then, we use GMM followed by the clustering of individual vehicles. Individual vehicles are detected from the segmented scene through the use of a series of morphological operations, followed by two-dimensional connected component labeling. We evaluate our hybrid approach quantitatively in the segmentation of the extracted vehicles.

  1. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP. This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM–4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM–8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration.

  2. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Chin-Kai; Wang, Chia C; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Mei-Ru; Lin, Ming-Yeng

    2015-11-01

    People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP). This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM-4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM-8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration. PMID:26580641

  3. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  4. Topographical changes of ground surface affected by the Tarim Desert Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shengyu; LEI Jiaqiang; XU Xinwen; WANG Lixin; ZHOU Zhibin; LI Hongzhong

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway is the longest highway crossing the mobile desert in the world. The highway and its sand protection system were established in 1995. This great project must have significant effect on the aeolian environment in its neighborhoods. In 2004, we investigated the topographic changes of ground surface within the sand protection system and its external adjacent area in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. The results showed that (i) the original topographic patterns of ground surface were greatly changed, and erosion as well as deposition was distributed clearly on the ground surface, affected by the road and its sand protection system; (ii) sediment deposited in the sand protection system gradually heightened the ground surface, but each part in the system changed differently: in the sand-blocking belt, a transverse sand ridge was formed in the same direction as the upright sand barrier; in the sand-binding belt, sediment was aggraded on the original surface in a certain thickness; at the initial stages since the establishment of the sand protection system, erosion had taken place in the un-stabilized area named by the deposition belt between the sand-blocking belt and the sand-binding belt, the inner of sand-binding belt, the windward slope of dunes in the sand-binding belt, and the neighboring leeward area of the sand protection system.

  5. ASSESSING AND MITIGATING THE IMPACTS OF DYNAMIC MESSAGE SIGNS ON HIGHWAY TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a critical component in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS of modern traffic management, dynamic message signs (DMS are widely used in many countries as an effective means to provide motorists with up-to-date information regarding accidents, congestion, road conditions and travel time, etc. However, it was observed in traffic data that motorists tended to slow down when approaching active DMSs and speed up after passing these signs. The speed variations could pose safety hazards to other motorists on highways. To gain insights into this issue and understand associated causes and risks, a human factors study was conducted to help ease the speed variation when approaching DMSs. The effect of DMS messages on traffic approaching and passing the signs were assessed by analyzing highway traffic data near DMSs. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify associated causes and risks. Participants were further surveyed about their preferences on DMS characteristics such as message category, message type, number of frames, message details, and the use of graphics. Individual drivers' responses to various DMS designs were evaluated through a simulation test. This study has provided updated knowledge regarding the effects of DMSs on highway traffic and has identified measures to improve the design and display of DMS messages to help ease the speed variation of approaching traffic.

  6. When the birds go unheard: highway noise disrupts information transfer between bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Aaron M; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-04-01

    Highway infrastructure and accompanying vehicle noise is associated with decreased wildlife populations in adjacent habitats. Noise masking of animal communication is an oft-cited potential mechanism underlying species loss in sound-polluted habitats. This study documents the disruption of between-species information transfer by anthropogenic noise. Titmice and chickadees broadcast specific calls to alert kin of predator threats, and sympatric vertebrates eavesdrop on these alarm calls to avoid predators. We tested if tufted titmouse alarm call eavesdropping by northern cardinals is disrupted by road noise. We broadcast recorded alarm calls to cardinals in natural areas near and far from highways. Cardinals reliably produced predator avoidance responses in quiet trials, but all birds in noisy areas failed to respond, demonstrating that highway noise is loud enough to disrupt this type of survival-related information via masking or cognitive distraction. Birds in family Paridae are abundant, highly social and vocal residents of woodlands across the Holarctic whose alarm calls are used by many species to mediate predation risks. Our work suggests that communication network disruption is likely to be widespread, and could help explain the pattern of reduced biodiversity near roadways. PMID:27095267

