WorldWideScience

Sample records for arterial blood pressure

  1. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. Harmonics tracking of intracranial and arterial blood pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Sima; McKelvey, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Considering cardiorespiratory interaction and heart rate variability, a new approach is proposed to decompose intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure to their different harmonics. The method is based on tracking the amplitudes of the harmonics by a Kalman filter based tracking algorithm. The algorithm takes benefit of combined frequency estimation technique which uses both Fast Fourier Transform and RR-interval detection. The result would be of use in intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure waveform analysis as well as other investigations which need to estimate contribution of specific harmonic in above mentioned signals such as Pressure-Volume Compensatory Reserve assessment.

  3. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P reduction in blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  4. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  5. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF THE BLOOD CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangMengcai; GuZhong; HangWenjing; ZhongQuan; TangFuyong

    1990-01-01

    Describe some new fully automatic instruments for the measurements of the blood capillary pressure (Pcap) and arterial elastic properties in human fingers using a photoelectric plethysmographic technique, With these instruments, the value of Pcap was in good agreement with those reported by other investigators, the arterial elastic properties in human fingers have been successfully measured. The measurements of Pcap and arterial elasticity are now required in clinics because they provide useful and important information for evaluating vascular haemodynamics.

  7. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures......Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  8. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  9. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  10. Impact of blood pressure perturbations on arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisok; Pearman, Miriam E; Park, Wonil; Alkatan, Mohammed; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-12-15

    Although the associations between chronic levels of arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) have been fairly well studied, it is not clear whether and how much arterial stiffness is influenced by acute perturbations in BP. The primary aim of this study was to determine magnitudes of BP dependence of various measures of arterial stiffness during acute BP perturbation maneuvers. Fifty apparently healthy subjects, including 25 young (20-40 yr) and 25 older adults (60-80 yr), were studied. A variety of BP perturbations, including head-up tilt, head-down tilt, mental stress, isometric handgrip exercise, and cold pressor test, were used to encompass BP changes induced by physical, mental, and/or mechanical stimuli. When each index of arterial stiffness was plotted with mean BP, all arterial stiffness indices, including cardio-ankle vascular index or CAVI (r = 0.50), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity or cfPWV (r = 0.51), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity or baPWV (r = 0.61), arterial compliance (r = -0.42), elastic modulus (r = 0.52), arterial distensibility (r = -0.32), β-stiffness index (r = 0.19), and Young's modulus (r = 0.35) were related to mean BP (all P modulus were significantly associated with changes in mean BP in the pooled conditions, while changes in arterial compliance, arterial distensibility, β-stiffness index, and Young's modulus were not. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BP changes in response to various forms of pressor stimuli were associated with the corresponding changes in arterial stiffness indices and that the strengths of associations with BP varied widely depending on what arterial stiffness indices were examined.

  11. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  12. Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Komine Hidehiko; Asai Yoshiyuki; Yokoi Takashi; Yoshizawa Mutsuko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes ...

  14. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, ...

  15. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, N C B B; Munch, I C; Sander, B;

    2008-01-01

    dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and retinal arterial tortuosity, using a three-level grading scale (straight, wavy, tortuous). Heritability...... factors accounting for the remaining 18% (CI(95 )8, 36%). Increasing values of mean arterial blood pressure and body mass index were both associated with decreasing levels of retinal arterial tortuosity. CONCLUSION: There was a large variation in tortuosity of retinal arteries in these healthy subjects...

  16. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  17. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  18. Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komine Hidehiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial stiffness is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Because current methods of measuring arterial stiffness are technically demanding, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating arterial stiffness using oscillometric blood pressure measurement. Methods Blood pressure was conventionally measured in the left upper arm of 173 individuals using an inflatable cuff. Using the time series of occlusive cuff pressure and the amplitudes of pulse oscillations, we calculated local slopes of the curve between the decreasing cuff pressure and corresponding arterial volume. Whole pressure-volume curve was derived from numerical integration of the local slopes. The curve was fitted using an equation and we identified a numerical coefficient of the equation as an index of arterial stiffness (Arterial Pressure-volume Index, API. We also measured brachial-ankle (baPWV PWV and carotid-femoral (cfPWV PWV using a vascular testing device and compared the values with API. Furthermore, we assessed carotid arterial compliance using ultrasound images to compare with API. Results The slope of the calculated pressure-volume curve was steeper for compliant (low baPWV or cfPWV than stiff (high baPWV or cfPWV arteries. API was related to baPWV (r = -0.53, P r = -0.49, P r = 0.32, P Conclusions These results suggest that our method can simply and simultaneously evaluate arterial stiffness and blood pressure based on oscillometric measurements of blood pressure.

  19. Indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure: physiotherapists’ theoretical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Morgana Vieira de Assis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure checking and its theoretical knowledge are crucial to obtain reliable data in clinical examination. Although it is considered a simple technique to be learned and applied, it is not fully dealt with at physiotherapy university courses. Therefore, a wide range of mistakes and misinterpretations are likely to threaten treatment quality. This work aims to evaluate the theory background of physiotherapists for blood pressure measurement. From June to October 2002, 55 physiotherapists answered a 20- question multiple-choice questionnaire on general knowledge related to concepts, anatomy and physiology, suitable equipment, indirect measurement, blood pressure values, mistakes and misinterpretation factors related to blood pressure measurement. The results disclose faulty theory concepts in the sample studied, indicating the need of deeper approach to this complex theme during course and ongoing updating of professionals.

  20. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  1. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis--their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350

  2. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  3. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  4. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  5. A new noninvasive device for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring in the superficial temporal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous recording of arterial blood pressure (ABP) has many applications in cardiovascular physiology, but existing alternatives rely on measurements performed in the fingers or radial artery. Peripheral recordings have significant differences from central ABP regarding the pattern of the waveform and corresponding systolic and diastolic values. To address the need for noninvasive measurements closer to the ascending aorta, a new device was constructed to measure ABP in the superficial temporal artery (STA) using photoplethysmography and the arterial volume clamping technique. The optoelectronic circuitry to generate the photoplethysmogram is contained in a specially designed probe placed over the STA and kept in place with a head frame. The prototype (STAbp) also includes original designs for the pneumatic, electronic, signal processing, control and display sub-systems. A self-calibration feature regularly updates the photoplethysmogram operating point to improve accuracy. The performance of the STAbp was compared against the Finapres in 19 healthy subjects. At rest, the bias (SDd) was −23.1 (15.05), −10.8 (13.83) and −12.4 (12.93) mmHg for systolic, mean and diastolic pressures respectively, without significant differences in drift between the two devices. The 99% bandwidth (SD) for the spectral distribution of ABP waveforms was 5.3 (1.46) Hz for STAbp and 6.8 (0.73) Hz for the Finapres (p < 0.01). Handgrip manoeuvre showed a very similar response to the Finapres, including the rapid return to baseline on release. The new STAbp device has considerable potential as a new tool for clinical and research applications where continuous recording of more central ABP is advantageous compared to peripheral alternatives. (paper)

  6. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls) were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher...

  7. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s−1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  8. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Gu Choi; Keun-Ho Kim; Woo-Beom Lee; Dong-Hyun Nam; Il-Ho Son; You-Sik Hong; Sang-Suk Lee

    2011-01-01

    To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The...

  9. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Henry; Pott, F; Knudsen, L.;

    1997-01-01

    original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler......original,arterial blood pressure,central venous pressure,cerebral blood flow, exercise, transcranial Doppler...

  10. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  11. Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Baruch, Martin C; Kalantari, Kambiz; Gerdt, David W; Adkins, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes. The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA’s premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five ...

  12. Carotid arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Seo; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Hae-Seung Lee; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform monitoring technique using ultrasound. A portable ultrasound system to excite ultrasound transducers and acquire data is designed with off-the-shelf components. The insonation angles are identified using a vector Doppler technique based on the cosine dependency of the Doppler signals. The pulse pressure of an estimated waveform at the left common carotid artery is compared to the standard sphygmomanometer measurement in a clinical test. The estimated carotid ABP waveform shows excellent agreement to the finger ABP waveform with expected discrepancy of the systolic peak shape due to different measurement sites. The proposed method also tracks slow blood pressure fluctuations. This validation on human subjects shows potential for a noninvasive blood pressure waveform monitoring device at central arterial sites. PMID:26737584

  13. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  14. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  15. Arterial blood pressure regulation following aorta clamping and declamping during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Manuela; Aletti, Federico; Toschi, Nicola; Canichella, Antonio; Coniglione, Filadelfo; Sabato, Elisabetta; Della Badia Giussi, Florencia; Dauri, Mario; Sabato, Alessandro F; Guerrisi, Maria; Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of black box models for the system identification of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of arterial resistance and of ventricular contractility and of arterial baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) from invasive, continuous measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and central venous pressure (CVP), and non invasive, continuous recordings of ECG and respiration. Two crucial phases of the abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) repair were investigated: the clamping and declamping of aorta. The objective of the present work is to evaluate and to test the ability to monitor baroreflex responses to clamping and declamping maneuvers preceding and following aneurism removal. PMID:22256303

  16. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland–Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (RSpearman = 0.92, p < 0.001; bias = −0.04; lower and upper limits of agreement: −0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity

  17. Evaluation of the cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index using non-invasive finapres arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, M; Schmidt, E; Kim, D J; Haubrich, C; Czosnyka, Z; Smielewski, P; Czosnyka, M

    2010-09-01

    A pressure reactivity index (PRx) can be assessed in patients with continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) as a moving correlation coefficient between slow fluctuations of these two signals within a low frequency bandwidth. The study aimed to investigate whether the invasive ABP monitoring can be replaced with non-invasive measurement of ABP using a Finapres plethysmograph (fABP) to calculate the fPRx. There is a well-defined group of patients, suffering from hydrocephalus and undergoing CSF pressure monitoring, which may benefit from such a measurement. 41 simultaneous day-by-day monitoring of ICP, ABP and fABP were performed for about 30 min in 10 head injury patients. A Bland-Altman assessment for agreement was used to compare PRx and fPRx calculations. Performance metrics and the McNemary test were used to determine whether fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functioning and disturbed cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. The fPRx correlated with PRx (R(Spearman) = 0.92, p agreement: -0.26 and 0.17, respectively). The fPRx distinguished between active and passive reactivity in more than 89% cases. The fPRx can be used with care for assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients for whom invasive ABP measurement is not feasible. The fPRx is sensitive enough to distinguish between functional and deranged reactivity. PMID:20664157

  18. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William;

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... mmHg, half had arterial lesions proximal to the groin. None had diabetes. Fourteen per cent non-diabetic patients had chronic ulcerations on the foot with arterial lesions similar to those in patients with rest pain. Eleven per cent diabetic patients with chronic ulcerations had less pronounced...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....

  19. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. (paper)

  20. A pitfall in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in the ischaemic limb during elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    kept at 10 mmHg during elevation. In these patients, the increase in vascular resistance was significantly less compared with the situation in which venous pressure was 0 mmHg during elevation. The arterial pressure still did not decrease. It is concluded that perfusion pressure in the ischaemic lower......In order to evaluate if elevation of the ischaemic limb above heart level is an alternative to the conventionally applied method with external counterpressure for estimation of skin perfusion pressure, femoral and popliteal artery pressures were measured directly in eight patients with occlusion...... of the superficial femoral artery. The measurements were done in the horizontal position and during elevation of the calf above heart level. During elevation relative blood flow, measured by arterio-venous oxygen saturation differences, decreased compared with the horizontal position. In contrast the popliteal...

  1. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to...

  2. Arterial dysfunction but maintained systemic blood pressure in cavin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Swärd

    Full Text Available Caveolae are omega-shaped plasma membrane micro-domains that are abundant in cells of the vascular system. Formation of caveolae depends on caveolin-1 and cavin-1 and lack of either protein leads to loss of caveolae. Mice with caveolin-1 deficiency have dysfunctional blood vessels, but whether absence of cavin-1 similarly leads to vascular dysfunction is not known. Here we addressed this hypothesis using small mesenteric arteries from cavin-1-deficient mice. Cavin-1-reporter staining was intense in mesenteric arteries, brain arterioles and elsewhere in the vascular system, with positive staining of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Arterial expression of cavin-1, -2 and -3 was reduced in knockout (KO arteries as was expression of caveolin-1, -2 and -3. Caveolae were absent in the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of small mesenteric arteries as determined by electron microscopy. Arginase, a negative regulator of nitric oxide production, was elevated in cavin-1 deficient arteries as was contraction in response to the α1-adrenergic agonist cirazoline. Detailed assessment of vascular dimensions revealed increased media thickness and reduced distensibility, arguing that enhanced contraction was due to increased muscle mass. Contrasting with increased α1-adrenergic contraction, myogenic tone was essentially absent and this appeared to be due in part to increased nitric oxide production. Vasomotion was less frequent in the knock-out vessels. In keeping with the opposing influences on arterial resistance of increased agonist-induced contractility and reduced myogenic tone, arterial blood pressure was unchanged in vivo. We conclude that deficiency of cavin-1 affects the function of small arteries, but that opposing influences on arterial resistance balance each other such that systemic blood pressure in unstressed mice is well maintained.

  3. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  4. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  5. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  6. Energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure for powering embedded brain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Aditya; Karami, M. Amin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates energy harvesting from arterial blood pressure via the piezoelectric effect by using a novel streaked cylinder geometry for the purpose of powering embedded micro-sensors in the brain. Initially, we look at the energy harvested by a piezoelectric cylinder placed inside an artery acted upon by blood pressure. Such an arrangement would be tantamount to constructing a stent out of piezoelectric materials. A stent is a cylinder placed in veins and arteries to prevent obstruction in blood flow. The governing equations of a conductor coated piezoelectric cylinder are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Pressure acting in arteries is radially directed and this is used to simplify the modal analysis and obtain the transfer function relating pressure to the induced voltage across the surface of the harvester. The power harvested by the cylindrical harvester is obtained for different shunt resistances. Radially directed pressure occurs elsewhere and we also look at harvesting energy from oil flow in pipelines. Although the energy harvested by the cylindrical energy harvester is significant at resonance, the natural frequency of the system is found to be very high. To decrease the natural frequency, we propose a novel streaked stent design by cutting it along the length, transforming it to a curved plate and decreasing the natural frequency. The governing equations corresponding to the new geometry are derived using Hamilton's principle and modal analysis is used to obtain the transfer function.

  7. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  8. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline.

  9. The accuracy of blood pressure measured by arterial line and non-invasive cuff in critically ill children

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Rachel; Duff, Jonathan; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Pugh, Jodie; Ari R. Joffe

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of arterial lines (AL) using the flush test or stopcock test has not been described in children, nor has the difference between invasive arterial blood pressure (IABP) versus non-invasive cuff (NIBP) blood pressure. Methods After ethics approval and consent, we performed the flush test and stopcock test on AL (to determine over damping, under damping, and optimal damping), and determined the difference (NIBP–IABP) in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (ΔSBP, ...

  10. Mechanisms underlying phase lag between systemic arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Wong, Wen-Jang; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms underlying the phase lag between oscillations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), ABP and CBFV signals were recorded noninvasively from normal volunteers who lay quietly in a supine position. Mean ABP (MAP) and CBFV (MFV) were calculated beat-to-beat by means of integration. Cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing MAP with MFV. Frequency domain analysis of MAP, MFV and CVR signals revealed very-low frequency (VLF, 0.016-0.04 Hz), low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz) components. The transfer phase of MAP-CVR coupling in the LF and HF range was frequency-dependent, which is equivalent to a time delay of 2 s. However, the transfer phase differed in the CVR-MFV coupling in that the phase was distributed around 180 degrees across the LF and HF ranges. Cross-correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between MAP-CVR coupling, with MAP leading by 2 s, and a negative relationship between CVR-MFV coupling, with CVR leading by 0.3 s. We concluded that the phase lag between oscillations in ABP and CBFV was chiefly contributed to by the starting latency of cerebral autoregulation (i.e. cerebral vasomotion, revealed by MAP-CVR coupling). Moreover, the negative correlation of the CVR-MFV coupling could offer a different explanation for the physiologic significance of the phase lead of CBFV-ABP oscillations.

  11. Comparison of oscillometric and intra-arterial blood pressure and pulse measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithalia, S V; Edwards, D

    1994-01-01

    Non-invasive oscillometric blood pressure and pulse measured by an Omron HEM-703CP monitor were compared with arterial values obtained from direct measurements of the radial artery. An excellent correlation and agreement was found between the two methods (systolic r = 0.99; diastolic r = 0.97; pulse r = 0.99), although there was some variability among individual subjects. The range of difference between them was 0 to 10 mmHg for systolic and -6 to +5 mmHg for diastolic pressures. When tested on the bench using the Metron QA-1280 non-invasive blood pressure analyser the HEM-703CP monitor rarely exhibited errors exceeding 2-3 mmHg over a measurement range of 50-200 mmHg. PMID:7776359

  12. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, n...... = 9) was obtained by infusion of angiotensin II and a decrease in pressure (-10%, P less than 0.005, n = 6) was obtained by ganglionic blockade. The concentration of SP in plasma, from supine subjects in the normotensive condition, ranged from 3 to 13 pmol/l (with a mean of 5.6 pmol/l). SP was thus...

  13. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubin; M.O. Pozo; C.A. Casabella; F.,Jr Pálizas; G. Murias; M.C. Moseinco; V.S. Kanoore Edul; F. Pálizas; E. Estenssoro; C. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were mecha

  14. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  15. Evaluation of restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after the renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焱

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease. Methods Percutaneous renal artery stent (PTRAS) was performed in 135 patients with single or bilateral renal artery stenosis (≥70%). Clinical data of above patients were studied during follow-up period. Results A total of 147

  16. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  17. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study.

  18. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  19. Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

  20. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Maltz, Jonathan S.; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F.; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D.; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, lab-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arg...

  1. Renal blood flow regulation and arterial pressure fluctuations: a case study in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1994-01-01

    The arterial blood pressure, a physiological variable on which all renal excretory processes depend, fluctuates over a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies. Much of this variation originates in nonrenal vascular beds to support nonrenal tasks, and the fluctuations provide a noisy environment...... a relatively noise-free environment in which to work. Because of the time-varying nature of the blood pressure, we have concentrated in this review on the now substantial body of work on the dynamics of renal blood flow regulation and the underlying mechanisms. Renal vascular control mechanisms are not simply...... of experimental hypertension provide tubular pressure records that pass statistical tests for ordered structure and sensitive dependence on initial conditions in the reconstructed state space, two of the hallmarks of deterministic chaos. These records also pass recent more stringent tests for chaos...

  2. Phytoestrogen genistein decreases contractile response of aortic artery in vitro and arterial blood pressure in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-fang LI; Long-de WANG; Song-yi QU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the mechanisms of effects of phytoestrogen genistein on the contracted rabbit aortic arteries in vitro, and observe the effect of genistein and 17-β estradiol on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: (1) Strips of rabbit aortic smooth muscle were suspended in organ baths containing Kreb's solution, and then isometric tension was measured. (2) Female mature Wistar rats underwent a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). Sham-operated rats (SHAM) were used as controls. After administration of genistein (0.4(1) Similar to 17-β estradiol, genistein could dose-dependently relax 40 mmol/L KCl-precontracted arterial strips.Incubation with Nω-L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), methylene blue (MB), indomethacin, propranolol or endothelium removal did not affect relaxation induced by genistein. In calcium-free solution containing 0.01mmol/L egtazic acid (EGTA), genistein inhibited not only the first phase contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA), but also the second contraction induced by CaCl2. In addition, genistein could reduce the contractile responses of NA, KCl and CaCl2,and shift their cumulative concentration-response curves rightward. (2) MAP in OVX rats was significantly higher compared with that of SHAM rats. However, after chronically treatment with genistein or 17-β estradiol for 21 d the baseline MAP in OVX rats was reduced significantly. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The vasodilator effect of genistein in vitro is endothelium independent and not related to the nitric oxide, its mechanisms being probably due to inhibition of Ca2+ influx through calcium channels in a noncompetitive manner and Ca2+ release from intracellular store induced by NA. (2) Administration of genistein or 17-β estradiol can chronically decrease MAP in OVX rats.

  3. Fourier Analysis of Peripheral Blood Pressure and Flow in Intraoperative Assessment of Infrainguinal Arterial Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheshmedzhiev Mihail V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess infrainguinal arterial reconstructions by intraoperative flowmetry under the distal anastomosis using a fast Fourier transformation; calculate and compare the amplitude ratios of peripheral arterial blood pressure and volume flow before and after drug-induced vasodilation of occluded bypass grafts and bypass grafts that have been patent at least for 1 year. To find what magnitude of the change of these ratios indicate a long-term patency of the bypass grafting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the results of the intraoperative flowmetry tests of 97 patients with infrainguinal arterial reconstructions. The patients were divided into two groups based on the graft status: the grafts in 49 patients were patent for at least a year, and 48 patients had failed bypass. We used a fast Fourier transform (FFT of the pressure and blood flow waves and compared the ratios of their amplitudes before and after administration of a vasodilator drug into the graft. Comparing the ratios obtained before and those after administration of the drug we quantified their change in each group and analysed them. RESULTS: After a drug-induced vasodilation, the blood pressure and flow amplitude ratios for the group with compromised reconstructions were less than 1.9 times smaller than those before drug infusion, while for the group with bypass grafts that had been functional for at least 12 months the ratios declined by more than 1.9≈2 times. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the change of amplitude ratios of the peripheral pressure and volume flow after drug-induced vasodilation can be used to make an assessment of the bypass graft and the distal arterial segment.

  4. Microalbuminuria associated with systolic blood pressure and arterial compliance in Chinese metabolic syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-li; XU Qiong; TONG Min; LU Xin-zheng; ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHOU Yan-li; CAO Ke-jiang; HUANG Jun

    2007-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence showing that microalbuminuria and arterial compliance are sensitive markers for early cardiovascular diseases. However, whether microalbuminuria is associated with reduced arterial compliance in Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) patients remains unknown.Methods According to the definition of MS proposed by ATPⅢ in 2001, USA, subjects (n=362) were divided into three groups according to the number of risk factors: group 1 (control), group 2 (medium, < 3 risk factors) and group 3 (MS, ≥ 3 risk factors). Both large artery compliance (C1) and small artery compliance (C2) were measured with the CVProfilor DO-2020 Cardiovascular Profiling System, and microalbuminuria was evaluated with the ratio of albumin to urine creatinine.Results (1) As C1 and C2 levels elasticity decreased, albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the prevalence of microalbuminuria increased within those groups with MS risk factors. C1 and C2 were negatively correlated with the ranking of MS risk factors, ACR was positively correlated with the ranking of MS risk factors (all P<0.05). (2) Subjects were also categorized into a microalbuminuria group and a normal group, C1 and C2 in the microalbuminuria group were lower than in the normal group. (3) Multivariate regression analysis showed that increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and reduced arterial compliance were the main risk factors for microalbuminuria in the MS group.Conclusions The risk of developing microalbuminuria was higher in the subjects with multiple metabolic abnormalities.Increased systolic blood pressure and reduced arterial compliance may be the main predictors for microalbuminuria in MS.

  5. Future Treatment of Hypertension: Shifting the Focus from Blood Pressure Lowering to Arterial Stiffness Modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Henry; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2015-08-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is the commonest form of hypertension from middle age onwards. Achieving target systolic blood pressure (BP) control remains difficult in everyday clinical practice and even under clinical trial conditions. Most antihypertensive medicines were designed to lower peripheral vascular resistance, which was considered the haemodynamic determinant of hypertension; most are effective in reducing steady but not pulsatile components of BP. Arterial stiffness, defined via aortic length-specific pulse wave velocity (PWV), is thought to be an important determinant of pulse pressure widening through its effects on the timing and amplitude of pressure wave reflection, and/or the aorta's Windkessel function, or its excess 'reservoir' pressure. Whereas pulse pressure is neither an independent nor consistent cardiovascular risk factor, particularly below the age of about 60 years, PWV has become the most powerful predictor of cardiovascular outcomes including mortality, independent of systolic, pulse, mean or other BP components. PWV is therefore a more direct target for treatment. This review addresses the potential therapeutic options for targeting arterial stiffness and the role of pulse pressure.

  6. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student′s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  7. Evaluation of accuracy of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in relation to carotid artery pressure in anaesthetised ponies

    OpenAIRE

    Gent, Thomas C; Schwarz, Andrea; Hatz, Lea-Annina; Gozalo-Marcilla, Miguel; Stijn, Schauvliege; Gasthuys, Frank; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2015-01-01

    Invasive blood pressure measurement (IBP) using peripheral arteries is a commonly used technique in equine anaesthesia, although the accuracy has not been demonstrated. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (NIBP) may be indicated for field anesthesia, short procedures and foal anaesthesia. In the present report, the agreement of various IBP and NIBP measuring sites compared to carotid artery pressure was tested in anaesthetised experimental ponies. Six ponies were anaesthetised in lateral r...

  8. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  9. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Takeshi; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP). The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness. Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75), left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37) and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01). Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP. PMID:22102787

  10. Arterial blood pressure oscillation after active standing up in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, U; Schäfer, M; Hohage, H

    2000-04-12

    Dynamic arterial blood pressure (FINAPRES) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state arterial blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects [group 1: n=50, 10 female subjects, age 51+/-2.5 years; weight 78+/-2.3 kg; height 174+/-1.4 cm (mean+/-standard error of the mean)] and in kidney transplant recipients under basal (group 2a: n=50, age 51.7+/-1.7 years; weight 77+/-2.1 kg; height 174+/-1.5 cm) and under high (group 2b: same subjects as in group 2a) cyclosporine A whole blood levels. Furthermore, baroreflex sensitivity and the activity of the generating compounds of the sympathetic nervous systems (Mayer waves) were measured. Systolic and diastolic overshoot values did not differ statistically significant in the present study. In the control subjects, a systolic overshoot of 15.4+/-2.7 mmHg and a diastolic overshoot of 15.2+/-2 mmHg was detected. The systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of group 2a (-7.1+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001) and in 50% of group 2b recipients (-8.0+/-2.7 mmHg; P<0.001). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in kidney transplant recipients before cyclosporine (baseline+2 mmHg) intake, but after cyclosporine administration (baseline-3 mmHg; controls: baseline+3 mmHg; P<0.05). There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi(2)<0.001, n=150). Overshoot of group 1 levels (r=0.428; P<0.01) and group 2 levels (r=0.714; P<0. 001) correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure. Furthermore, recipients had reduced baroreceptor sensitivities estimated by sequence analysis as compared to controls (10+/-1 ms/mmHg vs. 7.5+/-1.4 ms/mmHg; P<0.05). Mayer waves amplitudes of the heart rate spectrum were elevated statistically significant in renal transplant recipients (44.4+/-0.2 vs. 43.8+/-2.2 A.U.). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex

  11. 20-HETE induces remodeling of renal resistance arteries independent of blood pressure elevation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Garcia, Victor; Dimitrova, Irina; Weidenhammer, Adam; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank; Manthati, Vijay L; Falck, John R; Capdevila, Jorge H; Schwartzman, Michal L

    2013-09-01

    20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P-450 (Cyp)-derived arachidonic acid metabolite that has been shown to increase smooth muscle contractions and proliferation, stimulate endothelial dysfunction and activation, and promote hypertension. We examined if 20-HETE contributes to microvascular remodeling in hypertension. In Sprague-Dawley rats, administration of the 20-HETE biosynthesis inhibitor HET0016 or the 20-HETE antagonist N-20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid (20-HEDE) prevented 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in blood pressure as well as abrogated DHT-induced increases in the media-to-lumen ratio (M/L), media thickness, and collagen IV deposition in renal interlobar arteries. Reserpine prevented blood pressure elevation in DHT-treated rats but did not affect microvascular remodeling (M/L, media thickness, and collagen deposition); under these conditions, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist attenuated microvascular remodeling, suggesting that 20-HETE contributes to DHT-induced vascular remodeling independent of blood pressure elevation. In Cyp4a14(-/-) mice, which display androgen-driven and 20-HETE-dependent hypertension, treatment with the 20-HETE antagonist abolished remodeling of renal resistance arteries measured as media thickness (24 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1 μm) and M/L (0.29 ± 0.03 vs. 0.17 ± 0.01). Moreover, in Cyp4a12 transgenic mice in which the expression of Cyp4a12-20-HETE synthase is driven by a tetracycline-sensitive promoter, treatment with doxycycline resulted in blood pressure elevation (140 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 5 mmHg) and a significant increase in remodeling of renal resistance arteries (media thickness: 23 ± 1 vs. 16 ± 1 μm; M/L: 0.39 ± 0.04 vs. 0.23 ± 0.02); these increases were abrogated by cotreatment with 20-HEDE. This study demonstrated that 20-HETE is a key regulator of microvascular remodeling in hypertension; its effect is independent of blood pressure elevation and androgen levels. PMID

  12. Alterations of Blood Flow Through Arteries Following Atherectomy and the Impact on Pressure Variation and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Brian D; Vallez, Lauren J; Sun, Biyuan; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B; Abraham, John P; Staniloae, Cezar S

    2016-09-01

    Simulations were made of the pressure and velocity fields throughout an artery before and after removal of plaque using orbital atherectomy plus adjunctive balloon angioplasty or stenting. The calculations were carried out with an unsteady computational fluid dynamic solver that allows the fluid to naturally transition to turbulence. The results of the atherectomy procedure leads to an increased flow through the stenotic zone with a coincident decrease in pressure drop across the stenosis. The measured effect of atherectomy and adjunctive treatment showed decrease the systolic pressure drop by a factor of 2.3. Waveforms obtained from a measurements were input into a numerical simulation of blood flow through geometry obtained from medical imaging. From the numerical simulations, a detailed investigation of the sources of pressure loss was obtained. It is found that the major sources of pressure drop are related to the acceleration of blood through heavily occluded cross sections and the imperfect flow recovery downstream. This finding suggests that targeting only the most occluded parts of a stenosis would benefit the hemodynamics. The calculated change in systolic pressure drop through the lesion was a factor of 2.4, in excellent agreement with the measured improvement. The systolic and cardiac-cycle-average pressure results were compared with measurements made in a multi-patient study treated with orbital atherectomy and adjunctive treatment. The agreements between the measured and calculated systolic pressure drop before and after the treatment were within 3%. This excellent agreement adds further confidence to the results. This research demonstrates the use of orbital atherectomy to facilitate balloon expansion to restore blood flow and how pressure measurements can be utilized to optimize revascularization of occluded peripheral vessels. PMID:27333887

  13. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Wang, T.; Brøndum, E.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary...... adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective...... renal plasma flow (ERPF). Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) was assessed by inserting a needle into the medullary parenchyma. Doppler ultrasound measurements provided renal artery resistive index (RI). Hormone concentrations as well as biomechanical, structural and histological...

  14. Results of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in children with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Öktem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between obesity and essential hypertension is well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring of obese and non-obese children who had similar demographic characteristics.Materials and methods: Seventy one children and adolescents (n=39 obesity, n=32 controls were studied. Blood pressure of the children were measured by 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device.Results: Obese children had significantly higher mean blood pressure values (systolic 121.9±11.7 mmHg, diastolic 70.2±5.3 mmHg than control subjects (systolic 109.3±6.7 mmHg, diastolic 65.1±4.6 mmHg, p0.05. Blood pressure load was found to be increased in obese children compared to the controls (%13.6±12.9 and %2.6±3.4, respectively; p<0.05. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of obese children (181.1±33.4 and 131.1±23.1mg/dl were significantly higher than those of the controls (134.3±11.1 and 103.3±14.2 mg/dl, p<0.05.Conclusions: Obesity in children and adolescents should not be regarded as variations of normality, but as abnormality with an extremely high risk for the development of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in adulthood.

  15. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  16. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

  17. Mean arterial pressure change associated with cerebral blood flow in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverdun, Jeremy; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Charroud, Celine; Abdennour, Meriem; Brickman, Adam M; Chemouny, Stephane; Steffener, Jason; Portet, Florence; Bonafe, Alain; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Molino, François; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    We investigate over a 12-year period the association between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiovascular risk factors in a prospective cohort of healthy older adults (81.96 ± 3.82 year-old) from the Cognitive REServe and Clinical ENDOphenotype (CRESCENDO) study. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured over 12 years, and gray matter CBF was measured at the end of the study from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging using arterial spin labeling. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, their long-term change, and CBF was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Women were observed to have higher CBF than men (p < 0.05). Increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) over the 12-year period was correlated with a low cerebral blood flow (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.21), whereas no association was detected between CBF and MAP at the time of imaging. High levels of glycemia tended to be associated with low cerebral blood flow values (p < 0.05). Age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were not associated with CBF. Our main result suggests that change in MAP is the most significant predictor of future CBF in older adults.

  18. Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Cavadino, Alana; Berry, Diane J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated...... with blood pressure and hypertension risk. METHODS: In this mendelian randomisation study, we generated an allele score (25[OH]D synthesis score) based on variants of genes that affect 25(OH)D synthesis or substrate availability (CYP2R1 and DHCR7), which we used as a proxy for 25(OH)D concentration. We meta......, -0·12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0·20 to -0·04; p=0·003) and reduced odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·97-0·99; p=0·0003), but not with decreased diastolic blood pressure (β per 10% increase, -0·02 mm Hg, -0·08 to 0·03; p=0·37). In meta-analyses in which we combined data from D...

  19. Longitudinal perspective on the conundrum of central arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Angelo; Morrell, Christopher H; Orrù, Marco; Strait, James B; Tarasov, Kirill V; Ferreli, Liana Anna Pina; Loi, Francesco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Alessandro; Spurgeon, Harold; Najjar, Samer S; AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    The age-associated increase in arterial stiffness has long been considered to parallel or to cause the age-associated increase in blood pressure (BP). Yet, the rates at which pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and BP trajectories change over time within individuals who differ by age and sex have not been assessed and compared. This study determined the evolution of BP and aortic PWV trajectories during a 9.4-year follow-up in >4000 community-dwelling men and women of 20 to 100 years of age at entry into the SardiNIA Study. Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that PWV accelerates with time during the observation period, at about the same rate over the entire age range in both men and women. In men, the longitudinal rate at which BP changed over time, however, did not generally parallel that of PWV acceleration: at ages>40 years the rates of change in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) increase plateaued and then declined so that SBP, itself, also declined at older ages, whereas PP plateaued. In women, SBP, diastolic BP, and mean BP increased at constant rates across all ages, producing an increasing rate of increase in PP. Therefore, increased aortic stiffness is implicated in the age-associated increase in SBP and PP. These findings indicate that PWV is not a surrogate for BP and that arterial properties other than arterial wall stiffness that vary by age and sex also modulate the BP trajectories during aging and lead to the dissociation of PWV, PP, and SBP trajectories in men.

  20. [The response of cerebral blood flow and systemic arterial blood pressure to hypercapnia and hypocapnia in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V P; Kuznetsova, D V

    2013-01-01

    In 11 healthy volunteers 21 +/- 3.7 years old was monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) of middle cerebral artery and mean hemodynamic arterial blood pressure (MAP) by continuous non-invasive measurement "beat-to-beat" at normocapnia, hypercapnia and hypocapnia. Hypercapnia was creating by rebreathing, hypocapnia was creating by spontaneous hyperventilation. The partial pressure of CO2 in alveolar air (PetCO2) was monitored by capnograph, embedded in the TCD-analyzer. During hypercapnia the velocity of CBF and PetCO2 were significantly increased already at 10 s, which was considerably earlier than the increase in the MAP (30 s). During hypocapnia velocity CBF and PetCO2 were significantly decreased at 10 s, and MAP was not changed. We have installed the threshold PetCO2 42 (41; 44) mm Hg, below which amplification CBF occurs at a constant MAP and reflects the true cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. PMID:23805713

  1. Obese children and adolescents have elevated nighttime blood pressure independent of insulin resistance and arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian N; Olsen, Michael H; Holm, Jens-Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance has been related to elevated blood pressure (BP) in obese children and may adversely affect the vasculature by arterial stiffening. The objective was to investigate whether daytime and nighttime BP were elevated and related to insulin resistance and arterial stiffness...... in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Ninety-two obese patients aged 10-18 years were compared with 49 healthy control individuals. Insulin resistance was measured as the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA), and arterial stiffness was measured as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). RESULTS......: Mean ± SD daytime systolic BP (SBP) (obese: 125±8.3mm Hg; control: 121±10.1mm Hg; P = 0.03) and nighttime SBP (obese: 108±10.7mm Hg; control: 102±8.2mm Hg; P = 0.0001) were higher in the obese group when compared with the control group. No difference was found in daytime diastolic BP (DBP), whereas...

  2. How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? Insights from Studies of the Renal Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C; Dorrington, Keith L

    2016-01-01

    Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca(++)-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972

  3. Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement in healthy anesthetized cats using a device that combines oscillometry with photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the basic characteristics of indirect arterial blood pressure (ABP) measurement using a device that combines oscillometry and photoplethysmography in cats. Dobutamine was infused intravenously in four anesthetized cats. Direct ABP was measured by a catheter. Indirect ABP was measured from the left forelimb. Dobutamine significantly elevated both systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner. The indirect SAP, MAP and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) values were closely correlated with the direct ABP values (r=0.88, 0.89 and 0.83, respectively). The mean bias for SAP, MAP and DAP was 3.4, 0.2 and -2.4 mmHg, respectively. The indirect ABP measured by this device may be used to reliably monitor ABP changes in anesthetized cats. PMID:27003226

  4. Evidence that blood pressure remains under the control of arterial baroreceptors in renal hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Trindade Jr.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the range of the influence of the baroreflex on blood pressure in chronic renal hypertensive rats. Supramaximal electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve and section of the baroreceptor nerves (sinoaortic denervation were used to obtain a global analysis of the baroreceptor-sympathetic reflex in normotensive control and in chronic (2 months 1-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rats. The fall in blood pressure produced by electrical baroreceptor stimulation was greater in renal hypertensive rats than in normotensive controls (right nerve: -47 ± 8 vs -23 ± 4 mmHg; left nerve: -51 ± 7 vs -30 ± 4 mmHg; and both right and left nerves: -50 ± 8 vs -30 ± 4 mmHg; P < 0.05. Furthermore, the increase in blood pressure level produced by baroreceptor denervation in chronic renal hypertensive rats was similar to that observed in control animals 2-5 h (control: 163 ± 5 vs 121 ± 1 mmHg; 1K-1C: 203 ± 7 vs 170 ± 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 and 24 h (control: 149 ± 3 vs 121 ± 1 mmHg; 1K-1C: 198 ± 8 vs 170 ± 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 after sinoaortic denervation. Taken together, these data indicate that the central and peripheral components of the baroreflex are acting efficiently at higher arterial pressure in renal hypertensive rats when the aortic nerve is maximally stimulated or the activity is abolished.

  5. Pressão arterial entre trabalhadores de curtume Blood pressure among tannery workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1998-10-01

    death in Brazil since the 1970s. High blood pressure has been the major risk factor among the above mentioned diseases. A negative correlation between occupational qualification and blood pressure has been observed among workers. The above mentioned facts bring out the importance of the knowledge of high blood pressure distribution among the different occupational groups. The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of blood pressure in stable and homogeneous population of unskilled, low wage larning industrial workers. The Prevalence of high blood pressure was established for this specific group. This prevalence was also related to some biological and socio-economical covariates as compared with that among other occupational groups in Brazil. METHOD: The subjects were 73 active employees at a tannery in Botucatu, state of S.Paulo, Brazil, in July 1993. These subjects underwent blood pressure measurements, anamnesis and clinical examination. The results were compared with those of similar studies carried out in elsewhere Brazil. Age confounding was controlled by different techniques. RESULT: The crude prevalence of high blood pressure detected in this group of workers was of 56.1%, with 15.8% of isolated systolic hypertension. Alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with high blood pressure and isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. DISCUSSION: Prevalence of hypertension in the group studied is significantly higher than that observed in other groups of workers studied in Brazil. Such a finding points to the need for further investigation so as to isolate those factors involved in the increased blood pressure found in this group.

  6. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J.-R.; Lin, T.-Y.; Shieh, J.-S.; Chen, Y.; Huang, N. E.; Wu, Z.; Peng, C.-K.

    2008-02-01

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven.

