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Sample records for artemisia nilagirica leaf

  1. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria

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    Hopper Waheeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The six organic solvent extracts of Artemisia nilagirica were screened for the potential antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens and clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of A. nilagirica extracts against 15 bacterial strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the plant extracts were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 32 to 512 μg/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts was carried out for major phytochemical derivatives in A. nilagirica. Results All the extracts showed inhibitory activity for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria except for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The hexane extract was found to be effective against all phytopathogens with low MIC of 32 μg/ml and the methanol extract exhibited a higher inhibition activity against Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32 μg/ml, Bacillus subtilis (64 μg/ml and Shigella flaxneri (128 μg/ml. The phytochemical screening of extracts answered for the major derivative of alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, phenol, quinines, tannins and terpenoids. Conclusion All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Of all, methanol and hexane extracts showed high inhibition against clinical and phytopathogens, respectively. The results also indicate the presence of major phytochemical derivatives in the A. nilagirica extracts. Hence, the isolation and purification of therapeutic potential compounds from A. nilagirica could be used as an effective source against bacterial diseases in human and plants.

  2. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  3. In vitro Antioxidant Studies of Fruits of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp.

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    V. Suseela; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.; Varghese, Sumam

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of fruits of Artemisia nilagirica was studied using different in vitro models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. nilagirica fruits at 500 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (89.33% and 89.14%) in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical. The ethanol extract showed better scavenging activity (69.7...

  4. In vitro Antioxidant Studies of Fruits of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp.

    OpenAIRE

    Suseela V; Gopalakrishnan V; Varghese Sumam

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of fruits of Artemisia nilagirica was studied using different in vitro models like 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. nilagirica fruits at 500 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (89.33% and 89.14%) in quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical. The ethanol extract showed better scaven...

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisia nilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Walia, Suresh; Sati, O P

    2013-01-01

    Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Forty-three constituents amounting to 98.16% of the total essential oil contents were identified. The essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. α-Thujone (36.35%), β-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), β-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED(50), 85.75 mg L(-1)), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED(50), 87.63 mg L(-1)) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED(50), 93.23 mg L(-1)). This study indicated that A. nilagirica essential oil can be used to control phytopathogenic fungi infesting agricultural crops and commodities. PMID:22348279

  6. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Sripriya N; Bhagya R; Radhika B; Prameela L; Udayaprakash NK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Results of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica andMimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Conclusions: This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN CALLUS CULTURES AND IN VITRO REGENERATED PLANTS OF ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA (CLARKE PAMP.- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES

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    A. K. BALIARSINGH 1* , L. SAMANTA 2 AND S. S. MOHANTY 3

    2015-01-01

    dichlorophenoxyacetic  acid  (2,4-D  with  1.0  mg/L  Kinetin  (Kin  yielded maximum  callogenic  response.  Shoot  organogenesis  in  callus  cultures  was most favoured in MS containing 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In vitro regenerated plantlets, emerged from culture medium, were acclimatized and the survival rate of ex vitro plants after soil transplantation  was 80-83% with  no apparent  phenotypic variations. The antioxidant  potential  of  natural  (in  vivo  plants,  callus  tissues  and  in  vitro regenerated plants before and after field transplantation (ex vitro plants were compared. DPPH scavenging activity was the highest in aqueous extracts of 10 week-old ex vitro plants than  other  sources.  Superoxide  anion  and  nitric  oxide  radical  scavenging  activity  was  the  highest  in ethanolic  extracts  of  10 week-old  ex  vitro  plants  where  as  the  hydroxyl  radical  was  the  maximum  in  6 week-old in vivo plants. Lipid peroxidation was neither observed in calli nor in regenerated plants of A. nilagirica.

  8. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

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    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  9. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model

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    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Methods: A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. Results: The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤0.01 inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusion: The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  10. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of sevenArtemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Mohabatkar; Mandana Behbahani; Mohammad Reza Rahimi Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of sevenArtemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity andHIV-1 replication. Methods:The studiedArtemisia species wereArtemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi andArtemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts onHIV-1 replication andCD4 expression was performed byHIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increasedPBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency ofCD4 expression inPBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect onHIV-1 replication. Conclusions:In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts ofArtemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

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    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  12. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use.

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    Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J

    2014-12-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  13. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

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    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  14. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  15. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    OpenAIRE

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared e...

  16. Strong larvicidal potential of Artemisia annua leaf extract against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti L.) vectors and bioassay-driven isolation of the marker compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kapoor, Himanshi; Chopra, Madhu; Kumar, Kaushal; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue are the two most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Of the various strategies adopted for eliminating these diseases, controlling of vectors through herbs has been reckoned as one of the important measures for preventing their resurgence. Artemisia annua leaf chloroform extract when tried against larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti has shown a strong larvicidal activity against both of these vectors, their respective LC50 and LC90 values being 0.84 and 4.91 ppm for A. stephensi and 0.67 and 5.84 ppm for A. aegypti. The crude extract when separated through column chromatography using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate gradient (0-100%) yielded 76 fractions which were pooled into three different active fractions A, B and C on the basis of same or nearly similar R f values. The aforesaid pooled fractions when assayed against the larvae of A. stephensi too reported a strong larvicidal activity. The respective marker compound purified from the individual fractions A, B and C, were Artemisinin, Arteannuin B and Artemisinic acid, as confirmed and characterized through FT-IR and NMR. This is our first report of strong mortality of A. annua leaf chloroform extract against vectors of two deadly diseases. This technology can be scaled up for commercial exploitation. PMID:24158647

  17. Chemical Components of Helicia nilagirica Beed. I. Structure of Three New Flavonol Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Helicia nilagirica Beed.. The structures were elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glyco- pyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glycopy- ranosyl-(1→2)-[-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and quercetin-3-O-β-D- xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glycopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, named as Helicianeoside A、B and C, respectively.

  18. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

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    Rui Tang; Jin-Lu Sun; Jia Yin; Zhi Li

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia a...

  19. Infraspecific variability in the flavonoid composition of Artemisia vulgaris L.

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    Nikolova, M.

    2006-01-01

    Surface flavonoid profiles in forty populations of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae) were analyzed. The major constituents observed in the leaf exudates were methylated flavonoid aglycones based mainly on quercetin. Three infraspecific flavonoid chemotypes were determined, the chrysosplenetin (quercetagetin 3,6,7,3’-tetramethyl ether) chemotype, the artemetin (quercetagetin 3,6,7,3’,4’-pentamethyl ether) chemotype and chemotype without these two compounds. Most of the populations correspo...

  20. Heteroduplex mapping in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chinese herb, Artemisia annua (huang hua hao), is currently the sole source of the leading anti-malarial drug, artemisinin (qinghaosu). In the face of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs such as chloroquine, 69 countries have adopted the WHO recommendation to use artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) instead. However, there are considerable price barriers to widespread use as artemisinin yields from Artemisia plants are low, making artemisinin expensive to produce. Also, the rapid adoption of ACTs has created shortages, keeping the prices at high and sometimes volatile levels despite increased agricultural production. The aim of our project is to produce new, non-GM, varieties of Artemisia with increased artemisinin yields. These new varieties should help to secure a stable supply of artemisinin and reduce its cost of production, making treatment with ACTs cheaper and more accessible to malaria victims in developing countries. Artemisinin synthesis and storage occurs in specialised groups of cells, known as glandular trichomes, which are found on the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant. Artemisinin yields are typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight, whilst other species produce similar compounds in similar trichomes at 13% dry weight, so there is considerable scope for improvement. A seed treatment with chemical mutagens, widely used in plant breeding has been applied to an existing Artemisia cultivar (Artemis) in order to boost its genetic diversity. Around 10,000 M2 plants from this treatment are currently being screened using heteroduplex mapping technique on a set of target genes with the potential to impact on artemisinin yields. Mutations which might impact on the function of the selected gene targets have been identified. Selected mutants will be fed into a fast track breeding program to bring the mutations to homozygosity in the most appropriate genetic background. This route should result in at least a doubling of artemisinin content

  1. Artemisia Gentileschi and her world.

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    Mohacsy, Ildiko

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most notable artists of 17th century Italy: Artemisia Gentileschi. Gentileschi holds a unique place in art history, both as a woman artist and as the first female member of the Academy of Design in Florence. Brought up to be an artist by her father--the painter Orazio Gentileschi--she was allowed to work in his studio, use models, receive instruction and collaborate with well-known artists. Artemisia Gentileschi became a follower of the school of Caravaggio--the school's only Caravaggista. She began public life in a notorious way; her father had his colleague Tassi--her painting instructor--charged with raping her. The relationship between historical and art historical events in Gentileschi's lifetime and creative processes are explored. Special attention is given to those vicissitudes of Gentileschi's personal life that may be reflected through her work. Popular psychoanalytic conceptualizations about Gentileschi are discussed, as are mythological and biblical themes in her art. PMID:15132196

  2. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

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    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  3. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

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    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  4. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Doh, Eui Jeong; Paek, Seung-Ho; Lee, Guemsan; Lee, Mi-Young; Oh, Seung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ...

  5. Methylated Flavonoids From Artemisia Monosperma

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Ismail; Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Rizk, A. M.; Hassan, N. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of the flavonoid constituents of Artemisia monosperma resulted in the isolation and identification of four methylated flavonoids: quercetin 3,3',4'-trimethylether, diosmetin (luteolin 4'-methylether), 2',3,5'-trimethoxy-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone and 2',5'-dimethoxy-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone. أسفرت دراسة الفلافونيدات لنبات العادر عن فصل وتعريف أربعة مركبات هي : كيرستين 3،13،14 - تراي ميثيل إثير ، دايزموتين ( ليتيولين 14 - ميثيل أثير ) ، 12،3،15 - تراي ميثوكس - 14 ،5 ،7 - ترا...