  7. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. PMID:23333845

  8. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Künzli Nino; Ragettli Martina S; Schindler Christian; Hazenkamp-von Arx Marianne E; Braun-Fahrländer Charlotte; Liu Lee-Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Most studies having shown respiratory health effects from traffic exhaust were conducted in urban areas with a complex mixture of air pollution sources. This study has investigated the potential impact of traffic exhaust on respiratory symptoms among adults living along a Swiss alpine highway corridor, where traffic exhaust from the respective trans-Alpine highway is the predominate source of air pollution. Methods In summer 2005, we recruited 1839 adults aged 15 to 70 fro...

  9. Synthesis Study on Use of Concrete Recycled from Pavement and Building Rubble in the Indiana Highway System

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Thomas T.; Cohen, Menashi D.; Scholer, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The demolition of buildings and highway pavements in the State of Indiana generates a considerable amount of waste materials. The disposal of these materials causes strain on the existing landfills which are rapidly approaching their full capacity. This study is a synthesis of the information on the use of concrete recycled from pavements and building rubble for use in the Indiana highway system. Test results have shown that recycled pavement concrete made chiefly from broken-up and crushed o...

  10. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Ting-Hua Yi; Zhen-Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The ...

  11. New Highways, House Prices, and Urban Development: A Case Study of Toll Roads in Orange County, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Chalermpong, Saksith

    2003-01-01

    We examine the link between highways and urban development by employing both hedonic analysis and multiple sales techniques to study the impact of the construction of toll roads in Orange County, California, on house prices. Urban economic theory predicts that if highways improve accessibility, that accessibility premium will be reflected in higher land prices. Our empirical analysis of house sales prices provide strong evidence that the toll roads, the Foothill Transportation Corrid...

  12. The Influence of the Recommended LRFD Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Highway Bridges on Virginia Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Widjaja, Matius Andy

    2003-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF THE RECOMMENDED LRFD GUIDELINES FOR THE SEISMIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES ON VIRGINIA BRIDGES by Matius A. Widjaja Committee Chairwoman: Prof. Carin Roberts-Wollmann Civil Engineering (ABSTRACT) The influence of the recommended LRFD Guidelines for the seismic design of highway bridges in Virginia was investigated by analyzing two existing bridges. The first bridge has prestressed concrete girders and is located in the Richmond area. The second bridge has...

  13. Citizen, Science, Highways, and Wildlife: Using a Web-based GIS to Engage Citizens in Collecting Wildlife Information

    OpenAIRE

    Danah Duke; Quinn, Michael S; Tracy Lee

    2006-01-01

    Road Watch in the Pass is a citizen-science project that engages local citizens in reporting wildlife observations along a 44-km stretch of Highway 3 through Crowsnest Pass in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The numbers of wildlife vehicle collisions and a recent proposal to expand the highway have raised concerns from both human safety and wildlife conservation perspectives. Through the use of a web-based GIS, interested citizens can contribute information that will be instrumental in making f...

  14. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India

    OpenAIRE

    N. Baskaran; D. Boominathan

    2010-01-01

    Highways passing through natural reserves have adverse impact on wild animals. We evaluated the road kill of vertebrate fauna by vehicular traffic on highways at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. In a fortnight’s survey over 248km across three public roads and opportunistic sampling method, a minimum of 180 road kills belonging to 40 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were recorded between December 1998 and March 1999. Amphibians were the most affected taxa (53%) of roa...