  7. Measurement of brachial artery endothelial function using a standard blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Tison, Geoffrey H; Alley, Hugh F; Budinger, Thomas F; Owens, Christopher D; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    The integrity of endothelial function in major arteries (EFMA) is a powerful independent predictor of heart attack and stroke. Existing ultrasound-based non-invasive assessment methods are technically challenging and suitable only for laboratory settings. EFMA, like blood pressure (BP), is both acutely and chronically affected by factors such as lifestyle and medication. Consequently, laboratory-based measurements cannot fully gauge the effects of medical interventions on EFMA. EFMA and BP have, arguably, comparable (but complementary) value in the assessment of cardiovascular health. Widespread deployment of EFMA assessment is thus a desirable clinical goal. To this end, we propose a device based on modifying the measurement protocol of a standard electronic sphygmomanometer. The protocol involves inflating the cuff to sub-diastolic levels to enable recording of the pulse waveform before and after vasodilatory stimulus. The mechanical unloading of the arterial wall provided by the cuff amplifies the distension that occurs with each pulse, which is measured as a pressure variation in the cuff. We show that the height of the rising edge of each pulse is proportional to the change in lumen area between diastole and systole. This allows the effect of vasodilatory stimuli on the artery to be measured with high sensitivity. We compare the proposed cuff flow-mediated dilation (cFMD) method to ultrasound flow-mediated dilation (uFMD). We find significant correlation (r = 0.55, p = 0.003, N = 27) between cFMD- and uFMD-based metrics obtained when the release of a 5 min cuff occlusion is employed to induce endothelial stimulus via reactive hyperemia. cFMD is approximately proportional to the square of uFMD, representing a typical increase in sensitivity to vasodilation of 300-600%. This study illustrates the potential for an individual to conveniently measure his/her EFMA by using a low-cost reprogrammed home sphygmomanometer. PMID:26393958

  8. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Correction of the abnormal structure of resistance arteries in essential hypertension may be an important treatment goal in addition to blood pressure (BP) reduction. We investigated how this may be achieved in a prospective clinical study. METHODS: Plethysmography was used to measure...... forearm resting vascular resistance (Rrest) and minimum vascular resistance (Rmin) as a measure of vascular structure. Two different groups of patients with essential hypertension were examined at baseline and after 6 months of antihypertensive treatment. In group A, 21 patients with never......-treated essential hypertension were treated by their general practitioners using a variety of drugs to allow an assessment of the drug-independent effects. In group B, 28 beta-blocker-treated patients were shifted to angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment (eprosartan) to allow vasodilatation with no change in BP...

  9. Arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow variability: friend or foe? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Alice Rickards

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Variability in arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow has traditionally been interpreted as a marker of cardiovascular decompensation, and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes across varying time scales, from impending orthostatic syncope to an increased risk of stroke. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that increased hemodynamic variability may, in fact, be protective in the face of acute challenges to perfusion, including significant central hypovolemia and hypotension (including hemorrhage, and during cardiac bypass surgery. This review presents the dichotomous views on the role of hemodynamic variability on clinical outcome, including the physiological mechanisms underlying these patterns, and the potential impact of increased and decreased variability on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. We suggest that reconciliation of these two apparently discrepant views may lie in the time scale of hemodynamic variability; short time scale variability appears to be cerebroprotective, while mid to longer term fluctuations are associated with primary and secondary end-organ dysfunction.

  10. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper;

    2000-01-01

    patients undergoing serial examination after 7 (range, 2-10) days. Six of these patients had an uncomplicated course, one had a protracted recovery, and one died. Autoregulation was not restored in two patients; one died and one had a protracted recovery. CONCLUSION: In patients in the early phase of acute......OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute bacterial meningitis are often treated with sympathomimetics to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). We studied the influence of such therapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF). DESIGN: Prospective physiologic trial. SETTING: The Department of Infectious...... Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: Sixteen adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis. INTERVENTION: Infusion of norepinephrine to increase MAP. MEASUREMENTS: During a rise in MAP induced by norepinephrine infusion, we measured relative changes in CBF by transcranial Doppler...

  11. Random perturbations of arterial blood pressure for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of cerebral autoregulation (CA) relies mostly on methods that modulate arterial blood pressure (ABP). Despite advances, the gold standard of assessment remains elusive and clinical practicality is limited. We investigate a novel approach of assessing CA, consisting of the intermittent application of thigh cuffs using square wave sequences. Our aim was to increase ABP variability whilst minimizing volunteer discomfort, thus improving assessment acceptability. Two random square wave sequences and two maximum pressure settings (80 and 150 mmHg) were used, corresponding to four manoeuvres that were conducted in random order after a baseline recording. The intermittent application of thigh cuffs resulted in an amplitude dependent increase in ABP (p = 0.001) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) variability (p = 0.026) compared to baseline. No statistically significant differences in mean heart rate or heart rate variability were observed (p = 0.108 and p = 0.350, respectively), suggesting that no significant sympathetic response was elicited. No significant differences in the CBFV step response were observed, suggesting no distortion of autoregulatory parameters resulted from the use of thigh cuffs. We conclude that pseudorandom binary sequences are an effective and safe alternative for increasing ABP variability. This new approach shows great promise as a tool for the robust assessment of CA. (paper)

  12. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  13. Continuous blood pressure measurement using the pulse transit time: Comparison to intra-arterial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Andreas; Mendoza, Yuri; Gesche, Heiko; Konermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement allows the investigation of transient changes in BP and thus may give insights into mechanisms of BP control. We validated a continuous, non-invasive BP measurement based on the pulse transit time (PTT), i.e., BP(PTT), by comparing it with the intra-arterial BP (BP(i.a.)) measurement. Twelve subjects (five females and seven males) were included. BP(i.a.) was obtained from the radial artery using a system from ReCor Medical. Systolic and diastolic BP were calculated using the PTT (BP(PTT), SOMNOscreen). (PTT) was determined from the electrocardiogram and the peripheral pulse wave. The BP was modulated by application of increasing doses of dobutamine (5, 10, 20 μg/kg body mass). Systolic BP(PTT) and systolic BP(i.a.) correlated significantly (R = 0.94). The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 19 mmHg; the mean values differed by 1 mmHg. The correlation coefficient for the diastolic BP measurements was R = 0.42. The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 18 mmHg, with a mean difference of 5 mmHg in favour of the BP(PTT). The study demonstrates a significant correlation between the measurement methods for systolic BP. The results encourage the application of PTT-based BP measurement for the evaluation of BP dynamics and pathological BP changes. PMID:25857601

  14. Continuous estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation: influence of non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal variability of parameters which describe dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), usually quantified by the short-term relationship between arterial blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), could result from continuous adjustments in physiological regulatory mechanisms or could be the result of artefacts in methods of measurement, such as the use of non-invasive measurements of BP in the finger. In 27 subjects (61 ± 11 years old) undergoing coronary artery angioplasty, BP was continuously recorded at rest with the Finapres device and in the ascending aorta (Millar catheter, BPAO), together with bilateral transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the middle cerebral artery, surface ECG and transcutaneous CO2. Dynamic CA was expressed by the autoregulation index (ARI), ranging from 0 (absence of CA) to 9 (best CA). Time-varying, continuous estimates of ARI (ARI(t)) were obtained with an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model applied to a 60 s sliding data window. No significant differences were observed in the accuracy and precision of ARI(t) between estimates derived from the Finapres and BPAO. Highly significant correlations were obtained between ARI(t) estimates from the right and left middle cerebral artery (MCA) (Finapres r = 0.60 ± 0.20; BPAO r = 0.56 ± 0.22) and also between the ARI(t) estimates from the Finapres and BPAO (right MCA r = 0.70 ± 0.22; left MCA r = 0.74 ± 0.22). Surrogate data showed that ARI(t) was highly sensitive to the presence of noise in the CBFV signal, with both the bias and dispersion of estimates increasing for lower values of ARI(t). This effect could explain the sudden drops of ARI(t) to zero as reported previously. Simulated sudden changes in ARI(t) can be detected by the Finapres, but the bias and variability of estimates also increase for lower values of ARI. In summary, the Finapres does not distort time-varying estimates of dynamic CA obtained with a sliding window combined with an ARMA model, but

  15. Effects of renal artery stenting on renal function and blood pressure in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 沈卫峰; 张瑞岩; 张建盛; 胡健; 张宪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of percutaneous renal artery intervention on renal function and blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis. Methods Eighty-seven patients with severe uni- or bi-lateral renal artery stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) and clinical hypertension received renal artery stenting between January 2002 and December 2002. The changes in blood pressure and serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance (CCr) 48 hours after intervention and during 6 months of follow-up were assessed.Results Renal stenting was performed in 98 stenotic arteries of 87 patients, and the procedural success rate was 100%. Serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from (176±21) μmol/L to (179±11) μmol/L (P=0.15) 48 hours after the procedure, but significantly decreased to (149±15) μmol/L at 6 months (P<0.001). CCr was also greatly improved [(37±11) ml/min before versus (51±8) ml/min at 6 months, P<0.001]. During follow-up, 61% of the patients experienced a normal renal function. Despite conventional medical treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also significantly decreased after stenting [(163±23)/(96±13) mm Hg before versus (148±12)/(79±15) mm Hg at 6 months, all P<0.001], and hypertension was well controlled in 67% of the patients at 6 months ' follow-up.Conclusion Renal artery stenting has a high success rate and is effective in improving renal function and blood pressure for patients with severe renal artery stenosis.

  16. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness : a fully controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Dower, J. I.; Mensink, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre) hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low

  17. Effects of Weather and Heliophysical Conditions on Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Vencloviene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009–2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs, in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10–I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T, wind speed (WS, relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP. We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS > 600 km/s increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP by 12% (RR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.21; and WS ≥ 3.5 knots during days of T < 1.5 °C and T ≥ 12.5 °C by 8% (RR = 1.08; CI 1.04–1.12. An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T ≥ 17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population’s sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  18. Associations of blood pressure and arterial compliance with occupational noise exposure in female workers of textile mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Chun-hui; ZHANG Yu-jun; CHEN Zhi-yong; ZHOU Yin; ZHOU Jian-wei; Pan Jing-jing; LIU Nian; WANG Jun; LIANG Chen-ke; ZHANG Zhi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Background There are few studies on the arterial compliance of noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between hearing loss, blood pressure and arterial compliance of female workers who exposed to occupational noise in a textile mill.Methods The noise levels in the workplace were measured with a HS6288 sound level meter. Cumulated noise exposure (CNE) was calculated according to the noise intensity and the exposure period. Hearing ability and arterial compliance were measured in 618 noise exposed workers. The database was set up with EpiData and the statistical analysis was performed with SAS software 9.1.3.Results The noise levels were 80.1dB(A) to 113.5dB(A), of which the levels at 92.5% of the noise monitoring sites were over the national standard. The incidence of high frequency hearing loss (HFHL) was 24.43% and language frequency hearing impairment (LFHI) was 0.81%. The incidence of hypertension was 7.93%. Both systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the high frequency hearing loss group were significantly higher than those in the normal hearing group (P<0.05), while C1 (large artery compliance) and C2 (small artery compliance) were significantly lower (P<0.05). The high frequency hearing threshold (HFHT) of the hypertension group was significantly higher than in the normal blood pressure group (P<0.05), while C1 and C2 were significantly lower (P<0.05). C1 and C2 had a negative correlation with HFHT, SBP, DBP, mean of arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and pulse rate (PR) (P<0.05).The multiple regression analyses showed that blood pressure and PR were the main influencing factors on C1 and C2.LFHT was an influence on C2 and HFHT on C1.Conclusions Textile mill noise pollution is very serious and has an obvious influence on worker's auditory function. The female workers with Iow artery compliance or with high blood pressure might be suffering from hearing loss; those with noise

  19. Ambulatory instrument for monitoring indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure in superficial temporal artery using volume-compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamakoshi, K

    1996-11-01

    A portable instrument, based on a volume-compensation technique, is designed for ambulatory monitoring of indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) in the superficial temporal artery. The instrument consists of a small disc-type cuff and a portable unit carried by the subject. Several components are integrated in the cuff for applying counter-pressure to the artery, i.e. a reflectance-type photo-plethysmographic sensor for arterial volume detection, a pressure sensor for cuff pressure Pc measurement and a nozzle flapper-type- electro-pneumatic convertor for controlling Pc. The portable unit includes volume servo control circuitry and a microprocessor-based signal-processing and recording unit. This automatically performs all the necessary measurement procedures and stores into a memory IC element the processed systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure data, together with pulse intervals on a beat-to-beat basis from the servo-controlled Pc (indirectly measured BP waveform). With this instrument, momentary changes in BP during ambulatory situations such as bicycle ergometer exercise and daily activities including motorway driving are successfully recorded. From the results of simultaneous measurement of the subject's posture changes, the effect of posture change on blood pressure, e.g. baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, is also clearly demonstrated.

  20. High-Normal Arterial Blood Pressure in Children With Excess Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpa, Malgorzata; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are common causes of metabolic disorders that persist until adulthood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-normal arterial blood pressure (ABP) in children with excess body weight. Material and Methods A total of 1,093 schoolchildren aged 10 - 12 years (51% girls and 49% boys) participated in the study. The children’s weight, height, body fat percentage (BFP), waist and hip circumference, and ABP were measured. The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated and compared to the normative reference values accepted by the International obesity task force (IOTF). Results Excess weight was identified in 20% of the participants, and obesity in 5%. A total of 35.5% of overweight children had above-normal ABP, which implied hypertension. In obese children, that proportion equaled 59.3%. BFP was 6.5% greater in children with hypertension than in those with normal BP. The children with hypertension also had a 7.6-cm larger waist circumference, a 7.6-cm larger hip circumference, and a greater WHtR (by 0.04). Conclusions Excess body weight was identified in 25% of children aged 10 - 12 years, significantly increasing their risk of developing hypertension.

  1. High-Normal Arterial Blood Pressure in Children With Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Kolpa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood overweight and obesity are common causes of metabolic disorders that persist until adulthood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-normal arterial blood pressure (ABP in children with excess body weight. Material and Methods A total of 1,093 schoolchildren aged 10 - 12 years (51% girls and 49% boys participated in the study. The children’s weight, height, body fat percentage (BFP, waist and hip circumference, and ABP were measured. The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and body mass index (BMI were calculated and compared to the normative reference values accepted by the International obesity task force (IOTF. Results Excess weight was identified in 20% of the participants, and obesity in 5%. A total of 35.5% of overweight children had above-normal ABP, which implied hypertension. In obese children, that proportion equaled 59.3%. BFP was 6.5% greater in children with hypertension than in those with normal BP. The children with hypertension also had a 7.6-cm larger waist circumference, a 7.6-cm larger hip circumference, and a greater WHtR (by 0.04. Conclusions Excess body weight was identified in 25% of children aged 10 - 12 years, significantly increasing their risk of developing hypertension.

  2. Arterial line pressure control enhanced extracorporeal blood flow prescription in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Laura

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hemodialysis, extracorporeal blood flow (Qb recommendation is 300–500 mL/min. To achieve the best Qb, we based our prescription on dynamic arterial line pressure (DALP. Methods This prospective study included 72 patients with catheter Group 1 (G1, 1877 treatments and 35 arterio-venous (AV fistulae Group 2 (G2, 1868 treatments. The dialysis staff was trained to prescribe Qb sufficient to obtain DALP between -200 to -250 mmHg. We measured ionic clearance (IK: mL/min, access recirculation, DALP (mmHg and Qb (mL/min. Six prescription zones were identified: from an optimal A zone (Qb > 400, DALP -200 to -250 to zones with lower Qb E (Qb -199. Results Treatments distribution in A was 695 (37% in G1 vs. 704 (37.7% in G2 (P = 0.7. In B 150 (8% in G1 vs. 458 (24.5% in G2 (P P = 0.62. IK in A was 214 ± 34 (G1 vs. 213 ± 35 (G2 (P = 0.65. IK Anova between G2 zones was: A vs. C and D (P P = 0.02. Conclusion In conclusion, an optimal Qb can de prescribed with DALP of -200 mmHg. Staff adherence to DLAP treatment prescription could be reached up to 81.3% in catheters and 84.1% in AV fistulae.

  3. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  4. A lumped-parameter model to investigate the effect of plantar pressure on arterial blood flow in a diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C; Mahajan, A; Chu, T; Schoen, M

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model for the big-toe region that investigates the effect of plantar pressure on the diameter of the blood vessels, specifically the arteries, in the presence of arterial and/or tissue changes. The model developed in this paper uses a multi-domain energy system approach to develop the lumped-parameter differential equations. Blood flow is modelled as fluidic flow through compliant pipes that have inertia, stiffness, and damping. The tissue material is treated as a soft compliant material that transmits the external force to the blood vessels. Conclusions have been drawn to show the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and their combination on the diameter of the blood vessels. The principles used here can be used to model the entire foot and the model used to investigate the effect of plantar pressure, tissue damage, and arterial changes on different parts of the foot. The work presented here may also have applications in other vascular diseases. PMID:17937206

  5. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to the stenotic site in the MCA was measured in 15 patients scheduled for intervention. The relationships between these local measurements and pre-intervention and intra-intervention non-invasive arm measurements were assessed. The impact of luminal stenosis on the local blood pressure was quantified. Compared with the pre-intervention arm measurement, the intra-intervention arm pressure decreased significantly by 23.9 ± 11.8 and 9.3 ± 14.7 % at diastole and systole, respectively. The pressure proximal to the stenosis was much lower than the pre-intervention arm measurement (diastole: 65.3 ± 15.7 vs 82.0 ± 9.7, p pressure in the MCA in patients with stenosis pressure (22.8 ± 6.4 vs 11.1 ± 8.3, p = 0.01; unit: mmHg). However, diastolic pressure remained unaffected (69.2 ± 9.3 vs 62.8 ± 19.0, p = 0.58; unit: mmHg). In conclusion, the obtained results are helpful in understanding the local hemodynamic environment modulated by the presence of atherosclerosis. The local pressure measurements can be used for computational analysis to quantify the critical mechanical condition within an MCA lesion. PMID:27349223

  6. A prospective study of glomerular filtration rate and arterial blood pressure in insulin-dependent diabetics with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Friisberg, B;

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR, single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique), serum creatinine, proteinuria and arterial blood pressure have been measured prospectively in 14 young onset insulin-dependent diabetics selected by of persistent proteinuria (greater than 0.5 g/day) secondary to diabetic...... and 112/mumol/l (NS), proteinuria increased from 1.8 to 3.3 g/day (p less than 0.001) and arterial blood pressure rose from 132/88 to 153/101 mmHg (p less than 0.001). Glomerular filtration rate decreased linearly with time (slope = -0.75, r = 0.99, p less than 0.001) by a mean of 0.75 ml/min/month (range...

  7. Low frequency arterial wall movements for indirect blood pressure measurement in man. Validation of a method for non-invasive assessment of blood pressure under the influence of isoprenaline and angiotensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, U; Belz, G G

    1991-05-01

    In order to measure blood pressure noninvasively, the second derivative of the low frequency wall movements of the brachial artery were registered with a piezo-electric pressure probe during deflation of a Riva-Rocci cuff along with the actual cuff pressure. Two characteristic phenomena of this signal have been suggested to reflect systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Appearance of a positive spike phenomenon (S) was suggested to indicate systolic blood pressure and disappearance of a negative preanacrotic notch (D) to indicate diastolic blood pressure. To prove the validity of these suggestions, these phenomena were assessed in 10 young healthy males during isoprenaline and angiotensin induced changes of blood pressure. Intraarterial (A. radialis) and auscultatory (A. brachialis) blood pressures were recorded simultaneously. Determination of systolic blood pressure with the S phenomenon agreed well with invasive and auscultatory results. Invasive diastolic values agreed well with the cuff pressure at the last signal before disappearance of the preanacrotic notch (D1). Data from auscultation agreed less well with the D1 phenomenon. With increasing doses of isoprenaline, the diastolic measurements (D1) tended to be lower than the invasive ones. However, this discrepancy was far discreeter than that seen with ordinary auscultatory blood pressure measurement. We therefore conclude that registrations of low frequency arterial wall movements yield distinct characteristic spike phenomena useful for measurement of blood pressure in good agreement with the invasive method. In addition, the method provides clearly documented records and should be useful in situations which rely on a valid indirect method. PMID:1898428

  8. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

    OpenAIRE

    Samoyavcheva S.V.; Shkarin Vl.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH) with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years). ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified int...

  9. Management of initial orthostatic hypotension: lower body muscle tensing attenuates the transient arterial blood pressure decrease upon standing from squatting

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Schön, Ingeborg K.; Kim, Yu-Sok; Linzer, Mark; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Wieling, Wouter; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH) comprises symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion caused by an abnormally large transient mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decrease 5-15 s after arising from a supine, sitting or squatting position. Few treatment options are available. We set out to test the hypothesis that lower body muscle tensing (LBMT) attenuates IOH after rising from squatting and its symptoms in daily life. Thirteen IOH patients (9 males, 27 years) rose twice from s...

  10. Body Weight and Not Exercise Capacity Determines Central Systolic Blood Pressure, a Surrogate for Arterial Stiffness, in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Meyer, Joanna; Elmenhorst, Julia; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary fitness benefits cardiovascular health. Various studies have shown a strong negative correlation between exercise capacity and arterial stiffness in adults. However, evidence for this connection in children and adolescents is scarce. About 320 healthy children and adolescents (252 male, 14.0±2.1 years) were evaluated with regard to their demographic, anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, and their peak oxygen uptake. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressures were measured with patients in a supine position using an oscillometric device. Peak oxygen uptake was assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In multivariate regression, only peripheral systolic blood pressure (β=0.653, P<.001) and body weight (β=0.284, P<.001) emerged as independent determinants for central systolic blood pressure. Body weight therefore determines central systolic blood pressure in children and adolescents rather than measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. The prevention of overweight in childhood is necessary to reduce stiffening of the arteries and delay the onset of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26689169

  11. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  12. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  13. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE ON ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS DURING ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Williams

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of lowering mean arterial pressure (MAP during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS is common, but unproven with regard to peer reviewed literature. The controlled hypotension induced is aimed for improved surgical field and lower the blood loss. Lower mean arterial pressures especially for prolonged surgeries may result in end organ hypoperfusion. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery for the diagnosis of chronic sinusitis from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 at Memorial Hermann Hospital – Texas Medical Centre. We individually reviewed case sheets of every patient and documented blood loss as recorded on the anaesthesia record or in the surgical procedure note, among other variables. A total of 326 patients were included in this study. The median estimated blood loss (EBL was found to be 50 ml. The multivariate regression analysis between these three groups showed that EBL was higher in MAP 75 group. The average of EBL in MAP75 group and the average of EBL in MAP 65-70 group is 42% higher than that in MAP>75 group when other variables were fixed. Hence we found the trend toward higher blood loss with lower MAP. The authors conclude that lower MAP does not result in lower EBL in endoscopic sinus surgery. Furthermore, increases in BMI and crystalloid administered during an aesthetic management of these cases correlates with increased estimate blood loss.

  14. Soybean oil increases SERCA2a expression and left ventricular contractility in rats without change in arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo Dalton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to evaluate the effects of soybean oil treatment for 15 days on arterial and ventricular pressure, myocardial mechanics and proteins involved in calcium handling. Methods Wistar rats were divided in two groups receiving 100 μL of soybean oil (SB or saline (CT i.m. for 15 days. Ventricular performance was analyzed in male 12-weeks old Wistar rats by measuring left ventricle diastolic and systolic pressure in isolated perfused hearts according to the Langendorff technique. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures did not differ between CT and SB rats. However, heart rate was reduced in the SB group. In the perfused hearts, left ventricular isovolumetric systolic pressure was higher in the SB hearts. The inotropic response to extracellular Ca2+ and isoproterenol was higher in the soybean-treated animals than in the control group. Myosin ATPase and Na+-K+ATPase activities, the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA2a and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX were increased in the SB group. Although the phosfolamban (PLB expression did not change, its phosphorylation at Ser16 was reduced while the SERCA2a/PLB ratio was increased. Conclusions In summary, soybean treatment for 15 days in rats increases the left ventricular performance without affecting arterial blood pressure. These changes might be associated with an increase in the myosin ATPase activity and SERCA2a expression.

  15. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  16. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  18. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  19. Noninvasive tracking of systolic arterial blood pressure using pulse transit time measured with ECG and carotid doppler signals with intermittent calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system using pulse transit time (PTT) from the heart to the common carotid artery, measured by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) R-wave and carotid arterial Doppler signals at the anterior neck. In this study, we examined the validity of our system by comparing PTT derived systolic blood pressure (Dopp_SBP) with invasive radial systolic arterial pressure (Inv_SBP) with calibration every 15 min in the ICU setting.Methods: 17 patients u...

  20. Correlation between 24-hour profile of blood pressure and ventricular arrhythmias and their prognostic significance in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, apart from arterial hypertension, is a risk factor for electrophysiologic heart condition disorder and sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between complex ventricular arrhythmias and parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the patients with arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, as well as their prognostic significance during a five-year follow-up. Methods. Ninety patients with arterial hypertension and LVH were included in this study (mean age 55.2±8.3 years. There were 35 healthy people in the control group (mean age 54.5±7.1 years. Left ventricular mass index was 171.9±32.4 g/m2 in the LVH group and 102.4±13.3 g/m2 in the control group. Clinical examination, echocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour holter monitoring were done in all of the examined persons. Ventricular arrhythmias were classified by the Lown classification. Results. In the LVH group there were 54 (60.0% of the patients with ≥ III Lown class. The best predictor of a Lown class were left ventricular mass index by using multivariate stepwise regression analyses (β = 0.212; p < 0.05 and small decrease of diastolic blood pressure during the night (β = -0.293; p < 0.01. The main predictor of bad prognosis was left ventricular mass index during a five year follow-up (β = 0.302; p < 0.01, for stepwise regression model: F = 8.828; p < 0.01, adjusted R2 = 0.091. Conclusion. Left ventricular arrhythmias are frequent in patients with lower decrease of blood pressure during the night. There was no correlation between the degree of ventricular arrhythmias and parameters from 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and a five-year prognosis in the patients with arterial hypertension and LVH. A bad five-year follow-up outcome of hypertensive disease depends on left ventricular mass index.

  1. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  2. [Influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregvadze, T R; Tseluĭko, V I; Mishchuk, N E

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension is the most common disease of the cardiovascular system. Active treatment of hypertension with adequate control of blood pressure (BP) can prevent complications, improve life quality and increase life expectancy. One of the interesting new antihypertensive agents, from the group of angiotensin receptor blockers is olmesartan. The obvious advantages of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to traditional one-time measurements of BP make this method perspective for quality control of anti-hypertensive therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of treatment with olmesartan on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters in patients with hypertension. 38 out-patients with hypertension at the age of 25-84 years (mean 55,3±10,6) were studied. Patients received olmesartan 20 mg daily as monotherapy (20 patients (52,6%)) or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (18 patients (47,4%)). Treatment continued for 6 months. The complex examination included: measurement of office brachial BP, electrocardiography, echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). As a result of treatment, office BP and diurnal BP, according to ABPM, significantly decreased; the favorable circadian BP profile dynamics were found: significantly less frequently observed lack of reduction in BP during night (daily index - non-dipper) - 18% vs. 64% (p treatment of hypertensive patients with olmesartan provides significant decline not only in office BP, but also in diurnal BP, normalizes BP of active and passive periods, also - daily index and reduces BP variability.

  3. A novel photoplethysmography technique to derive normalized arterial stiffness as a blood pressure independent measure in the finger vascular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffening of the small artery may be the earliest sign of arteriosclerosis. However, there is no adequate method for directly assessing small arterial stiffness. In this study, the finger arterial elasticity index (FEI) was defined as the parameter n which denotes the curvilinearity of an exponential model of pressure (P)–volume (Va) relationship (Va = a − b exp (−nP)). For the original estimation, the FEI was calculated from a compliance index from the finger photoplethysmogram whilst occluding the finger. A simple estimation of the FEI was devised by utilizing normalized pulse volume instead of the compliance index. Both estimations yielded close agreement with the exponential model in healthy young participants (study 1: n = 19). Since the FEI was dependent on finger mean blood pressure, normalized finger arterial stiffness index (FSI) was defined as standardized residual from their relationship: mean and standard deviation (SD) of the FSI were 50 ± 10 (study 2: n = 174). The mean coefficient of variation of the FSI for four measurements was 5.72% (study 3: n = 6). The mean and SD of the FSI in seven arteriosclerotic patients were 100.0 ± 13.5. In conclusion, the FEI and FSI by simple estimation are valid and useful for arteriosclerosis research

  4. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S;

    2016-01-01

    we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml......% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml....../min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected...

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  6. The pharmacist and the management of arterial hypertension: the role of blood pressure monitoring and telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Sala, Elisa

    2015-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials have documented that a team of health care professionals which includes a physician, a nurse and a community pharmacist may improve the benefit and adherence of anti-hypertensive therapy. If such a health care model relies on blood pressure telemonitoring, it can promote a stronger relationship between health care professionals and patients, and further improve BP control of hypertension. The major benefit of this collaborative approach is to center the patient's management in a tailored way, providing comprehensive and preventive care based on health information technologies. In this review, the authors summarize recent clinical studies that evaluate the role of the community pharmacist in BP measurements, and in hypertension screening and control. The authors also describe the advantages of using blood pressure telemonitoring in home and ambulatory settings to evaluate potential alternatives to primary care in hypertension management.

  7. Impact of sudarshan kriya yoga on mean arterial blood pressure and biochemical parameters in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Living a happy and healthy life on all planes is possible through the unified practice of sudarshan kriya yoga (SKY along with asana and pranayam. The practice of SKY seems to be beneficial on mean blood pressure and biochemical parameters in normal healthy individuals. This unique breathing practice is a potent energizer. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2150-2152

  8. Epworth's sleepiness scale in outpatients with different values of arterial blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare sleepiness scores of the Epworth scale in patients with different levels of arterial pressure when undergoing outpatient monitoring within the context of clinical evaluation. METHODS: A total of 157 patients selected for outpatient monitoring of arterial pressure during hypertension evaluation were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - normotensive; group 2 - hypertensive; group 3 - resistant hypertensive. For analysis, values > or = 11 were considered as associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep. RESULTS: Seventeen (10.8% patients in group 1, 112 (71.3% in group 2, and 28 (17.8% in group 3, which was composed of aged, more severely hypertensive individuals, were analyzed. Groups were similar relative to sex and body mass index, but different in relation to systolic and diastolic pressure levels and age. Despite an absolute difference, no statistically significant difference occurred between Epworth scores and in the proportion of patients with values > or = 11 (5.9% vs. 18.8% vs. 212.4%; P=0.37. Despite the positive association between degree of sleepiness measured with the scale and the severity of the hypertension, no statistical significance occurred following control by age (p=0.18. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation exists between degree of sleepiness and hypertension severity. The absence of a statistical significance shown in the present study could be due to a beta type of error. Instruments that render this complaint into an objective finding could help in the pursuit of an investigation of respiratory disturbances during sleep in more severely hypertensive patients, and should therefore be studied better.

  9. Effects of three days of dry immersion on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, S; Sugiyama, Y; Miwa, C; Kamiya, A; Mano, T; Ohira, Y; Shenkman, B; Egorov, A I; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2000-03-15

    The present study was performed to determine how sympathetic function is altered by simulated microgravity, dry immersion for 3 days, and to elucidate the mechanism of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance in humans. Six healthy men aged 21-36 years old participated in the study. Before and after the dry immersion, subjects performed head-up tilt (HUT) test to 30 degrees and 60 degrees (5 min each) with recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure (Finapres). Resting MSNA was increased after dry immersion from 23.7+/-3.2 to 40.9+/-3.0 bursts/min (p<0.005) without significant changes in resting heart rate (HR). MSNA responsiveness to orthostasis showed no significant difference but HR response was significantly augmented after dry immersion (p<0. 005). A significant diastolic blood pressure fall at 5th min of 60 degrees HUT was observed in five orthostatic tolerant subjects despite enough MSNA discharge after dry immersion. A subject suffered from presyncope at 2 min after 60 degrees HUT. He showed gradual blood pressure fall 10 s after 60 degrees HUT with initially well-maintained MSNA response and then with a gradually attenuated MSNA, followed by a sudden MSNA withdrawal and abrupt blood pressure drop. In conclusion, dry immersion increased MSNA without changing MSNA response to orthostasis, and resting HR, while increasing the HR response to orthostasis. Analyses of MSNA and blood pressure changes in orthostatic tolerant subjects and a subject with presyncope suggested that not only insufficient vasoconstriction to sympathetic stimuli, but also a central mechanism to induce a sympathetic withdrawal might play a role in the development of orthostatic intolerance after microgravity exposure.

  10. The effect of siesta in parameters of cardiac structure and in interpretation of ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.M. Gomes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the siesta in ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring and in cardiac structure parameters. METHODS: 1940 ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring tests were analyzed (Spacelabs 90207, 15/15 minutes from 7:00 to 22:00 hours and 20/20 minutes from 22:01 to 6.59hours and 21% of the records indicated that the person had taken a siesta (263 woman, 52±14 years. The average duration of the siesta was 118±58 minutes. RESULTS: (average ± standard deviation The average of systolic/diastolic pressures during wakefulness, including the napping period, was less than the average for the period not including the siesta (138±16/85±11 vs 139±16/86±11 mmHg, p5%. CONCLUSION: The siesta influenced the heart structure parameters and from a statistical point of view the average of systolic and diastolic pressures and the respective pressure loads of the wakeful period.

  11. Antenatal hypoxia induces programming of reduced arterial blood pressure response in female rat offspring: role of ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaLiao Xiao

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to adverse environmental factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The present study tested the hypothesis that antenatal hypoxia causes a gender-dependent programming of altered arterial blood pressure response (BP in adult offspring. Time-dated pregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from days 15 to 21 of gestation groups. The experiments were conducted in adult offspring. Antenatal hypoxia caused intrauterine growth restriction, and resulted in a gender-dependent increase Angiotensin II (Ang II-induced BP response in male offspring, but significant decrease in BP response in female offspring. The baroreflex sensitivity was not significantly altered. Consistent with the reduced blood pressure response, antenatal hypoxia significantly decreased Ang II-induced arterial vasoconstriction in female offspring. Ovariectomy had no significant effect in control animals, but significantly increased Ang II-induced maximal BP response in prenatally hypoxic animals and eliminated the difference of BP response between the two groups. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized animals significantly decreased the BP response to angiotensin II I only in control, but not in hypoxic animals. The result suggests complex programming mechanisms of antenatal hypoxia in regulation of ovary function. Hypoxia-mediated ovary dysfunction results in the phenotype of reduced vascular contractility and BP response in female adult offspring.

  12. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  13. Optimal blood pressure in patients with peripheral artery disease following endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Haruki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Hata, Shinya; Moniwa, Norihito; Hasegawa, Koichi; Takizawa, Hideki; Tanaka, Shigemichi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between blood pressure (BP) and event incidence to define optimal BP after endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients who underwent EVT. BP was monitored every 6 months for 5 years, and the patients were divided into two groups by average BP: ≥ 140/90 mmHg and  7.0% was significantly higher among those who did not achieve target BP in the restenosis group (42.9%) than in the other group (10.8%) (p EVT. PMID:26440772

  14. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  15. Benidipine has effects similar to losartan on the central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Hyun Ihm; Hui-Kyung Jeon; Shung Chull Chae; Do-Sun Lim; Kee-Sik Kim; Dong-Ju Choi; Jong-Won Ha

    2013-01-01

    Background Central blood pressure (BP) is pathophysiologically more important than peripheral BP for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.Arterial stiffness is also a good predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.The effects of benidipine,a unique dual L-/T-type calcium channel blocker,on central BP have not been reported.This study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and losartan on the central BP and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertensives.Methods This 24 weeks,multi-center,open label,randomized,active drug comparative,parallel group study was designed as a non-inferiority study.The eligible patients (n=200) were randomly assigned to receive benidipine (n=101)or losartan (n=99).Radial artery applanation tonometry and pulse wave analysis were used to measure the central BP,pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Alx).We also measured the metabolic and inflammatory markers.Results After 24 weeks,the central BP decreased significantly from baseline by (16.8+14.0/10.5+9.2) mmHg (1mmHg =0.133 kPa) (systolic/diastolic BP; P <0.001) in benidipine group and (18.9+14.7/12.1+10.2) mmHg (P <0.001)in losartan group respectively.Both benidipine and losartan groups significantly lowered peripheral BP (P <0.001) and Alx (P <0.05),but there were no significant differences between the two groups.The mean aortic,brachial and femoral PWV did not change in both groups after 24-week treatment.There were no significant changes of the blood metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in each group.Conclusion Benidipine is as effective as losartan in lowering the central and peripheral BP,and improving arterial stiffness.

  16. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S; Laugesen, Esben; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Winther, Simon; Buus, Niels H

    2016-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 41 controls without renal disease undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. BP in the ascending aorta was measured through the angiography catheter and simultaneously estimated using radial tonometry. The mean difference between estimated central and aortic SBP was -13.2 (95% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml/min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected invasive SBP than estimated SBP. Thus, tonometry-based estimates of central BP progressively underestimate invasive central SBP with decreasing renal function and increasing arterial stiffness in CKD patients.

  17. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  18. A comparison of non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement (Finapres) with intra-arterial pressure during prolonged head-up tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M E; Williams, T R; Sutton, R

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneous intra-radial and non-invasive (Finapres, Ohmeda) blood pressures were compared during prolonged head-up tilt, in eight patients (mean age 49 years) with malignant vasovagal syncope. Twelve tilts were performed, of which eight resulted in vasovagal syncope. The mean bias (difference between Finapres and intra-arterial pressures) for systolic pressure was +0.7 mmHg (standard deviation 11.3 mmHg) and for diastolic pressure was +5.4 mmHg (standard deviation 7 mmHg). The within-tilt precision (standard deviation of the bias) of the non-invasive measurements varied between 2.9-12.4 mmHg (median 4.5 mmHg) for systolic comparisons, and 1.6-8.4 mmHg (median 4.4 mmHg) for diastolic comparisons. In all but one tilt highly significant positive increases in both systolic (median 7.1 mmHg) and diastolic bias (median 8.1 mmHg) occurred on tilt with respect to resting pre-tilt levels. Independent of the absolute level of agreement, the non-invasive measurements followed changes in intra-arterial pressure closely, with 89% of beat-to-beat changes in systolic pressure, and 95% of beat-to-beat changes in diastolic pressure followed to within +/- 2 mmHg. This study suggests that the Finapres is well suited for use during diagnostic tilt testing, demonstrating an acceptable within-tilt precision and closely following pressure changes during vasovagal syncope. PMID:8881861

  19. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  20. Cardiac output in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: association with arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure wave amplitudes and outcome of shunt surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Per K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH responding to shunt surgery, we have consistently found elevated intracranial pressure (ICP wave amplitudes during diagnostic ICP monitoring prior to surgery. It remains unknown why ICP wave amplitudes are increased in these patients. Since iNPH is accompanied by a high incidence of vascular co-morbidity, a possible explanation is that there is reduced vascular compliance accompanied by elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP wave amplitudes and even altered cardiac output (CO. To investigate this possibility, the present study was undertaken to continuously monitor CO to determine if it is correlated to ABP and ICP wave amplitudes and the outcome of shunting in iNPH patients. It was specifically addressed whether the increased ICP wave amplitudes seen in iNPH shunt responders were accompanied by elevated CO and/or ABP wave amplitude levels. Methods Prospective iNPH patients (29 were clinically graded using an NPH grading scale. Continuous overnight minimally-invasive monitoring of CO and ABP was done simultaneously with ICP monitoring; the CO, ABP, and ICP parameters were parsed into 6-second time windows. Patients were assessed for shunt surgery on clinical grade, Evan's index, and ICP wave amplitude. Follow-up clinical grading was performed 12 months after surgery. Results ICP wave amplitudes but not CO or ABP wave amplitude, showed good correlation with the response to shunt treatment. The patients with high ICP wave amplitude did not have accompanying high levels of CO or ABP wave amplitude. Correlation analysis between CO and ICP wave amplitudes in individual patients showed different profiles [significantly positive in 10 (35% and significantly negative in 16 (55% of 29 recordings]. This depended on whether there was also a correlation between ABP and ICP wave amplitudes and on the average level of ICP wave amplitude. Conclusions These results gave no

  1. Preliminary study of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗良; 杨向军; 王国强; 高美雯; 李勋; 惠杰; 蒋廷波; 宋建平; 刘志华; 蒋文平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with or without hypertension. Methods Treadmill exercise testing (TET) was conducted in 88 patients (40 CAD patients, 48 control subjects)with or without hypertension, each of whom underwent selective coronary angiography (CAG). The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP was defined as 10mmHg higher than earlier periods during the recovery phase (6 minutes)of exercise testing. Results The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP had higher sensitivity, specificity,and accuracy for detecting CAD than those of ST - segment depression in patients with or without hypertension. Its accuracy increased with the severity of CAD while decreased in patients with hypertension, and the increase value of SBP had a positive correlation with the extent of coronary artery lesion. The combination of ST - segment depression and abnormal increase of postexercise SBP diagnosed CAD most accurately in patients with hypertension. Conclusions Abnormal increase of postexercise SBP may be a useful index for diagnosing CAD.