  6. Phenological Variations in the Surface Flavonoids of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Milena; VELICKOVIC, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the surface flavonoids in relation to phenological development of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia absinthium L. were examined. Plant material was harvested at different phenological stages (vegetative, before budding, floral budding, flowering, and fruiting) of the life cycle of the species. In A. vulgaris and A. absinthium acetone exudates, 6 and 4 flavonoid aglycones were identified, respectively, by TLC analysis. Quercetin 3,7,3'-trimethy...

  7. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone

    OpenAIRE

    S Z Haider0; H C Andola; Mohan, M

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.3...

  8. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7]. PMID:17396957

  9. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Murat KURSAT; Irfan EMRE; Okkeş YILMAZ; Semsettin CIVELEK; Ersin DEMIR; Ismail TURKOGLU

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia) were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids ...

  10. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-01-01

    The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/m...

  11. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of artemisia ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Z Haider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34% followed by α-thujone (9.91% and 1,8-cineole (6.57%, Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%, whereas ar-curcumene (8.54% was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%. Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes.

  12. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Z; Andola, H C; Mohan, M

    2012-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34%) followed by α-thujone (9.91%) and 1,8-cineole (6.57%), Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%), whereas ar-curcumene (8.54%) was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%). Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes. PMID:23439844

  13. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Obistioiu, Diana; Romeo T. Cristina; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect aga...

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisia absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Başaran DÜLGER; CEYLAN, Murat; ALITSAOUS, Moustafa

    1999-01-01

    In this study, extracts of Artemisia absinthium L. were prepared with ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and ethanol and antimicrobial activities of these extracts were examined on test microorgansims as follows: Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherihia coli ATCC 11230, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048, Corynebacterium xerosis CCM 2824, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Serratia marcescens NRRL 3284, Bacillus cereus A...

  15. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asterraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, J.; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Hidalgo, O.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Vallès, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris) y Absinthium (A. absinthium). Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3 y con 4',6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI), así como hibridación in situ fluorescente (FISH) del ADN ribosómico 5S y 18S-5.8S-26S. Se han calculado los datos morfomé...

  16. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  17. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  18. Relationship between morphological traits and secondary metabolites in Artemisia annua L. by using correlation and path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Paul, A A Naqvi, Madan M Gupta, Suman P S Khanuja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis were performed for fifteen morphological and chemical (monoterpenes and sequeterpenes traits in Artemisia annua. Significant positive relationship and direct effect was observed of artemisinin yield with plant height, branching pattern (number of primary, secondary and tertiary branches, petiole length, ketone and 1, 8 cineol while negative association was observed with artemisinic acid, α-pinene and camphor. Oil content was negatively associated with leaf characters namely lamina length, lamina width and petiole length. Oil has negative effect on artemisinin content. The information can be used as a useful reference for elucidating relationship of Artemisinin (sesquiterpene, essential oil (monoterpene with m

  19. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  20. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  1. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities

  2. Comparison Antitussive Activity Echinacea and Artemisia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esmailirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to some pharmacological effects of Echinacea and Artemisia, the aim of present study was comparison their potential antitussive effect. Four groups of mice were used and received normal saline, dextromethorphan, Echinacea extract and Artemisia extract respectively before cough induction. Cough was induced in a 1000 mL special glass chamber with ammonium hydroxide (1 mL of 5% solution cotton ball. The numbers of cough were counted when mouse was kept for 2 min into the chamber and 5 min out of it. The mean of cough was significantly decreased by dextromethorphan, Echinacea extract and Artemisia extract. But there was no difference between effects of these agents statistically.

  3. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  4. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  5. Antiulcer effect of artemisia absinthium L. in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracts of Artemisia absinthium induced a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, acid output and peptic activity but no effect was determined on mucin activity in acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) ulcerated rats. Moreover, they decreased the ulcer index significantly. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of saponins and glycosidic sugars in the extract. (author)

  6. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  7. Creating of a plant compositions considering the Allelopathic activity of the Artemisia absinthium

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kornilova

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with Allelopathic impact of Artemisia absinthium L. on the growth and development of other kinds of medicinal plants. The effect of water extract of Artemisia absinthium L. on ge-rmination of seeds of medicinal plants has been studied. It has been determined, that extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. are characterized by significant Allelopathic activity and this kind can be sown from seed Calendula officinalis L., Lophanthus anisatus Benht., Hyssopus officinalis L, Salvia s...

  8. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide), in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide) extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was meas...

  9. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Mongolia medicine Artemisia frigida and phylogenetic relationships with other plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome

  10. New Sesquiterpene and Polymethoxy-Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yang; Wang, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the polymethoxy-flavonoids, as main components of Artemisia annua, could improve the antimalarial activity of Artemisinin. Here, we described the isolation, elucidation, constituent analysis, flavonoids enrichment of the extracts of A. annua. A total of 20 compounds were isolated including a new sesquiterpene (compound 12) and five (1, 5, 6, 7, 15) afforded for the first time from A. annua. The elucidation of eight flavonoids may be a useful phytochemical data...

  11. Phenolic Derivatives of Artemisia Spicigera C. Koch Growing in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati Afshar, Fariba; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh; Bamdad Moghaddam, Seddigheh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine phenolic compounds of Artemisia spicigera (family Asteraceae) growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran. 20%, 40 % and 60% SPE fractions of methanolic extract of A. spicigera, were subjected to reversed phase preparative HPLC, with the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water. Structural identification of phytochemicals by spectroscopic methods including UV and NMR spectroscopy, yielded 4, 6-di methoxy acetophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from 20%, 5-methox...

  12. Immunomodulation potential of Artemisia capillaris extract in rat splenocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-ji Lee; Tamanna Zerin; Young-hee kim; byung-eui lee; Ho-yeon Song

    2013-01-01

    The extract of Artemisia capillaris has been used as a traditional medicine for hepatitis or bilious disorder, and some recent studies have revealed its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effects of A. capillaris methanol extract on quiescent- and concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated rat splenocytes. Proliferation of splenocytes was enhanced in response...

  13. Efficacy of Artemisia afra phytotherapy in experimental tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ntutela, Siyabulela; Smith, Pete; Matika, Lungile; Mukinda, James; Arendse, Hiram; Allie, Nasiema; Estes, D. Mark; Mabusela, Wilfred; Folb, Peter; Steyn, Lafras; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William R.; Syce, James; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2009-01-01

    Artemisia afra [Jacq] (Asteraceae) phytotherapy is widely used for its medicinal properties in traditional practices. In this study we investigated whether extracts of A. afra are capable of controlling mycobacterial replication. For Mycobacterium aurum cultured in the presence of aqueous-, methanol- and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of A. afra we found that bacterial replication was inhibited by the dichloromethane extract only. Activity of the DCM extract was confirmed in dose-dependent st...

  14. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  15. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA KUMARIN DARI TANAMAN ARTEMISIA ANNUA (L.

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    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention of new entity from plant was the basic step for chemistry and another sciences development, such as: pharmacy, biology, and medical. Besides that, it is needed to fulfill people needs on food, medicine, cosmetics, etc. Coumarine is fenilpropanoid that has biological activity to stimulate skin pigmentation, influence enzyme activity, anti coagulant, anti microbial and inhibition of carcinogenic effect. One of the plants that contain coumarine is Artemisia annuaL, because ofthat we interested in isolating coumarine and it's derivate in Artemisia annua L with expectation that study resulted in discovering anti cancer agent. The method that we use is extraction and soxhletation using methanol and fractionation using dichloromethane. The separation was done by column Chromatography with silica gel and eluent n-hexane:etil acetate. Purification was done by recrystalization. Isolate is identified using KLT, GC-MS. Spectrophotometer UV, IR and NMR. This study shows that isolate was coumarine named 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy or Scopoletin with molecular weight 192   Keywords: Coumarine, Artemisia annuaL, TLC, FTIR, GC-MS, NMR

  16. Evaluation of artemisia mutant lines conducted from gamma irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cases of Malaria diseases attack in Indonesia has been increasing. Plasmodium falciparum the cause of malaria disease is now resistant to the usual medicine. One of malaria medicine which recommended by WHO is artemisinine compound extracted from Artemisia annua L plant. Low artemisinine content is one problem of Artemisia development in Indonesia. Increasing genetic variation using gamma irradiation is one alternative method to improve artemisinin content. In 2007, induce mutation had been done to artemisia seeds using gamma irradiation at dosage of 10-100 Gy. The good rooting planlet was regenerated and acclimatized in the green house, and then the seedling (M0 generation) was planted in the field at 1545 m asl. Plants derived from seeds without gamma irradiation treatment and cultured in vitro (in vitro control) were used as control. The result showed there were some morphological variations between the mutant lines (plant height, shape of the leaves and time of flowering). Ten mutant lines were selected based on biomass yield and analyzed for the artemisinine content.The result showed that artemisinine content of the mutant lines ranged from 0.44 - 1.41%, and it was significantly higher than that of in vitro control (0.43%). (author)

  17. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract

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    Elisabeta Baiceanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia abrotanum L. (“southernwood” belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  18. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  19. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

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    Taofik O. Sunmonu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

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    Ahameethunisa Abdul R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs.

  1. Seasonal variation of responses to herbivory and volatile communication in sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Satomi; Shiojiri, Kaori; Karban, Richard; Ohara, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Plants can respond to insect herbivory in various ways to avoid reductions in fitness. However, the effect of herbivory on plant performance can vary depending on the seasonal timing of herbivory. We investigated the effects of the seasonal timing of herbivory on the performance of sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). Sagebrush is known to induce systemic resistance by receiving volatiles emitted from clipped leaves of the same or neighboring plants, which is called volatile communication. Resistance to leaf herbivory is known to be induced most effectively after volatile communication in spring. We experimentally clipped 25 % of leaves of sagebrush in May when leaves were expanding, or in July when inflorescences were forming. We measured the growth and flower production of clipped plants and neighboring plants which were exposed to volatiles emitted from clipped plants. The treatment conducted in spring reduced the growth of clipped plants. This suggests that early season leaf herbivory is detrimental because it reduces the opportunities for resource acquisition after herbivory, resulting in strong induction of resistance in leaves. On the other hand, the late season treatment increased flower production in plants exposed to volatiles, which was caused mainly by the increase in the number of inflorescences. Because the late season treatment occurred when sagebrush produces inflorescences, sagebrush may respond to late herbivory by increasing compensation ability and/or resistance in inflorescences rather than in leaves. Our results suggest that sagebrush can change responses to herbivory and subsequent volatile communication seasonally and that the seasonal variation in responses may reduce the cost of induced resistance. PMID:27056097

  2. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata

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    Cronn Richard C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15. A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vallès, J.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Hidalgo, O.; Garnatje, T.; Garcia, S.; Pellicer, J.