  15. STRUCTURE AND PARAMETER MODELLING OF PROCESSES OF CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN THE SPACE OF NEAR-HIGHWAY STRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vl. P. Pоdolsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Insufficiently complete and accurate results of evaluating the envi-ronment parameters of the operation of road and transport systems heavily impact the material and financial resources. Developing the method of evaluating and forecasting transport pollution in near-highway strips based on convective and diffusive theory of transfer processes enables a more correct determination of contaminant release in near-highway strips, calculation of a concentration field in a horizontal and vertical planes of influence zones of highways and project solutions to reduce an actual concentration of contaminants to a maximum low.Results and conclusions. The main problem to be addressed was a mathematical modeling of momentary emission sources moving on highways with a local emission power of contaminants. Theoretical generalization and systemic solution of the problem of complex evaluation and fore-casting transport pollution of the influence zone of highways based on convective and diffusive theory of transfer processes allows one to establish analytical relations to determine emissions and concentration of contaminants in near-highway strips.

  16. Application of multi-temporal landform analysis in landslide susceptibility assessment for mountainous highway - a case study in southeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Xuan, Jian; Wei-Kai, Huang; Po-Shen, Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study divided a coastal mountainous highway into small sections with slope unit, plot the multi-temporal landslide inventories, and analyze the relationships between the revegetation areas of the existing landslide and newly activated landslide to calculate landslide status Index (LSI). The RI represents the multi-temporal status of landslide status in each slope unit; three statuses and their representing colors were defined in this study. Red representing slope unit with continuously landslides, yellow for those with previous landslide but stable and revegetating, green are those without landslides. The regression lines became one of the parameters in establishing landslide status map. The study area, 407K to 439K of Provincial Highway No. 9, located in southeastern Taiwan and is the most important transport corridor connecting southern Taiwan and the east coast. In 2009 this mountainous highway was hit by Typhoon Morakot and several landslides, debris slides were triggered in the study area. The debris blocked the traffic and residential communities alone the highway became isolated. To this date some section of the highway still suffer from landslide hazard and transportation had to be temporarily interrupted during some occasions. The landslide status map of this transport corridor was established combining the result of field investigation, remote sensing interpretation, and the regression lines of LSI. The preliminary result shows that out of the 258 slope units, 13 (5%) showing continuous landslides, 44 (17%) became stable and revegetating. The result of this study could provide better information for mountainous highway safety management.

  17. Persistent trigeminal artery arising from the arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2012-09-01

    A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, usually arising from the cavernous or precavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and connecting to the distal basilar artery. There are two types of PTA, lateral and medial. We present the first case of a lateral-type PTA arising from the large arterial ring/fenestration of the cavernous segment of the left ICA with findings from both magnetic resonance angiography and selective catheter angiography. PMID:22215430

  18. Development of highway constructing technology in the permafrost region on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Highway passes through the Qinghai-Tibet plateau hinterland from north to south, from Kunlun Mountain to Tanggula Mountain. The average altitude is above 4500 m and permafrost covers more than 700 km length of area with high elevation and high temperature. The climate of the plateau is capricious and the surroundings along the road are bad, where the mean annual atmosphere temperature is -2 to -7℃ and the oxygen content is inadequate, which is less than 50% of the sea level, while the solar radiation is higher than 3600 kJ/m2. The basic characteristics of the plateau surroundings are the permafrost, coldness with litter oxygen, and fragile ecosystem. As the air temperature warms all over the world, the permafrost on the plateau responds quickly. The average temperature of permafrost is up by 0.2―0.3℃ in recent 20 years, and the island-permafrost dwindles with a high rate, and the high temperature permafrost degrades quickly, and the temperature of the low temperature permafrost increases remarkably. These gradually cause the highway engineering diseases in the permafrost region. The Qinghai-Tibet highway has experienced much maintenance and rebuilding for 50 years after it was built, and the continual observation and investigation have been made for more than 30 years. This road is the longest test engineering for permafrost research work in China. It is no doubt that it is also the greatest engineering project in plateau permafrost region. The Ministry of Communication in China initiated the research project "Research on a series of technologies for highway constructing in the permafrost regions" in 2002, which was to meet the challenges from the effect of climatic warming on the permafrost. The project systematically studied the permafrost engineering theories, methods for survey and design, engineering stabilization measures, preventing of the road disasters and maintaining, environment protection and the techniques to prolong the road