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  3. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  4. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  5. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  6. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  7. Relationship of blood pressure variability and ambulatory arterial stiffness index with coronary artery lesions%血压变异性及动态动脉硬化指数与冠状动脉病变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡战友; 茶春喜; 罗仁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血压变异性(blood pressure variability,BPV)、动态动脉硬化指数(ambulatory arterial stiffness index,AASI)与冠状动脉病变程度的关系.方法 可疑冠心病患者258例,根据冠状动脉造影结果分为冠状动脉病变组187例与冠状动脉正常组71例,术后1周内监测24 h动态血压,分析观察动态血压及动态AASI与冠状动脉病变程度的相关性.结果 冠状动脉双支及3支病变组动态AASI数、24 h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异、夜间舒张压变异明显高于冠状动脉正常组(P<0.05),BPV及动态AASI数随冠状动脉血管病变支数的增加而逐渐增大;动态AASI与24h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异呈正相关;年龄、合并高血压病、合并糖尿病、24 h收缩压变异、白昼收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异、夜间舒张压变异及动态AASI与冠心病的发生呈正相关;多因素Logistic逐步回归分析显示24 h收缩压变异、夜间收缩压变异及动态AASI是冠心病独立危险因素.结论 收缩压变异性和动态AASI对冠状动脉病变程度有较好的预测价值.%Objective To explore the relationship of blood pressure variability (BPV) and ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AAS1) with coronary artery lesion. Methods A total of 258 patients with suspected coronary heart disease were divided into coronary artery lesions group (n=187) and normal coronary artery group (n=71) according to the coronary angiography results. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was monitored in one week after operation to observe the relationship of BPV and AASI with coronary artery lesion. Results AASI, 24-hour systolic blood pressure standard deviation, day systolic blood pressure standard deviation, night systolic blood pressure standard deviation and night diastolic blood pressure standard deviation were significantly higher in double and triple vessel lesion group than those in normal coronary artery group

  8. Influence of a history of arterial hypertension and pretreatment blood pressure on the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition after acute myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a history of arterial hypertension and the level of pretreatment blood pressure on the efficacy of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril on mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left....... Follow up time was 24-50 months (mean 26 months). RESULTS: Four hundred patients (23%) had a history of arterial hypertension. A total of 173 (43%) patients with a history of hypertension died during follow up versus 500 (37%) patients in the normotensive group. Treatment with trandolapril...... for a broad spectrum of potential confounders. Also, benefit from ACE inhibition increased with increasing blood pressure at the time of randomization. Significant interactions between benefit from ACE inhibition and hypertension history, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. CONCLUSION: ACE...

  9. Vital Signs – Presión arterial alta (High Blood Pressure)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    En los EE. UU. casi un tercio de la población adulta tiene presión arterial alta, el principal factor de riesgo de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares, dos de las principales causas de muerte en el país.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  10. Possibility of non-invasive blood pressure estimation by measurements of force and arteries diameter

    OpenAIRE

    Veye, Florent; Mestre, Sandrine; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Triboulet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience Ultrasound examination is the first line procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of cardiovascular diseases. Instrumenting an ultrasound probe with a force sensor may improve the non-invasive measurement of arterial biomechanical parameters (diameter, pulsatility, intima-media thickness and flow-dependent dilation) by measuring and controlling the force exerted by the sonographer. We present here the results obtained with this approach coupled with image processing...

  11. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is effective for blood pressure control and renal function improvement in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Chuan-jun; YANG Bao-zhong; WANG Zhong-gao

    2012-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent is an effective procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.However,the decision to perform this procedure has recently raised considerable debate.The aim of this study was to assess the effects of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,especially as it relates to blood pressure control and renal function improvement.Methods A retrospective analysis was made of the clinical data from 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty from July 2004 to June 2008 in the Department of Vascular Surgery of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital.We compared blood pressure,number of oral antihypertensive medications,and renal function changes pre and post-procedure at 24 months follow-up.Results A total of 125 atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients underwent percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and 143 stents were placed.At 24 months follow-up,both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the number of oral antihypertensive medications were significantly reduced (P <0.05).Overall,the estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly (P >0.05); however,a significant increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate was observed in the subgroup of patients with a lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and in the subgroup of patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis (P <0.05).Conclusion Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty is a safe procedure for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis patients,providing a significant improvement in blood pressure control and reduction in the number of oral antihypertensive medications.

  12. Predictors of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Interrelationship of Dyslipidemia and Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuro Macut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS could develop subclinical atherosclerosis during life. Purpose. To analyze cardiovascular risk (CVR factors and their relation to clinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD in respect to their age. Material and Methods. One hundred women with PCOS (26.32±5.26 years, BMI: 24.98±6.38 kg/m2 were compared to 50 respective controls. In all subjects, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios, glucose, insulin and HOMA index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, resp., and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were analyzed in respect to their age and level of androgens. Results. PCOS over 30 years had higher WHR (P=0.008, SBP (P<0.001, DBP (P<0.001, TC (P=0.028, HDL-C (P=0.028, LDL-C (P=0.045, triglycerides (P<0.001, TC/HDL-C (P<0.001, and triglycerides/HDL-C (P<0.001 and had more prevalent hypertension and pronounced CIMT on common carotid arteries even after adjustment for BMI (P=0.005 and 0.036, resp.. TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were higher in PCOS with the highest quintile of FAI in comparison to those with lower FAI (P=0.045 and 0.034, resp.. Conclusions. PCOS women older than 30 years irrespective of BMI have the potential for early atherosclerosis mirrored through the elevated lipids/lipid ratios and through changes in blood pressure.

  13. Association of Inter-arm Blood Pressure Difference with Asymptomatic Intracranial and Extracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qian, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-01-01

    Inter-arm blood pressure (BP) difference has been associated with ischemic stroke. Local atherosclerosis of stroke differ among vulnerable individuals, whereas intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is more frequently affected Asians, and extracranial arterial stenosis (ECAS) is more prevalent among whites. We hereby sought to explore the association of inter-arm BP difference with ICAS and ECAS in stroke-free hypertensive patients in Chinese population. All the 885 subjects were evaluated of ICAS and ECAS through computerized tomographic angiography. Both arm BP was measured simultaneously by Vascular Profiler-1000 device. In the continuous study, ICAS was significantly associated with age, male, average brachial SBP, diabetes, anti-hypertensive treatment and inter-arm DBP difference. ECAS was associated with age, inter-arm SBP and LDL. In the categorical study, subjects with the top quartile of inter-arm DBP difference (≥4 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ICAS (OR = 2.109; 95% CI, 1.24–3.587). And the participants with the top quartile of inter-arm SBP difference (≥6 mmHg) showed significantly higher risk of ECAS (OR = 2.288; 95% CI, 1.309–3.998). In conclusion, we reported a diverse association of inter-arm SBP/DBP difference with the ICAS/ECAS. Inter-arm DBP difference might be the early symbol of ICAS in Chinese population, which need further verification in long-term cohort study. PMID:27412818

  14. ISH PRE-1 REDUCTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN HYPERTENSIVES WITH COMORBIDITIES: BEYOND BLOOD PRESSURE LOWERING - THE ROLE OF ARTERIAL AGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Michel E

    2016-09-01

    Mid-life elevated BP is classically associated with a raised systemic vascular resistance. A classical interpretation of the association between aortic stiffness and blood pressure (BP) invokes hypertension as a simple form of premature aging that increases stress on the arterial wall and accelerates age-related stiffening of the aorta. Recent clinical and experimental data have called into question the directionality of this sequence of events associating stiffness and hypertension.Therefore an initial abnormality in stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the pathogenesis of hypertension, namely isolated systolic hypertension. This possibility is important to consider since it might affect the individual estimation of cardiovascular risk even in low risk prehypertensive subjects. Therefore, it might be essential to direct therapy of hypertension toward the reduction of both BP and aortic stiffness.Cardiovascular (CV) complications are dominant causes of death in severe hypertensive patients with comorbidities, especially diabetic hypertensive patients (DHS) and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Vascular calcifi cation and arterial stiffness are highly prevalent in such subjects, particularly in those with co-morbidities. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) is the gold standard and simple, non-invasive and reproducible measure of large artery stiffness.This measurement have been frequently used as predictors for CV events and CV mortality in the general population, in specifi c populations such as in patients with DHS and ESRD. These fi ndings have been widely observed using conventional cross-sectional investigations. However, in such studies, it has been observed that the association between single measurements of CFPWV and CV events is frequently driven by the high incidence of late events, i.e. after 12 months of follow-up.New data from our prospective studies in DHS and ESRD evaluated the association between longitudinal changes

  15. Aortic and carotid arterial stiffness and epigenetic regulator gene expression changes precede blood pressure rise in stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Multiple clinical studies show that arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV, precedes hypertension and is an independent predictor of hypertension end organ diseases including stroke, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Risk factor studies for arterial stiffness implicate age, hypertension and sodium. However, causal mechanisms linking risk factor to arterial stiffness remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the causal relationship of arterial stiffness and hypertension in the Na-induced, stroke-prone Dahl salt-sensitive (S hypertensive rat model, and analyzed putative molecular mechanisms. Stroke-prone and non-stroke-prone male and female rats were studied at 3- and 6-weeks of age for arterial stiffness (PWV, strain, blood pressure, vessel wall histology, and gene expression changes. Studies showed that increased left carotid and aortic arterial stiffness preceded hypertension, pulse pressure widening, and structural wall changes at the 6-week time-point. Instead, differential gene induction was detected implicating molecular-functional changes in extracellular matrix (ECM structural constituents, modifiers, cell adhesion, and matricellular proteins, as well as in endothelial function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulators. Immunostaining testing histone modifiers Ep300, HDAC3, and PRMT5 levels confirmed carotid artery-upregulation in all three layers: endothelial, smooth muscle and adventitial cells. Our study recapitulates observations in humans that given salt-sensitivity, increased Na-intake induced arterial stiffness before hypertension, increased pulse pressure, and structural vessel wall changes. Differential gene expression changes associated with arterial stiffness suggest a molecular mechanism linking sodium to full-vessel wall response affecting gene-networks involved in vascular ECM structure-function, apoptosis balance, and epigenetic regulation.

  16. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Muñoz-Durango

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage.

  17. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Fuentes, Cristóbal A; Castillo, Andrés E; González-Gómez, Luis Martín; Vecchiola, Andrea; Fardella, Carlos E; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage. PMID:27347925

  18. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Fuentes, Cristóbal A; Castillo, Andrés E; González-Gómez, Luis Martín; Vecchiola, Andrea; Fardella, Carlos E; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-06-23

    Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage.

  19. Skin perfusion pressure measured by isotope washout in legs with arterial occlusive disease. Evaluation of different tracers, comparison to segmental systolic pressure, angiography and transcutaneous oxygen tension and variations during changes in systemic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Trap-Jensen, J; Bagger, H;

    1983-01-01

    digit (strain gauge technique). The two different methods correlated statistically significant at all four levels, but the systolic blood pressures were higher than the SPP in particular in diabetic legs; (3) Angiograms in 35 legs with AOD showed that the SPP on the ankle was only consistently decreased......The skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured as the isotope washout cessation external pressure is valuable in selection of major amputation level. Five methodological investigations important to clinical use were carried out: (1) In five normal legs and 10 legs with arterial occlusive disease (AOD......Hg (range 18-98) (P less than 0.02). The average washout constant for the three different tracers were approximately equal and correlated statistically significant with the SPP; (2) In 59 legs with AOD, segmental SPP was compared to segmental systolic blood pressures on the thigh, calf, ankle and first...

  20. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days....... Arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using indwelling catheters. Food and water intake and diuresis were measured in metabolic cages. Urine osmolality and excretion of electrolytes, cGMP, cAMP and NOx were determined, as well as plasma NOx and cGMP. There was a significant dependence of blood...... pressure during high salt intake and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal NO formation during elevated NaCl intake....

  1. Differential effects of the changes of LDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure on the risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Kuo-Liong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of baseline and changes in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol on the carotid intima media thickness (IMT have not been well documented. Methods A total of 2572 adults (mean age 53.8 years, 54.6% women in a Taiwanese community undertook three blood pressure and LDL cholesterol examinations over 6 years. Latent growth curve modeling was used to investigate the effects of baseline and change in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on IMT. Results Greater baseline LDL and blood pressure were associated with an increase in IMT (0.005 ± 0.002 mm per 1 mg/dL [p = 0.006] and 0.041 ± 0.004 mm mmHg [p Conclusions Carotid IMT was associated with baseline blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, yet only changes of blood pressure, not LDL cholesterol, were related to carotid IMT during the 6-year observation.

  2. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoyavcheva S.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years. ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified into clusters. Results. Clusters with normal heart rate prevailed in patients with normal weight and overweight, I degree obesity in all AH varuants. Hypertensive clusters with tachycardia were found to prevail in patients with II–III degree obesity. AH structure changed with body mass increase. In overweight and I degree obesity there grows the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH clusters. In II–III degree obesity the clusters of systolic-diastolic and isolated diastolic AH were revealed less frequently than in normal body weight, while isolated systolic AH clusters were found more frequently. Their occurrence increased in patients with a high albuminuria level as well. Conclusion. ABPM data can be grouped into clusters, and their own pathogenic mechanisms of AH maintenance and regulation seem to prevail in each cluster. In overweight and I degree obesity patients the occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH increases. With obesity degree increase there is the tendency for heart rate rise, and hemodynamic AH variants are redistributed towards the increase of isolated systolic AH, which is likely to be due to the increase in AH severity with vascular wall remodeling progression. Isolated systolic AH prevalence is increasing not only in II–III degree obesity, but also in high albuminuria supporting the significance of systolic AH in albuminuria development. No interaction between albuminuria and heart rate was revealed.

  3. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  4. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  8. Valores da pressão arterial em cães pelos métodos oscilométrico e Doppler vascular Arterial blood pressure in dogs by the oscilometric method and the Doppler ultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados dois métodos não-invasivos de medida da pressão arterial, o Doppler vascular e o oscilométrico, com o objetivo de estabelecer parâmetros que possam auxiliar no diagnóstico seguro da hipertensão arterial. Para tal, foram utilizados 45 cães, machos e fêmeas, distribuídos em três grupos de acordo com o peso, pequeno, médio e grande porte. Em cada animal, procedeu-se a mensuração por meio do Doppler vascular e, em seguida, do oscilométrico. Na obtenção da pressão arterial sistólica, não houve diferença entre os métodos nos três grupos de animais, porém, na obtenção da pressão arterial diastólica, houve diferença estatística entre o Doppler vascular e o oscilométrico nos grupos de animais de pequeno e médio porte. Pôde-se concluir que valores confiáveis de pressão sistólica podem ser obtidos tanto por meio do Doppler vascular quanto do oscilométrico. Os valores da pressão arterial diastólica obtidos pelos dois métodos não se correlacionam, principalmente nos animais de pequeno e médio porte.Two noninvasive methods for blood pressure measurement, the oscilometric and the Doppler ultrasonic, were compaired aiming the establishment of parameters that can be helpful for the hypertension diagnosis. Forty-five dogs, males and females, were distributed in three groups, according to body weight: small, medium, and large sizes. In each animal, measurement of the blood pressure was performed, first by the Doppler ultrasonic, followed by the oscilometric method. No differences were observed in sistolic arterial pressure values obtained by both methods in none of the three animal groups. However, there was an important difference in diastolic arterial pressure values obtained by these methods, especially in small and medium size dogs. It was concluded that reliable results of sistolic blood pressure can be obtained both by the Doppler ultrasonic and the oscilometric method. Diastolic blood pressure

  9. l-Citrulline supplementation attenuates blood pressure, wave reflection and arterial stiffness responses to metaboreflex and cold stress in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kalfon, Roy

    2016-07-01

    Combined isometric exercise or metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI)) and cold pressor test (CPT) increase cardiac afterload, which may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. l-Citrulline supplementation (l-CIT) reduces systemic arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) at rest and aortic haemodynamic responses to CPT. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of l-CIT on aortic haemodynamic and baPWV responses to PEMI+CPT. In all, sixteen healthy, overweight/obese males (age 24 (sem 6) years; BMI 29·3 (sem 4·0) kg/m2) were randomly assigned to placebo or l-CIT (6 g/d) for 14 d in a cross-over design. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), aortic augmented pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), baPWV, reflection timing (Tr) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated at rest and during isometric handgrip exercise (IHG), PEMI and PEMI+CPT at baseline and after 14 d. No significant effects were evident after l-CIT at rest. l-CIT attenuated the increases in aortic SBP and wave reflection (AP and AIx) during IHG, aortic DBP, MAP and AIx during PEMI, and aortic SBP, DBP, MAP, AP, AIx and baPWV during PEMI+CPT compared with placebo. HR and Tr were unaffected by l-CIT in all conditions. Our findings demonstrate that l-CIT attenuates aortic blood pressure and wave reflection responses to exercise-related metabolites. Moreover, l-CIT attenuates the exaggerated arterial stiffness response to combined metaboreflex activation and cold exposure, suggesting a protective effect against increased cardiac afterload during physical stress. PMID:27160957

  10. Determinants of exercise peak arterial blood pressure, circulatory power, and exercise cardiac power in a population based sample of Finnish male and female aged 30 to 47 years: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkkonen, Janne; Aatola, Heikki; Pälve, Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma SA; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kähönen, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel parameters derived from peak maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise arterial blood pressure, such as peak circulatory power (CP) and exercise cardiac power (ECP), can be used in the risk assessment of cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, the determinants of these factors are poorly characterized in the general population. Methods We assessed peak arterial blood pressure, CP and ECP with standardized cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on 281 female and 257 male part...

  11. Immediate responses of arterial blood pressure and heart rate to sudden inhalation of high concentrations of isoflurane in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T; Nishino, T; Hiraga, K

    1993-11-01

    Inhalation of pungent volatile anesthetics elicits respiratory reflex responses. To clarify whether an upper airway irritation produced by pungent anesthetics can also induce circulatory reflex responses that are clinically significant, a sudden administration of 5% isoflurane by mask was performed during continuous measurement of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in eight normotensive and eight hypertensive patients anesthetized with thiamylal and paralyzed with vecuronium. The sudden administration of 5% isoflurane caused immediate increases in BP, HR, and rate pressure products (RPP) in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. The responses observed were more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. The circulatory changes in hypertensive patients were sufficient to be clinically significant. Our findings suggest that sudden administration of a high concentration of pungent volatile anesthetics may be associated with transient hypertensive responses in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:8214702

  12. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  13. Pressão arterial de adolescentes de escolas particulares de Fortaleza-CE Presión arterial de adolescentes de escuelas particulares en Fortaleza-CE Blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Carina Viana da Silva

    2010-01-01

    blood pressure of adolescents in private schools in the city of Fortaleza-CE. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study in which 794 adolescents were surveyed - between 12 and 17 years of age - from 14 private schools of that city, in the period from March to September 2007. It was used a questionnaire that contemplated the following characteristics: socio-demographic, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, physical activity and capillary glucose. RESULTS: It was found that 19.7% of young people had high blood pressure. The male participants had systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP higher than females (p=0.0001. The investigation found higher values of SBP and DBP in those who were overweight (p=0.0001. CONCLUSION: The blood pressure was influenced mainly by gender and BMI.

  14. From gene to protein - experimental and clinical studies of ACE2 in blood pressure control and arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart and renal failure, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE converts angiotensin (Ang I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II. An alternate arm of the RAS now exists in which ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of Ang II, and generation of the vasodilator Ang 1-7. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart, blood vessels and kidney. The catalytically active ectodomain of ACE2 undergoes shedding, resulting in ACE2 in the circulation. The ACE2 gene maps to a quantitative trait locus on the X chromosome in three strains of genetically hypertensive rats, suggesting that ACE2 may be a candidate gene for hypertension. It is hypothesised that disruption of tissue ACE/ACE2 balance results in changes in blood pressure, with increased ACE2 expression protecting against increased blood pressure, and ACE2 deficiency contributing to hypertension. Experimental hypertension studies have measured ACE2 in either the heart or kidney and/or plasma, and have reported that deletion or inhibition of ACE2 leads to hypertension, whilst enhancing ACE2 protects against the development of hypertension, hence increasing ACE2 may be a therapeutic option for the management of high blood pressure in man. There have been relatively few studies of ACE2, either at the gene or the circulating level in patients with hypertension. Plasma ACE2 activity is low in healthy subjects, but elevated in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or cardiovascular disease. Genetic studies have investigated ACE2 gene polymorphisms with either hypertension or blood pressure, and have produced largely inconsistent findings. This review discusses the evidence regarding ACE2 in experimental hypertension models and the association between circulating ACE2 activity and ACE2 polymorphisms with blood pressure and

  15. Decrease of blood pressure by community-based strategies Descenso de la presión arterial por estrategias comunitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín R. Salazar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In a cross section study performed in Rauch in 1997 we found a high prevalence of hypertension and low levels of treatment and control. To evaluate the impact of the community-based intervention activities on blood pressure (BP, we made a cohort study in 1526 inhabitants aged between 15 and 75 years in 2003. The initial study, the advice to consult the family doctor when alterations were found, the free provision of antihypertensive drugs, the press diffusion of the study results and a healthy lifestyle were included among the intervention activities. BP was measured in the subjects' residence by especially trained nurses, considering systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP as the average of three measurements in one occasion. A total of 1307 subjects (85.65% were re-interviewed. SBP decreased from 137.98 ± 0.57 to 132.49 ± 0.53 mm Hg (pLa ciudad de Rauch presentaba en 1997 alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HA y bajos niveles de tratamiento y control. Para evaluar el impacto de actividades de intervención comunitarias sobre la presión arterial (PA reencuestamos en el año 2003 a una cohorte de 1526 habitantes de 15-75 años. Las actividades de intervención fueron el estudio inicial, la indicación de concurrir a su médico cuando se hallaban alteraciones, la provisión gratuita de antihipertensivos y la difusión por medios masivos de los resultados del estudio y de hábitos saludables de vida. La PA fue medida en el domicilio por enfermeras especialmente entrenadas, considerando PA sistólica y diastólica (PAS y PAD a los promedios de tres registros en una ocasión. Se reencuestaron 1307 individuos (85.65%. La PAS descendió de 137.98 ± 0.57 a 132.49 ± 0.53 mm Hg (p<0.01 y la PAD de 88.73 ± 0.38 a 81.87 ± 0.33 mm Hg (p<0.01. La PA disminuyó en ambos sexos, en todos los grupos etáreos y en el subgrupo sin antihipertensivos. El porcentaje de sujetos con antihipertensivos aumentó de 12.2 a 20.4 (p<0.01 y se observó una

  16. Changes in arterial blood pressure elicited by severe passive heating at rest is associated with hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Ichinose, Masashi; Honda, Yasushi; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The arterial blood pressure and ventilatory responses to severe passive heating at rest varies greatly among individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in ventilation seen during severe passive heating of resting humans is associated with a decrease in arterial blood pressure. Passive heating was performed on 18 healthy males using hot water immersion to the level of the iliac crest and a water-perfused suit. We then divided the subjects into two groups: MAP(NOTINC) (n = 8), whose mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the end of heating had increased by ≤3 mmHg, and MAP(INC) (n = 10), whose MAP increased by >3 mmHg. Increases in esophageal temperature (T (es)) elicited by the heating were similar in the two groups (+2.3 ± 0.3 vs. +2.4 ± 0.4 °C). Early during heating (increase in T (es) was ventilation ([Formula: see text]), and end-tidal CO(2) pressure ([Formula: see text]) were similar between the groups. However, during the latter part of heating (increase in T (es) was ≥1.5 °C), the increase in [Formula: see text] and decrease in [Formula: see text] were significantly greater or tended to be greater, while the increase in MAP was significantly smaller in MAP(NOTINC) than MAP(INC). Among all subjects, heating-induced changes in [Formula: see text] significantly and negatively correlated with heating-induced changes in MAP during the latter part of heating (r = -0.52 to -0.74, P passive heating can be explained by the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.

  17. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  18. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  20. Role of the adrenal medulla in control of blood pressure and renal function during furosemide-induced volume depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Shalmi, Michael;

    1995-01-01

    Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure......Farmakologi, furosemide, adrenaline, renal function, adrenal medullectomy, arterial blood pressure...

  1. Chronic treatment with Vitamin D lowers arterial blood pressure and reduces endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the SHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Michael S K; Delansorne, Remi; Svenningsen, Per;

    2010-01-01

    that chronic treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates vascular tone and this modulation is accompanied by a lowered blood pressure, reduced expression of COX-1 mRNA and protein and reduced ROS level in SHR. The reduction in endothelium-dependent contractions does not involve the surge in endothelial......Vitamin D has cardiovascular protective effects besides regulating calcium homeostasis. To examine the chronic in vivo effect of a physiological dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the occurrence of endothelium-dependent contractions, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY......) were treated with the vitamin D derivative for six weeks. The serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level of both treated WKY and SHR was significantly higher than in untreated rats while the mean arterial blood pressure of the treated SHR was significantly lower than that of control SHR. Aortic rings...

  2. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP) measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment...

  3. Adenosine elicits an eNOS-independent reduction in arterial blood pressure in conscious mice that involves adenosine A(2A) receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Jaff, Mohammad G; Høgh, Ditte;

    2011-01-01

    Aims:  Adenosine plays an important role in the regulation of heart rate and vascular reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying the acute effect of adenosine on arterial blood pressure in conscious mice are unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of the nucleoside on mean...... arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious mice. Methods:  Chronic indwelling catheters were placed in C57Bl/6J (WT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out (eNOS(-/-) ) mice for continuous measurements of MAP and HR. Using PCR and myograph analysis involment of adenosine...... receptors was investigated in human and mouse renal blood vessels Results:  Bolus infusion of 0.5 mg/kg adenosine elicited significant transient decreases in MAP (99.3±2.3 to 70.4±4.5 mmHg) and HR (603.2±18.3 to 364.3±49.2 min(-1) ) which were inhibited by the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385. Activation...

  4. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...... for differences >20 mmHg. This study confirmed the presence of a systematic but clinically insignificant difference in systolic blood pressure between arms. The interarm difference was larger in hypertension and PAD. Consistent lateralisation is present for differences ≥20 mmHg and an interarm difference >25 mm...

  5. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  6. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  7. Blood transfusion requirement in surgery for femoral artery aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    Audit of blood usage in various surgical specialities have shown that over-ordering of blood is widespread, causing unnecessary pressure on the transfusion facilities and giving growing concern over the expense of cross-matching blood. The aim of this study was to assess the blood transfusion req...... requirement in patients undergoing surgery for femoral artery aneurysms....

  8. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  9. Arterial blood pressure but not serum albumin concentration correlates with ADC ratio values in pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological entity affecting both adults and children characterized by neurotoxicity often in setting of hypertension coupled with distinct brain magnetic resonance imaging features. Decreased serum albumin level has been suggested to correlate with the presence of vasogenic brain edema in adult PRES. Serum albumin has thus been hypothesized to protect against neurotoxicity in PRES by reducing vasogenic brain edema through its role in maintaining plasma osmotic pressure and endothelial integrity. The purpose of our study was to investigate if such correlation between decreased serum albumin level and PRES-related vasogenic edema could be found in children. We conducted a retrospective study of 25 pediatric patients diagnosed with PRES. Underlying clinical conditions, presenting symptoms, blood pressures, and serum albumin levels at onset of symptoms were collected. Brain MR imaging studies were reviewed. We used a quantitative method to evaluate the degree of vasogenic edema by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the T2-FLAIR hyperintense brain lesions. No significant correlation was found between serum albumin level and degree of PRES-related vasogenic edema. A significant correlation was found between elevated blood pressure and degree of vasogenic edema in the temporal lobes (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) but not in the other cerebral lobes or cerebellum. Our initial results suggest blood pressure, not serum albumin level, as a main biomarker for brain edema in children with PRES. Thus, our study does not suggest a protective role of serum albumin against PRES-related neurotoxicity in children. (orig.)

  10. Arterial blood pressure but not serum albumin concentration correlates with ADC ratio values in pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre; Zuccoli, Giulio [Section of Neuroradiology Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hsu, Ariel [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological entity affecting both adults and children characterized by neurotoxicity often in setting of hypertension coupled with distinct brain magnetic resonance imaging features. Decreased serum albumin level has been suggested to correlate with the presence of vasogenic brain edema in adult PRES. Serum albumin has thus been hypothesized to protect against neurotoxicity in PRES by reducing vasogenic brain edema through its role in maintaining plasma osmotic pressure and endothelial integrity. The purpose of our study was to investigate if such correlation between decreased serum albumin level and PRES-related vasogenic edema could be found in children. We conducted a retrospective study of 25 pediatric patients diagnosed with PRES. Underlying clinical conditions, presenting symptoms, blood pressures, and serum albumin levels at onset of symptoms were collected. Brain MR imaging studies were reviewed. We used a quantitative method to evaluate the degree of vasogenic edema by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the T2-FLAIR hyperintense brain lesions. No significant correlation was found between serum albumin level and degree of PRES-related vasogenic edema. A significant correlation was found between elevated blood pressure and degree of vasogenic edema in the temporal lobes (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) but not in the other cerebral lobes or cerebellum. Our initial results suggest blood pressure, not serum albumin level, as a main biomarker for brain edema in children with PRES. Thus, our study does not suggest a protective role of serum albumin against PRES-related neurotoxicity in children. (orig.)

  11. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T;

    2013-01-01

    ) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data...... for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  12. Pulmonary blood flow and pressure as well as arterial blood oxygenation simulations in ventilated artificial patient supported by continuous rotary blood pump.

    OpenAIRE

    ZielińSki, Krzysztof; Golczewski, Tomasz; Fresiello, Libera; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Darowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our previous study suggested insignificant impairment of pulmonary circulation during artificial ventilation if the inspiration time is smaller than the duration of 2-3 heart cycles. This was due to pulmonary blood volume periodic changes. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of left ventricular assistance by continuous rotary blood pump (RBP) on hemodynamic in ventilated, virtual patient. Methods: Virtual RBP was added to a previously elaborated hybrid (pneumonumeric...

  13. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control People who didn't get enough daily ... nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good blood pressure, new research suggests. "Magnesium dilates arteries, and in ...

  14. Capabilities of Cluster Analysis in Interpretation of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring Data in Patients with Arterial Hypertension and Left Ventricular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Samoyavcheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the potential of cluster analysis as an additional method of data analysis for 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (BPM in patients with both normal geometry and with various types and extents of remodeling of the left ventricle (LV. Materials and Methods. The investigation included 71 patients, ranging in age from 23 to 71. The inclusion criterion was significant arterial hypertension (AH, while exclusion criteria were symptomatic AH and severe co-morbidity. Body mass, height, waist measurement, body mass index, lipid profile, and glycemic level were determined for each subject in addition to carrying out echocardiography and conventional and cluster analysis of 24-hour BPM data of each. Results. In patient groups with different types of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, the conventional analysis demonstrated differences in the standard 24-hour BPM parameters. Development of concentric LVH is associated with the highest average day-time and average night-time blood pressure, pressure-induced loads and blood pressure variability. Eccentric LVH has a pathogenetic link to other factors and is formed under conditions of relatively low blood pressure. The use of cluster analysis allowed to reveal the increased occurrence of systolic-diastolic AH in concentric LVH, and isolated systolic AH and isolated diastolic AH in eccentric LVH. Conclusion. Such an integrated approach to the interpretation of 24-hour BPM results, comprising both conventional and cluster analysis, allows for objectification of the study results and reveals the significant features of AH in patients with different types of LV remodeling.

  15. Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo

    2013-04-01

    -NAME (40 mg/Kg to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; phenylephrine (PHE was also used for histological and stereological analysis. RESULTS: Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response and pD2 (potency of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (p<0.05 but there was no difference when compared to TH arteries. CONCLUSIONS: RT was able to prevent an increase in blood pressure under the conditions in this study. This appears to involve a vasoconstrictor regulation mechanism and maintenance of luminal diameter in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

  16. Study of the Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Lactuca sativa on Arterial Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dehbooreh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are main causes of mortality and morbidity in the current world. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for the cardiovas-cular diseases. Herbal medicine is much regarded because of their natural source and less side effects. This study was done to evaluate the effects of hydro- alcoholic extract of Luc-tuca-Sativa (LS on blood pressure in rats. Materials & Methods: Hypertension was induced in the rats by Desoxycorticosterone (DOCA-Salt then the hypertension induction was confirmed by tail-cuff method before treatment. The effects of one week treatment by LS hydro-alcoholic extract (100 mg/kg/day on blood pressure; Heart Rate (HR and Plasma Renin Activity (PRA were investigated and compared with the control groups. Under anesthesia (urethane 1gr/kg Mean Arterial blood Pressure (MAP and HR were measured directly from Femoral Artery. In order to investigate the extract effects on MAP and HR, also possible mechanisms of these effects, intravenous injection of differ-ent concentrations of extract with and without pretreatment with histamine H1 receptor an-tagonist (Chlorpheniramine 10 mg/kg were performed. PRA was measured by radio-immuonoassay method. Urine volume was also measured during the treatment Results: The results of this study show that DOCA-Salt induced hypertension and decreased PRA in the rats. LS hydro- alcoholic extract treatment causes significant decrease of MAP in hypertension- treated group in comparison with non-treated group and also the level of PRA and urine volume increased by extract treatment. Our Findings showed that LS extract has no significant effect on HR. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated hat LS hydro- alcoholic extract due to interac-tion with kidney and diuretic effects decreased MAP and normalized PRA in the DOCA- Salt hypertensive. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:66-76

  17. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  18. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  19. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  20. Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen J; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Fisher, Gordon; Plaisance, Eric P; Gower, Barbara A; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-05-01

    Aerobic exercise transiently lowers blood pressure. However, limited research has concurrently evaluated blood pressure and small arterial elasticity (SAE), an index of endothelial function, among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women the morning after (i.e., ≈22 h later) acute bouts of moderate-intensity continuous (MIC) and high-intensity interval (HII) exercise matched for total work. Because of greater gradients of shear stress, it was hypothesized that HII exercise would elicit a greater reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to MIC exercise. After baseline, 22 AA and EA women initiated aerobic exercise training 3 times/week. Beginning at week 8, three follow-up assessments were conducted over the next 8 weeks at random to measure resting blood pressure and SAE. In total all participants completed 16 weeks of training. Follow-up evaluations were made: (i) in the trained state (TS; 8-16 weeks of aerobic training); (ii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of MIC exercise; and (iii) ≈22 h after an acute bout of HII exercise. Among AAs, the acute bout of HII exercise incited a significant increase in SBP (mm Hg) (TS, 121 ± 14 versus HII, 128 ± 14; p = 0.01) whereas responses (TS, 116 ± 12 versus HII, 113 ± 9; p = 0.34) did not differ in EAs. After adjusting for race, changes in SAE were associated (partial r = -0.533; p = 0.01) with changes in SBP following HII exercise. These data demonstrate an acute, unaccustomed bout of HII exercise produces physiological perturbations resulting in a significant increase in SBP that are independently associated with decreased SAE among AA women, but not EA women.

  1. Vascular Health Assessment of The Hypertensive Patients (VASOTENS) Registry: Study Protocol of an International, Web-Based Telemonitoring Registry for Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Avolio, Alberto; Rogoza, Anatoly N; Kotovskaya, Yulia V; Mulè, Giuseppe; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Orlova, Iana A; Grigoricheva, Elena A; Cardona Muñoz, Ernesto; Zelveian, Parounak H; Pereira, Telmo; Peixoto Maldonado, João Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension guidelines recommend ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), central aortic pressure (CAP), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as parameters for estimating blood pressure (BP) control and vascular impairment. Recent advances in technology have enabled devices to combine non-invasive estimation of these parameters over the 24-hour ABP monitoring. However, currently there is limited evidence on the usefulness of such an approach for routine hypertension management. Objective We recently launched an investigator-initiated, international, multicenter, observational, prospective study, the Vascular health Assessment Of The Hypertensive patients (VASOTENS) Registry, aimed at (1) evaluating non-invasive 24-hour ABP and arterial stiffness estimates (through 24-hour pulse wave analysis, PWA) in hypertensive subjects undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for clinical reasons; (2) assessing the changes in estimates following treatment; (3) weighing the impact of 24-hour PWA on target organ damage and cardiovascular prognosis; (4) assessing the relationship between arterial stiffness, BP absolute mean level and variability, and prognosis; and (5) validating the use of a 24-hour PWA electronic health (e-health) solution for hypertension screening. Methods Approximately 2000 subjects, referred to 20 hypertension clinics for routine diagnostic evaluation and follow-up of hypertension of any severity or stage, will be recruited. Data collection will include ABPM, performed with a device allowing simultaneous non-invasive assessment of 24-hour CAP and arterial stiffness (BPLab), and clinical data (including cardiovascular outcomes). As recommended by current guidelines, each patient will be followed-up with visits occurring at regular intervals (ideally every 6 months, and not less than once a year depending on disease severity). A Web-based telemedicine platform (THOLOMEUS) will be used for data collection. The use of the telemedicine system will allow

  2. Fatores de risco associados à pressão arterial elevada em adolescentes Risk factors associated with high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Níveis elevados de pressão arterial (PA na infância e adolescência têm sido freqüentemente associados a outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares, além de hipertensão arterial na fase adulta da vida. O presente estudo objetivou identificar fatores de risco associados à PA elevada em adolescentes. Participaram do estudo 674 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas, de ambos os sexos (303 rapazes e 371 moças, com idade de 14 a 17 anos (16,5 DP 0,9, da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba. Mediante aplicação de um questionário, foram levantadas informações sobre: a indicadores sociodemográficos; b nível de prática da atividade física; c hábitos alimentares; c índice de massa corporal; e fumo e bebidas alcoólicas; e foram realizadas medidas de PA. A prevalência de PA elevada foi de 7,4%, sendo maior nos rapazes (10,2% quando comparada com a das moças (5,1%, p High levels of arterial blood pressure in childhood and adolescence have been often associated with other cardiovascular risk factors apart from arterial hypertension in the adult stage of life. The present study aimed at identifying risk factors associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The subjects were 674 adolescents from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba. These subjects were of both sexes (i.e., 303 boys and 371 girls and their ages spanned from 14 to 17 years old. By means of a questionnaire, information about the following aspects was gathered: a socio-demographic status; b physical activity levels; c eating habits; d body mass index; e consumption of alcohol and smoking. Moreover, measurements of arterial pressure (AP showed that the prevalence of high AP was 7.4 %, being higher in boys (10.2% when compared with girls (5.1%, p < 0.01. The results of the multivaried analysis indicated that overweight adolescents displayed from five to six times more chance of having high AP than adolescents with light/normal weight (boys: OR

  3. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectiv...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  6. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  7. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...

  8. On the Effects of Several Factors on Arterial Blood Pressure%几种因素对人体动脉血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭增平

    2012-01-01

    对衡水学院大学生,在肢体运动、冰水、不同体重指数等情况下和安静状态下的动脉血压采用常规方法进行测量、记录数据并进行统计学处理.结果表明,血压与肢体运动、冰水及体重指数等因素有非常明显的联系(P〈0.01),这些都会影响人体血压;控制体重、饮食、多进行有氧运动以及养成良好的生活习惯是预防和减少大学生高血压的主要措施.%The arterial blood pressure of the students from Hengshui University in both the state of body movement,cool water and different body mass index(BMI) and the state of resting is measured,recorded and analyzed by statistics.Results show that blood pressure has an obvious connection with body movement,cool water,BMI and other factors,which can affect the blood pressure(P0.01).The major measures for college students to prevent and reduce hypertension are to control weight and diet,take aerobic exercise and develop healthy living habits.