    2008-01-01

    A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris) and Absinthium ( A. absinthium). Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (...

  4. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  5. Fungicidal activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahmoud A; Belal, Mohamed H; el-Baroty, Gamal

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds was estimated to be 5 microg/ml, 2 microg/ml against Penicillium citrinum and 7 microg/ml, 1.5 microg/ml against Mucora rouxii carvone and piperitone, respectively. PMID:16484084

  6. Essential Oil Composition and Antigermination Activity of Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; Flamini, Guido; Ricci, Donata

    2015-08-01

    The chemical composition of an Italian oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) was analyzed by GC/EIMS. The major compound of the oil was estragole (73.3%), followed by limonene (5.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (5.3%), β-pinene (3.4%) and (Z)-β-ocimene (3.0%). The essential oil was tested "in vitro" for its antigermination activity against Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L, Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena fatua L. seeds and demonstrating a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. PMID:26434144

  7. Cultivo, cosecha y procesamiento poscosecha de Artemisia annua L. Growing, harvest and postharvest processing of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lérida Acosta de la Luz; Ricardo Castro Armas

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: se presentó una revisión bibliográfica sobre Artemisia annua L., hierba utilizada tradicionalmente contra la malaria en numerosas partes del mundo. OBJETIVO: dar a conocer la importancia y características de cultivo, cosecha y procesamiento poscosecha de esta planta. MÉTODOS: se muestran los estudios realizados sobre diferentes aspectos esenciales relacionados con el procedimiento del cultivo (semilla, siembra, nutrición, algunas recomendaciones para el control de las malezas, p...

  8. Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

    2008-05-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

  9. Mono- and sesquiterpenes and antifungal constituents from Artemisia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, R X; Lu, H; Wolfender, J L; Yu, T T; Zheng, W F; Yang, L; Gafner, S; Hostettmann, K

    1999-02-01

    In addition to beta-sitosterol and alpha-amyrin detected in all the investigated species, the extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia giraldii var. giraldii gave stigmasterol, daucosterol, sesamine, luteolin, eupafolin, hispidulin, eupatilin, belamcanidin, pinitol, artemin, ridentin, and a new antifungal monoterpene (named santolinylol) while that of the aerial parts of A. mongolica afforded sesamine, eupafolin, eupatilin, matricarin, and a new germacranolide (3-oxo-11 alpha H-germacra-1(10)E,4Z-dien-12,6 alpha-olide), and that of the aerial parts of A. vestita yielded stigmasterol, daucosterol, umbelliferone, scopolin, scoparone, and isoscopoletin-O-glucoside. Pinitol, first reisolated from Artemisia genus, was shown to inhibit the growth of the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Geotrichun candidum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Umbelliferone was also active against Candida tropicalis, A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. The flavones hispidulin and belamcanidin were almost equally inhibitory to the growth of A. flavus, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum, and santolinylol to C. albicans, A. flavus, A. niger, G. candidum, T. rubrum, and E. floccosum. In addition, ridentin was active against the growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:10083848

  10. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  11. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Y.J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, Q.; Weng, X. G.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.J.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, D.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.C.; Kan, X.X.; Chen, X.; Zhu, X.X.; Kmoníčková, E.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 3 (2015), s. 151-158. ISSN 0041-008X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Artemisia annua L. * Flavonoids * Casticin * Chrysosplenol D * Inflammation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.705, year: 2014

  12. Leaf Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf developm...

  13. The effects of Artemisia aucheri extract on hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Rezaei; Shahnaz ShekarForoush; Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani; Hydar Aqababa; Ali Zarei; Maryam Azizi; Hasan Yarmahmodi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Liver is an important organ that is exposed to many oxidant and carcinogenic agents, thus antioxidant compounds are beneficial for liver health. Artemisia contains flavonoid compounds and anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to possessing terpene and sesquiterpene compounds, this plant has antioxidant properties. This study was done to investigate the effects of Artemisia plant extract on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials an...

  14. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARTEMISIA VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Praveen Kumar; Upadhyaya Kumud

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is an annual herb plant is a very common medicinal plant used for the various ailments. The aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris is mainly found in north India (Uttarakhand) and then dried, extracted and calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin & phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was concluded that the all extract contains more ...

  15. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, J.; K Elango; Dhanabal, S.P.; Paramakrishnan, N.; Suresh, B.

    2007-01-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical s...

  16. Reproductive Ecology of Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata SSP. Wyomingensis) : Effects of Herbivory and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    Herbivory and plant competition affect sexual reproduction of plants in various ways. Exclusion of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and cattle, removal of plant competition (both inter- and intraspecific), and all combinations of the above treatments were used to examine the individual and combined affects on Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) reproduction. Reproduction of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis was divided into hierarchical levels of the number of: ...

  17. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  18. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most common infections in poultry, are blackhead, caused by the parasite Histomonas melagridis (HM), and necrotic enteristis (NE) caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens (CP). At present there is no treatment of blackhead disease, and the preventive treatment towards NE may soon...... be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition...... (MIC=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...

  19. Constituents and Biological Activities of some Iranian Artemisia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants play a vital role in maintaining human health and contribute towards improvement of human life. They are important components of medicines, cosmetics, dyes, beverages etc. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines even since the dawn of human civilization. In spite of tremendous development in the field of allopathy during the 20th century, plants still remain one of the major sources of drug in the modern as well as traditional system of medicine throughout the world. Over 60% of all pharmaceuticals are plant-based. Plants are considered as state-of-art chemical laboratories capable of biosynthesizing number of biomolecules of different chemical classes. The present review describes the chemical and biological activities of some Iranian Artemisia species: A. aucheri Boiss., A. austriaca Jacq., A. chamaemelifolia Vill, A. ciniformis Krasch, A. deserti Krasch and A. diffusa. Krasch.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production. PMID:25366131

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding RING zinc finger ankyrin protein from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiuhong Yang; Chao Sun; Yuanlei Hun; Zhongping Lin

    2008-03-01

    A RING zinc finger ankyrin protein gene, designated AdZFP1, was isolated from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum Spreng by mRNA differential display and RACE. Its cDNA was 1723 bp and encoded a putative protein of 445 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.49. A typical C3HC4-type RING finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of the AdZFP1 protein, and several groups of ankyrin repeats were found at the N-terminal region. Alignments of amino acid sequence showed that AdZFP1 was 66% identical to the Arabidopsis thaliana putative RING zinc finger ankyrin protein AAN31869. Transcriptional analysis showed that AdZFP1 was inducible under drought stress in root, stem and leaf of the plant. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the transcript of AdZFP1 was strongly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and also by salinity, cold and heat to some extent. Overexpression of the AdZFP1 gene in transgenic tobacco enhanced their tolerance to drought stress.

  2. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  3. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  4. Artemisia annua increases resistance to heat and oxidative stresses, but has no effect on lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Il OH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is suggested that oxidative stress induced by cellular reactive oxygen species is one of the major causal factors of aging. The effect of dietary supplementation of anti-oxidants on response to environmental stressors and lifespan has been studied in various model organisms. In the present study, we examine the effect of Artemisia annua extract on resistance to oxidative, heat, and ultraviolet stresses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Artemisia annua significantly increases survival under oxidative and heat stresses, however has no effects in response to ultraviolet stress. Then, we measured the in vivo changes in expression of stress-responsive genes by Artemisia annua using green fluorescence protein. The expression of hsp-16.2, known to be involved in response to heat stress, is significantly increased by Artemisia annua supplementation. An anti-oxidant gene, sod-3, was also up-regulated by Artemisia annua. However, both mean and maximum lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans was not altered by dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua. These findings indicate that Artemisia annua confers health-promoting effects through increasing the resistance to environmental stressors and has no effect on lifespan in C. elegans. Our study suggests that Artemisia annua can be used for the development of novel natural therapeutics for diseases caused by environmental stressors.

  5. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  7. Artemisia arborescens L essential oil loaded beads: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Loy, Giuseppe; Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare sodium alginate beads as a device for the controlled release of essential oil for oral administration as an antiviral agent. Different formulations were prepared with sodium alginate as a natural polymer and calcium chloride or glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Loading capacities of between 86% and 100% were obtained in freshly prepared beads by changing exposure time to the cross-linking agent. Drying of the calcium alginate beads caused only a slight decrease in the loading efficiency. The surface morphology of the different bead formulations were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Stability studies over a 3-month period showed that glutaraldehyde reacted with some components of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil, changing its composition. Calcium alginate beads showed an in vitro controlled release of the essential oil for the investigated 24 hours, while the use of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent was found not appropriate because of the interactions with azulene derivatives and the low degree of matrix cross-linkage. PMID:17915817

  8. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Oliaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and ovary (Cho cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P<0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P<0.01. Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  9. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01–0.8% DW). There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifoli...