  19. Development of highway constructing technology in the permafrost region on the Qinshai-Tibet plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShuangJie; CHEN JianBing; ZHANG JinZhao; LI ZhuLong

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Highway passes through the Qinghai-Tibet plateau hinterland from north to south, from Kunlun Mountain to Tanggula Mountain. The average altitude is above 4500 m and permafrost covers more than 700 km length of area with high elevation and high temperature. The climate of the plateau is capricious and the surroundings along the road are bad, where the mean annual atmosphere temperature is -2 to -7℃ and the oxygen content is inadequate, which is less than 50% of the sea level, while the solar radiation is higher than 3600 kJ/m2. The basic characteristics of the plateau surround-ings are the permafrost, coldness with litter oxygen, and fragile ecosystem. As the air temperature warms all over the world, the permafrost on the plateau responds quickly. The average temperature of permafrost is up by 0.2-0.3℃ in recent 20 years, and the island-permafrost dwindles with a high rate,and the high temperature permafrost degrades quickly, and the temperature of the low temperature permafrost increases remarkably. These gradually cause the highway engineering diseases in the permafrost region. The Qinghai-Tibet highway has experienced much maintenance and rebuilding for 50 years after it was built, and the continual observation and investigation have been made for more than 30 years. This road is the longest test engineering for permafrost research work in China. It is no doubt that it is also the greatest engineering project in plateau permafrost region. The Ministry of Communication in China initiated the research project "Research on a series of technologies for highway constructing in the permafrost regions" in 2002, which was to meet the challenges from the effect of climatic warming on the permafrost. The project systematically studied the permafrost engi- neering theories, methods for survey and design, engineering stabilization measures, preventing of the road disasters and maintaining, environment protection and the techniques to prolong the road

  20. Persistent primitive trigeminal artery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Waleed; Delashaw, Johnny; Mohammed, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The trigeminal artery is the largest of the fetal carotid-basilar anastomotic arteries, and it persists for the longest embryonic period. The artery usually involutes after the development of the posterior communicating artery. The exact causes of persistence of this primitive vessel into adulthood are not completely clear. Angiographic and anatomical descriptions of the various persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) configurations and their relation to the remainder of the cerebrovascular tree and the other surrounding structures have been reported. Persistent trigeminal artery can be associated with many other vascular anomalies and disorders including aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and carotid-cavernous fistulae. A thorough understanding of the anatomical and angiographic features of this persistent embryonic arterial channel is of utmost importance when making therapeutic decisions and embarking on surgical or endovascular intervention for any pertinent pathological condition. We review the embryology, angiographic features, microsurgical anatomy and associated vascular anomalies and disorders of the persistent trigeminal artery. PMID:22843453

  1. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as this. Come up. We have this 21 French cardio arterial cannula for arterial profusion. On this right side, this is the 25 French quick-draw Venus cardiac visions cannula as well, ...

  2. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Great Arteries Overview Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a rare but serious congenital (present at ... P. Goldberg, MD Causes of TGA Causes of TGA Congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the ...

  3. Renal artery stenosis due to neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Malav Ishwar; Kothari S

    2009-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy with hypertension due to renal artery stenosis and neurofibromatosis type 1 is presented for its rarity. Renal artery stenosis due to neurofibromatosis is underrecognized and may masquerade Takayasu′s arteritis in Asian children.

  4. Anomalous origin of left vertebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Vidya Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery arises from the upper surface of the first part of subclavian artery on both sides. The morphological variations of the vertebral artery are of immense importance in surgery, angiography and all non-invasive procedures. During the routine dissection of a male cadaver aged about 65 years, we observed a variation in the branching of arch of aorta. The arch of aorta gave off four branches-brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA, left vertebral artery (LVA and left subclavian artery. LVA was arising between left CCA and left subclavian artery.The knowledge of variations in the vertebral artery is of great clinical interest to the neurosurgeon and radiologist for diagnostic investigation and surgical procedures of the neck.