  9. Multiple-input nonlinear modelling of cerebral haemodynamics using spontaneous arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2 and heart rate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, V Z; Mitsis, G D; Shin, D C; Zhang, R

    2016-05-13

    In order to examine the effect of changes in heart rate (HR) upon cerebral perfusion and autoregulation, we include the HR signal recorded from 18 control subjects as a third input in a two-input model of cerebral haemodynamics that has been used previously to quantify the dynamic effects of changes in arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2upon cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) measured at the middle cerebral arteries via transcranial Doppler ultrasound. It is shown that the inclusion of HR as a third input reduces the output prediction error in a statistically significant manner, which implies that there is a functional connection between HR changes and CBFV. The inclusion of nonlinearities in the model causes further statistically significant reduction of the output prediction error. To achieve this task, we employ the concept of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) that yields dynamic nonlinear models of multi-input systems using relatively short data records. The obtained PDMs suggest model-driven quantitative hypotheses for the role of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (corresponding to distinct PDMs) in the underlying physiological mechanisms by virtue of their relative contributions to the model output. These relative PDM contributions are subject-specific and, therefore, may be used to assess personalized characteristics for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27044989

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Wain (Louise); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); G. Shi (Gang); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Bochud (Murielle); K. Rice (Kenneth); P. Henneman (Peter); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); G.B. Ehret (Georg); N. Amin (Najaf); M.G. Larson (Martin); V. Mooser (Vincent); D. Hadley (David); M. Dörr (Marcus); J.C. Bis (Joshua); T. Aspelund (Thor); T. Esko (Tõnu); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); J.H. Zhao; S.C. Heath (Simon); M. Laan (Maris); J. Fu (Jingyuan); G. Pistis (Giorgio); J. Luan; G. Lucas (Gavin); N. Pirastu (Nicola); I. Pichler (Irene); A.U. Jackson (Anne); R.J. Webster (Rebecca J.); F.F. Zhang; J. Peden (John); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); H. Campbell (Harry); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); V. Vitart (Veronique); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); S. Trompet (Stella); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); J.C. Chambers (John); X. Guo (Xiuqing); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); L.M. Lopez; O. Polasek (Ozren); M. Boban (Mladen); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); V. Pihur (Vasyl); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); A. Hofman (Albert); S. Kundu (Suman); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.J. Hwang; R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); Y.A. Wang (Ying); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); J. Laitinen (Jaana); A. Pouta (Anneli); P. Zitting (Paavo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); K.D. Taylor (Kent); T.B. Harris (Tamara); H. Alavere (Helene); T. Haller (Toomas); A. Keis (Aime); M.L. Tammesoo; Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); E. Org (Elin); S. Sõber (Siim); X. Lu (Xiaowen); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); T. Corre (Tanguy); C. Masciullo (Corrado); C. Sala (Cinzia); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); O. Melander (Olle); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.P. D (Adamo Pio); A. Fabretto (Antonella); F. Faletra (Flavio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); F. Del Greco M (Fabiola); M.F. Facheris (Maurizio); F.S. Collins (Francis); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J.P. Beilby (John); J. Hung; A.W. Musk (Arthur); M. Mangino (Massimo); S.Y. Shin (So Youn); N. Soranzo (Nicole); H. Watkins (Hugh); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); P. Gider (Pierre); M. Loitfelder (Marisa); M. Zeginigg (Marion); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); P. Navarro (Pau); S.H. Wild (Sarah); A.M. Corsi (Anna Maria); A. Singleton (Andrew); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); A.N. Parker (Alex); L.M. Rose (Lynda); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); D.J. Stott (David. J.); M. Orrù (Marco); M. Uda (Manuela); M.M. van der Klauw (Melanie); X. Li (Xiaohui); J. Scott (James); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); G.L. Burke (Greg); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); A. Döring (Angela); T. Meitinger (Thomas); G.S. Davis; J.M. Starr (John); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); J.H. Lindeman (Jan H.); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); I.R. König (Inke); J.F. Felix (Janine); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); S. Debette (Stéphanie); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); M. Fornage (Myriam); G.F. Mitchell (Gary); H. Holm (Hilma); K. Stefansson (Kari); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); M. Preuss (Michael); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward (Caroline); I.J. Deary (Ian); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); O. Raitakari (Olli); W. Palmas (Walter); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); A.F. Wright (Alan); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); T.D. Spector (Timothy); L.J. Palmer; J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A. Pfeufer (Arne); P. Gasparini (Paolo); D.S. Siscovick (David); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Snieder (Harold); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); N.J. Wareham (Nick); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Metspalu (Andres); L.J. Launer (Lenore); R. Rettig (Rainer); D.P. Strachan (David); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.A.P. Willems van Dijk (Ko); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); M. Boehnke (Michael); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.R. Järvelin; A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); D. Levy (Daniel); P. Arora (Pankaj); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); M. Caulfield (Mark); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); P. Elliott (Paul); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractNumerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,60

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wain, Louise V.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M.; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V.; Ehret, Georg B.; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G.; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Doerr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C.; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tonu; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F.; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I.; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Chambers, John C.; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kuehnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M.; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L.; Taylor, Kent D.; Harris, Tamara B.; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Ines; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sober, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Melander, Olle; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Salomaa, Veikko; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, Fabiola M.; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S.; Bergman, Richard N.; Beilby, John P.; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A. William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S.; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N.; Rose, Lynda M.; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Doering, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M.; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Koenig, Inke R.; Felix, Janine F.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stephanie; DeStefano, Anita L.; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J.; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T.; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Wright, Alan F.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Tobin, Martin D.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans(1-3). We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O'Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, Fabiola M; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco J C; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; Hoen, Peter A C 't; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; Destefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C; Tobin, Martin D; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2011-01-01

    Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we ident

  13. Influence of upper body position on middle cerebral artery blood velocity during continuous positive airway pressure breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund Rasmussen, J; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B;

    2007-01-01

    in 11 healthy subjects during CPAP at different body positions (15 degrees head-down tilt, supine, 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 45 degrees upper body elevation). In the supine position, 10 cmH(2)O of CPAP reduced MCA V(mean) by 9 +/- 3% and increased cHbT by 4 +/- 2 micromol/L (mean +/- SEM); (P ....05). In the head-down position, CPAP increased cHbT to 13 +/- 2 micromol/L but left MCA V(mean) unchanged. Upper body elevation by 15 degrees attenuated the CPAP associated reduction in MCA V(mean) (-7 +/- 2%), while cHbT returned to baseline (1 +/- 2 micromol/L). With larger elevation of the upper body MCA V......Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. CPAP impairs venous return to the heart and, in turn, affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and augments cerebral blood volume (CBV). We considered that during CPAP, elevation of the upper body...

  14. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  15. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  16. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  17. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  18. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... (VA). Healthy young men (n = 60) with a BMI of 22.5 +/- 2 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD) participated in this double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study. The participants substituted 115 g of their daily fat intake with fat from 1 of 3 test diets: 1) CLA-diet rich in CLA (4.7 g/d of c9, t11......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  1. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  2. Correlation of invasive central arterial pressure with peripheral arterial pressure and coronary sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the consistency among non-invasive and invasive brachial artery pressure,radial artery pressure and invasive central arterial pressure,and to explore the correlation between the severe degree of coronary artery disease and invasive central aortic pressure.

  3. [The cardiovagal, cardiosympathetic and vasosympathetic arterial baroreflexes and the neural control of short-term blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Michel-Chávez, Anaclara; Callejas-Rojas, Rodolfo C; Malamud-Kessler, Caroline; Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los factores que modulan la presion arterial a corto plazo se encuentran puntualmente regulados para mantenerla dentro de valores de referencia. Esto se logra gracias a la existencia de mecanismos de autorregulacion, tanto humorales como nerviosos. Los mecanismos neurogenicos son reflejos y su resultado se observa en cambios de presion arterial de forma inmediata, latido a latido. Desarrollo. Los reflejos nerviosos cardiovasculares se encuentran mediados por los barorreceptores arteriales, a traves de los efectores cardiovagal, cardiosimpatico y vasosimpatico. El barorreceptor es estimulado cuando el volumen de sangre eyectado por el ventriculo distiende las paredes arteriales del seno carotideo y la aorta proximal y estimula los mecanorreceptores situados en la adventicia de estos vasos. El estimulo aferente viaja hasta el nucleo del haz solitario en el bulbo raquideo y otras areas en el puente donde se integran estos reflejos y la parte eferente genera cambios compensatorios en la frecuencia cardiaca y el tono del musculo liso vascular. Esta modificacion subita es la responsable de la variabilidad de la presion arterial latido a latido (corto plazo). Conclusion. Se realiza una revision sobre la historia, la fisiologia y los experimentos de los barorreflejos cardiovagal, cardiosimpatico y vasosimpatico y su influencia en la variabilidad de la presion arterial a corto plazo.

  4. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  5. Instrumentação na medida da pressão arterial: aspectos históricos, conceituais e fontes de erro Blood pressure measurement instrumentation: historical aspects, concepts and source of errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Leite de Araujo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A medida indireta da pressão arterial é um dos procedimentos mais executados pelos enfermeiros de todo o mundo, segundo o Conselho Internacional de Enfermeiras. 0 trabalho discute os principais aspectos polêmicos do instrumental utilizado para a medida indireta da pressão arterial que são causa significativa de erros de medida, a partir da análise da literatura e das recomendações da American Heart Association.According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  6. Reconstruction of brachial pressure from finger arterial pressure during orthostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Lysander W J; Harms, Mark P M; Pott, Frank;

    2004-01-01

    In patients with recurrent syncope, monitoring of intra-arterial pressure during orthostatic stress testing is recommended because of the potentially sudden and rapid development of hypotension. Replacing brachial arterial pressure (BAP) by the non-invasively obtained finger arterial pressure (Fin...

  7. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  8. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT2 receptor sites. (author) 72 refs

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure ... same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ... he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due ...

  10. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  11. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Potassium and High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 1,2016 A diet that includes ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. Myths about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Myths About High Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 12,2014 You CAN manage your ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  13. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  14. Unámonos contra la presión arterial alta (Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Vital Signs de los CDC de septiembre del 2012. Una de las mejores formas de tratar la presión arterial que no está controlada es con un enfoque de equipo con participación del paciente, del sistema de salud y de los proveedores de atención médica.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  15. Changes in arterial blood pressure induced by passive leg raising predict hypotension during the induction of sedation in critically ill patients without severe cardiac dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao; PAN Chun; GUO Feng-mei; YANG Yi; QIU Hai-bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypotension due to the induction of sedation with dexmedetomidine infusion may be harmful in critically ill patients.Changes in pulse pressure induced by the passive leg raising test (PLR-△PP) as marker of fluid responsiveness,assessed prior to sedation,may predict hemodynamic changes.The present study was to investigate the power of the PLR test in critically ill patients in predicting hypotension induced by the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation.Methods Fluid responsiveness was estimated by a passive leg raising (PLR) test before dexmedetomidine sedation.Patients were assigned to either the "Nonresponders" or "Responders" group according to their hemodynamic responses to the PLR test ("Nonresponders",PLR-△PP <10.3%; "Responders",PLR-△PP >10.3%).Sedation was performed with a dexmedetomidine infusion (0.5 μg/kg over a 10-minute loading period,then 0.2-0.7 μg-kg-1.h-1)and titrated to maintain the target Richmond agitation sedation scale (RASS) score in the range of-2 to-1 and the bispectral index value in the range of 60 to 75.Radial artery pulse pressure,heart rate (HR),and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured at each phase of the study procedure.Hemodynamic fluctuations during the use of dexmedetomidine sedation were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results Fifty patients had a median (25%-75% interquartile range) of 71 (61-78) years old were studied.At baseline,39 of the 50 patients were "Nonresponders" and 11 were "Responders".Following dexmedetomidine sedation,patients classified as "Responders" had a significantly greater systolic blood pressure decrease during the induction of dexmedetomidine sedation than the "Nonresponders" ((-26.3 ± 6.8)% vs.(-11.8 ± 8.5)%,P <0.001).In addition,the "Responders" group required significantly more fluid boluses (8 vs.3; P <0.001) and vasopressors (2 vs.0; P <0.05)than the "Nonresponders" group to restore blood pressure.Finally,PLR-△PP was positively correlated

  16. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  17. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...

  20. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the ... 16 previously unknown variations. Six were found in genes already suspected of regulating blood pressure. The remaining ...

  1. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  2. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from arterialized earlobe blood gas values in patients treated with mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honarmand Azim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is useful in evaluation of the clinical condition of critically ill patients; however, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter may sometimes be difficult and cause many complications. Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. Purpose: This study evaluates whether pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 , base excess (BE, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 values of arterialized earlobe blood samples could accurately predict their arterial blood gas analogs for adult patients treated by mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU. Setting: A prospective descriptive study Methods: Sixty-seven patients who were admitted to ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and arterialized earlobe of each patient. Results: Regression equations and mean percentage-difference equations were derived to predict arterial pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 -values from their earlobe analogs. pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 all significantly correlated in ABG and earlobe values. In spite of a highly significant correlation, the limits of agreement between the two methods were wide for PO 2 . Regression equations for prediction of pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO3- values were: arterial pH (pHa = 1.81+ 0.76 x earlobe pH (pHe [r = 0.791, P < 0.001]; PaCO 2 = 1.224+ 1.058 x earlobePCO 2 (PeCO 2 [r = 0.956, P < 0.001]; arterial BE (BEa = 1.14+ 0.95 x earlobe BE (BEe [r= 0.894, P < 0.001], and arterial HCO 3 - (HCO 3 -a = 1.41+ earlobe HCO 3 (HCO 3 -e [r = 0.874, P < 0.001]. The predicted ABG values from the mean percentage-difference equations were derived as follows: pHa = pHe x 1.001; PaCO 2 = PeCO 2 x 0.33; BEa = BEe x 0.57; and HCO 3 -a = HCO 3 -e x 1.06. Conclusions: Arterialized

  3. Changes of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, internal body temperature, and blood acido-basic balance in the unanaesthetized rabbit following whole-body gamma irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, R.; Court, L.

    1973-09-01

    The general effects of whole-body gamma -irradiation at a mean absorbed dose of 250 rads were studied simultaneously in the unanaesthetized rabbit for 48 hours. They occurred early, with the following characteristics: arterial blood pressure decreased steadily as early as the 2nd hour and reached its minimum value on the 5th hour with a decrease of about 14%; it remained low during the following two days. Heart rate increased during the first hour, was the highest by the end of the second hour, and resumed normal value on the 24th hour. Internal body temperature increased during the 1st hour and was maximum by the end of the 2nd hour, with a mean increase of 1.2 deg C; hyperthermia steadily decreased between the 4th and the 6th hours and had completely disappeared by the 24th hour. Respiratory alkalosis is shown in the acido-basic balance by a raise of pH, a decrease of PCO/sub 2/ and arterial blood bicarbonates. These various changes seem to indicate a double origin, both central and peripheral. (FR)

  4. Structured Tree Outflow Condition for Blood Flow in Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette

    1998-11-01

    Modeling blood flow and especially propagation of the pulse wave in the systemic arteries is of interests to the medical society because of the significance of the dicrotic wave. The pulse wave propagating along the larger arteries is reflected because of tapering and branching of the vessels, as well as the peripheral resistance, which is mainly stemming from the smaller arteries and arterioles. In order to avoid artificial reflections it is important to determine a boundary condition, representing the smaller arteries and arterioles, which is physiologically correct. In this work we have proposed a boundary condition based on a structured tree model. The result will be compared both with other modeling approaches as well as with results from measurements of flow and pressure at a number of locations along the larger arteries. The model for the larger arteries is based on the axisymmetrical Navier Stokes equations where the blood is assumed Newtonian and incompressible and the vessels are tapering. In the structured tree the model is based on a linearization of the axisymmetrical Navier-Stokes equations. The reason for setting up a structured tree is that the smaller arteries consist of an almost binary tree. Furthermore, the role of the smaller arteries is to allow blood perfusion of specific tissues. This is done in a structured and optimal way such that the smaller arteries cover the tissue evenly using a minimization principle.

  5. A lumped model for blood flow and pressure in the systemic arteries based on an approximate velocity profile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, E Marielle H; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2009-01-01

    Previously, by assuming a viscous dominated flow in the boundary layer and an inertia dominated flow in the vessel core, a velocity profile function for a 1D-wave propagation model was derived. Because the time dependent shape of the velocity profile in this boundary layer model depends on the size of the inviscid core and the boundary layer, and thus on the Womersley number, it differs along the arterial tree. In this study we evaluated a lumped model for a vessel segment in which the element configuration is based on physical phenomena described by the boundary layer model and for which all parameters have a physically based quantitative value dependent on the Womersley numbers. The proposed electrical analog consists of a Womersley number dependent resistor and an inductor arranged in parallel, representing the flow impedence in respectively the vessel core and the boundary layer, in series with a second resistor. After incorporating a capacitor representing the vessel compliance in this rigid tube model, the element configuration resembles the configuration of the four-element windkessel model. For arbitrary Womersley numbers the relative impedence of Womersley theory is approximated with high accuracy. In the limits for small and large Womersley numbers the relative impedences of the proposed lumped model correspond exactly to Womersley theory. PMID:19292506

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  8. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy lifestyle changes and taking medications, ...

  9. Sustained Improvement of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure after Long-Term Rosuvastatin Treatment in Patients with Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Results from the RORA-AS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Ikdahl

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD have a high prevalence of hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term rosuvastatin treatment on arterial stiffness, measured by augmentation index (AIx and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, and blood pressure (BP in IJD patients with established atherosclerosis.Eighty-nine statin naïve IJD patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque(s (rheumatoid arthritis n = 55, ankylosing spondylitis n = 23, psoriatic arthritis n = 11 received rosuvastatin for 18 months to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal ≤1.8 mmol/L. Change in AIx (ΔAIx, aPWV (ΔaPWV, systolic BP (ΔsBP and diastolic BP (ΔdBP from baseline to study end was assessed by paired samples t-tests. Linear regression was applied to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, rheumatic disease specific variables and medication, and ΔAIx, ΔaPWV, ΔsBP and ΔdBP.AIx, aPWV, sBP and dBP were significantly reduced from baseline to study end. The mean (95%CI changes were: ΔAIx: -0.34 (-0.03, -0.65% (p = 0.03, ΔaPWV: -1.69 (-0.21, -3.17m/s2 (p = 0.03, ΔsBP: -5.27 (-1.61, -8.93mmHg (p = 0.004 and ΔdBP -2.93 (-0.86, -5.00mmHg (p = 0.01. In linear regression models, ∆aPWV was significantly correlated with ΔsBP and ΔdBP (for all: p<0.001.There is an unmet need of studies evaluating CVD prevention in IJD patients. We have shown for the first time that long-term intensive lipid lowering with rosuvastatin improved arterial stiffness and induced a clinically significant BP reduction in patients with IJD. These improvements were linearly correlated and may represent novel insight into the pleiotropic effects by statins.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01389388.

  10. Pharmacologic control of high blood pressure: up to date 2005 Control de la hipertensión arterial con medicamentos: actualización 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Toro Escobar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate use of antihypertensive drugs is one of the key elements to guarantee the achievement of blood pressure goals and the adherence of patients to treatment, in order to diminish the absolute cardiovascular risk. This article is a narrative review based on a systematic literature search in which randomized, controlled studies of initial antihypertensive therapy were selected and treatments with drugs of two or more groups were compared having as outcome the reduction of cardiovascular events. El uso adecuado de los medicamentos antihipertensivos es fundamental para garantizar el cumplimiento de las metas de presión arterial y la adherencia de los pacientes al tratamiento de la hipertensión, elementos necesarios para cumplir con el objetivo fundamental de disminuir el riesgo absoluto cardiovascular de los pacientes. Esta es una revisión narrativa basada en una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura, en la cual se seleccionaron los estudios aleatorizados controlados de terapia antihipertensiva inicial y se compararon tratamientos entre fármacos de dos o más grupos, que tengan como desenlace la reducción de eventos cardiovasculares.

  11. Exercício físico controla pressão arterial e melhora qualidade de vida Exercise control blood pressure and improvement quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Cristine Bündchen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Para o tratamento correto da hipertensão arterial, é plausível a hipótese de que diante da prática regular de exercícios físicos estes pacientes não necessitariam de fármacos anti-hipertensivos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tratamento exclusivo com exercício físico na pressão arterial (PA e qualidade de vida (QV de hipertensos. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico com 32 hipertensos sedentários, 55±9 anos, que estavam sob tratamento farmacológico (TF aleatoriamente alocados em Grupo Exercício (GE e Grupo Controle (GC. No GE, 18 indivíduos (50% mulheres após pelo menos dez dias de interrupção do TF iniciaram programa de exercício de dez semanas, 3x/semana, 30 minutos de exercício aeróbio seguidos por exercícios resistidos, enquanto 14 do GC (57% mulheres se mantiveram sob TF. Foi verificada PA sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD no início e final do estudo pelo método auscultatório clássico e QV pelo questionário MINICHAL. Os dados foram expressos por M±DP, usou-se teste t de Student, U de Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon, considerando-se p BACKGROUND: Hypertension can be correctly treated when exercise is regularly practiced and hence, patients would not need anti-hypertensive drugs. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of treatment exclusively with exercise on blood pressure (BP and quality of life (QL of hypertensive subjects. METHODS: Clinical trial with 32 sedentary hypertensive subjects, aged 55 ± 9 years, under pharmacological treatment (PT randomly allocated to Exercise Group (EG and Control Group (CG. At EG, 18 subjects (50% women at least 10 days after the cessation of PT started the exercise program of 10 weeks, 3x/week, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercises, while 14 CG (57% women remained under PT. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP was evaluated by auscultation at the beginning and end and QL was evaluated using the questionnaire MINICHAL. Data were expressed

  12. 老年高血压夜间血压变异性与颈动脉斑块的相关性研究%Correlation between carotid artery plaque and blood pressure variability in elderly patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏翠; 杨涛; 陈然; 程春; 刘赵云

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨老年高血压患者颈动脉斑块的发生与血压变异性(BPV)之间的相关性.方法 入选160例门急诊老年高血压患者,经颈动脉超声检查分为颈动脉斑块组和无斑块组,对两组患者进行24 h动态血压检测,计算并比较两组全天、白天以及夜间的平均血压、平均脉压、血压变异系数.并对颈动脉斑块的相关因素进行多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 老年高血压合并颈动脉斑块组24 h平均收缩压标准差、白昼及夜间平均收缩压标准差、白昼平均舒张压标准差高于无斑块组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);24 h平均收缩压变异系数、夜间平均收缩压变异系数高于无斑块组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Logistic回归分析结果显示在老年高血压患者中,24h平均收缩压变异系数及夜间收缩压变异系数是颈动脉斑块的独立影响因素(P<0.05).结论 老年高血压患者合并颈动脉斑块的发生与24h平均收缩压变异系数、夜间血压变异性有密切的相关性.%Objective To investigate the correlation between carotid artery plaque and blood pressure variability (BPV) in elderly patients with hypertension.Methods One hundred sixty elderly patients with hypertension were divided into plaque and non-plaque groups according to the results of carotid artery ultrasonography.All the patients were measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.The mean blood pressure,mean pulse pressure,and blood pressure variability coefficient of two groups were calculated and compared during whole day,daytime,and nighttime.The related factors of carotid artery plaque were analyzed by multivarite logistic regression analysis.Results The 24 h systolic blood pressure standard deviation,daytime and nighttime of systolic blood pressure standard deviation,daytime diastolic blood pressure standard deviation of plaque group were higher than those of non-plaque group (P < 0.05).The 24 h systolic blood

  13. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  15. Sympathetic Activation Does Not Affect the Cardiac and Respiratory Contribution to the Relationship between Blood Pressure and Pial Artery Pulsation Oscillations in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available Using a novel method called near-infrared transillumination backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS that allows for the non-invasive measurement of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ in humans, we assessed the influence of sympathetic activation on the cardiac and respiratory contribution to blood pressure (BP cc-TQ oscillations in healthy subjects.The pial artery and subarachnoid width response to handgrip (HGT and cold test (CT were studied in 20 healthy subjects. The cc-TQ and sas-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS; cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was measured using Doppler ultrasound of the left internal carotid artery; heart rate (HR and beat-to-beat mean BP were recorded using a continuous finger-pulse photoplethysmography; respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (MV, end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 and end-tidal O2 (EtO2 were measured using a metabolic and spirometry module of the medical monitoring system. Wavelet transform analysis was used to assess the relationship between BP and cc-TQ oscillations.HGT evoked an increase in BP (+15.9%; P<0.001, HR (14.7; P<0.001, SaO2 (+0.5; P<0.001 EtO2 (+2.1; P<0.05 RR (+9.2%; P = 0.05 and MV (+15.5%; P<0.001, while sas-TQ was diminished (-8.12%; P<0.001, and a clear trend toward cc-TQ decline was observed (-11.0%; NS. CBFV (+2.9%; NS and EtCO2 (-0.7; NS did not change during HGT. CT evoked an increase in BP (+7.4%; P<0.001, sas-TQ (+3.5%; P<0.05 and SaO2(+0.3%; P<0.05. HR (+2.3%; NS, CBFV (+2.0%; NS, EtO2 (-0.7%; NS and EtCO2 (+0.9%; NS remained unchanged. A trend toward decreased cc-TQ was observed (-5.1%; NS. The sas-TQ response was biphasic with elevation during the first 40 seconds (+8.8% vs. baseline; P<0.001 and subsequent decline (+4.1% vs. baseline; P<0.05. No change with respect to wavelet coherence and wavelet phase coherence was found between the BP and cc-TQ oscillations.Short sympathetic activation does not affect the cardiac and respiratory contribution to the relationship

  16. Hemodynamic analysis of arterial pressure oscillations in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, C; Zhang, Z Q; Cerutti, C; Barrès, C

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of rhythmic fluctuations of regional blood flow and vascular conductance to the genesis of low- (LF, 0.27-0.74 Hz) and high- (HF, 0.76-5 Hz) frequency oscillations of arterial pressure. In conscious 15-week-old male intact (n = 11), guanethidine-sympathectomized (n = 8) and chronically sinoaortic denervated (n = 7) rats, arterial pressure and regional blood flow velocities (pulsed Doppler probes) were simultaneously recorded. Indices of subdiaphragmatic aortic, hindquarters and superior mesenteric conductances were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis over a 60-min period. Spectral power was calculated in the LF and HF bands using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. Transfer function analysis was also performed to calculate coherence and phase between arterial pressure and regional flows and conductances. In the LF band, spectral power of arterial pressure was decreased by approx. 85% in sympathectomized and approx. 54% in sinoaortic denervated rats. In the HF band, spectral power did not differ between the groups. In the three groups of rats, relations between arterial pressure and blood flow were characterized by a significant coherence in the HF band with little or no phase delay (synchronous oscillations). Relations between arterial pressure and vascular conductance were characterized in intact rats by a significant coherence in the LF band and a phase delay tending to pi radians (opposite oscillations), whereas in both sympathectomized and sinoaortic denervated rats, coherence did not reach significance. It is concluded that LF oscillations of arterial pressure are mostly secondary to rhythmic fluctuations in the vasomotor sympathetic tone in several regional circulations. Part of these oscillations originate from the synchronizing influence of the baroreceptor reflex. The study also suggests that the respiratory (HF) oscillations of arterial pressure involve fluctuations in cardiac output of purely mechanical origin. PMID

  17. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff, or an automatic device may measure the pressure. Blood pressure is given as 2 numbers. The first ... described above. High Blood Pressure NIHSeniorHealth: High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Heart and Vascular Diseases ...

  18. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

  19. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OR ACTUALLY IT IS BASELINE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure measuring represents a routine investigation in general medicine. Nokolai Korotkoff was only 31 years old when he made a short presentation to the Scientific Meeting of the Military Hospital of the Academy on 5 November 1905 concerning an easy non-invasive method of blood pressure (BP measurement, entitled ‘Concerning the problems of the methods of blood pressure measurement’. If the pressure in the cuff is relieved, blood starts coming through the compressed arterial segment during systole and causes auscultatory sound and, the first sound, which, in Korotkoff’s opinion, is a measurement of systolic blood pressure. In the same BP measurement, when normal blood flow is fully restored, the auscultatory sounds disappear and, the last sound, which, in Korotkoff's opinion is a measurement of diastolic blood pressure. Listening to Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP has been the standard for noninvasive BP measurement in medical practices for nearly 100 years and it is the essential tool used for evaluation and assessment of patients with hypertension and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD by physicians and nurses despite limited understanding of the nature of K-sounds. This article focuses particularly on the cardiovascular biomechanics of the first and last auscultatory sound and suggests two new terminologies; Highest systolic blood pressure and Baseline systolic blood pressure to represent the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, respectively. Experimenting blood pressures on the basis of these two new suggested terminologies may reveal various additional undiscovered aspects of normal BP and abnormal BP. KEY WORDS: Highest systolic blood pressure, Baseline systolic blood pressure, Korotkoff sounds

  20. Pulse pressure variation and volume responsiveness during acutely increased pulmonary artery pressure: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Daudel, Fritz; Tüller, David; Krähenbühl, Stefanie; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We found that pulse pressure variation (PPV) did not predict volume responsiveness in patients with increased pulmonary artery pressure. This study tests the hypothesis that PPV does not predict fluid responsiveness during an endotoxin-induced acute increase in pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular loading. Methods Pigs were subjected to endotoxemia (0.4 μg/kg/hour lipopolysaccharide), followed by volume expansion, subsequent hemorrhage (20% of estimated blood volume), ...

  1. Correlation analysis between blood pressure morning peak of high-normal blood pressure and severity of coronary artery disease%正常高值血压者血压晨峰水平与冠状动脉病变程度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝翠平

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between blood pressure morning peak of high-normal blood pressure and severity of coronary artery disease.Methods180 cases of patients with high-normal blood pressure in our hospital were given 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ABPM) and coronary angiography (coronary angiography, CAG). They were divided into morning peak group (67 cases) and non-morning peak group (113 cases) according to ABPM whether or not the morning peak phenomenon, ABPM, coronary artery lesions of two groups were compared, factors of coronary artery lesions were analyzed.ResultsThe morning peak group 24 h, day, night, morning peak systolic blood pressure were significantly higher than the average morning peak group (in turn, the value oft was 2.59, 3.46, 2.71, 11.89, allP<0.05); Coronary artery lesions of morning peak group of patients were significantly more than non-morning peak group (U=4.587 0,P<0.01); Gensini total score of morning peak group was significantly higher than the morning peak group (P<0.01); Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, MBPS, 24 h average systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, age were independent risk factors for coronary artery disease.ConclusionThe high-normal blood pressure is closely related to MBPS severity of coronary artery disease, is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease prediction and severity, effectively control blood pressure in patients with high-normal blood pressure can reduce morning peak target organ damage.%目的 探讨正常高值血压者血压晨峰水平与冠状动脉病变严重程度的相关性.方法 对我院收治的180例正常高值血压患者进行24 h动态血压监测(ABPM)以及冠状动脉造影(CAG).按ABPM有无晨峰现象分为晨峰组(67例)与非晨峰组(113例),比较两组患者的ABPM、冠状动脉病变支数,分析冠状动脉病变的影响因素.结果晨峰组白昼、夜间、24 h、晨峰平

  2. Blood tracer kinetics in the arterial tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Kellner

    Full Text Available Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data.

  3. Blood tracer kinetics in the arterial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data.

  4. Eprosartan-based hypertension therapy, systolic arterial blood pressure and cognitive function: analysis of Middle East data from the OSCAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaideh G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ghazi Ahmad Radaideh1, Patrick Choueiry2, Amr Ismail2, Elie Eid3, Jean-Pascal Berrou4, Armand Sedefdjian5, Frank Sévenier6, Atul Pathak71Rashid Hospital of Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 2Abbott Gulf – Levant; 3Division of Cardiology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwill, Switzerland; 5EvidenceBased Communication (EBC, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 6Fovéa Group, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 7Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1048, Université de Toulouse-UPS, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, FranceBackground: Studies have indicated a relationship between hypertension and cognitive function. The possible effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive disorders is therefore a matter of interest.Materials and methods: The Observational Study on Cognitive function And SBP Reduction (OSCAR was an open-label, multinational trial designed to evaluate the impact of eprosartan-based antihypertensive therapy on cognitive function in patients with essential hypertension. Eprosartan 600 mg/day for 6 months (with provision for additional medication as needed was initiated in hypertensive subjects aged ≥50 years. A total of 853 patients in an intention-to-treat cohort from seven countries of the Middle East was identified for subgroup analysis.Results: Arterial blood pressure was reduced significantly (P < 0.001 during the study: At the end of 6 months of eprosartan-based therapy, the mean (±SD reduction from baseline was 32.1 ± 14.3/14.6.3 ± 8.6 mmHg (P < 0.001. Mean pulse pressure was reduced by 18.3 ± 13.1 mmHg (P < 0.0001 vs baseline. Blood pressure was normalized (systolic <140 mmHg and diastolic <90 mmHg in 68.2% of patients. The overall mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score after 6 months of eprosartan-based therapy was one-point higher than at baseline (P < 0.001. MMSE score on

  5. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008412 Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. WU Naqiong(吴娜琼),et al. Cardiovasc Instit, Fuwai Hosp, Beijing 100037. Chin J Cardiol 2008;36(6):501-505. Objective To investigate the association between the severity of coronary arteries in patients with coronary artery disease and the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-3 gene.

  6. 正常高值血压者的中心动脉压对动脉弹性功能的影响%The changes of central blood pressure and artery elasticity in individuals with high-normal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华伟; 金丹丹; 汪世军; 吴小庆; 耿伯春; 唐关敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes of central blood pressure and artery elasticity in individuals with high- normal blood pressure (HNBP). Methods A total of 138 subjects underwent health examination were divided into ideal blood pressure group (n=72) and HNBP group (n=66) according to blood pressure. The central systolic blood pressures (CSBP) was measured indirectly by Ormon- Colin non- invasive radial artery pulse wave measurement device, and carotid- femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) were measured by Complior device. Regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between CSBP and cfPWV. Results CSBP and cfPWV were significantly higher in HNBP group than in ideal blood pressure group (P<0.01). CSBP was positively related to cfPWV (r=0.53, P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that CSBP was the risk factor for cfPWV (β=0.449, P<0.01). Conclusion Central blood pressure increases with decrease of artery elasticity in individuals with normal- high blood pressure.%目的探讨正常高值血压者中心动脉压与动脉弹性的变化。方法选取在医院体检中心行健康体检者138例,根据血压分为理想血压组72例和正常高值血压组66例,采用Ormon- Colin公司的无创桡动脉脉波检测装置测量中心动脉收缩压(CSBP),应用Complior脉搏波速度测定仪测量颈股脉搏波传导速度(cfPWV)。采用回归分析方法比较CSBP与cfPWV的变化及两者的相关性。结果正常高值血压组中心动脉压和cfPWV均高于理想血压组(均P<0.05)。中心动脉压与cfPWV呈正相关(r=0.53,P<0.01)。逐步回归分析显示中心动脉压是cfPWV的主要影响因素(β=0.449,P<0.01)。结论正常高值血压者中心动脉压增高,动脉弹性下降。

  7. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  8. SNPs in microRNA binding sites in 3'-UTRs of RAAS genes influence arterial blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Hansen, Jakob Liebe; Doggen, Carine;

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miR) binding sites in genes of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) can influence blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction.......We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miR) binding sites in genes of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) can influence blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction....

  9. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement in large vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse pressure in the aorta was evaluated by the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and blood flow velocity (BFV). PWV reflects the elasticity of the vessel and was determined by a time-of-flight method. BFV was measured by analyzing the change of magnetization decay due to flow in multiecho experiments. If one neglects pulse wave reflections at vascular branch points and flow resistance due to blood viscosity, pulse pressure is proportional to PWV and BFV. Noninvasive MR imaging measurements were obtained in 12 patients, all of whom underwent correlative arterial catheterization. Values varied between 35 and 100 mm Hg. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the two methods

  10. 有创动脉血压监测在多器官功能障碍患者中的应用研究%Application of Invasive Arterial Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌双; 杨春万; 李展鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of invasive blood pressure monitoring in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Methods From Jan. 2007 to Feb. 2012,90 patients with MODS were enrolled in this study,whose peripheral artery was punctured to measure the invasive blood pressure continuously. The invasive blood pressure values were recorded and simultaneously compared with non-invasive blood pressure values. Results The invasive blood pressure monitoring monitored the pressure of patients continuously and timely, the invasive blood pressure values were 5 - 20 mm Hg higher than the non-invasive blood pressure values, but their change were synchronistical. Conclusion Invasive blood pressure monitoring can guide the clinical diagnosis and therapy in the MODS patients because it can continuously and timely show the blood pressure and the artery pulse wave form.%目的 探讨有创动脉血压监测在多器官功能障碍患者中的临床应用价值.方法 选择2007年1月-2012年2月90例多器官功能障碍患者,采用动脉留置针对多器官功能障碍患者的外周动脉进行穿刺,将留置针导管通过压力传感器测压管道与压力监测仪相连,监测动脉压力和波形,将数据与患者的同肢体无创动脉血压监测数据相对比,观察两组在血压数据的差异性.结果 有创动脉血压值比无创动脉血压值高5 ~20 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa),与无创动脉血压的变化同步,而且可实时连续监测血压.结论 有创动脉血压监测较无创动脉血压监测可以准确、实时、连续监测血压,有创动脉血压监测使医生正确、及时地评估病人的病情和治疗反应,及时指导和调整治疗计划,提高患者抢救成功率和降低死亡率,值得推广应用.

  11. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  14. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit;

    2006-01-01

    and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters......PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...

  15. PERFORMANCE MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF BLOOD FLOW IN ELASTIC ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil Kumar; C.L. Varshney; G.C. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Two different non-Newtonian models for blood flow are considered, first a simple power law model displaying shear thinning viscosity, and second a generalized Maxwell model displaying both shear thinning viscosity and oscillating flow viscous-elasticity. These models are used along with a Newtonian model to study sinusoidal flow of blood in rigid and elastic straight arteries in the presence of magnetic field. The elasticity of blood does not appear to influence its flow behavior under physiological conditions in the large arteries,purely viscous shear thinning model should be quite realistic for simulating blood flow under these conditions. On using the power law model with high shear rate for sinusoidal flow simulation in elastic arteries, the mean and amplitude of the flow rate were found to be lower for a power law fluid compared to Newtonian fluid for the same pressure gradient. The governing equations have been solved by Crank-Niclson scheme. The results are interpreted in the context of blood in the elastic arteries keeping the magnetic effects in view. For physiological flow simulation in the aorta, an increase in mean wall shear stress, but a reduction in peak wall shear stress were observed for power law model compared to a Newtonian fluid model for matched flow rate wave form. Blood flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field in an elastic artery is investigated and the influence of factors such as morphology and surface irregularity is evaluated.

  16. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  17. Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's Worth the Effort!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Numbers: What They Mean / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" / Keep the Beat ...

  18. Efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre a pressão arterial de idosos Efectos del entrenamiento de resistencia sobre la presión arterial de añosos Effects of resistance training on blood pressure in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristiane Carrenho Queiroz

    2010-07-01

    de presión arterial de reposo, siendo importante analizar los efectos del ejercicio de resistencia sobre la presión arterial de individuos añosos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el conocimiento científico existente sobre la respuesta de la presión arterial a los ejercicios de resistencia y sus mecanismos en añosos. Para esto, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en la literatura portuguesa e inglesa relacionadas al tema. Con base en los estudios encontrados, el corpus actual, a pesar de ser escaso y controvertido, sugiere que, de forma crónica, los ejercicios de resistencia pueden tener efecto hipotensor en individuos añosos. Entre tanto, este efecto ocurre, principalmente en añosos normotensos y con entrenamiento de baja intensidad. Los mecanismos envueltos en esa respuesta hipotensora todavía precisan ser elucidados. Aunque el entrenamiento con resistencia esté siendo recomendado para añosos y haya algunos indicativos de que pueda tener efecto hipotensor crónico, todavía hay carencia de datos científicos y muchas controversias en el asunto, lo que evidencia que éste todavía es un campo abierto a la investigación.The aging process drastically reduces muscle mass, strength and power, decreasing the capacity to perform the activities of daily living. The practice of resistance exercises can reverse this picture, helping to maintain the muscular mass and improving muscular strength and resistance. However, the aging process causes cardiovascular alterations, which can result in increased blood pressure levels at rest and it is important to analyze the effects of resistance exercises on the blood pressure of elderly individuals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the current scientific knowledge on the responses of the blood pressure to resistance exercises and their mechanisms in elderly individuals. In order to do that, we carried out a literature review related to the theme, in both Portuguese and English. Based on the

  19. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...... was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease...