  10. PENETAPAN KADAR ARTEMISININ DALAM EKSTRAK HEKSAN TANAMAN Artemisia annua L. MENGGUNAKAN METODE DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penyakit malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia karena angka kesakitan penyakit ini masih cukup tinggi. Kinin dan klorokuin masih merupakan obat malaria yang banyak digunakan masyarakat di dunia, namun telah mengalami resisten. Artemisinin dan derivatnya merupakan obat yang digunakan terhadap plasmodium yang resisten terhadap klorokuin. Artemisinin diperoleh dari ekstrak tanaman Artemisia Annua L. Tanaman ini berasal dari daratan China namun dapat dibudidayakan di BPTO Tawangmangu. Penetapan kadar artemisinin menggunakan metode densitometri yang telah divalidasi. Ekstraksi heksan Artemisia annua L dilakukan fraksinasi dengan menggunakan acetonitril. Fraksi acetonitril  di uji dengan menggunakan KLT dengan fasa diam silica gel 60 GF254 dan eluen hexan: etil asetat (4:1 guna mengidentifikasi artemisinin. Pemisahan lebih lanjut dilakukan dengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dan fase geraknya yaitu n-heksan: etil asetat (4:1. Eluat yang diperoleh diujikan pada plat KLT silica gel 60 GF254 menggunakan eluen yang sama dengan sebelumnya. Eluat yang mempunyai Rf sama digabung menjadi satu fraksi dan ditetapkan kadar artemisinin menggunakan densitometri beserta validasi metodenya. Hasil validasi metode menunjukkan bahwa linearitas dengan koefisien korelasi 0,998, batas deteksi 0,028mg/mL dan batas kuantitasi 0,094mg/mL dan nilai simpangan baku relatif artemisinin memenuhi persyaratan untuk presisi yaitu lebih kecil dari 2%. Hasil perolehan kembali untuk artemisinin adalah 100,08%. Kadar artemisinin dalam ekstrak heksan herba Artemisia annua L dengan metode densitometri sebesar 0,46% dan kadar artemisinin dalam herba Artemisia annua L. 0,02% Kata Kunci: Artemisinin, Artemisia annua L, ekstrak heksan daun Artemisia annua L, Densitometri. Abstract Malaria desease is still problem health people in Indonesia, because morbiditas rate is high. Kinin and Klorokuin are used by most of people in the world, but

  11. Volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L. grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Stojanova, A.S.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Koulman, A; Quax, Wim

    2005-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Artemisia pontica L., obtained through hydrodistillation, were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oxygen-containing monoterpene fraction dominated (36.7%), while 1.8-cineole (14.1%) and camphor (13.9%) were the main components. Other relatively abundant

  12. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  13. Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte, 1876 - pelyněk Verlotů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochánková, J.; Sádlo, Jiří; Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha: ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 53-54 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Artemisia verlotiorum * aliens * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Artemisia scoparia W. et K., 1802 - pelyněk metlatý

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochánková, J.; Sádlo, Jiří; Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha: ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 52-53 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Artemisia scoparia * aliens * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Artemisia absinthinum L., 1753 - pelyněk pravý

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochánková, J.; Sádlo, Jiří; Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha: ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 52-52 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Artemisia absinthium * aliens * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., 1823 - pelyněk Tournefortův

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochánková, J.; Sádlo, Jiří; Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha: ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 53-53 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Artemisia tournefortiana * aliens * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris and Absinthium ( A. absinthium. Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA. Morphometrical data of karyotype characters were calculated and idiograms with the position of the AT- and GC-rich regions as well as rDNA loci were constructed. Colocalization of most of these regions has been observed, confirming previous findings in this genus. Both ribosomal DNA appear always colocalized, which is a distinct feature with respect to most angiosperms surveyed. Regarding the differential characteristics of each species, a symmetrical karyotype has been found in the species studied. Artemisia absinthium shows long chromosomes and absence of centromeric banding signals that, conversely, are absent in A. vulgaris andA. chamaemelifolia. The last species also presents B-chromosomes in which ribosomal DNA and heterochromatin have been detected. Despite these differences, karyotype morphology and signal pattern of the three species are quite coincidental. This might reflect a close phylogenetic relationship between both subgenera, which is consistent with the available molecular phylogenies presenting species of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium intermixed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris y Absinthium (A. absinthium. Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3

  20. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  1. Effect of Lactobacillus pentosus-Fermented Artemisiae Argi Folium on Nitric Oxide Production of Macrophage impaired with Various Toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Wansu Park

    2009-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Water Extract from Lactobacillus pentosus-fermented ARTEMISIAE ARGI FOLIUM (AFL) on nitric oxide production of mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells impaired by various toxicants such as gallic acid, EtOH, nicotine, acetaminophen, and acetaldehyde. Methods : ARTEMISIAE ARGI FOLIUM was fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus and extracted by water. Nitric oxide production of mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells was measured by Grie...

  2. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmayati Alegantina; Ani Isnawati

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. T...

  3. Variations in Mugwort (Artemisia Spp.) Airborne Pollen Concentrations at Three Sites in Central Croatia, in Period from 2002 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Čulig, Josip

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of...

  4. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  5. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  6. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  7. The génépi Artemisia species. Ethnopharmacology, cultivation, phytochemistry, and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, José F; Carlen, Christoph; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Wormwoods (Artemisia species) from the génépi group are, along with Edelweiss, iconic plants of the Alpine region and true symbols of inaccessibility because of their rarity and their habitat, largely limited to moraines of glaciers and rock crevices. Infusions and liqueurs prepared from génépis have always enjoyed a panacea status in folk medicine, especially as thermogenic agents and remedies for fatigue, dyspepsia, and airway infections. In the wake of the successful cultivation of white génépi (Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.) and the expansion of its supply chain, modern studies have evidenced the occurrence of unique constituents, whose chemistry, biological profile, and sensory properties are reviewed along with the ethnopharmacology, botany, cultivation and conservation strategies of their plant sources. PMID:26358481

  8. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  9. The effect of roots and media constituents on trichomes and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Khanhvan T.; Towler, Melissa J.; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia annua produces the antimalarial drug, artemisinin (AN), which is synthesized and stored in glandular trichomes (GLTs). In vitro-grown A. annua shoots produce more AN when they form roots. This may be a function not of the roots, but rather media components such as the phytohormones, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), or salts and sucrose used to maintain either rooted or unrooted shoot cultures. We investigated how three main media components altered artem...

  10. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L enhance cellular insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong Q.; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Zhang, Xian H.; Raskin, Ilya; Yu, Yongmei; Cefalu, William T.

    2008-01-01

    An alcoholic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L (PMI 5011) has been shown to decrease glucose and improve insulin levels in animal models, suggesting an ability to enhance insulin sensitivity. We sought to assess the cellular mechanism by which this botanical affects carbohydrate metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle culture. We measured basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen accumulation, phosphoinositide 3 (PI-3) kinase activity, and Akt phosphorylation in primary skele...

  11. Optimization of total RNA isolation method from the aromatic medicinal plant Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Suganthi Appalasamy; Ning Shu Ping; Arvind Bhatt; Ahmad Sofiman Othman; Nad-Ali Babaeian Jelodar; Chan Lai Keng

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first report on the development of a protocol that allows rapid and simplified extraction of total RNA from Artemisia annua L., an aromatic medicinal plant. This innovative protocol ensures a consistently high quantity and good quality of total RNA without any contamination of polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins. The total RNA obtained is also free of fungal RNA even when extracted from fungal infested plants. The extraction buffer used in the proposed modified protoco...

  12. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Misra; Darshana Mehta; B.K. Mehta; Jain, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimi...

  13. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor...

  14. Enhanced artemisinin yield by expression of rol genes in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad, Erum; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Estrada, Karla Ramirez; Bonfill, Mercedes; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite of many advances in the treatment of malaria, it is still the fifth most prevalent disease worldwide and is one of the major causes of death in the developing countries which accounted for 584,000 deaths in 2013, as estimated by World Health Organization. Artemisinin from Artemisia annua is still one of the most effective treatments for malaria. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. annua plants by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much-needed dr...

  15. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, CC; Loik, ME

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. ...

  16. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ainehchi Nava; Zahedi Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p.) with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, c...

  17. Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells

    OpenAIRE

    Casu Laura; Chisu Lorenza; Cottiglia Filippo; Sanna Adriana; Saddi Manuela; Bonsignore Leonardo; De Logu Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background New prophylactic and therapeutic tools are needed for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Several essential oils have shown to possess antiviral activity in vitro against a wide spectrum of viruses. Aim The present study was assess to investigate the activities of the essential oil obtained from leaves of Artemisia arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Methods The cytotoxicity in Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The IC50 values were determi...

  18. Anti-adipogenic effect of Artemisia annua in diet-induced-obesity mice model

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hye Kyung; Shim, Hyeji; Lim, Hyunmook; Shim, Minju; Kim, Chul-Kyu; Park, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yong Seok; Song, Ki-Duk; Kim, Sung-Jo; Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has increased continuously in western countries during the last several decades and recently become a problem in developing countries. Currently, anti-obesity drugs originating from natural products are being investigated for their potential to overcome adverse effects associated with chemical drugs. Artemisinic acid, which was isolated from the well-known anti-malaria herb Artemisia annua (AA) L., was recently shown to possess anti-adipogenic effects in vitro. However, the anti-adipo...

  19. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    OpenAIRE

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants. Hot air batch drying is the most common drying method for these plants but affects the essential oil content and color. The drying conditions affect essential oil content and color as well as the ...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positiv...

  1. Vapour and Liquid-Phase Artemisia annua Essential Oil Activities against Several Clinical Strains of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Donato, Rosa; Sacco, Cristiana; Pini, Gabriella; Flamini, Guido; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2016-07-01

    Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca. 19 %) and camphor (ca. 17 %). Other representative constituents were artemisia alcohol (5.9 %), α-pinene (5.7 %), and pinocarvone (3.0 %). Thujone, a typical toxic constituent of the Artemisia species, was not detected. The results are reported as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and diameter of inhibition zone obtained by the vapour diffusion assay. We tested 10 clinical Candida strains, coming from both clinical samples and international collections. The results show that the antifungal activity of A. annua is influenced by the type of method adopted. The inhibitory action of the essential oil was, in fact, higher in the vapour than in the liquid phase. Our results show an average minimum inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase of 11.88 µL/mL, while in the vapour phase, the growth of all Candida strains tested at a concentration of 2.13 µL/cm(3) was inhibited. A strain of Candida glabrata was found to be less susceptible to the liquid medium than the vapour assay (50 µL/mL vs. 0.64 µL/cm(3), respectively). Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were the most susceptible to the vapour test, while Candida parapsilosis was the most resistant. PMID:27286334

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. PMID:27070290

  3. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronn Richard C; Price Jared C; Richardson Bryce A; Bajgain Prabin; Udall Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary his...