  5. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  6. Moyamoya disease associated with an anterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from a persistent trigeminal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan); Koizumi, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors present a case of moyamoya disease associated with a persistent trigeminal artery from which the anterior inferior cerebellar artery arose. We reviewed previously reported cases of moyamoya disease associated with persistent carotid-basilar arterial anastomosis and investigated the embryology of this rare arterial variation. (orig.)

  7. Cardioembolic occlusion of the internal carotid artery presented with infarction in the posterior cerebral artery territory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Su-fang; JIA Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ Posterior circulation stroke may rarely be associated with occlusive disease in the anterior circulation, such as in the context of a direct (fetal) origin of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA), or in the presence of a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) or persistent hypoglossal artery (PHA).1,2

  8. Phrenic Nerve Injury during Coronary Artery Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Guinn, Gene A.; Beall, Arthur C.; Lamki, Neela; Heibig, Jacques; Thornby, John

    1990-01-01

    After coronary artery bypass, some patients have diaphragmatic elevation, usually on the left side. To test our hypothesis that this phenomenon is due to phrenic nerve injury resulting from either 1) dissection of the proximal portion of the left internal mammary artery or 2) topical cooling of the heart with icy slush, we performed the following 2-part study. First, we reviewed our hospital records of 99 coronary artery bypass patients, 55 of whom had received left internal mammary artery gr...

  9. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least ri...

  10. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; D’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramur...

  11. The Highway Flow in the Craters of the Moon Lava Field; A New Interpretation of Eruption History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, M. E.; Owen, D. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Highway flow is a trachyandesitic lava flow that lies west of Sunset Cone in the Craters of the Moon lava field, and is part of a complex series of eruptive events that took place in the vicinity of North Crater during the most recent eruptive episode of the field (2,500-2,000 years ago). The trachyandesitic Devil's Orchard and Serrate flows originated from the same vicinity during this period, and carried large masses of rafted cinder cone blocks and disaggregated cinder cone material up to 12 km to the east. The rafted blocks have long been thought to be the remnants of a disintegrating North Crater cinder cone. However, recent work has established that the flows carry a cumulative volume of rafted blocks too large to have come from the existing breach in North Crater. Previous studies had postulated the Highway flow vent to be on the north side of North Crater, and suggested the lava had flowed north, and later drained back to the south when the Highway fault downdropped the vent area. This study examined lava flow characteristics and flow direction indicators based on flow fold patterns interpreted from aerial photographs and field mapping to provide new insight into the complicated history of the Highway flow. We found two vents on the northern side of the flow, and evidence that the lava flowed to the south and ponded against a formerly present cinder cone, which we have named "South Highway Cone". The following sequence of events for eruption of the Highway flow is hypothesized: 1) eruption from two linear vent systems in the northern part of the present day flow 2) flow from the second vent southward, down the valley between Sunset and Grassy Cones 3) ponding of the lava flow at the base of the South Highway Cone and 4) downdrop to the south along the Highway fault due to collapse into a lava chamber beneath South Highway Cone. The rafted blocks in the Devil's Orchard and Serrate flows represent pieces of North Crater and the now hypothesized South

  12. A single coronary artery with the right coronary artery originating from the left anterior descending artery detected by cardiac CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The right coronary artery arising from the left anterior descending artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly. In a 56 year old female, an anomaly with the right coronary artery, originating from the left anterior descending artery, coursing anteriorly to the pulmonary artery was detected by cardiac CT. Therefore, we hereby report a case of the single left coronary artery diagnosed by a 64 slice multidetector cardiac CT

  13. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And the bypass vessel is the so-called “internal mammary artery.” That’s an artery, as opposed to ... you very much. -- while I’m preparing the internal mammary artery for bypass. Good. All right. We ...