  20. Arterial pressure transfer characteristics: effects of travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Stok, Wim J; Wesseling, Karel H; Spaan, Jos A E; Westerhof, Nico; Bos, Willem Jan; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the quantitative contribution of all local conduit arterial, blood, and distal load properties to the pressure transfer function from brachial artery to aorta. The model was based on anatomical data, Young's modulus, wall viscosity, blood viscosity, and blood density. A three-element windkessel represented the distal arterial tree. Sensitivity analysis was performed in terms of frequency and magnitude of the peak of the transfer function and in terms of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure in the aorta. The root mean square error (RMSE) described the accuracy in wave-shape prediction. The percent change of these variables for a 25% alteration of each of the model parameters was calculated. Vessel length and diameter are found to be the most important parameters determining pressure transfer. Systolic and diastolic pressure changed <3% and RMSE <1.8 mmHg for a 25% change in vessel length and diameter. To investigate how arterial tapering influences the pressure transfer, a single uniform lossless tube was modeled. This simplification introduced only small errors in systolic and diastolic pressures (1% and 0%, respectively), and wave shape was less well described (RMSE, approximately 2.1 mmHg). Local (arm) vasodilation affects the transfer function little, because it has limited effect on the reflection coefficient. Since vessel length and diameter translate into travel time, this parameter can describe the transfer accurately. We suggest that with a, preferably, noninvasively measured travel time, an accurate individualized description of pressure transfer can be obtained. PMID:16963619

  1. Medida da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes: recomendações das diretrizes de hipertensão arterial e prática médica atual Blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents: guidelines of high blood pressure recommendations and current clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alayde Mendonça da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar, em crianças e adolescentes (7 a 17 anos, rede pública e privada de ensino, a freqüência de indivíduos já submetidos à medida da pressão arterial (MPA, o número de vezes, os locais em que foi realizada a aferição e o resultado informado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Amostragem por conglomerados em 40 escolas, nível fundamental e médio, sorteadas. Cálculo da amostra baseado na prevalência esperada de HAS em crianças e adolescentes. Protocolo: questionário sobre realização prévia de MPA (em caso afirmativo, quantas vezes, quando foi a última medida, o local e o resultado da medida e duas MPA. Variáveis independentes: sexo, faixa etária, classe econômica, escola pública ou privada. RESULTADOS: Amostra constituída de 1253 estudantes 1215 responderam ao questionário (97% 531 do sexo masculino média de 12,4 ± 3 anos. Prevalência de HAS: 7,7% 348 estudantes (29% já haviam medido a PA (54% 1 vez 35% 2 a 4 vezes 11% 5 ou mais 53% há menos de 1 ano. Posto de Saúde, residência, hospital e consultório foram os locais mais mencionados (27%, 16%, 15% e 14%, respectivamente. Houve associação significante entre prévia MPA com faixa etária de 15 a 17 anos, classes econômicas A e B e ser estudante de escola privada. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das recomendações, há baixa freqüência de MPA (29% em crianças e adolescentes, demonstrando que a mesma não foi ainda incorporada na prática clínica.OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a school-based sample of children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 17 years, of both gender, in public and private schools, the frequency of students already submitted to blood pressure measure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, sampling from a population pool of elementary and middle schools, randomly selected. The sample was calculated based on the expected prevalence of hypertension for the age group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Blood pressure was

  2. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  3. 冠心病患者血压和血脂及血糖达标率分析%Analysis of the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳芳; 曹芳芳; 曹晓菁; 师树田; 刘飞; 王兆宏; 蒋志丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipid in patients with CAD which was diagnosed by coronary arteriography and to explore the relationships between CAD and rates of reaching guidelines of the three risk factors, respectively. Methods The levels of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid on admission were analyzed retrospectively in 2916 cases of CAD, and the level of blood pressure was analyzed when they were discharged. Results With 130/80 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure,the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 28. 4% on admission,and was 87.5% when they were discharged. With 140/90 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure, the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 65.8% on admission,and was 90.0% when they were discharged. With >1.04 mmol/L as the goal HDL-C,the rate of achieving goal HDL-C was 23.0% on admission. With <2.59 mmol/L and 2.07 mmol/L as the goal LDL-C in high risk patients and very high risk patients respectively, the rates of achieving goal LDL-C were 54. 3% and 17.4% respectively. With <4. 14 mmol/L and <3.11 mmol/L as the goal TC in high risk and very high risk patients,respectively,the rates of achieving goal TC were 49.5% and 5.8% respectively. With 1.70 mmol/L as the goal TG,the rate of achieving goal TG was 58.0%. There were 538 diabetic patients with CAD,accounting for 18.5 % ,their rates of achieving goal fasting blood glucose was 1.9 %, 1138 cases had diabetes and impaired fasting blood glucose,accounting for 39.0% in CAD. Conclusion The rates of achieving goal blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and blood lipids in patients with CAD were low on admission. The results show that enhancing the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, goal fasting blood glucose and goal blood lipids is very important for secondary prevention of CAD.%目的 分析经冠状动脉造影诊断为冠心病患者的血压、血脂和血糖达标率情况,评价其3个危

  4. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  5. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2013-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  6. 糖尿病、高血压引起颈动脉血管病变分析%Carotid Artery Lesions Analysas Caused by Diabetes and High Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青美

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析糖尿病、高血压引起的颈动脉血管病变的特征,为临床治疗提供依据。方法选取2012年5月~2013年6月我院接受检查的78例糖尿病患者为研究对象,分为对照组(糖尿病患者)39例和实验组(糖尿病合并高血压患者)39例,比较两组患者的多普勒超声检查结果,并进行统计学分析。结果实验组的颈动脉血管中度增厚率明显多于对照组,实验组的颈动脉血管不厚率明显低于对照组(<0.05),经比较有显著差异。结论高血压会加速糖尿病患者的动脉血管病变过程,糖尿病合并颈动脉血管病变患者要严格控制血压,避免诱发血管病变。%Objective To analyze carotid artery vascular lesions characterism caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, to provide basis for clinical treatment. Methods From May 2012 to June 2013, 78 diabetes patients inspected in our hospital were selected as the research object, these patients were divided into control group 39 cases (diabetes patients ) and experimental group (diabetic with high blood pressure patients), 39 cases, comparing doppler ultrasound examination results of two groups patients , statistical analysis was car ied. Results The thickening rate of the carotid artery blood vessel moderate in the experimental group was significantly more than the control group, carotid artery no-thickening rate of experimental group is significantly lower than the control group ( <0.05), there is significant dif erences between the two groups. Conclusion High blood pressure wil accelerate arterial lesions in process of diabetic patients, diabetic patients with carotid artery lesions have to strict control blood pressure, avoiding induced vascular lesions.

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does not, you should ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and ...

  8. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  9. Medical prescription of physical exercises in hypertension blood pressure Prescripción médica del ejercicio físico en la hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Physical exercise forms part of the treatment of high blood pressure, based on aerobic activity. However, training and control parameters have not been clearly defined. The purpose of the present study was to establish the control parameters for blood pressure during training for use in normalizing blood pressure. Among the most important factors are standard methods for recording blood pressure, identification of associated risk factors, ensuring that the subject exercises regularly, at least three times per week, attainment of an VO2 max. of close to 60%, and medical treatment compatible with physical exercise.
    KEY WORDS: Blood Pressure, Hypertension and Physical Exercise.

    Una de las formas de tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial es el ejercicio físico, basado en la actividad aeróbica. Sin embargo, los parámetros de control y el entrenamiento no están claramente definidos. El propósito del presente estudio es establecer los parámetros de control de la presión sanguínea durante el entrenamiento para obtener una presión sanguínea normalizada. Entre los factores más importantes están los métodos estándar para la toma de la presión sanguínea, identificación de los factores de riesgo asociados, para llegar al objetivo de una práctica física regular, al menos tres veces por semana, con un consumo máximo de oxígeno próximo al 60% y un tratamiento médico compatible con la práctica de ejercicio físico.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Presión Arterial, Hipertensión y Ejercicio Físico

  10. NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF BLOOD ARTERIAL DUCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄孟才; 顾忠; 沈俊; 唐复勇

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear elasticity of blood arterial duct, in which the artery is modeled to bea locally triclinic, transverse isotropic, incorapressible, axisymmetric and thickwalled tube with large deformations, The nonlinear coustitutive relationship of arterial tissues is based on the theorv of Green and Adkins. A nonlinear strain energy density function is introduced for nonlinear stress-strain relationship of second order, in which the coefficient of each term is expressed by means of a Lame’s constant, The elasticity constants are nqcessary to describe such a uonlinear finite strain etastieity of the second order, These constants are determined by means of the stress-strain increment theory.

  11. Longitudinal analysis of arterial blood pressure and heart rate response to acute behavioral stress in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in age-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Randall

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We recorded via telemetry the arterial blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR response to classical conditioning following the spontaneous onset of autoimmune diabetes in BBDP/Wor rats versus age-matched, diabetes resistant control (BBDR/Wor rats. Our purpose was to evaluate the autonomic regulatory responses to an acute stress in a diabetic state of up to 12 months duration. The stress was a 15 sec. pulsed tone (CS+ followed by a 0.5 sec. tail shock. The initial, transient increase in BP (i.e., the ‘first component’, or C1, known to be derived from an orienting response and produced by a sympathetic increase in peripheral resistance, was similar in diabetic and control rats through ~9 months of diabetes; it was smaller in diabetic rats 10 months after diabetes onset. Weakening of the C1 BP increase in rats that were diabetic for > 10 months is consistent with the effects of sympathetic neuropathy. A longer-latency, smaller, but sustained ‘second component’ (C2 conditional increase in BP, that is acquired as a rat learns the association between CS+ and the shock, and which results from an increase in cardiac output, was smaller in the diabetic vs. control rats starting from the first month of diabetes. A concomitant HR slowing was also smaller in diabetic rats. The difference in the C2 BP increase, as observed already during the first month of diabetes, is probably secondary to the effects of hyperglycemia upon myocardial metabolism and contractile function, but it may also result from effects on cognition. The small HR slowing concomitant with the C2 pressor event is probably secondary to differences in baroreflex activation or function, though parasympathetic dysfunction may contribute later in the duration of diabetes. The nearly immediate deficit after disease onset in the C2 response indicates that diabetes alters BP and HR responses to external challenges prior to the development of structural changes in the vasculature or autonomic

  12. Amlodipine induces a flow and pressure-independent vasoactive effect on the brachial artery in hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Megnien, J L; Levenson, J.; Del-Pino, M; Simon, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to study the flow-dependent arterial reactivity and pressure-independent arterial compliance of the calcium antagonist amlodipine in hypertensive men. 2. Twenty-one hypertensive patients were randomized to receive 2 months treatment with placebo (n = 10) or 5-10 mg amlodipine (n = 11) once a day. Non-invasive measurement of brachial artery mean blood pressure, diameter and flow (pulsed Doppler) and compliance (arterial mechanography and logarithmic elastic...

  13. Non-invasive measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary artery pulse pressure (Psub(p)) and diastolic pressure (Psub(d)) may be obtained by applying a haemodynamic model of blood flow kinetics and wall mechanics to the pulmonary artery: Psub(P) = ρ(Wsub(s)/(Ssub(s)/Ssub(d) -1))2 log(Ssub(s)/Ssub(d)) - 1/2 ρw2sub(s) Psub(d) (Ssub(d)/Ssub(s))sup(1/2)Psub(p) where ρ is blood density, Wsub(s) is peak ejection velocity, and Ssub(s) and Ssub(d) are peak maximal and end diastolic cross-sectional areas of the main pulmonary artery. The different parameters of the equations were measured from radionuclide Tcsup(m) first pass and equilibrium studies. (author)

  14. SNPs in MicroRNA Binding Sites in 3′-UTRs of RAAS Genes Influence Arterial Blood Pressure and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nossent, A.Yael; Hansen, Jakob L.; Doggen, Carine; Quax, Paul H.A.; Sheikh, Soren P.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2011-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miR) binding sites in genes of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) can influence blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction. Methods Using online databases dbSNP and TargetScan, we ident

  15. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  16. Hipertensão arterial e alguns fatores de risco em uma capital brasileira High blood pressure and some risk factors in a brazilian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César B. Veiga Jardim

    2007-04-01

    substantiated by the home survey of a simple random sample (>18 years old. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic information, measurements of blood pressure (2 measurements, weight, height, and abdominal circumference (AC. Microsoft Access and Epi Info 6 were used for data storage and analysis, respectively. The last blood pressure reading was used (hypertension: BP>140x90mmHg. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,739 individuals (87% of the estimated sample. There was a predominance of females (65.4% and mean age was 39.7 years (±15.6; arterial hypertension prevalence was 36.4%, higher for the male population (41.8% when compared to females (31.8%. Correlation between Hypertension and Body Mass Index was positive, as well as with AC and age. The female gender and higher income were protective factors against hypertension. There was no correlation with schooling. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were 30.0% and 13.6%, respectively; overweight was higher among females and obesity among males. The prevalence of smoking was 20.1%, more frequent among males (27.1%, when compared to females (16.4%. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 62.3% of the population, with no difference between the genders. Regular alcohol consumption was reported by 44.4% of the individuals, being more frequent in males. CONCLUSION: Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors (particularly overweight/obesity indicators are high, reinforcing the need for objective nationwide measures to fight this disease, in order to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality.

  17. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood to pass through more easily. Alpha-beta blockers not only reduce nerve impulses, but also make ... with less force. They combine the effects of beta blockers and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also ...

  18. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  19. Effect of hypercortisolism control on high blood pressure in Cushing's syndrome Efecto del control del hipercortisolismo sobre la hipertensión arterial en el síndrome de Cushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo M. Gómez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many hypertensive patients affected by endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS persist with high blood pressure (HBP despite good control of cortisol excess. We assessed the effect of preoperative ketoconazole administration and of definitive treatment of CS on arterial hypertension and analysed the factors involved in the persistence of hypertension. We assessed retrospectively 71 patients with CS and HBP (60 women, 11 men; 50 pituitary, 21 adrenal successfully treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy; 19 of them received ketoconazole (KNZ before surgery. After treatment, patients were divided into those with persistent high blood pressure (PHBP and those with normal blood pressure (NBP. As possible predictive factors for PHBP we analysed age, duration and family history of HBP, pre-treatment 24 hour urinary free cortisol (24h-UFC and body mass index (BMI. HBP normalized in 53 out of 71 patients (74.6%, regardless of the origin of Cushing's syndrome. PHBP patients were older (p=0.003, had longer duration (p=0.007 and higher systolic blood pressure before treatment (p=0.046 than NBP patients. Thirteen out of 19 patients (68.4% treated with ketoconazole, normalized their hypertension and remained normotensive after successful surgery. Five patients became normotensive only after surgery. In conclusion: a blood pressure levels normalized in most patients after remission of CS; b ketoconazole was effective for the control of HBP, and seems to be a good indicator of post-surgical outcome, and c higher age at presentation, longer duration of hypertension and higher systolic blood pressure figures before treatment negatively influence normalization of blood pressure after resolution of Cushing's syndrome.Muchos pacientes con síndrome de Cushing (SC permanecen hipertensos a pesar del control del exceso glucocorticoideo. Investigamos el efecto de la administración de ketoconazol (KNZ y del tratamiento definitivo del SC sobre la hipertensión arterial (HTA

  20. Effects of metformin on the glycemic control, lipid profile, and arterial blood pressure of type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome already on insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Mourão-Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome and on insulin were assessed by a paired analysis before and 6 months after addition of metformin as combination therapy to evaluate the impact of the association on glycemic control, blood pressure, and lipid profile. This was a historical cohort study in which the files of type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome on insulin were reviewed. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, A1C level, fasting blood glucose level, daily dose of NPH insulin, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were assessed in each patient before the start of metformin and 6 months after the initiation of combination therapy. Glycemic control significantly improved (P < 0.001 after the addition of metformin (1404.4 ± 565.5 mg/day, with 14% of the 57 patients reaching A1C levels up to 7%, and 53% reaching values up to 8%. There was a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05 of total cholesterol (229.0 ± 29.5 to 214.2 ± 25.0 mg/dL, BMI (30.7 ± 5.4 to 29.0 ± 4.0 kg/m², waist circumference (124.6 ± 11.7 to 117.3 ± 9.3 cm, and daily necessity of insulin. The reduction of total cholesterol occurred independently of the reductions of A1C (9.65 ± 1.03 to 8.18 ± 1.01% and BMI and the reduction of BMI and WC did not interfere with the improvement of A1C. In conclusion, our study showed the efficacy of the administration of metformin and insulin simultaneously without negative effects. No changes were detected in HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure.

  1. Pressão arterial em crianças portadoras de doença falciforme Presión arterial en niños portadores de enfermedad falciforme Blood pressure in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chi Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os valores da pressão arterial (PA em crianças portadoras de doença falciforme (DF. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional unicêntrico descritivo de 70 crianças portadoras de DF. Os valores da PA obtidos foram classificados conforme as V Diretrizes Brasileiras de Hipertensão Arterial. Os pacientes foram distribuídos segundo o genótipo em grupo HbSS e HbSC e segundo a faixa etária: grupo I (três anos a quatro anos e 11 meses, grupo II (cinco anos a oito anos e 11 meses e grupo III (nove anos a 13 anos e 11 meses. Na análise estatística, aplicou-se o teste t de Student e a ANOVA, sendo significante pOBJETIVO: Evaluar los valores de la presión arterial (PA en niños portadores de enfermedad falciforme (EF. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional unicéntrico descriptivo de PA de 70 niños portadores de EF acompañadas en el ambulatorio de Hematología Pediátrica. Los valores de la PA obtenidos fueron clasificados conforme a las V Directrices Brasileñas de Hipertensión Arterial. Los pacientes fueron distribuidos según el genotipo en grupo HbSS y HbSC, y según la franja de edad: grupo I (tres años a cuatro años y 11 meses, grupo II (cinco años a ocho años y 11 meses y grupo III (nueve años a 13 años y 11 meses. RESULTADOS: El promedio y la desviación estándar (DE de las medidas de la PA sistólica (PAS (mmHg fueron 95,9±11,45 y de la PA diastólica (PAD 62,6±7,78. Los promedios de la PA por franja de edad fueron: grupo I, PAS 91,2±5,78 y PAD 61,5±7,15; grupo II, PAS 97,3±10,86 y PAD 64,4±7,89; y grupo III, PAS 100,0±9,88 y PAD 61,5±4,94. Se observó que el 5,7% de los pacientes presentaban hipertensión arterial (HA y el 8,6% eran pre-hipertensos. El promedio de los valores de la PAS y PAD entre los pacientes HbSS y HbSC no difirió significativamente. En el análisis estadístico, se aplicó la prueba t de Student y ANOVA, siendo significante pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood pressure (BP in children with sickle cell

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care provider ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  5. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p stress of TTM.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  7. 探讨高血压合并冠心病患者动态血压与心电图的相关性%Discuss on correlation between dynamic blood pressure and dynamic electrocardiogram of high blood pressure patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文杰; 杨璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective Study with high blood pressure patients with coronary artery disease (blood pressure wave with ST-T change and arryhythmias. Methods 88 eases of high blood pressure and/or coronary heart disease patients with hypertension research group, the merger of 25 cases of coronary heart disease, hypertension, no complications group, 28 cases of coronary artery disease group 35 examples, all patients were synchronous monitoring 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and dynamic electrocardiogram (DCG), observe different groups, blood pressure wave and ST-T change and rhythm of the heart wrong happened and comparison analysis correlation. Results ABPM and DCG synchronous detection with high blood pressure and blood pressure change of coronary heart disease-T change and ST arrhythmia was 88%, much higher than hypertension and coronary heart disease without complications group 42.9% and 65.7%, show that high blood pressure group with coronary heart disease patients with ST-T blood pressure changes and arryhythmias are linked. Conclusion DCG ABPM and synchronous detection help to identify with the relationship between blood pressure change and heart, to prevent cardiovascular events, there is positive clinical significance.%目的 探讨高血压合并冠心病患者的血压波动与ST-T改变及心律失常发生的相关性.方法 对88例高血压和/或冠心病患者进行分组研究,其中高血压合并冠心病组25例,高血压无并发症组28例,冠心病组35倒,所有患者均同步监测24h动态血压(ABPM)和动态心电图(DCG),观察不同组血压波动与ST-T改变和心律失常发生的相关性并进行对照分析.结果 ABPM与DCG同步检出高血压合并冠心病组血压变化与ST-T改变和心律失常发生率为88%,明显高于高血压无并发症组42.9%和冠心病组65.7%,表明高血压合并冠心病患者血压变化与ST-T改变及心律失常有关联.结论 ABPM与DCG同步检测有助于鉴别血压变化与心脏的

  8. Non-arterial assessment of blood gas status in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Elborn, J. S.; Finch, M B; Stanford, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of blood gas status is important in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Arterial puncture is often painful and may damage the arterial wall. Measurement of oxygen saturation by transcutaneous oximetry offers a non-invasive alternative to arterial methods but does not allow assessment of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We have examined the value of oximetry and dorsal hand venous carbon dioxide as an alternative to arterial puncture. Transcutaneous oxygen ...

  9. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  10. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Based on your diagnosis, health care providers ... the medicine suspected of causing your high blood pressure. If high blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary ...

  11. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...

  13. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  14. Association between arterial stiffness and the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Lee; N.J. Kim; K. Sun; J.G. Dobbe; M.R. Hardeman; J.F. Antaki; K.H. Ahn; S.J. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the flexibility of atherosclerotic vessels and RBC deformability has been investigated. A significant difference of RBC deformability was found among the arterial stiffness groups classified by oscillometric measurement of blood pressure. The deformability was determined by

  15. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... is your pressure when your heart relaxes ( diastolic pressure ). High Blood Pressure Medicines Use this guide to help you ...

  16. Nocturnal foot blood flow in patients with arterial insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Tønnesen, K H

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four hour continuous recording of xenon (133Xe) wash-out from the forefoot was performed on patients with normal circulations (n = 10) and on patients with different degrees of arterial insufficiency (n = 36). During day hours the calculated subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot was on a...... claudication. In patients with severe ischaemia, i.e. having rest pain, the blood flow decreased by approximately 50%. The changes in local blood flow may be due to changes in local sympathetic tone and to changes in local perfusion pressure.......Twenty-four hour continuous recording of xenon (133Xe) wash-out from the forefoot was performed on patients with normal circulations (n = 10) and on patients with different degrees of arterial insufficiency (n = 36). During day hours the calculated subcutaneous blood flow in the forefoot...... was on average the same in patients with normal circulations and in patients with different degrees of arterial insufficiency (mean: 2.0 +/- 0.8 ml min-1 100 g-1). During sleep the blood flow nearly doubled in patients with normal circulations; no systematic change was seen in patients with intermittent...

  17. Resposta da pressão arterial ao esforço em adolescentes: influência do sobrepeso e obesidade Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carletti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A resposta aguda da pressão arterial ao esforço tem sido utilizada como indicador de risco para o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial. Os fatores associados com essa resposta precisam ser esclarecidos a fim de se intervir na prevenção da doença hipertensiva. OBJETIVO: Descrever o comportamento das variáveis cardiovasculares ao esforço agudo em adolescentes com excesso de peso, por meio de teste cardiopulmonar. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída de 104 adolescentes (56 meninos e 48 meninas, divididos nos grupos de sobrepeso/obesos (GSO e eutróficos (GE. Foram aferidas variáveis antropométricas (peso, estatura e IMC, de composição corporal (dobra cutânea e variáveis hemodinâmicas de pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e freqüência cardíaca (FC, no repouso e no esforço máximo do teste cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: No grupo masculino, identificaram-se maiores valores de pressão arterial sistólica de repouso para o GSO, quando comparados com o GE (113 ± 13 vs 106 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0,009, a PAS pré-exercício (120 ± 14 vs 109 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,003 e de PAS na carga máxima de trabalho (156 ± 20 vs 146 ± 14 mmHg; p = 0,03. No grupo feminino, apenas a PAS pré-exercício foi superior no grupo de sobrepeso, quando isso foi comparado com as eutróficas (114 ± 11 vs 106 ± 10 mmHg; p = 0,009. CONCLUSÃO: A resposta pressórica durante o exercício foi mais exacerbada em adolescentes obesos quando comparada com àquela obtida em eutróficos, o que indica maior reatividade ao estresse físico.BACKGROUND: The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the response of cardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing

  18. Blood pressure and blood flow variation during postural change from sitting to standing: model development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, M.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Tran, H.T.;

    2005-01-01

    Short-term cardiovascular responses to postural change from sitting to standing involve complex interactions between the autonomic nervous system, which regulates blood pressure, and cerebral autoregulation, which maintains cerebral perfusion. We present a mathematical model that can predict...... dynamic changes in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during postural change from sitting to standing. Our cardiovascular model utilizes 11 compartments to describe blood pressure, blood flow, compliance, and resistance in the heart and systemic circulation....... To include dynamics due to the pulsatile nature of blood pressure and blood flow, resistances in the large systemic arteries are modeled using nonlinear functions of pressure. A physiologically based submodel is used to describe effects of gravity on venous blood pooling during postural change. Two types...

  19. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  20. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  1. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  2. Effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase: a meta-analysis of cohort studies Efeito do estresse psicológico no aumento da pressão arterial: uma metanálise de estudos de coorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasperin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that chronic exposure to stress may have an influence on increased blood pressure. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis was conducted aiming to assess the effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase. Research was mainly conducted in Ingenta, Psycinfo, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were: published in any language; from January 1970 to December 2006; prospective cohort design; adults; main exposure psychological/emotional stress; outcome arterial hypertension or blood pressure increase > 3.5mmHg. A total of 2,043 studies were found, of which 110 were cohort studies. Of these, six were eligible and yielded 23 comparison groups and 34,556 subjects. Median follow-up time and loss to follow-up were 11.5 years and 21%. Results showed individuals who had stronger responses to stressor tasks were 21% more likely to develop blood pressure increase when compared to those with less strong responses (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.14-1.28; p Estudos sugerem que a exposição crônica ao estresse tenha influência no aumento dos níveis pressóricos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática seguida de metanálise com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do estresse psicológico no aumento da pressão arterial. As principais bases de dados utilizadas foram Ingenta, Psycinfo, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science. Os critérios de inclusão foram: publicado entre janeiro de 1970 e dezembro de 2006, delineamento de coorte prospectiva, adultos, estresse psicológico/emocional como exposição principal, hipertensão arterial ou aumento na pressão arterial > 3,5mmHg como desfecho. A busca resultou em 2.043 artigos, sendo 110 coortes. Desses, seis eram elegíveis, os quais geraram 23 grupos de comparação e 34.556 sujeitos. A mediana do tempo de seguimento e do percentual de perdas foi 11,5 anos e 21%. Indivíduos com maior reação a tarefas estressoras possuíam 21% mais chances de apresentar aumento na press

  3. Arterial blood flow and microcirculatory changes in a rat groin flap after thrombosis induced by electrical stimulation of the artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Gazelius, B; Linderoth, B; Lundeberg, T

    2002-03-01

    An experimental model of acute arterial thrombosis was developed in a rat groin flap model. Electrical stimulation was delivered to the flap artery while measuring blood flow in the artery and in the flap microcirculation using a laser Doppler system. Electrical stimulation produced an occlusive thrombosis in 10 rats within 68.1 +/- 19.26 (mean +/- SE) min. Thrombosis formation produced a rapid decrease of the LDF readings in the artery (90%) and in the flap (70%), the decrease being fairly parallel. Following the spontaneous thrombolysis, the artery perfusion recovered to baseline level but the flap blood flow only recovered by 10-20%. During electrical stimulation there was no change of the systemic blood pressure. The dynamic course of thrombus formation was documented on a videotape recorder through a microscope-mounted video camera and monitored on a television screen. Segments of the artery were obtained during and at the end of the experiments. The histological examination revealed arterial thrombosis composed of red blood cells, fibrin, and white blood cells, without any significant architectural and endothelial changes in the vessel walls. The study suggests that this model using electric vessel stimulation is effective for inducing arterial thrombosis and provides a simple method for recording the dynamic course of thrombus formation. PMID:11866541

  4. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    OpenAIRE

    Jain B K; Jain S C

    1999-01-01

    Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  5. Induction of insulin resistance by high-sucrose feeding does not raise mean arterial blood pressure but impairs haemodynamic responses to insulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves; Lemieux, Christian; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-09-01

    1. This study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of a sucrose-enriched diet on vascular function and insulin sensitivity in rats. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive a sucrose- or regular rat chow-diet for 4 weeks. A first group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, regional blood flows and insulin sensitivity in conscious rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles by using the glucose analogue [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose. A second group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was used to obtain information regarding nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes protein expression in muscles, and determine endothelin content in vascular tissues isolated from both dietary groups. 3. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance, but had no effect on resting blood pressure, heart rate, or regional haemodynamics. This insulin resistance was accompanied by alteration in the vascular responses to insulin. Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation was impaired, whereas the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response was potentiated in sucrose-fed rats. A reduction in eNOS protein content in muscle and an increase in vascular endothelin peptide were noted in these animals. Moreover, a reduction in insulin-simulated glucose transport activity was also noted in muscles isolated from sucrose-fed rats. 4. Together these data suggest that a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities occur in response to the intake of simple sugars in rats.

  6. TL-200 Tensymetry连续无创血压与直接桡动脉测量不稳定血压的对比%Comparison of the Results of TL-200 Tensymetry Non-invasive Blood Pressure and Radial Artery Directly Measurement for Unstable ;Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈新明

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the results of TL-200 Tensymetry non-invasive blood pressure and radial artery directly measurement for unstable blood pressure. Method:80 patients in the need for measure blood pressure,they were measured by T-line and A-line for blood pressure monitoring. The results were compared and analyzed. Result:The results for average blood pressure values by T-line and A-Line were generally in the same. There was no regression changes for SBP and DBP. It showed that the results highly related. Conclusion:It can implement real time,non-invasive, continuous,accuracy for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring by T-line,it has a higher clinical value and worthy of application.%目的:比较TL-200 Tensymetry连续无创血压与直接桡动脉测量不稳定血压的临床效果。方法:对本院收治的80例需进行连续实时动脉血压监测的患者,分别于两侧桡动脉采取无创连续血压监测系统(T-line)与直接桡动脉血压监测(A-line)进行血压监测,比较两种方法血压监测结果,并对结果进行分析。结果:T-line与A-line血压测定结果平均血压值基本一致,决定系数也较高;收缩压和舒张压均未出现回归关系的变化,表明T-line与A-Line血压测定结果具有高度一致性。结论:T-line能够实现实时、无创、连续、准确血压动态监测,较间断袖带式血压测量和直接桡动脉血压测量临床应用和推广价值更高。

  7. Effects of non Newtonian spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Maruf, Mahbub Alam; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    The spiral component of blood flow has both beneficial and detrimental effects in human circulatory system. A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of spiral blood flow through an axisymmetric three dimensional artery having 75% stenosis at the center. Blood is assumed as a Non-Newtonian fluid. Standard k-ω model is used for the simulation with the Reynolds number of 1000. A parabolic velocity profile with spiral flow is used as inlet boundary condition. The peak values of all velocity components are found just after stenosis. But total pressure gradually decreases at downstream. Spiral flow of blood has significant effects on tangential component of velocity. However, the effect is mild for radial and axial velocity components. The peak value of wall shear stress is at the stenosis zone and decreases rapidly in downstream. The effect of spiral flow is significant for turbulent kinetic energy. Detailed investigation and relevant pathological issues are delineated throughout the paper.

  8. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  9. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute To Improve Blood Pressure, Try the DASH Diet If you're one ...

  10. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  11. Pressão arterial de crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso Presión arterial de niños y adolescentes de escuelas publicas de Cuiabá - Mato Grosso High blood pressure in children and teenagers from public schools in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de níveis pressóricos elevados em escolares de 11 a 14 anos no município de Cuiabá, MT, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado no periódo de maio a novembro de 2008. A amostragem foi por aglomerados, sendo selecionados nove, totalizando 329 escolares. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos 329 escolares foi a de 12 anos, sendo 58,4% do sexo masculino e 55,3% da cor/etnia parda. O índice de hipertensão arterial foi de 11,2%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de hipertensão arterial foi de 11,2% nos escolares estudados, sendo os fatores de risco o índice de massa corpórea elevado e cor/etnia parda. A partir do estudo, considera-se necessária a monitorização rotineira da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes, com a finalidade de prevenção da hipertensão arterial na vida adulta.OBJETIVO: Verificar la prevalencia de niveles de presión elevados en escolares de 11 a 14 años del municipio de Cuiabá, MT - Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en el período de mayo a noviembre del 2008. El muestreo fue realizado por conglomerados, siendo seleccionados nueve, dando un total de 329 escolares. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio de los escolares participantes fue de 12 años, de los cuales el 58,4% del sexo masculino y el 55,3% de color/etnia parda. El índice de hipertensión arterial fue de 11,2%. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de hipertensión arterial fue de 11,2% en los escolares estudiados, siendo los factores de riesgo el elevado índice de masa corporal y color/etnia parda. A partir del estudio, se considera que es necesaria la monitorización de rutina de la presión arterial en niños y adolescentes, con la finalidad de prevenir la hipertensión arterial en la vida adulta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of high blood pressure among students aged 11 to 14 years from public schools in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was

  12. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method. PMID:26771318

  13. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.

  14. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  17. Management of patients with uncontrolled arterial hypertension – the role of electronic compliance monitoring, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and Candesartan/HCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tousset Eric

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete drug regimen compliance (DRC and white-coat hypertension are two of several possible causes of uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore the aim of the present study was to compare DRC in hypertensives treated with combination therapy whose blood pressures (BP were controlled vers. uncontrolled after 4 weeks of self-monitored BP measurement. To observe the consequences in uncontrolled patients of switching one drug of the combination therapy to candesartan/HCTZ (16 mg/12.5 mg with and without a compliance intervention program. Methods Self-and ambulatory-monitoring of BP were done with upper arm oscillometric devices. Patients' dosing histories were compiled electronically (MEMS(c, AARDEX. Patients with office blood pressure (OBP >140/90 mmHg despite combination therapy were begun on MEMS monitoring and self BP measurement for 4 weeks of run-in. Of 62 such patients, 18 (29% patients were normotensive according to self BP measurement and ambulatory BP measurement at 4 weeks (Group A; in the remaining 44 still uncontrolled patients, candesartan/HCTZ was substituted for one of the combination therapy drugs, with half these patients receiving passive compliance monitoring (B and half a DRC intervention program (C. All groups were then followed for 8 weeks. Results DRC before week 4 was significantly higher in A than in the uncontrolled patients (B&C. DRC was stable during run-in A, but declined in B and C. DRC after week 4 was not different in the three groups and stayed constant over time. DRC during weekends was lower than during weekdays in all groups. In group A no significant change in blood pressure was observed with all three methods of BP measurements. In groups B and C significant reductions of systolic and diastolic BP were observed for ABPM and SBPM. After the change to candesartan/HCTZ in B&C ambulatory 24-h-BP (ABPM was normalized in 39% of patients. Conclusion Normalization of BP was associated with superior

  18. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  19. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  20. Verapamil buffering effect on the abrupt elevation in blood pressure, linkage with microcirculatory blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, J

    2008-01-01

    1 We studied the effects of verapamil on sudden elevation in blood pressure, microcirculation and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 2 Thirty experiments (10 controls and 20 with verapamil) were performed in rabbits sedated using pentobarbital infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). 3 BRS, mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured during 30 min of verapamil infusion (20 mug kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from HR and MAP responses to intravenous phenylephrine (Ph) and by power spectral analysis using transfer function (TF) from MAP to the HR (BRS(Ph,TF)). 4 Verapamil significantly increased microcirculatory blood flow, and decreased BRS(Ph,TF) and phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (MAP(AE)). 5 A significant inverse correlation was found between verapamil-induced changes in MAP(AE), BRS and in microcirculatory blood flow, measured before phenylephrine blood pressure ramps (DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaBRS(TF), r = -0.47, P < 0.036; DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaMPPG, r = -0.49, P < 0.025). 6 These results suggest involvement of the arterial baroreflex and vascular blood pressure-buffering mechanisms, their enhancement by verapamil, and thus a potential benefit of verapamil in cardiovascular conditions where patients present with abrupt high elevations in blood pressure. PMID:18598288

  1. ANALYSIS OF PULSATILE BLOOD FLOW IN AXIALLY MOVING ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to study motional properties of pulsatile blood flow in axially moving arteries, the authors derived some expressions of the pulsatile blood flow from the basic equations of motion for blood and vascular walls, including an axial blood velocity equation, a flow rate equation and a wall shear stress equation, which described not only the overall axial movement of the arteries but also the elastic properties of the vascular walls, discussed the effects of the arterial wall elasticity on the wall shear stress in coronary arteries in terms of these expressions, and analyzed changes of motional properties of pulsatile blood flow between an elastic arterial tube model and a rigid tube model. The results proved the inference by J.E. Moore Jr. et al. (1994) that the axial movement of arteries be as important in determining coronary artery hemodynamics as the elastic property of the vascular wall.

  2. Pressão arterial e discriminação interpessoal: revisão sistemática de estudos epidemiológicos Blood pressure and interpersonal discrimination: systematic review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Couto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre pressão arterial e discriminação tem sido investigada recentemente, havendo intensos debates na literatura sobre o tema. Este trabalho objetivou atualizar as revisões de literatura sobre discriminação e pressão arterial ou hipertensão. Foi conduzida pesquisa no PubMed, entre janeiro/2000 e dezembro/2010, incluindo estudos epidemiológicos, que avaliaram a discriminação interpessoal e sua relação com pressão arterial/hipertensão. Os 22 estudos identificados originaram-se dos Estados Unidos; 96% deles empregaram o delineamento transversal, com amostras de conveniência e compostas, em 59% dos casos, exclusivamente por negros. Os instrumentos mais utilizados para aferir discriminação foram Everyday Discrimination Scale e Perceived Racism Scale, enfatizando a discriminação étnico-racial, ocorrida ao longo da vida ou cotidianamente. Nos 22 estudos avaliados, a relação entre discriminação e os desfechos foi analisada 50 vezes. Em 20 (40% resultados, não foi encontrada qualquer associação e, em apenas 15 (30%, observaram-se associações positivas globais, sendo 67% destas estatisticamente significativas. Foram também observadas oito associações inversas, sugerindo que maior exposição à discriminação estaria associada com menor pressão arterial/hipertensão. Os estudos não permitiram apoiar consistentemente a hipótese de que a discriminação está associada à maior pressão arterial. Isto pode ser atribuído, em parte, às limitações dos estudos, relacionadas à mensuração da discriminação e de eventos que podem modificar sua associação com os desfechos. Para consolidar a discriminação como um fator de risco epidemiológico, é necessário utilizar estratégias metodológicas mais rigorosas e revisar os marcos teóricos que propõem relações de causa e efeito entre discriminação e pressão arterial.The relationship between blood pressure and discrimination has been recently

  3. Clitoral blood flow increases following vaginal pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Aloui, R; Schmidt, M H; Watrelot, A

    1995-02-01

    The vascular responses of clitoral arteries to vaginal pressure stimulation in 10 volunteer women were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Pressure stimulations (20-160 mm Hg) along the lower third of the vagina increased blood velocity and flow into clitoral arteries in 9 of the 10 women. The latency and duration of the Doppler responses ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 sec and from 3.2 to 9.5 sec, respectively, and the response was associated with a blood flow increase of 4 to 11 times the baseline prestimulation level. This response parallels that recorded in the cavernous arteries in men when a similar range of pressure stimulations are applied to the glans penis. Similar responses evoked in the male and female suggest a sexual synergy that may occur during intercourse in that such physiological responses and reflexes may be reciprocally reinforced.

  4. Accuracy of invasive arterial pressure monitoring in cardiovascular patients: An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Quattrone, Diego; Tofani, Lorenzo; Tujjar, Omar; Villa, Gianluca; Romano, Salvatore M.; A. R. De Gaudio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients and patients undergoing high-risk and major surgery, are instrumented with intra-arterial catheters and invasive blood pressure is considered the "gold standard" for arterial pressure monitoring. Nonetheless, artifacts due to inappropriate dynamic response of the fluid-filled monitoring systems may lead to clinically relevant differences between actual and displayed pressure values. We sought to analyze the incidence and causes of resonance/underdamping p...

  5. Accuracy of invasive arterial pressure monitoring in cardiovascular patients: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Quattrone, Diego; Tofani, Lorenzo; Tujjar, Omar; Villa, Gianluca; Romano, Salvatore M.; De Gaudio, A Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients and patients undergoing high-risk and major surgery, are instrumented with intra-arterial catheters and invasive blood pressure is considered the “gold standard” for arterial pressure monitoring. Nonetheless, artifacts due to inappropriate dynamic response of the fluid-filled monitoring systems may lead to clinically relevant differences between actual and displayed pressure values. We sought to analyze the incidence and causes of resonance/underdamping ph...

  6. Stiffness Indices and Fractal Dimension relationship in Arterial Pressure and Diameter Time Series in-Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymberknop, L.; Legnani, W.; Pessana, F.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The advent of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, is associated to significant alterations in the physical properties of arterial vessels. Evaluation of arterial biomechanical behaviour is related to the assessment of three representative indices: arterial compliance, arterial distensibility and arterial stiffness index. Elasticity is the most important mechanical property of the arterial wall, whose natures is strictly non-linear. Intervention of elastin and collagen fibres, passive constituent elements of the arterial wall, is related to the applied wall stress level. Concerning this, appropriate tools are required to analyse the temporal dynamics of the signals involved, in order to characterize the whole phenomenon. Fractal geometry can be mentioned as one of those techniques. The aim of this study consisted on arterial pressure and diameter signals processing, by means of nonlinear techniques based on fractal geometry. Time series morphology was related to different arterial stiffness states, generated by means of blood flow variations, during experiences performed in vitro.