  4. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Ivanescu; Anca Miron; Andreia Corciova

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analges...

  5. Terpenoid Profile of Artemisia Alba is Related to Endogenous Cytokinins in Vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krumova, S.; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre; Todorova, M.; Trendafilova, A.; Evstatieva, L.; Danova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2013), s. 26-30. ISSN 1310-0351 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Artemisia alba * in vitro * endogenous cytokinins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.136, year: 2012 http://www.agrojournal.org/19/02-06s.pdf

  6. Protective effects of Artemisia arborescens essential oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Dhibi, Sabah; Ettaya, Amani; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, natural products have been shown to exhibit interesting biological and pharmacological activities and are used as chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this study, conducted on Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Artemisia arborescens oil on oestroprogestative treatment induced damage on liver. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a control group (n = 9), a group of rats who received oestroprogestative treatment by ...

  7. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vardapetyan H; Hovhannisyan D; Tiratsuyan S; Chailyan G

    2014-01-01

    In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5...

  8. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi; Ali Rajabpour; Nooshin Zandi Sohani; Leila Ramezani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci), is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concen...

  9. Mapping leaf surface landscapes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mechaber, W.L.; Marshall, D B; Mechaber, R A; Jobe, R T; Chew, F S

    1996-01-01

    Leaf surfaces provide the ecologically relevant landscapes to those organisms that encounter or colonize the leaf surface. Leaf surface topography directly affects microhabitat availability for colonizing microbes, microhabitat quality and acceptability for insects, and the efficacy of agricultural spray applications. Prior detailed mechanistic studies that examined particular fungi-plant and pollinator-plant interactions have demonstrated the importance of plant surface topography or roughne...

  10. Biochemical effects, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia vulgaris extract in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding of rats with high fat diet containing 3% cholesterol in olein oil, for 8 weeks. Feeding of rats with high fat diet for 8 weeks, leading to a significant increase in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, liver hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and paraoxonase-1 activities as compared to the normal control group. Treatment of high fat diet rats with Artemisia vulgaris extract for 4 weeks at a dose of 100 mg/kg per day, resulted in normalized serum lipid profile, a significant increase in paraoxonase-1 activity and decrease in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α level as compared to high fat diet-treated animals. Also the extract caused a significant decrease in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity as compared with both high fat diet-treated animals and control ones. In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris extract has hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties; it may serve as a source for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26236098

  11. Histomorphometric study on the effects of Artemisia sieberi extract in mice skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboutari Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin as the biggest single body organ is always exposing to various injuries, therefore health and healing of its injuries is vital. Artemisia sieberi is a valuable medicinal plant with a long history of indication in folk and modern medicine. Due to different chemical components and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and cytoprotective properties of Artemisia, this study was conducted to study the histomorphometric effects of Artemisia sieberi (A. sieberi extract on mice skin. Methods: Ninety adult mice were randomly divided in 3 groups. In the treatment group A. sieberi extract dissolved in ethanol & distilled water, in the positive control ethanol & distilled water, and in negative control only distilled water were applied on the shaved dorsum twice daily for 21 days. Mean thickness of epidermis, hypodermis & dermis layers, percentage of collagen fibers and histological evaluation of skin layers were studied in 1, 3, 5, 14 and 21days post treatment. Data were presented as mean± SD and analyzed using one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. The P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A. sieberi extract significantly increased epidermis thickness in day 1, hypodermis, dermis and percentage of collagen fibers in day 3 in comparison to positive and negative control groups. Histology study revealed normal structure of skin and no abnormality was seen. Conclusion: A. sieberi extract can be effective for health and healing of skin injuries by increasing thickness of the skin layers and amount of collagen fibers.

  12. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide, in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and cancer cells. The mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation S9. Results: 28μg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 77.73±0.78% of HeLa cells activity and 5600µg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 28.79±1.82% of lymphocytes activity. The maximum percentage of anti-mutagenic activity of Artediffusin was observed in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, with the presence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: Artediffusin may be exploited as a natural anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.

  13. Preparation of artemisia oil emulsion for mosquito repellent%艾叶油驱蚊乳液的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化丹丹; 刁水华; 谢洪德; 蒋耀兴

    2014-01-01

    The artemisia oil emulsion was prepared by the phase transformation method with artemisia oil as raw material and compound surfactant as emulsifier. The effects of emulsification process on particle size and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. The morphology of artemisia oil emulsion was characterized by SEM, and the effect of the nylon socks finished with artemisia oil emulsion was measured. The results showed that the optimal emulsion process was as fol ows: HLB value of compound emulsifier was 8, mass fraction of emulsifier was 3%, mass fraction of artemisia oil was 18%, and shearing time was 8 min. The SEM photos showed that particle size of artemisia oil emulsion was smal and its distribution was uniformity. The nylon socks finished by artemisia oil emulsion had good mosquito repel ent effect.%以艾叶油为原料,复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,利用相转化法制备了艾叶油乳液。研究了乳化工艺对乳液粒径及其分布的影响,采用扫描电镜对乳液形貌进行了表征,并测定了乳液整理锦纶袜子的驱蚊效果。结果显示,艾叶油驱蚊乳液最佳制备工艺为:乳化剂HLB值8,乳化剂质量分数3%,艾叶油质量分数18%,剪切时间8 min;电镜观察显示,艾叶油乳液粒径较小且分布均匀;整理锦纶丝袜具有良好的驱蚊效果。

  14. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  15. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  16. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. PMID:27316764

  17. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  18. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

    2004-09-01

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 and Kangra jat showed higher rate (75%) of Agrobacterium infection compared to Upasi-10 and ST-449, whereas non-wettable leaves of A. parviflora showed minimum (25%) infection. This indicated that the leaves with glabrous surface having lower (larger surface area covered by water droplet), higher phenol and wax content were more suitable for Agrobacterium infection. Caffeine fraction of tea promoted Agrobacterium infection even in leaves poor in wax (Upasi-10), whereas caffeine-free wax inhibited both Agrobacterium growth and infection. Thus, study suggests the importance of leaf surface features in influencing the Agrobacterium infection in tea leaf explants. Our study also provides a basis for the screening of a clone/cultivar of a particular species most suitable for Agrobacterium infection the first step in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

  19. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and at least two leaf spring arms extending between the central and outer fastening part. Viewed from the central fastening part, the leaf spring arms (23) have a first zone (24) originating from the c...

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  1. Seasonal Soil CO2 Flux Under Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amacher, Michael C.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major contributor to atmospheric CO2, but accurate landscape-scale estimates of soil CO2 flux for many ecosystems including shrublands have yet to be established. We began a project to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, soil CO2 flux in a stand (11 x 25 m area) of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at the Logan, Utah, Forestry Sciences Laboratory. Beginning on Nov. 1, 2009, hourly soil CO2 flux measurements were made at a single location in the s...

  2. Optimization of total RNA isolation method from the aromatic medicinal plant Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Appalasamy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on the development of a protocol that allows rapid and simplified extraction of total RNA from Artemisia annua L., an aromatic medicinal plant. This innovative protocol ensures a consistently high quantity and good quality of total RNA without any contamination of polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins. The total RNA obtained is also free of fungal RNA even when extracted from fungal infested plants. The extraction buffer used in the proposed modified protocol was made up of non-hazardous chemicals. High concentrations of polyphenols of A. annua L. could be successfully eliminated and the prepared total RNA could be used for downstream reactions.

  3. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  4. Chemical composition of the essentialoil of the artemisia arborescens L. growing wild in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from air dried aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens L. from Lebanon was analyzed by GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 95.33% of the oil sample were identified. The major component wasβ -thujone (68.5%), followed by chamazulene (12.3%), and some lesser amounts of terpinen-4-ol (1.8%), myrcene (1.3%),α -thujone (1.2%), linalool (1%), cis-thuyanol-4-ol (1%), carvacrol (0.9%), β -cubebene (0.8%) and camphor (0.8%).

  5. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%), (S)-cis-verbenol (14.93%), 4-terpineol (7.20%), (−)-camphor (6.02%), and α-terpineol (4.20%) were found to be major compo...

  6. Geometric leaf placement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric leaf placement strategies for multileaf collimators (MLCs) typically involve the expansion of the beam's-eye-view contour of a target by a uniform MLC margin, followed by movement of the leaves until some point on each leaf end touches the expanded contour. Film-based dose-distribution measurements have been made to determine appropriate MLC margins-characterized through an index d90-for multileaves set using one particular strategy to straight lines lying at various angles to the direction of leaf travel. Simple trigonometric relationships exist between different geometric leaf placement strategies and are used to generalize the results of the film work into d90 values for several different strategies. Measured d90 values vary both with angle and leaf placement strategy. A model has been derived that explains and describes quite well the observed variations of d90 with angle. The d90 angular variations of the strategies studied differ substantially, and geometric and dosimetric reasoning suggests that the best strategy is the one with the least angular variation. Using this criterion, the best straightforwardly implementable strategy studied is a 'touch circle' approach for which semicircles are imagined to be inscribed within leaf ends, the leaves being moved until the semicircles just touch the expanded target outline

  7. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  8. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  9. Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik

    Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

  10. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  11. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25451863

  12. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  13. Liposomal incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L. essential oil and in vitro antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Lai, Francesco; Valenti, Donatella; Manconi, Maria; Loy, Giuseppe; Bonsignore, Leonardo; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2005-01-01

    The effect of liposomal inclusion on the in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens L. essential oil was investigated. In order to study the influence of vesicle structure and composition on the antiviral activity of the vesicle-incorporated oil, multilamellar (MLV) and unilamellar (SUV) positively charged liposomes were prepared by the film method and sonication. Liposomes were obtained from hydrogenated (P90H) and non-hydrogenated (P90) soy phosphatidylcholine. Formulations were examined for their stability for over one year, monitoring the oil leakage from vesicles and the average size distribution. The antiviral activity was studied against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method. Results showed that Artemisia essential oil can be incorporated in good amounts in the prepared vesicular dispersions. Stability studies pointed out that vesicle dispersions were very stable for at least six months and neither oil leakage nor vesicle size alteration occurred during this period. After one year of storage oil retention was still good, but vesicle fusion was present. Antiviral assays demonstrated that the liposomal incorporation of A. arborescens essential oil enhanced its in vitro antiherpetic activity especially when vesicles were made with P90H. On the contrary, no significant difference in antiviral activity was observed between the free and SUV-incorporated oil. PMID:15567314

  14. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  15. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardapetyan H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.08 µl, while the lowest activity was reported in Plantago major extract (IC50 = 45 ± 0.1 µl and IC50 of Artemisia absinthium extract was 35 ± 0.1 µl. Present study also demonstrates a possible relationship between quercetin content and antioxidant activity of extracts. Crataegus laevigata ethanoic extract showed highest antiradical potential as well as the highest concentration of quercetin (7.47 ± 0.2 µg/ml and it can be proposed as a potential sources of natural antioxidants and bioactive phytopharmaceuticals.