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  15. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

  16. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other

  17. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  18. Bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Davinia; Murphy, Sinead M; Hennessey, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with short-term memory impairment and a homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia secondary to simultaneous bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory infarction. As in more than a quarter of cases of PCA

  19. Management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with a high mortality. Management of this disease is underpinned by supportive and general therapies delivered by multidisciplinary teams in specialist centres. In recent years, a number of PAH-specific therapies have improved patient outcomes. This article will discuss the management of PAH in the context of relevant recently published studies in this area.

  20. Giant superior mesenteric artery aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Temiz, Ahmet; Bostan, Mehmet; Şatıroğlu, Ömer; Çetin, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Engin

    2011-01-01

    Aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare condition and most of them are symptomatic. Gradu­ally increasing abdominal pain, intestinal ischemic symp­toms and rupture are the most common symptoms. We herein report a giant SMA aneurysm detected in a patient with complaint of abdominal discomfort.

  1. Deep plantar arteries of some mammals, with special reference to the plantar metatarsal arteries.

    OpenAIRE

    Horie,Masashi; Murakami,Takuro; Kikuta,Akio

    1988-01-01

    The plantar metatarsal arteries of some mammals were studied. In the dog, raccoon dog and cat, the second proximal perforating branch was fully developed and produced the plantar metatarsal arteries. These plantar metatarsal arteries ran on the plantar surfaces of the interosseous muscles along the metatarsal bones or intermetatarsal spaces, and gave rise to the digital arteries of the second to fifth toes. In the rabbit, a branch of the medial plantar artery ran transversely on the plantar s...

  2. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  3. Endovascular rescue from arterial rupture and thrombosis during middle cerebral artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravascular stents are being used with increasing frequency in interventional neuroradiology. Iatrogenic arterial rupture is an uncommon but serious complication. We present a case of arterial rupture and subarachnoid haemorrhage during middle cerebral artery stenting, treated by emergency additional, overlapping stenting and balloon tamponade of the dissected vessel. Thrombotic occlusion of the artery was managed by intra-arterial abciximab. Normal vessel patency was re-established within 20 min and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  4. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  5. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  6. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  7. 中国公路自然区划的回顾与展望%Review and prospect about China natural regionalization for highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗英豪; 王秉纲

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s,research on natural regionalization for highway was set out in China.This paper reviews its history and introduces the relative research in other countries.Based on the comparative analysis of the different research angles among different countries,suggestions about the future work are offered.The relations between physiographical indexes and the indexes directly related with highway engineering are suggested to be studied and the basic data for highway be tested and collected all over the country.These works will be of help to the guidance of regionalization for highway engineering.And the impact of highway on the geographical environment should also be considered in highway natural regionalization.

  8. Determination of arterial wall shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The arteries can remodel their structure and function to adapt themselves to the mechanical environment. In various factors that lead to vascular remodeling, the shear stress on the arterial wall induced by the blood flow is of great importance. However, there are many technique difficulties in measuring the wall shear stress directly at present. In this paper, through analyzing the pulsatile blood flow in arteries, a method has been proposed that can determine the wall shear stress quantitatively by measuring the velocity on the arterial axis, and that provides a necessary means to discuss the influence of arterial wall shear stress on vascular remodeling.

  9. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  10. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time. PMID:27447060

  11. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ''state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ''lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations

  12. The blown sand disaster to the Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Jiaqiang(雷加强); WANG; Xueqin(王雪芹); WANG; De(王德); ZHOU; Changhai(周长海); XIA; Xuncheng(夏训诚)