  7. 清醒大鼠动脉压力感受性反射-血压控制的测定%Determination of arterial baroreflex-blood pressure control in conscious rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏定冯; 陈力; 孔宪波; 程勇

    2002-01-01

    目的:研究清醒大鼠动脉压力感受性反射(ABR)-血压控制(ABR-BP)的测定.方法:用计算机化清醒自由活动大鼠血压连续监测技术,记录动物的血压.ABR-BP测定的原理是比较阻断ABR前后机体对血管活性物质反应的差异.结果:(1)用血管紧张素-Ⅱ测得的ABR-BP值与用新福林测得的ABR-BP值密切相关,在一定范围内药物的剂量不影响结果.(2)ABR-BP与ABR-心动间期控制(ABR-HP)显著相关.(3)麻醉抑制ABR-BP,ABR-BP本身存在昼夜节律性变化.(4)血压波动性与ABR-BP相关,而与ABR-HP不相关.(5)高血压时ABR-BP受损.结论:本项工作使ABR-BP的测定成为可能.ABR-BP在维持血压的稳定性中起重要作用,在高血压时其功能受损.%AIM:To study the determination of arterial baroreflexblood pressure control (ABR-BP) in conscious rats.METHODS:Blood pressure was continuously recorded with a computerized system in conscious freely moving rats.The principle of ABR-BP measurement is to compare the pressor response to a vasoactive drug (angiotensin Ⅱ ) before and after the interruption of this reflex.RESULTS:(1) ABR-BP values revealed by angiotensin Ⅱ were closely correlated with those by phenylephrine.Doses of angiotensin Ⅱ did not influence the results within certain range.(2) ABR-BP was well correlated with arterial baroreflex-heart period control (ABR-HP).(3) Anesthesia inhibited ABR-BP.There existed a circadian variation of ABR-BP in WKY rats.(4) Blood pressure variability was closely related to ABR-BP,but not to ABR-HP.(5) ABR-BP was impaired in hypertensive rots.CONCLUSION:ABRBP is an important parameter to reflect the function of ABR.The present work makes it possible to determine ABR-BP in conscious rats.ABR-BP plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure stability and it is impaired in hypertension.

  8. Non-invasive Technology for Arterial Blood Pressure Signal Based on Photo-diode%基于光电二极管的动脉血压信号无损监测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊元姣

    2015-01-01

    用红外发光二极管和光电二极管组成的光耦合指套,放置在人身体的指尖部位,通过检测人体末梢组织在动脉舒张和收缩时对红外光的吸收度变化率,来检测人体动脉血压信号的异常。红外发射二极管的驱动采用PWM信号调制的恒流驱动,光电二极管接收穿透人体后的红外光并转换成微弱的电信号,再经过前置放大、倒相、压控二阶低通滤波、陷波电路、A/D 转换等处理后,MCU 从采集的数据中提取有关动脉血压信号的特征值,实现血压信号异常的无损连续监测。%An optical coupling finger stall, composed of IR LED and photo-diode, is placed at fingertip, when the IR transmission light intensity across a finger changes with the diastole and systole of arterial blood pressure, the inverter current of photo-diode varies. Therefore, the arterial blood pressure anomalies can be detected according to the changes. The drive current of IR LED, controlled by PWM is constant in the process of detection. The voltage signal converted by photo-diode is very week, so that it can easily be disturbed. The signal must be processed by the pre-amplification circuit, second order filter circuit, and wave trap. Finally, the data from A/D converter is collected and processed by MCU.

  9. Intensidades de treinamento resistido e pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas - um estudo piloto Resistance training intensities and blood pressure of hypertensive older women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Silva da Cunha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Observa-se que a literatura apresenta uma lacuna acerca da intensidade ideal de treinamento resistido para idosos hipertensos, os poucos estudos existentes utilizam treinamentos com diferentes intensidades. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de duas intensidades de treinamento resistido sobre a pressão arterial de idosas hipertensas controladas. Métodos: Dezesseis idosas hipertensas, controladas por medicação anti-hipertensiva, foram divididas em dois grupos através de sorteio. Nove pacientes foram submetidas a treinamento resistido moderado (G1 e sete, a treinamento resistido leve (G2. As pacientes realizaram oito semanas de treinamento resistido, com frequência de três vezes por semana em dias alternados, no período vespertino. Os exercícios realizados foram respectivamente: leg press, supino reto, extensão de joelhos, puxada frontal, flexão de joelhos, abdução de ombro, abdução unilateral de quadril com cross over e rosca direta com barra. RESULTADOS: As pacientes do G1 apresentaram redução tanto nos valores de repouso da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD p BACKGROUND: The optimum intensity of resistance training for hypertensive elderly has not been studied yet and the few studies in the literature used training with distinct intensities. Objective: To verify the effect of two resistance training intensities on blood pressure (BP of elderly women with controlled hypertension. METHODS: Sixteen older women with hypertension controlled by anti-hypertensive drug were randomly divided into two groups. Nine patients were submitted to moderate resistance training (G1 and seven patients were submitted to mild resistance training (G2. The patients underwent eight weeks of resistance training, with frequency of three times per week on alternate days in the afternoon. The exercises performed were: leg press, bench press, knee extension, lat pull-down, knee flexion, shoulder abduction, standing cable hip abduction and biceps

  10. Slip Effects on Pulsatile Flow of Blood through a Stenosed Arterial Segment under Periodic Body Acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, A; Shit, G. C.; Kundu, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical investigation concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration on the flow of blood through a time-dependent stenosed arterial segment by taking into account the slip velocity at the wall of the artery has been carried out. A mathematical model is developed by treating blood as a non-Newtonian fluid obeying the Casson fluid model. The pulsatile flow is analyzed by considering a periodic pressure gradient and the inertial effects as negligibly small. A su...

  11. Determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Seiichiro; Voelkel, Norbert F; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of diagnosing early-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to the lack of signs and symptoms, and the risk of an open lung biopsy, the precise pathological features of presymptomatic stage lung tissue remain unknown. It has been suggested that the maximum elevation of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P pa) is achieved during the early symptomatic stage, indicating that the elevation of the mean P pa is primarily driven by the pulmonary vascular tone and/or some degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling completed during this stage. Recently, the examination of a rat model of severe PAH suggested that the severe PAH may be primarily determined by the presence of intimal lesions and/or the vascular tone in the early stage. Human data seem to indicate that intimal lesions are essential for the severely increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure in the late stage of the disease.However, many questions remain. For instance, how does the pulmonary hemodynamics change during the course of the disease, and what drives the development of severe PAH? Although it is generally acknowledged that both pulmonary vascular remodeling and the vascular tone are important determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, which is the root cause of the time-dependent progression of the disease? Here we review the recent histopathological concepts of PAH with respect to the progression of the lung vascular disease.

  12. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Catherine; Belanger, Marie C; Burns, Patrick M

    2014-08-01

    Two non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices (oscillometry and Doppler) were compared to invasive blood pressure using a Bland-Altman analysis, in anesthetized and conscious dogs. When considering the systolic arterial pressure only during general anesthesia, both NIBP devices slightly underestimated the systolic arterial blood pressure however the precision and the limits of agreement for the Doppler were of a greater magnitude. This indicates a worse clinical performance by the Doppler. The performance of both NIBP devices deteriorated as measured in conscious animals. In general, for the oscillometric device, determination of invasive diastolic and mean arterial pressures was better than the invasive systolic arterial pressure. Overall, the oscillometric device satisfied more of the criteria set by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement. Based upon these results, the oscillometric device is more reliable than the Doppler in the determination of blood pressure in healthy medium to large breed dogs. PMID:24924217

  13. Efeito do treinamento físico na pressão arterial de adolescentes com obesidade Efecto del entrenamiento físico en la presión arterial de adolescentes con obesidad Effect of physical training on the blood pressure of adolescents with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Quintella Farah

    2012-12-01

    ISI Web of knowledgeSM. Se incluyeron los estudios que evaluaron a adolescentes, publicados hasta el año de 2010 y que poseían grupo control. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS: Ocho estudios atendieron a los criterios de inclusión. Dos de ellos utilizaron ejercicios de fuerza combinados con aeróbicos, mientras que seis emplearon solamente ejercicios aeróbicos. Cinco estudios utilizaron intervenciones complementarias, siendo la intervención nutricional la más frecuente. Cuatro estudios observaron reducción de la presión arterial sistólica en el grupo ejercicio comparado al control. En esos cuatro estudios, además de la reducción de la presión arterial, se notó disminución de la masa corporal. Todos los estudios que verificaron reducción de la presión arterial utilizaron de 12 a 24 semanas de ejercicios aeróbicos. El programa de entrenamiento tuvo lugar con tres a seis sesiones semanales con duración de 50 a 90 minutos e intensidad entre 55 y 75% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto del entrenamiento físico en la presión arterial de adolescentes obesos es controvertido. Sin embargo, la reducción de la presión arterial parece ocurrir con programas de entrenamiento aeróbicos que promueven también la reducción de la masa corporal.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the results of studies that analyzed the effects of physical training on the blood pressure of obese adolescents. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was performed and examined the effect of physical training on the blood pressure of obese adolescents, published in journals indexed at PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and ISI Web of knowledgeSM databases. Studies that evaluated adolescents published until 2010 and that had a Control Group were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Two of them used strength exercises combined with aerobics, while six used only aerobics. Five studies used complementary intervention

  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide in the locus coeruleus and its possible role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, H.; Sterzel, R.B. (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (West Germany)); Bahner, U.; Heidland, A. (Univ. of Wuerzburg (West Germany)); Palkovits, M. (Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANP) is present in neuronal cells of the locus coeruleus and its vicinity in the pontine tegmentum and moderate amount of ANP is detectable in this area by radioimmunoassay. The ANP is known as a neuropeptide which may influence the body salt and water homeostasis and blood pressure by targeting both central and peripheral regulatory mechanisms. Whether this pontine ANP cell group is involved in any of these regulatory mechanisms, the effect of various types of hypertension and experimental alterations in the salt and water balance on ANP levels was measured by radioimmunoassay in the locus coeruleus of rats. Adrenalectomy, as well as aldosterone and dexamethasone treatments failed to alter ANP levels in the locus coeruleus. Reduced ANP levels were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and in diabetes insipidus rats with vasopressin replacement. In contrast to these situations, elevated ANP levels were found in rats with DOCA-salt or 1-Kidney-1-clip hypertension. These data suggest a link between ANP levels in the locus coeruleus and fluid volume homeostasis. Whether this link is causal and connected with the major activity of locus coeruleus neurons needs further information.

  15. Transcutaneous oximetry but not arterial toe blood pressure or ankle-brachial index is related to macular thickness in patients with chronic diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Katzman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes related vascular complications of the lower extremity could be classified as micro- and macrovascular. Ankle-brachial index (ABI and toe blood pressure (TBP measurements evaluate macro-circulation, whereas transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2 is considered to be a composite measure of vascular function, thereby also reflecting microcirculation. Microvascular disease in the eye involves abnormal capillary permeability and possibly thereby increased macular thickness. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate if microvascular disease in the eye was related to measures of foot ischemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with diabetes and chronic full-thickness foot ulcers were included. Peripheral ischemia was diagnosed using TcPO2, TBP and ABI. Macular thickness was measured with optical coherence tomography technique. Results: Based on TcPO2, TBP and ABI measurements 14, 13 and 13 patients, respectively, were classified as ischemic. Patients with ischemic TcPO2 levels at the dorsum of the foot had significantly higher macular thicknesses. This was not the case in patients with ischemic TBP or ABI levels. Conclusion: TcPO2, unlike TBP and ABI, seems to be a clinically relevant measure of peripheral microvascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus and may, if low, indicate an increased risk of macular edema. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 81-85

  16. Efeitos da suplementação de potássio via sal de cozinha sobre a pressão arterial e a resistência à insulina em pacientes obesos hipertensos em uso de diuréticos Effects of potassium supplementation by salt on arterial blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive obese patients on diuretic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Gouveia Pereira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de potássio, por intermédio do sal de cozinha contendo cloreto de potássio, associada à dieta hipocalórica e à atividade física aeróbica, sobre a pressão arterial e índices de resistência à insulina em pacientes hipertensos com obesidade abdominal. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo duplo-cego, randomizado, em 22 pacientes hipertensos com excesso de peso (índice de massa corporal >27kg/m² e controle insatisfatório da pressão arterial durante o uso de diuréticos pressão arterial sistólica >140 e 90 e OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of oral potassium supplementation, associated with a hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercises, on plasma potassium levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance, in centrally obese, not well controlled hypertensive patients on diuretic therapy; waist to hip ratio >0.85 in women, and >0.95 in men; systolic blood pressure >140mmHg and 90mmHg and <105mmHg. METHODS: This was a prospective double-blind randomized study including 22 patients divided in 2 groups: sodium chloride n=10, and potassium chloride n=12. For 12 weeks, each group received cooking salt containing, either 100% sodium chloride, or 50% sodium chloride and 50% potassium chloride. All patients were submitted to a hypocaloric diet and advised to increase their physical activity; a 40-minute walk three times a week. Before and after the study period, all patients were submitted to determinations of body mass index, body composition, waist circumference, sodium and potassium urinary excretions, sodium and potassium serum levels, 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, oral glucose tolerance test with serum insulin measurements at fasting and 120 minutes after glucose load, and serum lipid profile. RESULTS: In both groups, no changes were observed in serum sodium and potassium levels, in blood glucose and insulin levels, insulin resistance indexes and serum

  17. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  18. Hipertensão arterial entre funcionários de banco estatal no Rio de Janeiro. Hábitos de vida e tratamento High blood pressure among bank employees. Life-style and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Chor

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência de tratamento de hipertensão arterial e hábitos de vida relacionados à saúde, comparando-se hipertensos e não hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional em amostra sistemática de 1183 funcionários de banco estatal, no Rio de Janeiro, através de questionário autopreenchido. Medidas diretas da pressão arterial, peso e estatura foram tomadas em subamostra. Participantes informados por profissional de saúde, mais de uma vez, que eram hipertensos, foram classificados como hipertensos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença importante entre hipertensos e não hipertensos, quanto à prevalência de tabagismo, consumo de álcool e atividades físicas. Entre os hipertensos com sobrepeso/obesidade, a prática de dieta foi mais freqüente do que entre não hipertensos com sobrepeso/obesidade. Apenas 44,7% dos hipertensos estavam sob tratamento, condição associada à alta escolaridade, ser ex-fumante, ter sobrepeso/obesidade ou história familiar de doenças cerebrovasculares. CONCLUSÃO: A disponibilidade de serviços de saúde e o acesso à informação não foram suficientes para garantir o tratamento ou adoção de hábitos de vida que contribuem para o controle da pressão arterial, no conjunto dos hipertensos.PURPOSE: This study estimates the frequency of treatment of high blood pressure and compares life-styles among hipertensives and non-hipertensives. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sistematic sample of 1183 employees in a government-owned bank in the State of Rio de Janeiro, through a self-administered questionnaire. Direct measurements of arterial pressure, weight and height were also taken in a sub-sample. Those who had been informed more than once as having high blood pressure, by a health professional, were classified as hipertensives. RESULTS: There were no important differences among hipertensives and non-hipertensives with respect to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and physical activities

  19. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  20. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  1. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Blood Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High ...

  2. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...

  3. Non Invasive Measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pauline; Avadhany, Sandhya T.; K.N. Maruthy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non invasive, simple and economical instrument to measure blood pressure in r365-ats is important in cardiovascular research. Methods: Systolic blood pressure measuring instrument was fabricated using a tail cuff, photoplethysmograph, pressure transducer and PC with Biopac Software for recording. Tail cuff was used to occlude the tail artery, photoplethysmograph picked the blood flow pulses in the rat tail and the pressure transducer measured the cuff pressure and converted it int...

  4. Combined use of non-invasive techniques to predict pulmonary arterial pressure in chronic respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J M; Csukas, M

    1989-01-01

    The value of non-invasive procedures for predicting pulmonary arterial pressure was investigated in 370 patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases and in 73 with fibrosing alveolitis in a combined study at nine centres in six European countries. Measurements included forced expiratory volume in one second, arterial blood gas tensions, standard electrocardiogram, radiographic dimensions of pulmonary artery, right ventricle dimensions by M mode echocardiography, and myocardial scintigraphy...

  5. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis......, and arterial pressure were determined before and during a volume expansion induced by infusion of a hyperosmotic galactose solution. RESULTS: During volume expansion, the central and arterial blood volume increased significantly in patients with class A and controls, whereas no significant change was found....... CONCLUSIONS: Only in mild cirrhosis is the effective blood volume able to increase in response to volume expansion. Our results are consistent with the peripheral vasodilatation hypothesis and the circulatory hyporeactivity occurring in advanced cirrhosis....

  6. In vivo quantification of hyperoxic arterial blood water T1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siero, Jeroen C W; Strother, Megan K; Faraco, Carlos C; Hoogduin, Hans; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J

    2015-11-01

    Normocapnic hyperoxic and hypercapnic hyperoxic gas challenges are increasingly being used in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and calibrated functional MRI experiments. The longitudinal arterial blood water relaxation time (T1a) change with hyperoxia will influence signal quantification through mechanisms relating to elevated partial pressure of plasma-dissolved O2 (pO2) and increased oxygen bound to hemoglobin in arteries (Ya) and veins (Yv). The dependence of T1a on Ya and Yv has been elegantly characterized ex vivo; however, the combined influence of pO2, Ya and Yv on T1a in vivo under normal ventilation has not been reported. Here, T1a is calculated during hyperoxia in vivo by a heuristic approach that evaluates T1 -dependent arterial spin labeling (ASL) signal changes to varying gas stimuli. Healthy volunteers (n = 14; age, 31.5 ± 7.2 years) were scanned using pseudo-continuous ASL in combination with room air (RA; 21% O2/79% N2), hypercapnic normoxic (HN; 5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2) and hypercapnic hyperoxic (HH; 5% CO2/95% O2) gas administration. HH T1a was calculated by requiring that the HN and HH cerebral blood flow (CBF) change be identical. The HH protocol was then repeated in patients (n = 10; age, 61.4 ± 13.3 years) with intracranial stenosis to assess whether an HH T1a decrease prohibited ASL from being performed in subjects with known delayed blood arrival times. Arterial blood T1a decreased from 1.65 s at baseline to 1.49 ± 0.07 s during HH. In patients, CBF values in the affected flow territory for the HH condition were increased relative to baseline CBF values and were within the physiological range (RA CBF = 36.6 ± 8.2 mL/100 g/min; HH CBF = 45.2 ± 13.9 mL/100 g/min). It can be concluded that hyperoxic (95% O2) 3-T arterial blood T1aHH = 1.49 ± 0.07 s relative to a normoxic T1a of 1.65 s. PMID:26419505

  7. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  8. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  9. 血压正常高值人群动脉血管功能和结构变化的研究%The change of artery elastic function and structure in persons with high-normal blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明昕; 高金颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:利用无创方法探讨血压正常高值人群动脉血管功能和结构的变化。方法应用博时全自动动脉硬化检测系统及超声诊断仪对349例血压正常高值人群进行踝臂指数(ABI)、臂-踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)、颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)的检测,并与同期受检的201例血压正常人群、303例原发性高血压1级患者及77例原发性高血压2级患者的检测结果进行对比研究。结果正常高值血压组受检人群脉搏波传导速度、颈动脉内膜中层厚度的异常检出率较正常血压组明显增高,而低于原发性高血压1、2级组,且正常高值血压组、原发性高血压1、2级组分别与正常血压组相比,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.0083);而踝臂指数异常的检出率均较低,正常血压组、正常高值血压组、原发性高血压1级组之间无统计学差异(P>0.0083),但以上三组分别与原发性高血压2级组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.0083)。结论血压正常高值人群尚未发展至高血压阶段时已经开始出现动脉血管功能和结构的损害,表现为血管顺应性下降,僵硬度增加,动脉内膜增厚,斑块形成,甚至出现管腔狭窄及堵塞等一系列病理改变。%ObjectiveTo explore the artery elastic function and structure changes in high-normal blood pressure persons by non-invasive examination.MethodsThe Intima-media thickness (IMT) were detected, meanwhile, the Ankle-Brachial Index(ABI) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured in 349 prehypertensive people using Boso(BOSCH+SONH) automatic arteriosclerosis measurement system, and were compared with normotensive group(n=201), hypertension grade 1 group(n=303) and hypertension grade 2 group(n=77).Results The level of PWV and IMT in the high-normal blood pressure group were significantly higher than those of the normal blood pressure group and lower than hypertension grade 1 and 2

  10. Fiabilidade da medição da Tensão Arterial: revisão teórica La fiabilidad de la medida de presión arterial: revisión teórica Validity of arterial blood pressure measurement: theoretical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial é um dos problemas de saúde pública mais importantes, sobretudo nos países desenvolvidos. É razoavelmente comum, facilmente diagnosticada e tem prognóstico reservado quando não tratada. Efectuou-se a pesquisa através das bases de dados EBSCO (Academic Search Premier, Sport diskus e a Medline, utilizando as palavras/ expressões- chave: “validation, accuracy, blood pressure measurement, reproducibility, sphygmomanometer, mercury, oscillometer e dinamap”. Os critérios de selecção basearam-se na pertinência, metodologia e data mais recente de elaboração. O instrumento considerado gold standart é o Esfigmomanómetro (EM; contudo, o mercúrio é tóxico para o ambiente, pelo que surgiu a necessidade da sua substituição por instrumentos com outra tecnologia. Além disso, acredita-se que 50% dos EM não estão em condições de serem utilizados. Braçadeiras menores que o desejável sobrestimam a Tensão Arterial (TA. Acredita-se também que 23% dos profissionais de saúde nunca tenham calibrado os seus instrumentos e que 40% não se recorde da data em que o fez; em 2/3 tal procedimento tinha ocorrido há mais de um ano, apesar de ser simples e pouco dispendioso. Recomenda-se uma calibração anual.La hipertensión es uno de los problemas de salud pública más importantes, sobre todo en los países desarrollados. Es bastante común, fácil de diagnosticar y tiene pronóstico reservado si no es tratada. Se llevó a cabo una investigación a través de las bases de datos EBSCO (Academic Search Premier, Sport diskus e a Medline, utilizando las palabras/expresiones clave: “validation, accuracy, blood pressure measurement, reproducibility, sphygmomanometer, mercury, oscillometer e dinamap”. Los criterios de selección se basaron en la pertinencia, la metodología y la fecha más reciente de elaboración. El instrumento considerado gold standart es el esfigmómetro (EM; sin embargo, el mercurio es t

  11. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA IN EAR-LOBE CAPILLARY BLOOD IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ARTERIAL BLOOD AMMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUIZENGA, [No Value; GIPS, CH; CONN, HO; JANSEN, PLM

    1995-01-01

    Blood ammonia determination is a laboratory test to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. Arterial blood is superior to peripheral venous blood ammonia because of ammonia metabolism in muscle. We have compared capillary with arterial whole blood ammonia as capillary sampling is an attractive alternative.

  12. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  13. Relationship between circadian rhythm of blood pressure and coronary artery lesions%血压昼夜节律与冠状动脉病变之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞玲; 殷兆芳; 许左隽; 张阿莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) of essential hypertensive (EH) patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine and its relation with coronary artery lesions. Methods: According to coronary angiography 157 EH patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine were divided into single-vessel coronary disease group (51 cases), double-vessel coronary disease group (57 cases) and multi—vessel coronary disease group (49 cases) . They were monitored by 24h ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and divided into deep-dipper group (n=20), dipper group (n=75), non—dipper group (n=53) and anti—dipper group (n= 9) according to ABPM. Relationship between circadian rhythm of blood pressure and coronary artery lesions was investigated then. Results: From single-vessel coronary disease group to multi-vessel coronary disease group, ratios of patients with deep — dipper blood pressure (23. 5% vs. 12. 3% vs. 2. 0%) and dipper blood pressure (56. 9% vs. 49. 1% vs. 36. 7%) decreased progressively, ratios of patients with non-dipper blood pressure (19. 6% vs. 35. 1% vs. 46. 9%) and anti-dipper blood pressure (0% vs. 3. 5% vs. 14. 3%) increased progressively (P<0. 05 all) . From deep-dipper group to anti—dipper group, ratio of patients with single-vessel coronary disease decreased progressively (60. 0% vs. 38. 7% vs. 18. 9% vs. 0%), ratio of patients with multi-vessel coronary disease increased progressively (5. 0% vs. 24. 0% vs. 43. 4% vs. 77. 8%) (P<0. 05 all). Conclusion: Circadian rhythm of blood pressure would seriously influence coronary artery lesions even EH patients with satisfactory BP control by occasionally examine.%目的:探讨偶测血压控制良好的高血压患者的血压昼夜节律及其与冠状动脉病变之间的关系.方法:选择157例接受冠状动脉造影、偶测血压控制良好的原发性高血压患者.根据冠脉造影患者被分

  14. Characterization and calibration of the central arterial pressure waveform obtained from vibrocardiographic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacanditella, L.; Cosoli, G.; Casaccia, S.; Rohrbaugh, J. W.; Scalise, L.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been demonstrated to be a non-contact technique with high sensitivity, able to measure the skin vibrations related to cardiac activity. The obtainable mechanical signal (i.e. a velocity signal), VibroCardioGram (VCG), is able to provide significant physiological parameters, such as Heart Rate (HR). In this work, the authors aim to present a non-contact measurement method to obtain the arterial blood pressure signal from the mechanical vibrations assessed by LDV, in a central district of the arterial tree, such as carotid artery. In fact, in this way it is possible to indirectly assess Central Arterial Blood Pressure (CABP), which indicates the hemodynamic load on the heart, so that it is considered an important index predicting the cardiac risk of a subject. The measurement setup involves the use of an oscillometric cuff, to measure peripheral blood pressure at the radial artery level. Diastolic and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) at radial level were used to calibrate the integrated LDV signal (i.e. a displacement signal). As regard calibration, an exponential mathematical model was adopted to derive the pressure waveform from the displacement of the vessel detected by LDV. Results show an average difference of around 20% between systolic pressure measured at brachial level (i.e. peripheral pressure value) and systolic pressure derived from VCG signal measured over the carotid artery (i.e. central pressure). This is a physiological difference, consistent with the literature about the physiological increase of Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Pressure Pulse (PP) at increased distances from the heart. However, this non-contact technique is affected by movement artifacts and by reflection phenomena not related to the studied vessel and so it is necessary to account of such issues in the results.

  15. Pressão arterial de crianças e adolescentes de uma escola pública de Fortaleza - Ceará Presión arterial de niños y adolescentes de una escuela pública de Fortaleza-Ceará Blood pressure of children and teenagers from a public school in Fortaleza-Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Leite de Araujo

    2007-12-01

    entre las variables: sexo, grado de parentesco para hipertensión arterial, fumador pasivo con la PAS y con la PAD. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observó que la PAS y la PAD de los niños y adolescentes disminuyeron a lo largo de las evaluaciones.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evolution of systolic blood pressure (SAP, diastolic blood pressure (DAP and anthropometric measurement values of children and teenagers who presented altered arterial pressure on a first evaluation. METHODS: Follow-up study, performed from October / 2004 to December / 2005, at a public school in Fortaleza. One hundred fifty-one subjects between six and seventeen years old were accompanied and evaluated for a period of one year. RESULTS: It was observed that the SAP and DAP of children and teenagers decreased along the evaluations. The variables age, education, weight, height, body mass index, waist perimeter, hip perimeter, arm and subscapular skin fold circumference were correlated positive and significantly with SAP and DAP values. There was a difference in median among the variables: Gender, kinship degree for arterial hypertension, passive smoker with SAP and DAP. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the SAP and DAP of children and adolescents decreased along the evaluations.

  16. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E;

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40....../PP on one side and age, sex, body weight, portal pressure, systemic hemodynamics, biochemical variables, and severity of disease on the other. In the multiple-regression analysis, sex, age, mean arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and biochemical variables were significant independent...

  17. A relation between blood pressure and stiffness of joints and skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, CSPM; Grobbee, DE; Sakkers, RJB; Helders, PJM; Bank, RA; Engelbert, RHH

    2003-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, is associated with arterial wall stiffness, but little is known about its relation to stiffness of other parts of the body. We examined the extent to which blood pressure levels in young healthy children are related to stiffness of various tis

  18. Murata - A Pressure Sensor Based Blood Pressure : Preliminary Reliability Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Elina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reliability of a blood pressure sensor developed by Murata as a blood pressure monitoring tool compared to an automatic blood pressure monitor, Omron M6. Blood pressure is one of the principal vital signs and is utilized for monitoring both short-term and long-term health of the cardiovascular system and thereby the health of the patient. Therefore there is a need for a non-invasive blood pressure monitor for accurate, continuous and comfortab...

  19. Arterial stiffness, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilievna Oskola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate the relationship between changes in indicators of arterial stiffness of various types of vessels, hemodynamic pulsatility, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and arterial hypertension in the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Materials and MethodsThe study included 96 patients with CAD and arterial hypertension; among them, 54 subjects had T2DM and 42 did not. Сarbohydrate and lipid metabolism, renal function, stiffness of various types of arteries, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility and renal blood flow were investigated.ResultsArterial stiffness of various types of vessels was increased in the T2DM group: carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity as a marker of aortic stiffness (a vessel of the elastic type was increased by 16% (p <0.001, index β of the common carotid artery (a vessel of the muscular elastic type was increased by 7.6% (p <0.05 and index β of the brachial artery (a vessel of the muscular type was increased by 22% (p <0.05. The level of microalbuminuria was 5-fold higher (p <0.05 and the renal resistive index was 12.5% higher (p <0.05 in the diabetics group. Significant correlations were found between aortic stiffness, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility (pulse pressure, measured at the brachial artery, the central pulse pressure, augmentation index and renal function and renal blood flow in patients in both groups.ConclusionThe results may indicate the general pathogenetic mechanisms and the relationship between the development of increased aortic stiffness and renal dysfunction in patients with CAD, arterial hypertension and T2DM.

  20. Physiological importance of the coronary arterial blood supply to the rattlesnake heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette; Abe, Augusto S.; Falk, Erling;

    2008-01-01

    The reptilian heart consists of a thick inner spongy myocardium that derives its oxygen and nutrient supply directly from the blood within the ventricular cavity, which is surrounded by a thin outer compact layer supplied by coronary arteries. The functional importance of these coronary arteries...... remains unknown. In the present study we investigate the effects of permanent coronary artery occlusion in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) on the ability to maintain heart rate and blood pressure at rest and during short term activity. We used colored silicone rubber (Microfil...

  1. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial e fatores associados em estudantes de Ensino Médio de escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2006 Prevalence of high blood pressure and associated factors in students from public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia da Mata Ribeiro Gomes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e fatores associados à saúde em adolescentes, por meio de estudo epidemiológico transversal de base populacional, realizado no período de abril a setembro de 2006, empregando amostragem estratificada segundo porte da escola e turnos. Utilizando-se o questionário Global School-based Student Health Survey, 1.878 estudantes de 29 escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram investigados quanto a: idade; sexo; índice de massa corporal; consumo de frutas, verduras, álcool e tabaco; e pressão arterial, admitindo os parâmetros da Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescent, de 1996, para pressão arterial, do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention para estado nutricional. As prevalências de hipertensão arterial (medida apenas uma vez, sobrepeso e obesidade igualaram-se a 17,3%, 6,9% e 3,7%, respectivamente. Comportaram-se como fatores associados para hipertensão arterial: sexo masculino, obesidade, sobrepeso e falta de atividade física. Concluiu-se que o conhecimento dos fatores associados para hipertensão arterial em adolescentes poderá subsidiar campanhas de educação para a saúde.The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (high blood pressure and associated health factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional, population-based, epidemiological design from April to September 2006, within a stratified sample according to school size and shift. Using the Portuguese version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire, 1,878 students from 29 public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, were analyzed for: age, gender, body mass index, fruit, vegetable, alcohol, and tobacco consumption, as well as blood pressure, adopting the 1996 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and

  2. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  3. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both Pblood pressure and heart rate rhythms between patients who achieved or did not achieve normotension and regression of left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness. It was concluded that abnormal cardiovascular rhythmicity persists in children with primary hypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  4. Electrocardiogram-assisted blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif; Chen, Silu; Soueidan, Karen; Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag; Dajani, Hilmi; Groza, Voicu

    2012-03-01

    Accurate automatic noninvasive assessment of blood pressure (BP) presents a challenge due to conditions like arrhythmias, obesity, and postural changes that tend to obfuscate arterial amplitude pulsations sensed by the cuff. Researchers tried to overcome this challenge by analyzing oscillometric pulses with the aid of a higher fidelity signal-the electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, pulse transit time (PTT) was employed to provide an additional method for BP estimation. However, these methods were not fully developed, suitably integrated, or tested. To address these issues, we present a novel method whereby ECG-assisted oscillometric and PTT (measured between ECG R-peaks and maximum slope of arterial pulse peaks) analyses are seamlessly integrated into the oscillometric BP measurement paradigm. The method bolsters oscillometric analysis (amplitude modulation) with more reliable ECG R-peaks provides a complementary measure with PTT analysis (temporal modulation) and fuses this information for robust BP estimation. We have integrated this technology into a prototype that comprises a BP cuff with an embedded conductive fabric ECG electrode, associated hardware, and algorithms. A pilot study has been undertaken on ten healthy subjects (150 recordings) to validate the performance of our prototype against United States Food and Drug Administration approved Omron oscillometric monitor (HEM-790IT). Our prototype achieves mean absolute difference of less than 5 mmHg and grade A as per the British Hypertension Society protocol for estimating BP, with the reference Omron monitor.

  5. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...

  6. Home blood pressure monitoring for mild hypertensives.

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, L T; Resnick, B; Hurley, L B; Smith, E J; Mccarthy, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinical trial of 204 untreated patients with mild hypertension was conducted to assess the effect of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure level, pharmacologic treatment, reduction of risk factors, and use of health services. After 1 year, no statistically significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups. The findings indicate that, while home blood pressure monitoring may be useful, it has no measurable short-term impact on these aspects of blood pres...

  7. Relação da obesidade com a pressão arterial elevada em crianças e adolescentes Relationship of obesity with high blood pressure in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Barbosa de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Excessos de peso e de gordura corporal são atualmente reconhecidos como os maiores determinantes da elevação da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes. OBJETIVO: Identificar associação e correlação entre obesidade - identificada por meio da circunferência da cintura (CC, da prega cutânea do tríceps (PCT e do índice de massa corporal (IMC - pressão arterial elevada (PAE em crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico transversal, de base populacional escolar, em crianças e adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 7 e 17 anos, selecionados aleatoriamente. Protocolo: questionário estruturado; medidas de peso, altura, espessura da prega tricipital, circunferência da cintura, pressão arterial; diagnóstico de obesidade por meio de IMC, PCT e CC; diagnóstico de PAE. Análise estatística: qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 1.253 estudantes (547 do sexo masculino, média de idade 12,4 ± 2,9 anos, e identificou-se uma prevalência de obesidade (IMC, PCT, CC, respectivamente, de 13,7%, 14,8% e 9,3%. A PAE foi identificada em 7,7% dos jovens. Houve associação significante de obesidade (IMC, PCT, CC com PAE (*p BACKGROUND: Excess weight and body fat are currently recognized as the major determinants of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between obesity - identified by waist circumference (WC, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF and body mass index (BMI - high blood pressure (HBP in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study based on school population in children and adolescents of both sexes, aged between 7 and 17 years, randomly selected. Protocol: a structured questionnaire; measures of weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, waist circumference, blood pressure, diagnosis of obesity through BMI, TSF thickness and waist circumference; diagnosis of HBP. Statistical analysis: Chi-square. RESULTS: A total

  8. Changes in Doppler waveforms can predict pressure reduction across internal carotid artery stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    perfusion pressure. Forty-nine patients were examined consecutively with ultrasound Doppler prior to carotid endarterectomy. Pulsatility index (PI), pulse rise-time (RT), and systolic width (SW) were related to angiographic degree of stenosis and the ratio of distal ICA blood pressure to common carotid...... artery (CCA) blood pressure (ICA/CCA pressure ratio). The latter was determined during surgery. All three waveform parameters were significantly correlated with the ICA/CCA pressure ratio when calculated from the mean frequency curve (p less than 0.001). A reduction in ICA pressure of 20% could...

  9. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  10. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic blood flow through irregular multi-stenosed arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Norzieha; Amin, Norsarahaida; Chakravarty, Santabrata; Mandal, Prashanta Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Flow of an electrically conducting fluid characterizing blood through the arteries having irregular shaped multi-stenoses in the environment of a uniform transverse magnetic-field is analysed. The flow is considered to be axisymmetric with an outline of the irregular stenoses obtained from a three-dimensional casting of a mild stenosed artery, so that the physical problem becomes more realistic from the physiological point of view. The marker and cell (MAC) and successive-over-relaxation (SOR) methods are respectively used to solve the governing unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and pressure-Poisson equation quantitatively and to observe the flow separation. The results obtained show that the flow separates mostly towards the downstream of the multi-stenoses. However, the flow separation region keeps on shrinking with the increasing intensity of the magnetic-field which completely disappears with sufficiently large value of the Hartmann number. The present observations certainly have some clinical implications relating to magnetotherapy which help reducing the complex flow separation zones causing flow disorder leading to the formation and progression of the arterial diseases.

  11. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic blood flow through irregular multi-stenosed arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Norzieha; Amin, Norsarahaida; Chakravarty, Santabrata; Mandal, Prashanta Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Flow of an electrically conducting fluid characterizing blood through the arteries having irregular shaped multi-stenoses in the environment of a uniform transverse magnetic-field is analysed. The flow is considered to be axisymmetric with an outline of the irregular stenoses obtained from a three-dimensional casting of a mild stenosed artery, so that the physical problem becomes more realistic from the physiological point of view. The marker and cell (MAC) and successive-over-relaxation (SOR) methods are respectively used to solve the governing unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and pressure-Poisson equation quantitatively and to observe the flow separation. The results obtained show that the flow separates mostly towards the downstream of the multi-stenoses. However, the flow separation region keeps on shrinking with the increasing intensity of the magnetic-field which completely disappears with sufficiently large value of the Hartmann number. The present observations certainly have some clinical implications relating to magnetotherapy which help reducing the complex flow separation zones causing flow disorder leading to the formation and progression of the arterial diseases. PMID:19665698

  12. Prevalência de pressão arterial elevada em crianças e adolescentes do ensino fundamental Prevalencia de presión arterial elevada en niños y adolescentes de la enseñanza fundamental Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents attending highschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa M. Rinaldi

    2012-01-01

    hipertensión arterial (HAS para los valores entre los percentiles 90 y 95 y superior al percentil 95, respectivamente. Los datos antropométricos fueron comparados, conforme al sexo, por la prueba t de Student. La correlación de Pearson fue utilizada para verificar la variación de las PA sistólica (PAS y diastólica (PAD según datos antropométricos. La variación del escore Z de la PA según percentil de IMC fue evaluada por el análisis de variancia seguida por la prueba de Tukey. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 903 niños (51,7% niños, con edad de 9,3±2,5 años para ambos sexos. La prevalencia de PH fue de 9,1% y de HAS fue de 2,9%. Hubo correlación positiva significativa entre los niveles presóricos elevados (PAS/PAD > percentil 90 y las variables antropométricas, con valores mayores para peso (r=0,53 y r=0,45, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in schoolchildren and adolescents and the association of blood pressure with anthropometric measures. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in three schools in Botucatu, Brazil, collected blood pressure (BP measurements taken at three different time points and anthropometric data: weight, height, body mass index (BMI, arm circumference, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Blood pressure was measured using the auscultation method, and children were classified into two groups: pre-hypertension or hypertension for values between the 90th and 95th percentiles or above the 95th percentile. Data were compared according to sex using the Student's t test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association between blood pressure and anthropometric data. To evaluate blood pressure, the Z score according to BMI percentile categories, one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey post hoc test were used. RESULTS: This study evaluated 903 children and adolescents (51.7% boys whose mean age was 9.3±2.5 years. The prevalence of pre-hypertension and

  13. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  14. Acompanhamento da pressão arterial: estudo com crianças e adolescentes com história familiar de hipertensão Acompañamiento de la presión arterial: investigación con niños y adolescentes con historia familiar de hipertensión Blood pressure tracking: study with children and adolescents with familial history of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soares Chaves

    2010-03-01

    complicaciones.The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the percentiles of blood pressure in children and adolescents with familial history of arterial hypertension. This is a longitudinal study developed in a community in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The blood pressure was evaluated in five home visits from January, 2004 to December, 2006. The group was composed of 141 participants, of which 92 were children and 49 adolescents. Of the children, 67,4% remained with no alterations of the percentiles of blood pressure in all the evaluations; of the adolescents, 65,3% remained in the same condition. Most individuals kept their values and percentiles of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and many that did not initially present alterations started to show some during the follow up. As a result, routine monitoring of blood pressure of children and adolescents proves necessary for the early detection and prevention of complications.