  16. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Lim, K.Y.; Chester, M.; Garnatje, T.; Pellicer, J.; Valles, J.; Leitch, A.R.; Kovařík, Aleš

    online, - (2008), s. 1-13. ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Artemisia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.111, year: 2008

  17. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    In a factorial experiment, effects of dried leaves of Artemisia annua as an anti-parasitic supplement in two different broiler genotypes, raised in a free range system, were investigated. Birds were grown indoors until 29 days of age free of parasites. Twelve groups, each of 35 randomly selected...

  18. Isolation of Tricin, Luteolin, and Quercetin Flavonoids from Syrian Artemisia Vulgaris L., and Determination Their Structure By Spectroscopic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crude acetonic extract of Syrian Artemisia vulgaris L. was fractionated by chromatographic methods and yielded three known flavonoids, Tricin, Luteolin, Quercetin. UV, IR, Mass spectroscopy, and 1D and 2D NMR techniques were used to determine the structure of isolated compounds.(author)

  19. 5,3′-Dihydr­oxy-7,4′-dimethoxy­flavanone from Artemisia sphaerocephala Kraschen

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Sumei; Qing, Weixia

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C17H16O6, was isolated from the Chinese Tibetan medicinal plant Artemisia sphaerocephala Kraschen. The mol­ecular conformation is consolidated by two intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A further inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond leads to chains along [010] in the crystal structure.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Essential Oil from Artemisia sieberi Growing in Jordan in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aburjai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of essential oil extracted from aerial parts of Artemisia sieberi in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups of 10 each. Group I normal rats received 1 mL day-1 of dimethyl sulfoxide (control; group II normal rats received a single dose (80 mg kg-1 b.wt. of essential oil extract of Artemisia sieberi; group III diabetic rats received 1 mL day-1 of dimethyl sulfoxide; group IV diabetic rats received the oil extract (80 mg kg-1 b.wt.; group V diabetic rats received metformin (14.2 mg kg-1 b.wt.. All treatments were orally administered once a day for six weeks. Changes in blood glucose concentration, body weight and food and water intake were measured and the data obtained were compared with that of metformin. The essential oil extract significantly (pArtemisia sieberi exhibited antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Present findings support the possible use of the essential oil of Artemisia sieberi as a remedy for diabetes mellitus in humans.

  1. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur Perry; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  2. 黄蒿的青贮特性研究%Studies on Artemisia scoparia Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia adding additive and without additive were used to study the silage quality.The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were good in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive,the score were 16 and 17, respectively.The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.09 and 4.26, respectively.The silage with additive increased the contents of lactic acid and Acetic acid,while the content of PA in direct silage was higher.The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was excellent with 87 score, while the silage adding additive was a qualified silage with 56 score.Judging from comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, Artemisia scoparia silage without adding additive was the prior way.%以黄蒿(Artemisia scoparia)为原料,比较加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的青贮性.试验结果表明:直接青贮和加入添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16分和17分,均达到优良等级.加入添加剂青贮后为pH 4.26,直接青贮后的pH 5.09,乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比以直接青贮较高,丁酸占总酸的百分比以加入添加剂青贮后较高,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮,而加入添加剂青贮为56分,为合格.综合感官性状和发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿青贮时采用直接青贮的方法更好.

  3. Studies on Silage of Artemisia Scoparia%黄蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    以黄蒿为原料,通过添加采禾添加剂青贮和和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的可青贮性。试验结果表明,直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16和17分,达到了优良等级。添加剂青贮后的pH值为4.26,直接青贮后的pH值为5.09,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮;而添加剂青贮为56分,为合格。综合感官性状、发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿%Artemisia scoparia was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages achieved excellent grade, and the score were 16 and 17 respectively. The pH value of silage without adding additive and with it were 5.09 and 4.26 respectively. The addition of the additive can't increase content of LA and AA. Content of PA in silage without adding additive was less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a qualified silage. By the comprehensive combination of sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that artemisia scoparia can make silage, and making Artemisia ordosica silage without adding additive was the best way.

  4. Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Amorpha-4,11-diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Bengtsson, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Brodelius, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    In plants, sesquiterpenes of different structural types are biosynthesized from the isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate. The initial reaction of the biosynthesis is catalyzed by sesquiterpene cyclases (synthases). In Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood), a number of such sesquiterpene cycla

  5. Dades sobre la biologia d'espècies ibèrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès Xirau, Joan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [ca] S'estudien diversos aspectes de la biologia de les espècies ib èrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L., fonamentalment de les seccions Artemisia L. i Seriphidium Besser. La germinació de les cipseles, el tipus de cicle biològic, la biologia de la reproducció i la fenologia són els principals termes tractats. [fr] On étude des aspects divers de la biologie des espèces ibéro-baléariques du genre Artemisia L., notamment des sections Artemisia L. et Seriphidium Besser. La germination des cypseles, le type du cycle biologique, la biologie de la reproduction et la phénologie sont les principaux points traités.

  6. Design and experiment of seedling seperation device of Artemisia arborescens transplanter based on vibration mechanism%基于振动机理的藜蒿扦插机分苗机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汲文峰; 吴启明; 黄海东; 高靖博; 廖庆喜; 黄廖文

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of Artemisia arborescens are mainly relying on artificial cuttings, the seedling separation device is a key component to achieve planting mechanization of Artemisia arborescens. In order to obtain orderly feed of Artemisia arborescens seedlings rod, a kind of seedling separation device of Artemisia arborescens transplanter based on vibration mechanism was designed in this paper. The main components of seedling separation device were: motor, frame, reset device of leaf spring, ledger plate, guide rail for seedling, seedling box, crank-rocker mechanism and transmission agent etc. At first, the device structure of seedlings was reasonably simplified to crank-slider mechanism, and the mathematical modeling was created on basis of characteristics of crank-slider mechanism. In order to achieve the best power transmission, the motion analysis of device was conducted,and the angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration of coupler and rocker were obtained. The Matlab software was used to analyze the movement of the crank-slider mechanism, and then optimized the structure parameters of seedlings vibrating device. The optimization results showed that, when the coupler,rocker were 499mm and 273mm respectively, the power transmission could achieve the best results. Then, spring steel which was the key component of seedlings device was imported from Pro/E into Ansys Workbench to carry on model analysis of vibration characteristics. Model analysis results showed that, as frequency increasing, bending deflection of spring steel occurred firstly, then converted to distortion, and the superimposed vibrations which could lead to severe deformation appeared at last. Therefore, the vibration frequency should be less than 98.66 Hz, and the rigidity of upper end of spring steel should be appropriately strengthened. The crank length, vibration frequency and orbital inclination were taken as experimental factors, and then experimental studies of

  7. High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Watcho; Roman Stavniichuk; David M. Ribnicky; Ilya Raskin; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalg...

  8. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  9. Bioactivity of two major constituents isolated from the essential oil of Artemisia judaica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgaleil, Samir A M; Abbassy, Moustafa A; Belal, Abdel-Salam H; Abdel Rasoul, Mona A A

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of Artemisia judaica L., grown on Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, was extracted via hydrodistillation. Chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate two compounds namely piperitone and trans-ethyl cinnamate. Insecticidal, antifeedant and antifungal properties of the isolated compounds were examined. Both compounds showed pronounced insecticidal and antifeedant activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). trans-Ethyl cinnamate (LD(50)=0.37 microg/larva) was more toxic than piperitone (LD(50)=0.68microg/larva). The two isolated compounds revealed antifeedant activity in a concentration dependent manner, with complete feeding inhibition at a concentration of 1,000microg/ml. When tested for antifungal activity against four plant pathogenic fungi, the isolated compounds exhibited a moderate to high activity. PMID:18054484

  10. Selective nematocidal effects of essential oils from two cultivated Artemisia absinthium populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Juan José; Andrés, María-Fé; Ibañez-Escribano, Alexandra; Julio, Luis F; Burillo, Jesús; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from two crops and populations of thujone-free cultivated Artemisia absinthium were tested against two nematode models, the mammalian parasite Trichinella spiralis, and the plant parasitic root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The EOs were characterized by the presence of (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenol as major components and showed time and population dependent quantitative and qualitative variations in composition. The EOs showed a strong ex vivo activity against the L1 larvae of the nematode Trichinella spiralis with a reduction of infectivity between 72 and 100% at a dose range of 0.5-1 mg/ml in absence of cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Moreover, the in vivo activity of the EO against T. spiralis showed a 66% reduction of intestinal adults. However, these oils were not effective against M. javanica. PMID:26444350