    2002-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China, the longest one in the world, has a lengthof 562 km, about 80% of which runs across, from north to south, the Taklimakan Desert. Obviously,the main problem of the road maintenance is the blown sand disaster. The research resultsshowed: (1) the physical environment along thedesert highway is characterized by strong winds,fine and loose ground materials, different dunes and so on, which provides the dynamical conditionand material source for the formation of blown sand disaster to the road and its shelter system.Meanwhile, the trend and cross-section of the road and the structure of the shelter system, asdamage objects, play important roles in the formation process of blown sand disaster; (2) theblown sand disaster to the shelter system is original from the intrusion of the drift sands and mobiledunes outside the shelter system, and the wind erosion and sand deposit caused by the air streamchanges on the ground in the shelter system. The main damage object in the Tarim Desert High-way is the shelter system presently. The damage forms include wind erosion, sand burying anddune covering; and (3) the damaged length of the blocking sand fences is 83.7%, 88.4%, 72.4%,72.8% and 40.3% and the damaged area of the straw checkerboard belts is 73.1%, 58.2%, 44.5%,35.4% and 36.6%, in turn, in 5 different landform units from north to south, and, the disasters tofences and the straw checkerboard belts are 79.5% and 57.6% in the compound dunes while theyare 64.6% and 37.7% in the interdunes respectively.

  13. Validation of the transportation computer codes HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer codes HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND were used to estimate radiation doses from the transportation of radioactive material in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement. HIGHWAY and INTERLINE were used to estimate transportation routes for truck and rail shipments, respectively. RADTRAN 4 was used to estimate collective doses from incident-free transportation and the risk (probability x consequence) from transportation accidents. RISKIND was used to estimate incident-free radiation doses for maximally exposed individuals and the consequences from reasonably foreseeable transportation accidents. The purpose of this analysis is to validate the estimates made by these computer codes; critiques of the conceptual models used in RADTRAN 4 are also discussed. Validation is defined as ''the test and evaluation of the completed software to ensure compliance with software requirements.'' In this analysis, validation means that the differences between the estimates generated by these codes and independent observations are small (i.e., within the acceptance criterion established for the validation analysis). In some cases, the independent observations used in the validation were measurements; in other cases, the independent observations used in the validation analysis were generated using hand calculations. The results of the validation analyses performed for HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, RADTRAN 4, and RISKIND show that the differences between the estimates generated using the computer codes and independent observations were small. Based on the acceptance criterion established for the validation analyses, the codes yielded acceptable results; in all cases the estimates met the requirements for successful validation

  14. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  15. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  16. Impact of Cylinder Deactivation on Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration at Highway Cruise Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xueting; Ding, Chuan; Ramesh, Aswin K.; Shaver, Gregory M.; Holloway, Eric; McCarthy, James; Ruth, Michael; Koeberlein, Edward; Nielsen, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty over-the-road trucks require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to clean the filter of stored particulate matter. These events require sustained temperatures between 500 and 600°C to complete the regeneration process. Engine operation during typical 65 mile/h highway cruise conditions (1200 rpm/7.6 bar) results in temperatures of approximately 350°C, and can reach approximately 420°C with late fuel injection. This necessitates hydrocarbon fueling of a diesel oxi...

  17. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Zhang, Lingmi

    2007-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification o...... objective is to show the application of the FDD method as an efficient way to perform health monitoring of civil engineering structures. The modal properties, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes for the different damage cases were compared with those for the undamaged bridge....

  18. Modal Identification and Damage Detection on a Concrete Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P; Zhang, L.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of a research project co-founded by the European Community, a series of 15 damage tests were performed on a prestressed concrete highway bridge in Switzerland. The ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. A dense array of instruments allowed the identification of a modal model with a total of 408 degrees of freedom. Six modes were identified in the frequency range from 0 to 16.7 Hz. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Frequ...

  19. Usability of Limestone Aggregate Extracted in Göller Region as Highway Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Altan Yılmaz; Mehmet Saltan; Alev Akıllı

    2012-01-01

    In this research some aggregate samples obtaining from Göller region was examined to investigate the usability of limestone as highway materials. For this reason, three quarries including Gümüşgün quarry at the north part of Isparta, Çine at the south part of Burdur and Dağbeli at the north part of Antalya city are visited and the relevant samples are collected. Sieve test, lose density test, specific gravity and water absorption test, freezethaw test, micro-Deval test and aggregate impact va...

  20. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)