  15. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de hipertensión arterial en escolares mexicanos: caso Sabinas Hidalgo Prevalence and risk factors of high blood pressure in Mexican school children in Sabinas Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oliver Aregullin-Eligio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HTA y los factores de riesgo asociados en escolares de 6 a 12 años, con la metodología aceptada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron 329 alumnos de educación primaria para investigar asociaciones entre HTA, índice de masa corporal (IMC, edad y género, usando un estudio transversal. Se midió la presión arterial y se utilizó el percentil 95 para diagnosticar HTA. Se compararon niños con y sin HTA. Se utilizaron las razones de momios simple y ajustada con la X² de Mantel-Haenszel como medidas de asociación. RESULTADOS: Los niños con sobrepeso (IMC > 85 percentil y del grupo de 11-12 años tuvieron al menos cuatro veces más posibilidades de HTA después de controlar variables confusoras. CONCLUSIONES: Los niños que presentaron HTA ascendieron a 4.9%, con mayor prevalencia entre aquellos con sobrepeso y pertenecientes a un grupo etario mayor. Las asociaciones encontradas pueden ser marcadores de HTA en niños mexicanos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of high blood pressure (HBP in school children 6 to 12 years of age with the accepted methodology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Elementary school children were examined (n=329. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, age and gender were investigated using a cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were made. The crude and X² Mantel-Haenszel adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. RESULTS: Overweight children (BMI >85th percentile and those in the age group 11-12 years were at least four times as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: A total of 4.9% of school children had HBP, with a higher prevalence occurring among overweight and the older group. The associations found here can be used as markers for an increased

  16. Systolic blood pressure of dogs at hospital and domestic environment Pressão arterial sistólica de cães nos ambientes hospitalar e doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Aécio Carvalho Soares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of blood pressure (BP is an important assessment of the cardiovascular system, being influenced by physical and pathological conditions. Certain situations of stress and anxiety during BP measurement can lead to elevated values in small animals, known in medicine as "white coat effect". The aim of this research was to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP measurement using Doppler ultrasonography in 45 adult healthy dogs in two environments, at a veterinary hospital and at home. Comparison of heart rate, serum concentrations of cortisol and glucose intended to help the evaluation of the stress level of the animals. The mean of SBP at the veterinary hospital was 154.7mmHg and it was significantly (PA medida da pressão arterial constitui uma importante avaliação do sistema cardiovascular, sendo influenciada por condições físicas e patológicas. Situações de estresse e ansiedade no momento da aferição podem causar valores de pressão sanguínea elevados, o que é conhecido na medicina humana como "efeito jaleco branco". O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os valores da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS pelo método Doppler em 45 cães em dois ambientes, o doméstico e o hospitalar. Além disso, foram comparadas as frequências cardíacas e concentrações séricas de glicose e cortisol nos dois ambientes, com o objetivo de auxiliar a avaliação o nível de estresse dos animais. A média de PAS observada no hospital foi de 154,7mmHg e foi significativamente superior que a observada em casa (136,3mmHg. Também foi observado que os valores de FC (média=122,7bpm e concentrações séricas de cortisol (mediana=4,5µg dL-1 e glicose (média=95,9mg dL-1 foram superiores (P<0,01 no ambiente hospitalar, quando comparados com os valores obtidos no lar dos animais (109,6bpm; 1,5µg dL-1 e 85,5mg dL-1, respectivamente. Assim, condições ambientais podem influenciar a PAS em cães, devido a fatores relacionados ao estresse.

  17. Obesidad, morfología corporal y presión arterial en grupos urbanos y rurales de Yucatán Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arroyo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la antropometría y presión arterial de adultos del estado de Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron diferencias rural-urbanas por grupos sexo-edad en peso, talla, circunferencias de cintura y cadera, y presión arterial en 313 adultos de origen urbano y 271 del rural, de Yucatán. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias rural-urbanas en prevalencias de obesidad y sobrepeso, y en hipertensión los urbanos tuvieron valores marginalmente mayores. Se encontró mayor prevalencia rural de cintura anormal sólo en mujeres y hombres jóvenes. La comparación con dos encuestas nacionales y una regional (mixtecos rurales mostró obesidad similar a la notificada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 (ENSA y mayor que mixtecos y la informada en la Encuesta Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas 1993 (ENEC. La prevalencia de cintura anormal fue intermedia entre la indicada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT y mixtecos, y la de hipertensión intermedia entre la notificada en la ENEC y mixtecos. CONCLUSIONES: Las poblaciones maya y mestiza de Yucatán presentaron alta prevalencia de obesidad y cintura anormal que no se acompañaron de prevalencia mayor de hipertensión. Esta observación requiere confirmación.OBJECTIVE: To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. RESULTS: No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was

  18. Computational modeling of non-Newtonian blood flow through stenosed arteries in the presence of magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Aiman; Tashtoush, Bourhan; El-Khalil, Hossam H

    2013-11-01

    Steady flow simulations of blood flow in an axisymmetric stenosed artery, subjected to a static magnetic field, are performed to investigate the influence of artery size, magnetic field strength, and non-Newtonian behavior on artery wall shear stress and pressure drop in the stenosed section. It is found that wall shear stress and pressure drop increase by decreasing artery size, assuming non-Newtonian fluid, and increasing magnetic field strength. In the computations, the shear thinning behavior of blood is accounted for by the Carreau-Yasuda model. Computational results are compared and found to be inline with available experimental data. PMID:24061603

  19. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  20. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation measured with Nexfin(®) in patients following major upper abdominal surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, R B P; de Wit, F; Geerts, B F; van Vliet, A L; Aarts, L P H J; Vuyk, J; Jansen, J R C

    2016-07-01

    We compared the accuracy and precision of the non-invasive Nexfin(®) device for determining systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation, with arterial blood pressure values measured from a radial artery catheter in 19 patients following upper abdominal surgery. Measurements were taken at baseline and following fluid loading. Pooled data results of the arterial blood pressures showed no difference between the two measurement modalities. Bland-Altman analysis of pulse pressure variation showed significant differences between values obtained from the radial artery catheter and Nexfin finger cuff technology (mean (SD) 1.49 (2.09)%, p agreement -2.71% to 5.69%). The effect of volume expansion on pulse pressure variation was identical between methods (concordance correlation coefficient 0.848). We consider the Nexfin monitor system to be acceptable for use in patients after major upper abdominal surgery without major cardiovascular compromise or haemodynamic support. PMID:27291598

  1. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Calculation and analysis of velocity and viscous drag in an artery with a periodic pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M.; Seyedpour, S. M.; Mozafari, V.; Babazadeh, Shayan S.

    2012-07-01

    Blood as a fluid that human and other living creatures are dependent on has been always considered by scientists and researchers. Any changes in blood pressure and its normal velocity can be a sign of a disease. Whatever significant in blood fluid's mechanics is Constitutive equations and finding some relations for analysis and description of drag, velocity and periodic blood pressure in vessels. In this paper, by considering available experimental quantities, for blood pressure and velocity in periodic time of a thigh artery of a living dog, at first it is written into Fourier series, then by solving Navier-Stokes equations, a relation for curve drawing of vessel blood pressure with rigid wall is obtained. Likewise in another part of this paper, vessel wall is taken in to consideration that vessel wall is elastic and its pressure and velocity are written into complex Fourier series. In this case, by solving Navier-Stokes equations, some relations for blood velocity, viscous drag on vessel wall and blood pressure are obtained. In this study by noting that vessel diameter is almost is large (3.7 mm), and blood is considered as a Newtonian fluid. Finally, available experimental quantities of pressure with obtained curve of solving Navier-Stokes equations are compared. In blood analysis in rigid vessel, existence of 48% variance in pressure curve systole peak caused vessel blood flow analysis with elastic wall, results in new relations for blood flow description. The Resultant curve is obtained from new relations holding 10% variance in systole peak.

  3. Hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy involving deep supratentorial regions: does only blood pressure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 42-year-old female patient who presented with high arterial blood pressure of 245/150 mmHg and hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy that involved the brainstem and extensive supratentorial deep gray and white matter. The lesions were nearly completely resolved several days after stabilization of the arterial blood pressure. Normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and high apparent diffusion coefficient values suggested that the main pathomechanism was vasogenic edema owing to severe hypertension. On the basis of a literature review, the absolute value of blood pressure or whether the patient can control his/her blood pressure seems not to be associated with the degree of the lesions evident on magnetic resonance imaging. It remains to be determined if the acceleration rate and the duration of elevated arterial blood pressure might play a key role in the development of the hypertensive encephalopathy pattern.

  4. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  5. 白藜芦醇对卵巢切除大鼠动脉血压及升压反应的影响%Effects of resveratrol on arterial blood pressure and pressor response in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红芳; 姚向荣; 郑天珍; 李伟; 贾忠健

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the mechanism of cardiovascular protection by investigating the effect of resveratrol and 17β-estradiol on blood pressure and pressor response in ovariectomized rats.We selected female mature Wistar rats weighing 214.07±4.85 g that underwent a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX rats). Sham-operated animals (SHAM rats) were used as controls. One weeks after surgery, the OVX animals received daily subcutaneous injection of resveratrol (RES, 0.4 mg/kg), 17β-estradiol (EST,1 mg/kg) or equivalent volumes of sesame oil for 21 days, the resting arterial blood pressure and pressor responses of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ , 0.01 mg/kg), noradrenaline (NA, 0.01 mg/kg) and adrenaline (Adr,0.016 mg/kg) were detected and the carotid sinus baroreflex was also measured. In OVX rats, systolic pressure (SP), diastolic pressure (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly increased, but after treatment with RES and EST for 21 days, the blood pressure decreased and almost changed into the level of SHAM rat. Pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ, NA and Adr in SP, DP and MAP were significantly reduced in OVX rats and after treatment with RES and EST, the pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ and NA resumed in varying degrees but for Adr there was no marked change in RES treated OVX rats. The sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex significantly decreased in OVX rats, that is to say, changes of SP, DP and MAP were less than SHAM rats. After administration RES and EST, the sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex recovered in different degrees. The results indicate that, similar as 17β-estradiol, resveratrol can chronically decrease arterial blood pressure, recover pressor responses of Ang Ⅱ, NA, and the sensitivity of carotid sinus baroreflex in OVX rats and that these effects may be related to its cardiovascular protective effect.%选用雌性Wistar大鼠,体重214.07±4.85 g,于双侧卵巢切除后分别皮下注射白藜芦醇RES(0.4 mg/kg)和17β-雌二醇EST(1 mg

  6. Differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis. Methods:A Total of 40 cases of patients with subacute thyroiditis and 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected for study and enrolled in pathology group and control group respectively, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to detect peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery as well as resistance index (RI), and serum was collected to detect thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results:Peak blood flow velocities Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and resistance index RI was not different from that of control group;FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and TAOC were significantly lower than those of control group;Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA, and negatively correlated with SOD and TAOC. Conclusion:Peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery in subacute thyroiditis are significantly accelerated, Vmax has good consistency with thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes, and it can accurately assess the severity of the disease.

  7. Carotid baroreceptor stimulation, sympathetic activity, baroreflex function, and blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusser, K.; Tank, J.; Engeli, S.; Diedrich, A.; Menne, J.; Eckert, S.; Peters, T.; Sweep, F.C.; Haller, H.; Pichlmaier, A.M.; Luft, F.C.; Jordan, J.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, electric field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors elicits a depressor response through sympathetic inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that the stimulation acutely reduces sympathetic vasomotor tone and blood pressure in patients with drug treatment-resistant arterial hypertension. Fu

  8. EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON BLOOD FLOW THROUGH AN ARTERY: A NUMERICAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    J Misra; Shit, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the unsteady flow of blood by treating it as an incompressible, Newtonian, electrically conducting fluid in a straight segment of an elastic artery subject to a uniform transverse magnetic field. The problem is solved numerically with the theoretical assumption of 'local flow' model [?]. A sinusoidal variation of the arterial wall motion and a pulsatile pressure gradient have been studied. An implicit finite difference technique is used to analyze the flow. ...

  9. Verificação da variação da pressão arterial pelo uso de anestésicos locais com vasoconstritor = Verification of arterial blood pressure wich local anesthetics associated or not to vasoconstrictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma, Fabiano Rodrigues

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram estudo com 100 pacientes divididos em 4 grupos, os quais foram anestesiados com lidocaína, variando apenas no uso ou não de vasoconstritor e no tipo de vasoconstritor associado (adrenalina ou noradrenalina 1:50. 000. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exodontia, com aferição da pressão arterial antes do início do procedimento anestésico e após a exodontia. Nos pacientes que receberam anestésico com vasoconstritor, normotensos ou hipertensos, não houve aumento significativo da pressão arterial; no grupo onde o sal anestésico não continha vasoconstritor, houve aumento estatisticamente significativo da pressão arterial

  10. Comparison of non-invasive and invasive blood pressure in aeromedical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, N; Hogg, L A; Corfield, A R; Exton, A D

    2012-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement is an essential physiological measurement for all critically ill patients. Previous work has shown that non-invasive blood pressure is not an accurate reflection of invasive blood pressure measurement. In a transport environment, the effects of motion and vibration may make non-invasive blood pressure less accurate. Consecutive critically ill patients transported by a dedicated aeromedical retrieval and critical care transfer service with simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure measurements were analysed. Two sets of measurements were recorded, first in a hospital environment before departure (pre-flight) and a second during aeromedical transport (in-flight). A total of 56 complete sets of data were analysed. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement (precision) for pre-flight systolic blood pressure were -37.3 mmHg to 30.0 mmHg, and for pre-flight mean arterial pressure -20.5 mmHg to 25.0 mmHg. The limits of agreement for in-flight systolic blood pressure were -40.6 mmHg to 33.1 mmHg, while those for in-flight mean blood pressure in-flight were -23.6 mmHg to 24.6 mmHg. The bias for the four conditions ranged from 0.5 to -3.8 mmHg. There were no significant differences in values between pre-flight and in-flight blood pressure measurements for all categories of blood pressure measurement. Thus, our data show that non-invasive blood pressure is not a precise reflection of invasive intra-arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure measured non-invasively may be a better marker of invasive blood pressure than systolic blood pressure. Our data show no evidence of non-invasive blood pressures being less accurate in an aeromedical transport environment. PMID:23033983

  11. Treinamento resistido controla a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos induzidos por l-NAME Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ayslan Jorge Santos de Araujo; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos; Karine dos Santos Souza; Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Valter Joviniano Santana-Filho; Emerson Ticona Fioretto; Marcelo Mendonça Mota; Márcio Roberto Viana Santos

    2013-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma síndrome multifatorial, crônica, causada tanto por fatores congênitos ou adquiridos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido (TR) sobre pressão arterial, reatividade e morfologia vascular de ratos hipertensos induzidos por L-NAME. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (200-250 g) foram divididos em 3 grupos: normotenso sedentário (NS), hipertenso sedentário (HS) e hipertenso treinado (HT). A hipertensão foi induzida pela administração de L-...

  12. Effects on blood pressure in patients with refractory angina pectoris after enhanced external counterpulsation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Børje Ola Mattias;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of angina pectoris. Little is known how EECP affects the blood pressure. METHODS: 153 patients with refractory angina were treated with either EECP or retained...... on their pharmacological treatment (reference group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured pre- and post-treatment and at 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: EECP treatment altered the blood pressure in patients with...... refractory angina pectoris. A decrease in the blood pressure was more common in the EECP group compared with the reference group. In the reference group, an increase in the blood pressure was more common. A correlation between a decrease in blood pressure after EECP treatment and a higher baseline MAP, SBP...

  13. Life style as a blood pressure determinant.

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; V. Petrov; Thijs, L.; Fagard, R.

    1996-01-01

    In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol absti...

  14. 平原动脉血压对急性高原病易感性的预测%Low altitude assessment of arterial blood pressure predicts susceptibility to acute mountain sickness at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 张继航; 武晓静; 高旭滨; 卢巍; 卞士柱; 徐佰达; 黄岚

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究健康青年男性平原动脉血压与暴露于高原急性高原病易感性之间的关系,旨在评价动脉血压测量在急性高原病( AMS)诊断中的作用。方法由平原乘飞机急进入高原男性青年中随机抽取204例,对其进行一般检查,项目包括动脉血压测量、AMS流行病学观察表(包括人群一般人口学资料)填写。①测定海拔为平原(500 m)、高原(3700 m)第1天;②用路易斯湖评分系统( LLS)进行AMS诊断,有头痛且评分%≥3诊断为AMS。比较急进高原(3700 m)第1天AMS组和无AMS组平原动脉血压相关指标。用Pearson积矩相关分析对LLS评分与平原动脉血压各指标相关性作出判断,并通过ROC曲线作出其相应界值。结果①由平原急进高原(3700 m)第1天AMS发病率明显较高,达53.92%,且平原AMS评分明显较急进高原(3700 m)低(P<0.05)。②急进高原(3700 m)第1天,AMS组舒张压( DBP)、平均动脉压( MABP)较无AMS组高,且两组间差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05),并通过Logistic回归分析筛选出DBP作为高原(3700 m) AMS发病客观评估指标,其诊断AMS界值为72.5 mmHg,灵敏度为56.3%,特异度为63.2%,曲线下面积(AUC)为0.598,P<0.05。结论①暴露于高原后AMS发病明显升高。②平原DBP可能与AMS发病有关,且与LLS呈正相关,对高原AMS发病具有一定预测价值,但由于其特异性或敏感性问题,在实际应用中存在一定限制,应当与其他指标一起综合考虑预测AMS易感性,则可靠性会更准确。%Objective To explore that whether the normoxic low altitude measurement of arterial blood pressure would predict subsequent susceptibility to acute mountain sickness ( AMS) during rapid ascent to high altitude .Methods Arterial blood pressure ( using a wrist sphygmomanometer ) was determined in two hundred and four healthy

  15. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  16. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  17. Pressão arterial do anestesiologista durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico no período matutino Presión arterial del anestesista durante el acto anestésico-quirúrgico en el período matutino Anesthesiologists’ blood pressure during surgical anesthetic procedures in the morning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Wanderley de Aragão

    2002-09-01

    estudio fue verificar si la práctica de la anestesia es factor desencadenante de la variación de la presión arterial en el anestesista durante el acto anestésico quirúrgico. MÉTODO: Participaron del estudio diez anestesistas, cada un realizando diez anestesias raquidianas para parto cesariano. Fueron registradas cinco medidas de la presión arterial en cinco momentos diferentes, en el total de 50 afericiones por anestesista. La primera, realizada después de descanso previo de cinco minutos de la llegada del anestesista al centro quirúrgico, denominado M1. La segunda, antes de la realización de la punción lumbar, M2. La tercera, luego después de la retirada de la aguja del local de la punción donde fue realizado el bloqueo, M3. La cuarta, inmediatamente después de la retirada del feto, M4. Y la última aferición, al término de la sutura de la piel. M5. RESULTADOS: Ocurrió elevación en la presión arterial del anestesista nos momentos M3 y M4. CONCLUSIONES: La práctica anestésica realizada es responsable por la alteración significativa de la presión arterial del anestesista y está directamente relacionada con los momentos de mayor riesgo para el paciente durante el acto anestésico quirúrgico.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Systemic arterial hypertension affects approximately 20% of the world population, depending on the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Stresses inherent to the anesthesiologist’s work might reflect in the cardiovascular system, influencing professional’s blood pressure. This study aimed at verifying whether the practice of anesthesia is a triggering factor for anesthesiologists’ blood pressure changes during surgical anesthetic procedures. METHODS: Participated in these study 10 anesthesiologists, each one inducing 10 spinal anesthesias for cesarean section. Blood pressure was measured in five different moments, in a total of 50 readings one each anesthesiologist. The first measure was recorded

  18. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    blood pressure and related to the results of an invasive haemodynamic investigation, including measurements of intra-arterial blood pressure (9.00-11.00 h) in 37 patients with cirrhosis. RESULTS: The 24-h blood pressures were significantly lower and the heart rate was significantly higher in patients......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  19. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  20. Efeitos da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a pressão arterial em recém-nascidos pré-termo Effects of chest physiotherapy on blood pressure in preterm newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Nicolau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Oscilações na pressão arterial (PA sistêmica são diretamente proporcionais às oscilações do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral nos prematuros, mas são escassos os estudos acerca do efeito dos procedimentos fisioterapêuticos sobre a PA. Este estudo investigou a repercussão desses procedimentos e da aspiração endotraqueal na pressão arterial em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT na primeira semana de vida. Foram estudados 42 RNPT com peso de nascimento menor que 1.500 gramas em ventilação mecânica. A PA foi mensurada em três momentos: antes da fisioterapia (A, imediatamente após os procedimentos fisioterapêuticos (B e imediatamente após a aspiração endotraqueal (C. Os dados coletados foram analisados estatisticamente, com nível de signficância fixado em pBlood pressure (BP oscillations in premature newborns are directly related to cerebral blood flow, but few studies assess the effects of standard physical therapy procedures on their BP. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of respiratory physiotherapy and endotracheal suctioning on premature newborn BP during the first week of life. Forty-two preterm newborns with mean birth weight of 101.68±274.16 g, mean gestational age 29.58±2.16 weeks, and receiving mechanical ventilation were studied; they were mostly female (57.1% and presented hyaline membrane disease (90.4%. BP measurements were carried out at three moments: before (A and after physiotherapy (B, and after endotracheal suctioning (C. Data were statistically analysed and significance level set at p<0.05. Mean values found for systolic, diastolic, and (average BP in mmHg were: moment A, 71.32 x 40.56 (53.04; moment B, 69.93 x 39.41 (51.98; and moment C, 74.29 x 43.75 (54.82. Newborn BP thus remained within physiological values both after physiotherapy procedures and suctioning, hence these may be said to be harmless; endotracheal suctioning had a higher influence on premature newborn BP oscillations.

  1. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  2. Estimating blood pressure using Windkessel model on Photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Dutta; Banerjee, Rohan; Sinha, Aniruddha; Kundu, Shaswati

    2014-01-01

    Simple and non-invasive methods to estimate vital signs are very important for preventive healthcare. In this paper, we present a methodology to estimate Blood Pressure (BP) using Photoplethysmography (PPG). Instead of directly relating systolic and diastolic BP values with PPG features, our proposed methodology initially maps PPG features with some person specific intermediate latent parameters and later derives BP values from them. The 2-Element Windkessel model has been considered in the current context to estimate total peripheral resistance and arterial compliance of a person using PPG features, followed by linear regression for simulating arterial blood pressure. Experimental results, performed on a standard hospital dataset yielded absolute errors of 0.78±13.1 mmHg and 0.59 ± 10.23 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP values respectively. Results also indicate that the methodology is more robust than the standard methodologies that directly estimate BP values from PPG signal. PMID:25571008

  3. Measurement of mean arterial pressure: comparison of the Vasotrac monitor with the finger differential oscillometric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagomägi, K; Raamat, R; Talts, J; Ragun, U; Tähepõld, P

    2010-01-01

    The Vasotrac monitor provides non-invasive near-continuous blood pressure monitoring and is designed to be an alternative to direct intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement. As compared to radial artery invasive BP and upper arm non-invasive BP, Vasotrac readings have been found to have a good agreement with them. However, discrepancies have been reported when rapid changes in BP exist. In the present study we compared BP measured by the Vasotrac monitor on the radial artery with that recorded on the finger arteries by the differential oscillometric device allowing measurement on the beat-to-beat basis. Comparisons were performed on the mean arterial pressure (MAP) level. Special attention was paid to the signal conditioning before comparison of pressures of different temporal resolution. Altogether 383 paired MAP measurements were made in 14 healthy subjects. Based on all 383 paired measurements, the MAP values measured at the radial artery at rest were 4.8+/-6.0 mm Hg higher than those measured on fingers. The observed difference between the Vasotrac and differential oscillometric device can be explained by different measurement sites. This result is consistent with previous investigations, and the Vasotrac monitor can be considered to adequately track relatively rapid MAP changes on the radial artery. Attention should be paid to a proper signal conditioning before comparison of results obtained by different devices. PMID:20406039

  4. An Inexpensive Arterial Pressure Wave Sensor and its application in different physiological condition

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, S; Sur, Shantanu

    2005-01-01

    Arterial Blood Pressure wave monitoring is considered to be important in assessment of cardiovascular system. We developed a novel pulse wave detection system using low frequency specific piezoelectric material as pressure wave sensor. The transducer detects the periodic change in the arterial wall diameter produced by pressure wave and the amplified signal after integration represents the pressure wave. The signal before integration is proportional to the rate of change of pressure wave and it not only reproduces the pressure waveform faithfully, but also its sharper nature helps to reliably detect the heart period variability (HPV). We have studied the position-specific (e.g. over carotid or radial artery) nature of change of this pulse wave signal (shape and amplitude) and also the changes at different physiological states.

  5. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-ba...

  6. Efeitos agudos dos extratos hidroalcoólicos do alho (Allium sativum L. e do capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf sobre a pressão arterial média de ratos anestesiados Acute effects of Allium sativum L. and Cympobongon citratus (DC Stapf hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Singi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar os efeitos da aplicação aguda endovenosa dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Allium sativum e de Cymbopogon citratus sobre a pressão arterial de ratos. Foram usados Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, anestesiados, traqueostomizados e canulados através da veia jugular e da artéria carótida. Foram injetadas doses de 1 mg dos extratos separadamente e em associação (1mg + 1mg, em volumes de 0,2mL. A pressão arterial média (PAM foi registrada com um sistema Biopac, modelo MP100. O Allium sativum diminuiu a PAM de 124±2 mmHg, no controle, para 108±2 mmHg aos 15s. Da mesma forma, o Cymbopogon citratus diminuiu a PAM de 122±2 mmHg, no controle, para 106± 2 mmHg aos 15s. A associação de ambos também diminuiu a PAM de 126±3 mmHg, no controle, para 113±3 mmHg aos 15s. Os efeitos das duas plantas foram iguais e não foram incrementados quando associadas.This work aimed to verify the effects of acute intravenous applications of Allium sativum and Cymbopogon citratus hydroalcoholic extracts on arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. Adult male rats (Rattus novergicus albinus, n=7, were used. The rats were anesthetized, tracheotomy and cannulation of both jugular and carotid were carried out. The injected doses were 1 mg separately as well as the association of both extracts, in volumes of 0,2 mL. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was recorded with a Biopac System, model MP100. The Allium sativum decreased the MAP only from 124±2 mmHg (control to 108±2 mmHg at 15s. The Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 122±2 mmHg (control to 106±2 mmHg after 15s. The 1mg of Allium sativum + 1mg of Cymbopogon citratus also decreased the MAP from 126±3 mmHg (control to 113±3 mmHg after 15s. The effects of the two plants were the same and were not increased when in association.

  7. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...... in conjunction with a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow in patients with arterial disease.......A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for use...

  8. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  9. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Matteucci; Ottavio Giampietro

    2013-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures display a circadian rhythmicity that can be assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and analysed using the cosinor procedure. Altered characteristics to the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, which may result in adverse health outcomes, have been observed in both prediabetes and diabetes. We have investigated the circadian variability of blood pressure in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Chronobiologically interpreted ambulator...

  10. Development of a tonometric sensor for measurement and recording of arterial pressure waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, K.; Werszko, M.; Sasiadek, J. Z.; Kosek, J.; Berny, W.; Weiser, A.; Feder-Kubis, J.

    2013-09-01

    There are many techniques and devices for measurement and recording of arterial blood pressure. Some of them allow (enable) additionally to observe the shape of a wave of arterial pressure, which can be regarded as one of the most important diagnostic parameters of human cardiovascular system. This paper presents a novel design and prototype of a new, non-invasive blood waveform measuring device. It expounds theoretical and experimental (including latest preliminary clinical) results obtained during several years of extensive investigations into blood pressure waveform measuring and monitoring problem. According to investigations performed in the laboratory and preliminary clinical evaluation, the sensor has linear steady-state characteristics and satisfactory dynamic properties. It is an efficient and accurate tool for blood pressure waveform monitoring and assessing the cardiovascular condition of the patients. The novelty of this solution is that the device is equipped with a pneumatic pressure sensor based on the pneumatic nozzle flapper amplifier principle with negative feedback. Due to such a technical solution, the device does not require any cuff, which remains an essential component of the majority of contemporary non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices; therefore, it can be used on the artery where the application of a cuff would be impossible (e.g., carotid artery). This advantage makes possible to obtain an accurate shape of blood pressure waveform with high fidelity, comparable to a direct measurement method. Moreover, during the measurement the device converts directly "pressure into pressure." Such a principle of operation makes possible to eliminate additional calibration (at the current stage of research we have eliminated the necessity of calibration in laboratory conditions).

  11. Medida da pressão arterial no braço e antebraço em função do manguito Medida de la presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo en función del manguito Arm and forearm blood pressure measurements as a function of cuff width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Apparecida Moura Arcuri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar os níveis de pressão arterial no braço e antebraço usando manguitos de dimensões apropriadas e o manguito padrão. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 103 indivíduos, aplicando a razão circunferência braquial (CB /largura de manguito de 0,40 nos dois segmentos, e registros com o manguito padrão após um minuto. razão CB /comprimento do manguito de 0,80, correto ou padrão, circunferências medidas no ponto médio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas indicaram hiperestimação da pressão diastólica no antebraço, menor daquela observada em outros estudos. A manobra de Forsberg melhorou a audibilidade dos sons de Korotkoff. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados indicam que o manguito correto diminui a hiperestimação dos registros diastólicos observada por outros autores. O avanço no conhecimento da medida no antebraço requer outros estudos.OBJETIVO:Identificar y comparar los niveles de presión arterial en el brazo y antebrazo usando manguitos de dimensiones apropiadas y el manguito patrón. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado con 103 individuos, aplicando la razón circunferencia braquial (CB /ancho del manguito de 0,40 en los dos segmentos, y registros con el manguito patrón después un minuto, razón CB /largo del manguito de 0,80, correcto o patrón, circunferencias medidas en el punto medio de cada segmento. RESULTADOS: Diferencias significativas indicaron hiperestimación de la presión diastólica en el antebrazo, menor de aquella observada en otros estudios. La maniobra de Forsberg mejoró la audibilidad de los sonidos de Korotkoff. CONCLUSIÓN: Los hallazgos indican que el manguito correcto disminuye la hiperestimación de los registros diastólicos observada por otros autores. El avance en el conocimiento de la medida en el antebrazo requiere de otros estudios.OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare arm and forearm blood pressure measurements using appropriate cuff sizes

  12. Arterial pulse pressure amplification described by means of a nonlinear wave model: characterization of human aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, M.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R.; Pessana, F.; Wray, S.; Legnani, W.

    2016-04-01

    The representation of blood pressure pulse as a combination of solitons captures many of the phenomena observed during its propagation along the systemic circulation. The aim of this work is to analyze the applicability of a compartmental model for propagation regarding the pressure pulse amplification associated with arterial aging. The model was applied to blood pressure waveforms that were synthesized using solitons, and then validated by waveforms obtained from individuals from differentiated age groups. Morphological changes were verified in the blood pressure waveform as a consequence of the aging process (i.e. due to the increase in arterial stiffness). These changes are the result of both a nonlinear interaction and the phenomena present in the propagation of nonlinear mechanic waves.

  13. Long-term Blood Pressure Measurement in Freely Moving Mice Using Telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Afaque; Parks, Cory; Mancarella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    During the development of new vasoactive agents, arterial blood pressure monitoring is crucial for evaluating the efficacy of the new proposed drugs. Indeed, research focusing on the discovery of new potential therapeutic targets using genetically altered mice requires a reliable, long-term assessment of the systemic arterial pressure variation. Currently, the gold standard for obtaining long-term measurements of blood pressure in ambulatory mice uses implantable radio-transmitters, which require artery cannulation. This technique eliminates the need for tethering, restraining, or anesthetizing the animals which introduce stress and artifacts during data sampling. However, arterial blood pressure monitoring in mice via catheterization can be rather challenging due to the small size of the arteries. Here we present a step-by-step guide to illustrate the crucial key passages for a successful subcutaneous implantation of radio-transmitters and carotid artery cannulation in mice. We also include examples of long-term blood pressure activity taken from freely moving mice after a period of post-surgery recovery. Following this procedure will allow reliable direct blood pressure recordings from multiple animals simultaneously. PMID:27286041

  14. Blood flow redistribution and ventilation-perfusion mismatch during embolic pulmonary arterial occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Burrowes, K. S.; Clark, A. R.; Tawhai, M.H

    2011-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism causes redistribution of blood in the lung, which impairs ventilation/perfusion matching and gas exchange and can elevate pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) by increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). An anatomically-based multi-scale model of the human pulmonary circulation was used to simulate pre- and post-occlusion flow, to study blood flow redistribution in the presence of an embolus, and to evaluate whether reduction in perfused vascular bed is sufficient ...

  15. Systolic blood pressure of dogs at hospital and domestic environment Pressão arterial sistólica de cães nos ambientes hospitalar e doméstico

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Aécio Carvalho Soares; Elisa Barp Neuwald; Verônica Santos Mombach; Ana Elize Ribeiro D'Avila; Francisco de Oliveira Conrado; Félix Hilario Diaz González

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of blood pressure (BP) is an important assessment of the cardiovascular system, being influenced by physical and pathological conditions. Certain situations of stress and anxiety during BP measurement can lead to elevated values in small animals, known in medicine as "white coat effect". The aim of this research was to compare systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement using Doppler ultrasonography in 45 adult healthy dogs in two environments, at a veterinary hospital and at ho...

  16. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H;

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...

  17. Pressure Estimation in the Systemic Arteries Using a Transfer Function

    OpenAIRE

    Thore, Carl-Johan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to develop and study a method for estimation of the pulse pressure in centrally located arteries. Obtaining the central pulse pressure is desirable for several reasons. For example, the central pulse pressure can be used to assess aortic stiffness, which in turn is an important predictor of cardiovascular mortality. In this thesis a method of estimation based on a one--dimensional wave propagation theory applied to a physiological model of the human systemic arterial...

  18. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  19. Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesh, Santhi K.; Tragante, Vinicius; Guo, Wei; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Franceschini, Nora; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F. L.; Mellander, Olle; Molony, Cliona M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Price, Tom S.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Shen, Haiqing; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Most, Peter; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Van Setten, Jessic A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Burkley, Ben; Burt, Amber; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Curtis, Sean P.; Dreisbach, Albert; Duggan, David; Ehret, Georg B.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Fornage, Myriam; Fox, Ervin; Furlong, Clement E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kutlar, Abdullah; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Yun R.; Lin, Honghuang; Liu, Kiang; Maiwald, Steffi; Malik, Rainer; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; OConnell, Jeffery R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pepine, Carl J.; Pettinger, Mary; Polak, Joseph F.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Ranchalis, Jane; Redline, Susan; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Scharnag, Hubert; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Taylor, Herman A.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Sarah S.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Reiner, Alex P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Snieder, Harold; Stanton, Alice V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Keating, Brendan J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped 50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture varia

  20. Sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, natriúria e pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos Salt taste threshold, 24 hour natriuresis and blood pressure variation in normotensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sperb Antonello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo avalia sensibilidade gustativa ao sal, excreção urinária de sódio e pressão arterial (PA em normotensos. A hipótese foi de que limiar de sensibilidade gustativa ao sal (LSGS aumentado se associasse a maior natriúria em 24 horas e níveis aumentados de PA. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 24 voluntários sem diagnóstico de HA. Para avaliar LSGS, usou-se soluções de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em diferentes concentrações. Os voluntários foram submetidos à monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial (MAPA de 24 horas e coleta de urina de 24 horas para dosagem de sódio (NaU. Para análise, foram agrupados de acordo com o LSGS, aumentado ou normal. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não diferiram para idade, índice de massa corporal (IMC, variáveis demográficas, uso de álcool, fumo e PA. NaU foi significativamente maior no grupo com LSGS aumentado. Utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, com significância determinada pelo teste t, houve correlação de forte intensidade entre médias de PA sistólica e diastólica com IMC, de regular intensidade entre LSGS e NaU, assim como para PA sistólica e NaU. CONCLUSÃO: Natriúria de 24 horas foi maior em indivíduos com LSGS aumentado, sugerindo que esta maior avidez ao sal determine maior ingestão de sódio. Houve forte associação entre PA e IMC. Não foi evidenciada associação entre LSGS e PA, diferente do já documentado em pacientes com PA aumentada. Aumentando-se o número de pessoas, faixa etária e pacientes com níveis pressóricos aumentados, talvez se respondam outras perguntas a respeito da relação entre LSGS, natriúria e PA.OBJECTIVE: The study evaluates salt taste sensibility, urinary sodium excretion and blood pressure (BP in normotensive persons. The hypothesis was that a higher salt taste threshold (STT can be associated to a higher 24 hour natriuresis and increased BP levels. METHODS: Twenty four not hypertensive volunteers were selected. To

  1. Efeito da suplementação de beta-caroteno na pressão arterial de ratos Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the blood pressure of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Santos de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    detect possible toxic effects or interaction between nutrients and analysis of biological parameters; systolic blood pressure was measured by plethysmography twice a week on alternate days; after the supplementation period, animals were killed and their livers weighed by the Scherle method. RESULTS: Administration of beta-carotene did not alter the animals' biological parameters or cause any toxic effects. Regarding systolic blood pressure, both lineages showed significant results (p<0.05, with the highest dose presenting the best results. The average liver weight was 7.25 (3.2 standard-deviation grams, and the relationship between the average liver weight and body weight was 0.0192 for the hypertensive group. CONCLUSION: Beta-carotene supplementation was effective in controlling and preventing hypertension in rats. The relationship between liver weight and body weight was normal.

  2. As representações sociais de mulheres portadoras de Hipertensão Arterial Las representaciones sociales de mujeres que tienen Hipertension Arterial Social representations of women who live with High Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Enoia Dantas Costa e Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A Hipertensão Arterial, grave problema de Saúde Pública, afeta grande parte da população mundial e apresenta dificuldades para seu controle. Este estudo teve como objetivo apreender as representações sociais de mulheres, sobre o "ser portadora da doença", no contexto familiar, explorando aspectos psicossociais relacionados a sentimentos e comportamentos capazes de influenciar práticas de tratamento e controle da doença. Realizado em Teresina-PI, com 25 mulheres assistidas num centro de saúde. As informações coletadas foram organizadas num "corpus" processado pelo software ALCESTE 4.5. Emergiram três unidades de contexto inicial (u.c.i., apontando as manifestações / sentimentos / representações sociais das portadoras. Estas influenciam na produção e circulação de conhecimentos que orientam e definem comportamentos e condutas destas mulheres.La hipertensión arterial, problema de salud pública serio que afecte la mayor parte de a población del mundo, requiere la búsqueda para dificultades. El actual estudio se ocupó apreender de las representaciones sociales de los portadores de las mujeres sobre como cuál es ser portadores del la enfermedad en el contexto de la familia, y explorando los aspectos sicosociales se relacionó con sus sensaciones y comportamiento que pudieron interferir en su tratamiento y control de la enfermedad. Realizado en Teresina con 25 mujeres registradas en un centro de la salud. La información fue organizada en una "recopilación" y sometida al software 4.5 de ALCESTE, procesó la "recopilación" integrada por 3 unidades iniciales del contexto, demostrar las manifestaciones explicativas de los portadores sobre el tratamiento y el control de la enfermedad. Las representaciones sociales influencian el proceso de la producción y de la circulación del conocimiento que dirigen y definen el comportamiento y las conductas del portador hipertenso de la enfermedad.The Arterial Hypertension is considered

  3. The Effects of Arterial Blood Pressure Reduction on Endocan and Soluble Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs and CAMs Ligands Expression in Hypertensive Patients on Ca-Channel Blocker Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refmir Tadzic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To determine the effect of arterial blood pressure (BP reduction on endocan and soluble cell adhesion molecules' (sCAM plasma concentration and expression of their ligands on circulatory leukocyte subpopulations. Methods: 24 hypertensive subjects of both sexes (age: 53±8 yrs were treated with Ca-channel blocker, amlodipin (5-10 mg/day for 8 weeks; to reach BP≤139/89mmHg. The serum sCAMs and endocan concentrations were determined by ELISA kits. Level of ICAM/VCAM ligands on leukocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, or t-test were used as appropriate, with Pearson's correlation calculated; pResults: sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were decreased (p≤0.001 and p=0.002, respectively, while E-selectin concentration was increased after amlodipin treatment (P=0.014. CD11a/LFA-1 (ICAM-1 and endocan ligand was significantly increased in all three cell types with BP decrease. CD15 and CD49d/VLA-4 (VCAM-1 ligand did not change after the treatment. There was significant positive correlation of systolic and diastolic BP with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and significant negative correlation of systolic BP with CD11a/LFA-1. Endocan significantly positively correlated with ICAM-1. Conclusions: The increased expression of ICAM/VACM ligands, together with decrease of sCAMs and endocan suggests the de-activation of endothelium with reduction in BP, decreasing the adherence of circulatory leukocytes to endothelium; subsequently decreasing the risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  4. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  5. Noninvasive Monitoring of Arterial Viscoelastic Indices Using a Foil-type Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hiromi; Hirano, Harutoyo; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Tsuji, Toshio; Fukuda, Osamu; Ueno, Naohiro; Ukawa, Teiji; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Kawamoto, Masashi; Yoshizumi, Masao

    This paper proposes a noninvasive method for estimating the dynamic characteristics of arterial walls using pulse waves measured in various parts of the body by a foil-type pressure sensor. The sensor not only has high sensitivity and flexibility but also features the ability to continuously measure the alternating-current component of pulse waves. These capabilities make it suitable for estimating the dynamic characteristics of arterial walls. In this paper, a foil-type pressure sensor was employed to measure pulse waves based on the tonometry approach, and a method of estimating changes in arterial viscoelastic indices was proposed based on the measured pulse waves and photoplethysmograms. In order to accurately measure blood pressure, first, we examined suitable mechanical forces to the sensor, and found that values of 5-25[N] yielded the best performance. We then estimated the arterial viscoelastic indices of a radial artery and a dorsal pedis artery when mechanical pain stimuli were applied to the subjects. The results suggested that the estimated indices can be used to quantitatively assess vascular response caused by sympathicotonia. We thus concluded that the proposed method enabled noninvasive measurement of pulse waves in the dorsal pedis artery and estimation of arterial viscoelastic indices.