  11. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise. PMID:22038129

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for quantitation of marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Li, Ying; Kim, Bora; Zhang, Haiyan; Hwangbo, Kyong; Piao, Dong Gen; Chi, Mei Juan; Woo, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Je-Hyun; Moon, Dong-Cheul; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Son, Jong Keun

    2012-12-01

    Two stable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed that could quantitatively analyze 10 major marker compounds of Artemisia capillaris Thunb and could also distinguish among 'Injinho' and 'Myeon-injin' and 'Haninjin'--A. capillaris collected in autumn, A. capillaris collected in spring and A. iwayomogi, which can be misused as 'Injinho' in Korean herbal drug markets. The first HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with an isocratic solvent system of phosphoric acid (0.05%) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration and quantitation were made by using acetaminophen as an internal standard (I.S-A) and chlorogenic acid (1) was determined within 20 min. The second HPLC method was a reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 column with a gradient solvent system of phosphate buffer (0.015 M, pH 6) and acetonitrile at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection wavelength at 254 nm and column temperature at 40°C. Calibration and quantitation were made by using ethylparaben as an internal standard (I.S-B) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), hyperoside (5), isoquercitrin (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside (7), isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside (8), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (9) and scoparone (10) were determined within 60 min. Pattern recognition analysis of data from the 60 samples classified them clearly into three groups. These assay methods could be applied for QA/QC of A. capillaris and Artemisia iwayomogi. PMID:23263810

  13. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  14. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijing; Hu, Xiaowei; Miao, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaolong; Nan, Shuzhen; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown. Results Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control) and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified. Conclusion The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the

  15. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown.Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified.The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the fatty acid

  16. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  17. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  18. Impact of Exogenous Elicitors on Artemisinin Production and Trichome Density in Artemisia annua L. under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jagdish DANGASH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in Artemisia annua having many medicinal properties. Therefore the factors affecting trichome initiation are important. In the present study, several strategies have been adapted to increase artemisinin production by treating them with nutrients, hormones and elicitors. Abscisic acid, Gibberellic acid (GA3, a combination of GA3+IAA (Gibberellic acid+indole acetic acid, Chitosan, Methyl jasmonate, Acetyl salicylic acid, Lead acetate, sodium chloride, and Nanozime were sprayed on plant at regular intervals. The glandular trichomes of leaves from Artemisia annua (Asteraceae were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy and the percentage artemisnin content was analyzed by HPTLC. Maximum artemisinin content % and trichome index (0.128 was found when methy jasmonate was applied and minimum artemisinin content % and trichome index was reported in NaCl & acetyl salicylic acid.

  19. DMSO triggers the generation of ROS leading to an increase in artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid in Artemisia annua shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mannan, Abdul; Liu, Chunzhao; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Towler, Melissa J.; Vail, Dan R.; Lorence, Argelia; Weathers, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin, is in short supply; demand is not being met, and the role of artemisinin in the plant is not well established. Prior work showed that addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to seedlings increased artemisinin in their shoots and this study further investigated that serendipitous observation. When in vitro-cultured Artemisia annua rooted shoots were fed different amounts of DMSO (0–2.0% v/v), artemisinin levels doubled and showed biphasic optima at 0....

  20. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H.; Fadda, Anna M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN in...

  1. Relationships between Remotely Sensed Data and Biomass Components in a Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) Dominated Area in Yellowstone National Park

    OpenAIRE

    MİRİK, Mustafa; Norland, Jack E.; Biondini, Mario E.; Robert L Crabtree; Gerald J. Michels

    2007-01-01

    The predictive power of a hyperspectral imagery for estimating woody and herbaceous biomass were examined for a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) dominated area in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, United States of America. The normalized difference vegetation (NDV) and structure insensitive pigment (SIP) indices were used to investigate the relationships between biomass components and reflectance spectra. Ground data were collected in 13 sample plots 1 m2 in size by clipping all herbace...

  2. Efficient In Vitro Propagation by Ex Vitro Rooting Methods of Artemisia absinthium L., an Ethnobotanically Important Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat; Manokari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an important medicinal plant. Owing to the increasing anthropogenic activities and demand from the pharmaceutical industry, this plant species is overexploited; thereby this endangered its genetic stock in the wild. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop nonconventional methods for conservation of A. absinthium. Nodal segments obtained from the field grown 2-month-old plants were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopu...

  3. Evaluation of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Tane, Pierre; Shevalye, Hanna; Maksimchyk, Yury; Pacher, Pal; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., alleviates peripheral neuropathy in high fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory changes in the peripheral nervous system. This study evaluated PMI-5011 on established functional, structural, and biochemical changes associated with Type I diabetic peripheral neuropathy. C57BL6/J mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of a 12-week duration, d...

  4. Bioactives of Artemisia dracunculus L. Mitigate the Role of Ceramides in Attenuating Insulin Signaling in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Diana N Obanda; Hernandez, Amy; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Wang, Zhong Q.; Cefalu, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic lipids in peripheral tissues have been implicated in attenuating insulin action in vivo. The botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI 5011) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism is not known. We sought to determine whether the mechanism by which PMI 5011 improves insulin signaling is through regulation of lipid metabolism. After differentiation, cells were separately preincubated with free fatty acids (FFAs) and ceramide C2, and the effects on glycogen content, ...

  5. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge F. S. Ferreira; Luthria, Devanand L.; Tomikazu Sasaki; Arne Heyerick

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decad...

  6. ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS, PUNICA GRANATUM AND BERBERIS VULGARIS INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON PLATELET ADHESION AND COAGULATION FACTORS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Razieh Yazdanparast et al

    2012-01-01

    Excessive platelet activity is one of the most important factors responsible for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and, also, play important role in coagulation cascade. In this study, the comparative effects of methanol extracts of three herbs on adhesion of the activated platelets to fibrinogen coated plates and clotting factors were investigated. Artemisia dracunculus, Punica granatum and Brberis vulgaris are used as blood anti-coagulatory plants in Iranian folk medicine. Platelets ...

  7. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, et...

  8. Leaf-to-leaf distances in Catalan tree graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsborough, Andrew M.; Fellows, Jonathan M; Bates, Matthew; Rautu, S. Alex; Rowlands, George; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the average leaf-to-leaf path lengths on ordered Catalan tree graphs with $n$ nodes and show that these are equivalent to the average length of paths starting from the root node. We give an explicit analytic formula for the average leaf-to-leaf path length as a function of separation of the leaves and study its asymptotic properties. At the heart of our method is a strategy based on an abstract graph representation of generating functions which we hope can be useful also in other con...

  9. Leaf development: A cellular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit TS Beemster

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture...

  11. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  12. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

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    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  13. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm2; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in mice. • These

  14. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT; Rizwan RASHID; Javid Ahmad BHAT

    2011-01-01

    Influence of phenylureas (CPPU) and brassinosteriod (BR) along with GA (gibberellic acid) were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set) or twice (7+15 days after fruit set). CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78) while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22) per shoot. Maximum l...

  15. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  16. In vitro assessment of the protection from oxidative stress by various fractions of Artemisia incisa Pamp.

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    Ajaib Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Artemisia incisa Pamp. was dissolved in distilled water and successively partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods, i.e., the scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, the total antioxidant activity, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and the ferric thiocyanate assay. In addition, the total phenolics was determined. The obtained results revealed that among the studied fractions the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the most potent DPPH-radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 5.3 ± 0.71 μg mL-1, which is even more effective than the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT (IC50 value 0f 12.1± 0.92 μg mL-1. The ethyl acetate fraction also showed the highest FRAP value (3677.13 ± 27.1 μg TE mL-1, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (60.93 ± 0.84 % at 500 μg mL-1 and total phenolic content (95.5 ± 0.05 μg GAE g-1 as compared to other fractions. However, the remaining aqueous fraction was found to posses the highest antioxidant activity of all the fractions.

  17. Physiological water strategy of Artemisia ordosica around soil threshold of drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for plants around the soil threshold of drought (close to the soil wilting water content) is a problem that needs to be further explored. In this paper, Artemisia ordosica, which grows in the Tengri Desert, was selected to analyze the changes in the plant water potentials in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), the water contents in the roots, shoots and leaves of A. ordosica, and the indices in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. Based on the statistics, we discussed the water physiology mechanism around the soil drought threshold. The results show that, around the soil drought threshold, besides absorbing and transporting water, the roots could serve as temporary water reservoirs that enable A. ordosica to continue to transport the SPAC water and survive severe drought. As drought becomes more severe, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increases and they have significant correlations with the tissue water content. The activity of peroxidase (POD) decreases and it has no significant correlation with the tissue water content. During daytime, when temperature is high, the soluble sugar does not participate in the osmotic adjustment but eliminate the active oxygen free radicals. Thus, around the soil threshold of drought, A. ordosica maintains a physiological water metabolism by harmo-nizing water itself and eliminate the active oxygen and the free radicals by the joint efforts of enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems.