  6. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  7. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... extension experiment was identical to the peak pressure attained in the 40% MVC contraction. For the elbow flexors the terminal pressor response was slightly but significantly lower at 10% MVC [122.3 (SD 10.1) mmHg, 16.3 (SD 1.4) kPa] in comparison with 40% MVC [130.4 (SD 7.4) mmHg, 17.4 (SD 1.0) kPa]. When...

  8. Fatores associados à hipertensão arterial e níveis pressóricos encontrados entre adolescentes trabalhadores Factores asociados a la hipertensión arterial y niveles presóricos encontrados entre adolescentes trabajadores Hypertension associated factors and blood pressure among adolescent workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Spinella

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fatores associados (FA à hipertensão arterial e verificar níveis pressóricos de adolescentes trabalhadores. Foram entrevistados 193 adolescentes, sendo 135 homens e 58 mulheres, entre 16 e 18 anos. Após cinco minutos sentados, mediu-se a circunferência braquial e determinou-se a pressão arterial (PA, usando manguito de largura correta (MLC e padrão (MLP. Os valores obtidos foram relacionados aos FA encontrados. As médias pressóricas, considerando todos os adolescentes, foram 105,2/60,9 mmHg (MLC e 101,0/57,9 (MLP-pEl objetivo de nuestra investigación fue identificar factores asociados (FA con hipertensión arterial y verificar niveles presóricos de adolescentes trabajadores. Fueron entrevistados 193 adolescentes, 135 hombres y 58 mujeres entre 16 y 18 años. Después de cinco minutos sentados, se midieron sus circunferencias braquiales y se determinó sus presiones arteriales (PA con manguito de ancho correcto (MAC y estándar (MAP. Los valores observados fueron relacionados a los FA encontrados. Las medias presóricas entre los adolescentes fueron 105,2/60,9 mmHg (MAC y 101,0/57,9 (MAP-pThe aim of this study was to identify hypertension associated factors (AF and verify blood pressure (BP levels among adolescent workers. Interviews were conducted with 193 working adolescents - 135 men and 58 women between 16 and 18 years. After five minutes in seated position, their arm circumferences were measured and their BP was determined using correct (CCW and standard (SCW cuff widths. The values were related to AF. BP was, in average, 105.2/60.9 mmHg (CCW and 101.0/57.9 (SCW-p<0.05. Among the AF found, only skin color and alcoholic drinking were associated to BP elevation, also noted in male adolescents. When using CCW, more hypertensive and borderline adolescents were found than using SCW. All of them had at least one AF. It can be concluded that there are several hypertension AF among this

  9. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  10. [Eprosartan mesylate in controlling of blood pressure in patients with ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M Iu; Boĭko, A N; Petukhov, E B; Berezov, V P; Maskarov, A N; Gusev, E I

    2002-01-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic stroke and moderate or severe arterial hypertension the effectiveness of eprosartan mesilat (Teveten, Solway Farma, Germany) for a period of 6 months was studied. Patients received 600 mg of eprosartan mesilat daily and in 4 cases hydrochlortyaside was also added. Monotherapy with eprosartan mesilat was effective in all patients with moderate arterial hypertension and in 43.6% in patients with severe arterial hypertension. Therapy with eprosartan mesilat was associated with significant hypotensive effect (more evident in patients with high systolic blood pressure), improvement in 24-hour blood pressure profile and quality of life, and lower probability of secondary stroke. Side effects were not observed.

  11. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch;

    2001-01-01

    . By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...... included sham operations in 13, or no operations in 10 pigs. Follow-up was continued for three months. The interventions were compatible with survival in most pigs. The shunts resulted in an acute 85% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and a more than twofold increase in pulmonary blood flow...

  12. Blood transfusion requirement in surgery for femoral artery aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1997-01-01

    Audit of blood usage in various surgical specialities have shown that over-ordering of blood is widespread, causing unnecessary pressure on the transfusion facilities and giving growing concern over the expense of cross-matching blood. The aim of this study was to assess the blood transfusion...

  13. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  14. Mathematical arterialization of venous blood in emergency medicine patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Gitte Boier; Matzen, Helle; Grønkjær, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    .83; and Bland-Altman limits of agreement well within the limits of acceptable laboratory and clinical performance. The calculated values of arterial PO2 followed a set of predefined rules relating calculated and measured PO2 levels in all cases. The method represents an improvement on the use of venous blood......OBJECTIVES: Arterial punctures represent a painful and unpleasant experience. Acid-base and oxygenation status can be assessed from peripheral venous blood, but agreement with arterial values is not always clinically acceptable. This study evaluates a method for mathematically transforming...... alone where the correlation coefficients were as follows: group A, pH 0.85, PCO2 0.88; group B, pH 0.79, PCO2 0.59; and limits of agreement for PCO2 at the border of (group A) or beyond (group B) acceptable clinical limits. CONCLUSION: Application of the mathematical arterialization method may reduce...

  15. Physiological non-Newtonian blood flow through single stenosed artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Akhter, Most. Nasrin; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    A numerical simulation to investigate the Non-Newtonian modelling effects on physiological flows in a three dimensional idealized artery with a single stenosis of 85% severity. The wall vessel is considered to be rigid. Oscillatory physiological and parabolic velocity profile has been imposed for inlet boundary condition. Where the physiological waveform is performed using a Fourier series with sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 96 to 800. Low Reynolds number k - ω model is used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize two Non-Newtonian constitutive equations of blood, namely, (i) Carreau and (ii) Cross models. The Newtonian model has also been investigated to study the physics of fluid. The results of Newtonian model are compared with the Non-Newtonian models. The numerical results are presented in terms of pressure, wall shear stress distributions and the streamlines contours. At early systole pressure differences between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian models are observed at pre-stenotic, throat and immediately after throat regions. In the case of wall shear stress, some differences between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian models are observed when the flows are minimum such as at early systole or diastole.

  16. Considerações sobre a medida da pressão arterial em exercícios contra-resistência Considerations on blood pressure assessment during resistive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Doederlein Polito

    2003-02-01

    situações de prescrição de ECR.Cardiovascular demands during exercise are related to arterial blood pressure (BP. However, BP assessment during resistive exercises (RE can be biased by limitations of measurement techniques. The purpose of this paper was to review the methods of BP assessment during RE, and to suggest ways to minimize differences between indirect and direct methods. Intra-arterial catheterism (IC is considered the gold-standard for BP assessment. However, its application is unusual and not recommended for healthy individuals, due to enhanced risk of pain, arterial spasm and occlusion, syncope, or blending. The most common indirect methods are the photoplethysmographic (Finapres and auscultation (AU techniques. There are few studies comparing these methods during RE. Only one paper was found comparing IC to Finapres, and three comparing IC to AU. In conclusion, despite its precision, IC utilization to assess BP during RE in healthy subjects seems not to be feasible nor ethical. Finapres is considered the best indirect procedure, but it relies on an expensive device which is no longer available, since its production was discontinued. On the other hand, AU can lead to important underestimation of the actual BP values, depending on the exercise characteristics. Some recommendations can be adopted to reduce these differences, such as making the measurement the latest possible before the end of the exercise. The absolute differences between AU and the other methods notwithstanding, it seems that it is adequate to identify trends of BP profile associated to different RE situations.

  17. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  18. Indicadores antropométricos como preditores de pressão arterial elevada em adolescentes Indicadores antropométricos como predictores de presión arterial elevada en adolescentes Anthropometric indicators as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Cristina Beck

    2011-02-01

    discriminators of high blood pressure. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 660 adolescen

  19. Mathematical modelling of blood flow through a tapered overlapping stenosed artery with variable viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Shit, G C; Sinha, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of blood flow through a tapered and overlapping stenosed artery under the action of an externally applied magnetic field. The fluid (blood) medium is assumed to be porous in nature. The variable viscosity of blood depending on hematocrit (percentage volume of erythrocytes) is taken into account in order to improve resemblance to the real situation. The governing equation for laminar, incompressible and Newtonian fluid subject to the boundary conditions is solved by using a well known Frobenius method. The analytical expressions for velocity component, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and pressure gradient are obtained. The numerical values are extracted from these analytical expressions and are presented graphically. It is observed that the influence of hematocrit, magnetic field and the shape of artery have important impact on the velocity profile, pressure gradient and wall shear stress. Moreover, the effect of primary stenosis on the secondary one has been sig...

  20. Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow through a Tapered Overlapping Stenosed Artery with Variable Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of blood flow through a tapered and overlapping stenosed artery under the action of an externally applied magnetic field. The fluid (blood medium is assumed to be porous in nature. The variable viscosity of blood depending on hematocrit (percentage volume of erythrocytes is taken into account in order to improve resemblance to the real situation. The governing equation for laminar, incompressible and Newtonian fluid subject to the boundary conditions is solved by using a well known Frobenius method. The analytical expressions for velocity component, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and pressure gradient are obtained. The numerical values are extracted from these analytical expressions and are presented graphically. It is observed that the influence of hematocrit, magnetic field and the shape of artery have important impact on the velocity profile, pressure gradient and wall shear stress. Moreover, the effect of primary stenosis on the secondary one has been significantly observed.

  1. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  2. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater ... The study included more than 2,600 patients, aged 75 and older. They were randomly assigned to ...

  3. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...

  4. RELATIONS OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND BLOOD FLOW IN BRACHIAL ARTERY AND CORONARY ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙寅光; 沈卫峰; 施仲伟; 张大东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the relations between endothelium dependent vasodilator function and blood flow in the brachial and coronary arteries in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.MethodsTwenty eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent brachial artery endothelial function test by using high resolution B mode ultrasound before coronary angiography (CAG) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) test by using intracoronary Doppler technique. The correlation of coronary artery dilatation induced by an increase in blood flow after intracoronary adenosine infusion and brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) following reactive hyperemia was evaluated. The relation between the change of brachial artery blood flow and CFR was also studied.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between brachial FMD and percent change of coronary diameter after adenosine infusion (12.50%±9.35% vs 11.38%±7.55%, r=0.425,P=0.02). There was also a weak negative relation between brachial flow change following reactive hyperemia and CFR (r=0.397, P=0.04).ConclusionThere is a correlation between the coronary endothelial function and the CFR by ultrasonic determination of brachial flow changes following reactive hyperemia.

  5. Sodium hydrosulfide alleviates pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in rats with high pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang; Geng, Bin; Tang, Chaoshu

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, shunt group, sham + NaHS (an H2S donor) group, and shunt + NaHS group. After 11 weeks of shunting, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), relative median area (RMA) of pulmonary arteries, H2S concentration in lung tissues, plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, and ET-1 mRNA in lung tissues were investigated. Collagen I and collagen III were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Hydroxyproline assay and Sirius-red staining were performed. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After 11 weeks of shunting, rats showed a significant pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery collagen remodeling in association with a decrease in lung tissue H2S content. After NaHS treatment for 11 weeks, lung tissue H(2)S content was increased, whereas MPAP was attenuated and RMA was reduced. Meanwhile, pulmonary artery collagen I and collagen III protein expressions of intra-acinar pulmonary arteries were inhibited, but MMP-13/TIMP-1 ratio was augmented with a decreased plasma ET-1 content and lung tissue ET-1mRNA and CTGF expressions. The downregulation of H(2)S is involved in the development of pulmonary artery collagen remodeling induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

  6. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical the...

  7. 高血压缺血性脑卒中患者颅内动脉狭窄与血压变异性的相关性%The Correlation between Intracranial Hypertension Associated with Ischemic Stroke Patient’s Artery Stenosis and Blood Pressure Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂煌; 郑泽锋; 刘华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高血压缺血性脑卒中患者颅内动脉狭窄与血压变异性的相关性。方法:选取笔者所在医院收治的高血压合并缺血性脑卒中患者,采用CTA检查颅内动脉进行检查。根据检查结果将患者分为无狭窄的对照组和有狭窄的观察组。监测并比较两组患者的血压变异情况,主要指标有24 h收缩压和舒张压标准差、白天收缩压和舒张压标准差、夜间收缩压和舒张压标准差。结果:24 h收缩压标准差和白天舒张压标准差与颅内动脉狭窄呈正相关,而白天收缩压标准差与颅内动脉狭窄呈负相关,比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:血压变异性中24 h收缩压标准差、白天收缩压标准差和白天舒张压标准差是高血压脑卒中患者颅内动脉狭窄的关键因素。%Objective:To investigate the correlation between the hypertensive ischemic stroke patient’s with intracranial arterial stenosis and correlation blood pressure variability.Method:Hypertension and ischemic stroke patients were selected in our hospital,the intracranial arteries were checked by CTA. The patients were divided into the control group and the observation group according to test results. The indicators between the two groups were compared after treatment,such as 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressure standard deviation,daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure standard deviation,standard deviation nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure and so on.Result:24 h systolic blood pressure standard deviation and daytime diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated with intracranial arterial stenosis standard deviation,and daytime systolic blood pressure standard deviation was negatively correlated with intracranial arterial stenosis,and the differences were all statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:24 h systolic blood pressure variability in the standard deviation,standard deviation daytime

  8. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The s...

  9. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  10. A simple method of blood pressure measurement in the pig using a neonatal cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P K; Ng, T H; Heng, D; Mack, P O

    1999-01-01

    The pig is a commonly used large animal model in experimental studies. Few non-invasive techniques exist however for the measurement of blood pressure in the porcine model. This study evaluates the novel use of the easily available neonatal blood pressure cuff for measuring blood pressure in the pig. Six Yorkshire pigs were used for the study. Blood pressure measurements obtained by the application of neonatal blood pressure cuff (Hewlett Packard) around the base of the tail were compared with results obtained from intra-arterial measurements in the normotensive range as well as in experimentally created hypertensive (intravenous dopamine) and hypotensive (hypovolaemic shock) ranges. Results of the two techniques are closely correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95, 0.97, 0.90). Systematic bias was however detected at the extremes of hypertensive and hypotensive blood pressure. Analysis of the limits of agreement (method of Bland and Altman) showed that neonatal blood pressure cuff measurements fall within--2 to 2.5 mmHg of the readings obtained from the invasive technique (95% confidence interval). The neonatal blood pressure cuff technique is a good substitute for the standard invasive intra-arterial measurement of blood pressure in the pig model. PMID:10374020

  11. The effects of fenoldopam on coronary conduit blood flow after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, on left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and saphenous vein blood flow after coronary anastomosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: University teaching hospital, single institution. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one American Society of Anesthesiologists III patients undergoing elective coronary revascularization. INTERVENTIONS: A perivascular ultrasonic flow probe (Linton Instrumentation, Norfolk, UK) was placed around the LIMA and saphenous vein graft after coronary anastomosis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Immediately before and at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes after starting the infusion, blood flow was measured in the LIMA and one saphenous vein graft using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe. Heart rate, blood pressure, and central venous pressure were documented at these time points. Administration of fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not alter heart rate or blood pressure. A small, nonsignificant increase in LIMA blood flow occurred during the 15-minute study period (30 +\\/- 12 to 35 +\\/- 10 mL\\/min) in patients who received fenoldopam. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that fenoldopam, 0.1 microg\\/kg\\/min, did not influence coronary conduit blood flow to a clinically significant extent. The small increase in LIMA blood flow may be of greater importance in high-risk patients or in the prevention of coronary arterial spasm.

  12. Changes of Blood Flow Volume in the Superior Mesenteric Artery and Brachial Artery with Abdominal Thermal Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion is a local thermal therapy that is used for several conditions. Quantifying the effects of moxibustion therapy has been difficult because the treatment temperature depends on the physician's experience, and the temperature distribution in the target area is not uniform. This prospective observational study aims to quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation to the abdomen. We developed a heat transfer control device (HTCD for local thermal stimulation. Twenty-four healthy subjects were enrolled and they underwent abdominal thermal stimulation to the para-umbilical region with the device for 20 min. Blood flow volume in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and brachial artery (BA, the heart rate and the blood pressure were measured at rest, 15 min after starting thermal stimulation and 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after completing thermal stimulation. Blood flow parameters were measured by high-resolution ultrasound. In the SMA, blood flow volume was significantly increased during thermal stimulation (, as well as at 10 min ( and 20 min ( after stimulation. In the BA, blood flow volume decreased at 40 min after stimulation (. In conclusion we could quantify the effect of local thermal stimulation with an HTCD and high-resolution ultrasound. Thermal stimulation of the para-umbilical region increased blood flow in the SMA 20 min after stimulation in healthy subjects.

  13. Pulmonary artery pressure responses to increased cardiac output in chickens with raised metabolic rate

    OpenAIRE

    West, John B.; Fu, Zhenxing; Gu, Yusu; Wagner, Harrieth E.; Carr, J. Austin; Peterson, Kirk L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown remarkable differences in the pressure-flow relations of the pulmonary circulation between birds and mammals. For example several studies suggest that the avian pulmonary blood vessels behave like rigid tubes, very different from the situation in mammalian lung. We therefore speculated that birds would develop high pulmonary artery pressures when the cardiac output was substantially increased during heavy exercise, for example during flight. However because of the tech...

  14. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  15. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Aswira Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling. Classification of hypertension was based on Fourth Task Force Guidelines by measuring blood pressure, height, and weight. We used Student’s T-test to analyze numerical data. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between blood pressures of children and their parents. Results Of the 90 participants recruited, 24 boys and 17 girls had hypertensive parents. The mean systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP and arterial blood pressure (MABP were significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in children with normotensive parents [(SBP 116.7 (SD 7.07 vs. 87.1 (SD 13.57 mmHg; P=0.0001, (DBP 77.8 (SD 8.33 vs. 51.8 (SD 11.70 mmHg; P=0.0001, (MABP 90.7 (SD 7.41 vs. 63.6 (12.10 mmHg; P=0.0001]. There was a significant relationship between elevated SBP in boys and their fathers, as indicated by the correlation coefficient (r=0.806; P=0.0001. Conclusion The blood pressure is significantly higher in children with hypertensive parents than in those with normotensive parents. There is a correlation between SBP in boys and that of their fathers. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:202-5.].

  16. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  17. [An automatic non-invasive method for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, D; Suter, P

    1981-01-01

    A new automatic apparatus for the measurement of arterial pressure by a non-invasive technique was compared with direct intra-arterial measurement in 20 adult patients in a surgical intensive care unit. The apparatus works on the basis of the principle of oscillometry. Blood pressure is determined with a microprocessor by analysis of the amplitude of the oscillations produced by a cuff which is inflated then deflated automatically. Thus mean arterial pressure corresponds to the maximum amplitude. Systolic and diastolic pressures are deduced by extrapolation to zero of the amplitudes on either side of the maximum reading. Mean arterial pressure (AP) proved to be very reliable within the limits studied: 8.0 - 14.7 kPa (60 - 110 mmHg) with a difference in mean direct AP and indirect AP of 0,09 +/- 0.9 kPa SD (0.71 +/- 7 mmHg) and a coefficient of linear correlation between the two methods of r = 0.82. This non-invasive technique determined systolic arterial pressure (sAP) in a less reliable fashion than AP when compared with the invasive technique, with a tendency to flatten the extreme values. The correlation coefficient here was 0.68. Finally, diastolic arterial pressure (dAP) showed a better degree of agreement through with a difference in mean indirect AP and mean direct AP of 1.0 +/- 0.8 kPa (7.6 +/- 6.0 mmHg). These results indicate a good degree of agreement for measurements of mean arterial pressure, clinically the most important, between the two methods used. Measurements of diastolic pressure and above all of diastolic pressure seemed to be less in agreement. This difference could be due to an error in determination of the automatic apparatus tested or to the peripheral site (radial artery) of the intra-arterial catheter used, itself falsifying the humeral arterial pressure. PMID:6113805

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure using the Philips Intellivue MP50 monitor cannot replace invasive blood pressure techniques in surgery patients under general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xianghu; ZANG, GUANGHUI; FAN, LONGCHANG; Zheng, Lei; DAI, JINZHEN; WANG, XUEREN; Xia, Wei; Liu, Jihong; ZHANG, CHUANHAN

    2013-01-01

    The Philips Intellivue MP50 monitor provides a method for non-invasive, near-continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring and is designed to be an alternative to direct intra-arterial BP (IABP) measurement. However, no studies have specifically compared non-invasive and invasive BP measurements using the monitor. The present retrospective study observed 515 patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia, whose invasive (intra-radial, femoral or dorsalis pedis artery) and non-invasive (oscil...

  19. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Drawz, Paul E; ABDALLA, MOHAMED; Rahman, Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk...

  20. Blood pressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F S; DoNascimento, C; Reaven, G M; Yip, J W; Ni, X P; Humphreys, M H

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among various humoral factors thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure during high NaCl intake. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent sequential 5-day periods ingesting a low-sodium (25 mmol/d) or high-sodium (200 mmol/d) diet. Insulin resistance was assessed by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration at the end of a 3-hour insulin suppression test. Insulin resistance correlated inversely with natriuresis (P=0.04) and directly with increase in weight (P=0.03). The increase in mean arterial pressure associated with the high-sodium diet correlated directly with the gain in weight (P<0.05) and inversely with the increase in urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.0001). In a multiple regression model, more than 2/3 of the variance in mean arterial pressure was accounted for by the gain in weight and change in urinary nitrate excretion. The steady-state plasma glucose concentrations obtained with the 2 diets were similar, indicating that insulin resistance was unaffected by sodium intake. During high sodium intake, plasma renin activity and aldosterone decreased and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide increased; these changes did not correlate with the change in mean arterial pressure, insulin resistance, or change in urinary nitrate excretion. To the extent that urinary nitrate excretion reflects activity of the endogenous nitric oxide system, these results suggest that the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure may be related to blunted generation of endogenous nitric oxide. The results also demonstrate that insulin-resistant individuals have an impaired natriuretic response to high sodium intake. PMID:10205239

  1. Femoral artery pressure measurement to predict the outcome of arterial surgery in patients with multilevel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Tønnesen, K H; Agerskov, K;

    1982-01-01

    Direct measurement of the femoral artery pressure before operation has been used to predict the postoperative change in ankle and toe pressure in 102 limbs (83 patients) that underwent aortoiliac surgery for the treatment of atherosclerotic occlusion or stenosis affecting both the aortoiliac...... and femoral artery segments. Rest pain or gangrene was present in 74 limbs. In 26 other limbs simultaneous aortoiliac and femoral artery reconstructions were performed. The changes in both toe and ankle pressures could be confidently predicted from the preoperative data. A predicted toe pressure of lower than...... 25 mm Hg was associated with a high probability that amputation would be required. The chances of an amputation were less than 3% if a toe pressure higher than 40 mm Hg was predicted. If the predicted ankle pressure index was lower than 0.56, there was a 90% chance that intermittent claudication...

  2. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...

  3. Efeito de 16 semanas de treinamento com pesos sobre a pressão arterial em mulheres normotensas e não-treinadas Effect of 16-week weight training over blood pressure in normotensive and non-trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendes Gerage

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi analisar o impacto de 16 semanas de treinamento com pesos (TP sobre a pressão arterial (PA em mulheres normotensas. Para tanto, participaram do estudo 21 mulheres jovens (20,5 ± 2,1 anos, não-treinadas, que foram separadas, aleatoriamente, em grupo treinamento (GT = 13 e grupo controle (GC = 8. O protocolo de TP foi estruturado de forma progressiva, em duas etapas, com duração de oito semanas cada, sendo executado com freqüência semanal de três sessões. Medidas de PA foram realizadas em repouso por meio do método auscultatório nos diferentes momentos do estudo (linha de base, após oito e 16 semanas. O teste de Shapiro-Wilk foi utilizado para análise da normalidade dos dados. ANOVA two-way para medidas repetidas foi utilizada para as comparações entre os grupos ao longo do tempo, seguida pelo teste post-hoc de Scheffé quando P The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of a 16-week weight training (WT over blood pressure (BP in normotensive women. The sample consisted of 21 young women (20.5 ± 2.1 years, non-trained, who were randomly grouped in training group (TG = 13 and control group (CG = 8. The WT protocol was progressively structured, in two phases, with duration of eight weeks each, being performed with weekly frequency of three sessions. BP measurements were conducted at rest through the auscultatory method, in the different moments of the study (baseline, after eight and 16 weeks. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used for analysis of the data normality. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements was used for the comparisons between groups during the time, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test when P < 0.05. A group v. moment interaction was found in the systolic, diastolic and mean BP values, with significant decreases, during the 16 weeks of follow-up, in the order of 5, 8 and 6 mmHg, respectively, in the TG. The outcomes suggest that the 16 week-WT program may cause important reductions in BP

  4. Chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ping MA; Lei-ming REN; Ding ZHAO; Zhong-ning ZHU; Miao WANG; Hai-gang LU; Li-hua DUAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study chiral selective effects of doxazosin enantiomers on blood pressure and urinary bladder pressure in anesthetized rats. Methods: In anesthetized rats, the carotid blood pressure, left ventricular pressure of the heart and the urinary bladder pressure were recorded. Results: Administration of S-doxazosin at 0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 nmol/kg iv produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure, but its depressor effect was significantly weaker than that induced by R-doxazosin and racemic-doxazosin (rac-doxazosin), and the ED30 values (producing a 30% decrease in mean arterial pressure) of R-doxazosin, rac-doxazosin and S-doxazosin were 15.64,45.93, and 128.81, respectively. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers administered cumulatively in anesthetized rats induced a dose-dependent decrease in the left ventricular systolic pressure and ±dp/dtmax, and the potency order of the 3 agents was R-doxazosin >rac-doxazosin >S-doxazosin. Rac-doxazosin and its enantiomers decreased the vesical micturition pressure dose-dependently at 2.5,25, and 250 nmol/kg, and the inhibitory potency among the 3 agents was not significantly different. Conclusion: S-doxazosin decreases the carotid blood pressure and left ventricular pressure of the heart less than R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, but its effect on the vesical micturition pressure is similar to R-doxazosin and rac-doxazosin, indicating that S-doxazosin has chiral selectivity between cardiovascular system and urinary system in anesthetized rats.

  5. Lifelong Cyclic Mechanical Strain Promotes Large Elastic Artery Stiffening: Increased Pulse Pressure and Old Age-Related Organ Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Thorin, Eric

    2016-05-01

    The arterial wall is under a huge mechanical constraint imposed by the cardiac cycle that is bound to generate damage with time. Each heartbeat indeed imposes a pulsatile pressure that generates a vascular stretch. Lifetime accumulation of pulsatile stretches will eventually induce fatigue of the elastic large arterial walls, such as aortic and carotid artery walls, promoting their stiffening that will gradually perturb the normal blood flow and local pressure within the organs, and lead to organ failure. The augmented pulse pressure induced by arterial stiffening favours left ventricular hypertrophy because of the repeated extra work against stiff high-pressure arteries, and tissue damage as a result of excessive pulsatile pressure transmitted into the microcirculation, especially in low resistance/high-flow organs such as the brain and kidneys. Vascular aging is therefore characterized by the stiffening of large elastic arteries leading to a gradual increase in pulse pressure with age. In this review we focus on the effect of age-related stiffening of large elastic arteries. We report the clinical evidence linking arterial stiffness and organ failure and discuss the molecular pathways that are activated by the increase of mechanical stress in the wall. We also discuss the possible interventions that could limit arterial stiffening with age, such as regular aerobic exercise training, and some pharmacological approaches. PMID:26961664

  6. Controle inadequado da pressão arterial em pacientes com diabete melito tipo 2 Control inadecuado de la presión arterial en pacientes con diabetes melito tipo 2 Inadequate blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana C. Pinto

    2010-05-01

    10,1 años (el 46% hombre, 80% blanco y la duración del DM, 14,8 ± 9,5 años. Del total de pacientes, el 17% expresaba valores ideales de PA, el 22% regular y el 61% inadecuados. Los pacientes con control inadecuado de la PA expresaban mayor duración del DM, cintura abdominal y glucemia de ayuno. Las demás variables se asemejaron en los tres grupos. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayoría de los pacientes evaluados presentó control inadecuado de la PA. Valores más elevados de PA están asociados a un perfil clínico adverso, representado por mayor duración del DM, obesidad abdominal, mayor glucemia de ayuno y complicaciones crónicas del DM.BACKGROUND: There is evidence indicating that blood pressure control is more effective in reducing macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM than glycemic control. However, the reduction in BP to levels recommended by international guidelines is difficult in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess the percentage of patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension (HBP assisted in a tertiary hospital with adequate blood pressure control and to determine the clinical and laboratory factors related. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 348 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension assisted in the outpatient clinic of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients underwent history assessment, physical examination, with measurement of blood pressure (BP, and samples were collected from blood and urine for laboratory analysis. Patients were divided into 3 three groups: optimal (< 130/80 mmHg, regular (130-139/80-89 mmHg or inadequate blood pressure control (≥ 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: The mean age was 61.2 ± 10.1 years (46% men, 80% white and DM duration, 14.8 ± 9.5 years. Eighteen per cent of the patients studied, 17% of patients had optimal BP value, 22% regular BP value and 61% inadequate BP value. Patients with inadequate BP control had longer diabetes duration, waist circumference and fasting glucose. The

  7. Persistent effects after trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation by mandibular extension on rat blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, D; Colantuoni, A; Del Seppia, C; Ghione, S; Tonlorenzi, D; Brunelli, M; Scuri, R

    2013-03-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex known to lead to a decrement in heart rate and blood pressure, whereas few data have been collected about its effects on the cerebral hemodynamic. In this study we assess the in vivo effects of trigeminal nerve peripheral stimulation by mandibular extension on pial microcirculation and systemic arterial blood pressure in rats. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats subjected to mandibular extension obtained inserting an ad hoc developed retractor between the dental arches. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and the pial arterioles were visualized by fluorescence microscopy to measure the vessel diameters before (15 minutes) during (5-15 minutes) and after (80 minutes) mandibular extension. While in control rats (sham-operated rats) and in rats subjected to the dissection of the trigeminal peripheral branches mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation did not change during the whole observation period (110 minutes), in rats submitted to mandibular extension, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and arteriolar diameter significantly decreased during stimulation. Afterward mean arterial blood pressure remained reduced as well as heart rate, while arteriolar diameter significantly increased evidencing a vasodilatation persisting for the whole remaining observation time. Therefore, trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation appears to trigger specific mechanisms regulating systemic arterial blood pressure and pial microcirculation. PMID:23807620

  8. Persistent effects after trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation by mandibular extension on rat blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, D; Colantuoni, A; Del Seppia, C; Ghione, S; Tonlorenzi, D; Brunelli, M; Scuri, R

    2013-03-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex known to lead to a decrement in heart rate and blood pressure, whereas few data have been collected about its effects on the cerebral hemodynamic. In this study we assess the in vivo effects of trigeminal nerve peripheral stimulation by mandibular extension on pial microcirculation and systemic arterial blood pressure in rats. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats subjected to mandibular extension obtained inserting an ad hoc developed retractor between the dental arches. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and the pial arterioles were visualized by fluorescence microscopy to measure the vessel diameters before (15 minutes) during (5-15 minutes) and after (80 minutes) mandibular extension. While in control rats (sham-operated rats) and in rats subjected to the dissection of the trigeminal peripheral branches mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation did not change during the whole observation period (110 minutes), in rats submitted to mandibular extension, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and arteriolar diameter significantly decreased during stimulation. Afterward mean arterial blood pressure remained reduced as well as heart rate, while arteriolar diameter significantly increased evidencing a vasodilatation persisting for the whole remaining observation time. Therefore, trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation appears to trigger specific mechanisms regulating systemic arterial blood pressure and pial microcirculation.

  9. Patient-specific coronary artery blood flow simulation using myocardial volume partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kang, Dongwoo; Kang, Nahyup; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyong-Euk; Kim, James D. K.

    2013-03-01

    Using computational simulation, we can analyze cardiovascular disease in non-invasive and quantitative manners. More specifically, computational modeling and simulation technology has enabled us to analyze functional aspect such as blood flow, as well as anatomical aspect such as stenosis, from medical images without invasive measurements. Note that the simplest ways to perform blood flow simulation is to apply patient-specific coronary anatomy with other average-valued properties; in this case, however, such conditions cannot fully reflect accurate physiological properties of patients. To resolve this limitation, we present a new patient-specific coronary blood flow simulation method by myocardial volume partitioning considering artery/myocardium structural correspondence. We focus on that blood supply is closely related to the mass of each myocardial segment corresponding to the artery. Therefore, we applied this concept for setting-up simulation conditions in the way to consider many patient-specific features as possible from medical image: First, we segmented coronary arteries and myocardium separately from cardiac CT; then the myocardium is partitioned into multiple regions based on coronary vasculature. The myocardial mass and required blood mass for each artery are estimated by converting myocardial volume fraction. Finally, the required blood mass is used as boundary conditions for each artery outlet, with given average aortic blood flow rate and pressure. To show effectiveness of the proposed method, fractional flow reserve (FFR) by simulation using CT image has been compared with invasive FFR measurement of real patient data, and as a result, 77% of accuracy has been obtained.

  10. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelido, G [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Angiletta, S [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Pujalte, A [Electronic department, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional FRBA, Bs. As. (Argentina); Quiroga, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Cornes, P [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina); Craiem, D [Electronic department, Universidad Favaloro FICEN, Bs. As. (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements.

  11. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements

  12. 依托咪酯和咪唑安定对不停跳冠状动脉旁路搭桥手术气管插管期间心率和血压影响的比较%Comparison of etomidate and midazolam on heart rate and blood pressure during tracheal intubation in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余奇劲; 杨洁; 陈娟; 尹述洲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of etomidate and midazolam on heart rate and blood pressure during tracheal intubation in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Sixty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass shunt were randomly and double-blindly divided into etomidate group ( Group E, n = 30) and midazolam group ( Croup M, n = 30 ) based on the anesthetic used for induction. Electrocardiogram, systolic blood pressure (SBP) , diastolic blood pressure ( DBP) , heart rate ( HR) and pulse oximetry saturation ( SpO-2 ) were measured and recorded continuously, as well as the value of rate-pressure product ( RPP). The time used for tracheal intubation was also recorded. Results In Group M,compared with pre-tracheal intubation,the SBP and DBP of all patients decreased remarkably at the beginning of tracheal intubation ( P < 0.05 ). At 1 minute post-trachealintubation,the SBP,DBP and HR increased remarkably (P <0.01) ; meanwhile, the values of RPP were increased significantly than those at the beginning of tracheal intubation and pre-tracheal intubation (P<0.01). Compared with the values in Croup E,at the beginning of tracheal intubation,the values of SBP and DBP in Group M were significantly decreased ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01,respectively) , while the values of SBP,DBP and RPP at 1 minute after tracheal intubation were significantly increased ( P < 0. 05 and P <0. 01,respectively). Conclusions Compared with midazolam, etomidate used in anesthetic induction for coronary artery bypass graft surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass shunt may more effectively alleviate the cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation.

  13. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  14. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J;

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR......), and Sprague-Dawley rats with two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension (2K,1C). Time series analysis was by fast Fourier transform. Power spectra were divided into ultradian (frequencies > 1/day), circadian (frequency = 1/day), and infradian (frequencies

  15. Continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring. A clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, G; Tosoni, A; Mariani, M A; Venturino, M

    1994-01-01

    Miniaturized sensors, based upon the principles of optical fluorescence, can measure in vivo the pH, pCO2 value and pO2 value of blood. In this report we studied continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring in 27 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (no. 16 coronary artery by-pass grafting, no. 2 valvular surgery) and major vascular surgery (no. 9 abdominal aortic aneurysms). Total duration of continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring was 677 hours, with a ratio of 25.0 +/- 14.8 hours/patient (range 4-96 hours). The in vitro values of pH, pCO2 and pO2 were compared to simultaneous records from the fiberoptic sensor for each of the 283 arterial blood gas samples obtained, by means of linear regression and Bland-Altman method, in order to test the correlation and the agreement between the two methods of measuring. For pH average bias was -0.023 and intersensor precision was 0.028, with a strong correlation (R = 0.92; p sensor precision was 2.65, with a slight decrease in correlation (R = 0.89; p < 0.001) and agreement. For pO2 average bias was -2.69 and the intersensor precision was 12.16, with a strong correlation (R = 0.97; p < 0.001) and agreement. In addition, we tested the reliability of the system for values of pO2 above 100 mmHg and we found a strong correlation (R = 0.96; p20.001) and agreement even for these clinical conditions, largely out of physiologic parameters. This study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of continuous intra-arterial three-component PB 3300 (Puritan Bennett) blood gas monitoring. PMID:7800182

  16. Pressão arterial: efeito do índice de massa corporal e da circunferência abdominal em adolescentes Blood pressure: effect of body mass index and of waist circumference on adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Britto Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC e da circunferência abdominal (CA tem sido associado a elevação da pressão arterial. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do IMC e da CA sobre a pressão arterial (PA de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico de corte transversal. Selecionados 536 adolescentes, alunos de escolas públicas e privadas. Foram calculados IMC, classificado como normal alto (>p50 p85 p95. Mediu-se a CA, aumentada se>p75 e a PA, elevada se >p90. RESULTADOS: Trezentos e dezenove (59,5% indivíduos eram meninas, idade de 14,0± 1,99 anos, peso normal alto em 39,6%, sobrepeso em 37,1% e obesidade em 23,3%. O percentual de PAS e PAD elevadas acompanhou a elevação do IMC (p=0,000, alcançando 46,4% nos meninos e 39,3% nas meninas obesas (PAS e 42,0% e 44,6% (PAD, respectivamente. PAS e PAD elevadas foram 3,9 a 3,4 vezes mais freqüente nos meninos, e 2,2 a 2,0 vezes mais nas meninas com CA > p75, respectivamente. Pela análise de regressão linear simples cada aumento no IMC aumentaria a PAS em 1,198 mmHg e da CA em 0,622 mmHg. A razão de prevalência (RP de PAS e PAD elevadas em razão do IMC>p85 foi 3,9(I.C. 95% 2,0-7,4[p=0,000] e 4,3(I.C. 95% 2,2-8,5[p=0,000], respectivamente, e em razão da CA>p75 de 1,8(IC 95% 1,0 a 3,0 [p=0,036] e 1,4(IC 95% 0,8 a 2,4. Encontrou-se em 16/181(8,8% dos adolescentes com peso normal alto, PA>P90 com CA>p75. CONCLUSÃO: Os valores do IMC e da CA têm forte influência sobre os valores da PA de adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC have been associated with blood pressure elevation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of BMI and WC on blood pressure (BP of adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study including 536 adolescents from public and private schools. BMI was calculated and classified as high-normal (> 50th p and 85th p and 95th p. WC was measured and considered increased if > 75th p. BP was considered elevated if > 90th p

  17. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... which may contribute to exercise hypotensi