  18. Volatiles fingerprint of Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha by headspace-solid phase microextraction GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Samantha; Pace, Loretta; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; De Angelis, Francesco; Marcozzi, Giordana

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha is a protected species, whose essential oil is used in liqueur industry. Volatile profiles of fresh leaves and flowers from wild plants in comparison with regenerated in vitro plants introduced in experimental fields within an Italian national park were evaluated by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles appear to be qualitatively similar. The content of thujones, the characteristic metabolites of this species, is comparable with that obtained by analysis of essential oils. Principal component analysis of the HS-SPME-GC-MS data supports the possibility of differentiating scent blends of genetically identical plants, and even flowers and leaves from the same individual. HS-SPME-GC-MS is shown to be a very efficient method to analyse and to describe the pattern of components of A. umbelliformis subsp. eriantha cultivars' scents. It represents a rapid screening method highly recommended for the study of protected species, because it is non-destructive and it only requires small amounts of fresh material. PMID:23962361

  19. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes. PMID:19326948

  20. Genepolide, a sesterpene gamma-lactone with a novel carbon skeleton from mountain wormwood (Artemisia umbelliformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendino, Giovanni; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Romano, Adriana; Pollastro, Federica; Avonto, Cristina; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2009-03-27

    The sesterpene gamma-lactone genepolide (5) has been isolated from a Swiss horticultural variety of mountain wormwood (Artemisia umbelliformis) developed as a thujones-free alternative to native Western Alps wormwoods for the production of liqueurs. Genepolide is the formal Diels-Alder adduct of the exomethylene-gamma-lactone costunolide (2) and the diene myrcene (6), two poorly reactive partners in cycloaddition reactions, and its structure was elucidated through a combination of spectroscopic methods. An investigation on the thermal stability of mixtures of 2 and 6, as well as considerations on the sensitivity of 2 to Brønsted and Lewis acids, suggests that 5 is a genuine natural product and that the Swiss chemotype of A. umbelliformis contains Diels-Alderase enzymatic activity that is lacking in native mountain wormwoods from Western Alps. Remarkable differences in thermal and acid-catalyzed reactions of the cyclodecadiene moiety of 2 and 5 suggest that quaternarization at C-11 has far-reaching effects on the reactivity of their homoconjugated medium-sized diene system. The wide occurrence of this structural motif in sesquiterpenoids makes this issue worth a systematic investigation. PMID:19053512

  1. Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, S; Quarta, A; Durante, M; Nisi, R; De Paolis, A; Blando, F; Mita, G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a herb traditionally used for treatment of fevers. The glandular trichomes of this plant accumulate, although at low levels, artemisinin, which is highly effective against malaria. Due to the great importance of this compound, many efforts have been made to improve knowledge on artemisinin production both in plants and in cell cultures. In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis. Twenty-two micro molar MeJA induced a three-fold increase of artemisinin production in around 30 min; while 200 μm miconazole induced a 2.5-fold increase of artemisinin production after 24 h, but had severe effects on cell viability. The influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was also investigated. MeJA induced up-regulation of CYP71AV1, while miconazole induced up-regulation of CPR and DBR2. PMID:21143725

  2. β-Cyclodextrins enhance artemisinin production in Artemisia annua suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Quarta, Angela; De Paolis, Angelo; Nisi, Rossella; Mita, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene antimalarial compound produced, though at low levels (0.1-1% dry weight), in Artemisia annua in which it accumulates in the glandular trichomes of the plant. Due to its antimalarial properties and short supply, efforts are being made to improve our understanding of artemisinin biosynthesis and its production. Native β-cyclodextrins, as well as the chemically modified heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins, were added to the culture medium of A. annua suspension cultures, and their effects on artemisinin production were analysed. The effects of a joint cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate treatment were also investigated. Fifty millimolar DIMEB, as well as a combination of 50 mM DIMEB and 100 μM methyl jasmonate, was highly effective in increasing the artemisinin levels in the culture medium. The observed artemisinin level (27 μmol g(-1) dry weight) was about 300-fold higher than that observed in untreated suspensions. The influence of β-cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate on the expression of artemisinin biosynthetic genes was also investigated. PMID:21468706

  3. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  4. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una infusión de A. annua al 10% (v/v; las botellas fueron expuestas al sol durante mínimo 6 horas y se determinaron las variables temperatura del agua, radiación solar y turbidez. Se encontró que el tratamiento SODIS fue más eficiente en la remoción de los cuatro microorganismos que el tratamiento SODIS + A. annua. Las remociones más altas se encontraron a partir de las cuatro horas de exposición para las especies bacterianas en estado vegetativo.

  5. Studies on aerial parts of Artemisia pallens wall for phenol, flavonoid and evaluation of antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali D Ruikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. According to recent investigations, they may help reduce the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer due to antioxidant properties, which in turn can be attributed to the various phytoconstituents. With this intention, evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed. Methanol extract of aerial parts of Artemisia pallens Wall was screened for its antioxidant activity due to phenolic and flavonoid contents, by employing radical scavenging assays; 2,2 -diphenyl, 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. Quantitative determination of phenols and flavonoids were carried out using spectrophotometric method. Total flavonoid content was determined as quercetin equivalent and total phenolic content was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Plant produces more phenolic compounds than flavonoids. IC 50 value of methanol extract for DPPH free radical scavenging activity was found to be 292.7 μg, whereas for nitric oxide it was 204.61 μg. The result obtained in the present study indicates that the aerial parts of this plant are a rich source of natural antioxidants

  6. In vitro anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of different fractions of Artemisia armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-proliferative properties have been reported for certain species of the genus Artemisia.In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of n-hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O fractions obtained from a crude methanol extract of A. armeniaca on two myeloid cell lines, apoptosis-proficient HL60 cells and apoptosis-resistant K562 cells; in addition, J774 cells were used as a control. Among the solvent fractions of A. armeniaca, the CH2Cl2 fraction was found to have the largest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. The IC50 values obtained using an MTS assay for the CH2Cl2 fraction were 75 and 130 µg/ml for HL-60 cells and K562, respectively. The control cells were not significantly affected by this fraction. A flow cytometry histogram of cells treated with the CH2Cl2 fraction of A. armeniacarevealed a sub-G1 peak. DNA fragmentation, increased protein levels of Bax and cleavage of the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP protein confirmed the induction of apoptosis in cells after a 48-h exposure to the CH2Cl2 fraction. Our results corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 fraction of A. armeniaca on K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines.

  7. Characterization of a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) die-off on the Handford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site contains one of the few remaining contiguous areas of shrub-steppe habitat left in Washington State. This habitat is home to many native plant and wildlife species, some of which are threatened with extinction or are unique to the Site. The importance of the Hanford Site increases as other lands surrounding the Site are developed, and these native species and habitats are lost. Stands of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on the Site are a particularly important component of shrub-steppe habitat, because a number of wildlife require big sagebrush for food and cover. Since 1993, researchers and field biologists have made anecdotal observations of dying and declining sagebrush in stands of shrubs near the 100 Areas. This study was initiated to delineate and document the general boundary where sagebrush stands appear to be declining. We mapped the areal extent of the die-off using a global positioning system and found that the central portion of the die-off encompasses 280 hectares. Shrub stand defoliation was estimated to be near or greater than 80% in this area. The remainder of the die-off area exhibits varying mixtures of completely defoliated, partially defoliated, and healthy-looking stands. Declining sagebrush stands comprise a total of 1776 hectares

  8. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

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    Ainehchi Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and Chinese hamster ovary (Cho cell lines. Results: The A. lanata had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥ 200 μg/ml significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/ml (P < 0.010. Conclusion: Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. lanata in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  9. RNAi down-regulation of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase increases artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Vashisth, Divya; Misra, Amita; Akhtar, Md Qussen; Jalil, Syed Uzma; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Rout, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) converts trans-cinnamic acid (CA) to p-coumaric acid (COA) in the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway. Earlier we reported increased expression of AaCYP71AV1 (an important gene of artemisinin biosynthesis pathway) caused by CA treatment in Artemisia annua. Hence, AaC4H gene was identified, cloned, characterized and silenced in A. annua with the assumption that the elevated internal CA due to knock down may increase the artemisinin yield. Accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid in the plant due to AaC4H knockdown was accompanied with the reduction of p-coumaric acid, total phenolics, anthocyanin, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities but increase in salicylic acid (SA) and artemisinin. Interestingly, feeding trans-cinnamic acid to the RNAi line increased the level of artemisinin along with benzoic (BA) and SA with no effect on the downstream metabolites p-coumaric acid, coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, whereas p-coumaric acid feeding increased the content of downstream coniferylaldehyde and sinapaldehyde with no effect on BA, SA, trans-cinnamic acid or artemisinin. SA is reported earlier to be inducing the artemisinin yield. This report demonstrates the link between the phenylpropanoid/lignin pathway with artemisinin pathway through SA, triggered by accumulation of trans-cinnamic acid because of the blockage at C4H. PMID:27220407

  10. Effects of soil nitrogen:phosphorus ratio on growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To address how the ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus (N:P ratios) in soil affect plant growth, we performed a two-factor (soil available N:P ratios and plant density) randomized block pot experiment to examine the relationships between soil N:P ratios, and the N:P ratios and growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings. Under moderate water stress and adequate nutrient status, both soil N:P and plant density influenced the N:P ratios and growth rates of A. ordosica. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, the growth rates of A. ordosica seedlings decreased significantly. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings increased significantly. While the nitrogen concentrations in the plant increased slightly, the phosphorus concentrations significantly decreased. With the increase of plant density, the shoot N:P ratios and growth rates significantly decreased, which resulted from soil N:P ratios. Thus, soil N:P ratios influenced the N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings, and hence, influenced its growth. Our results suggest that, under adequate nutrient environment, soil N:P ratios can be a limiting factor for plant growth.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisinin and Precursor Derived from In Vitro Plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Appalasamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities.

  12. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  13. The essential oil of Artemisia capillaris protects against CCl4-induced liver injury in vivo

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    Qinghan Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the hepatoprotective effect of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris Thunb., Asteraceae, on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice, the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione peroxidase, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assayed. Administration of the essential oil of A. capillaris at 100 and 50 mg/kg to mice prior to CCl4 injection was shown to confer stronger in vivo protective effects and could observably antagonize the CCl4-induced increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and malondialdehyde levels as well as prevent CCl4-induced decrease in the antioxidant superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity (p < 0.01. The oil mainly contained β-citronellol, 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, thymol and myrcene. This finding demonstrates that the essential oil of A. capillaris can protect hepatic function against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice.

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  15. Effects of acetylation on the emulsifying properties of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjun; Hu, Xinzhong; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen

    2016-06-25

    In the present study, polysaccharides extracted from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. seeds (ASKP) were acetylated to improve the emulsifying properties of the macromolecules. Several methods were applied for the acetylation purpose, among which the acetic anhydride-pyridine method with formamide as solvent was found to be the most effective one. Acetylated ASKPs with various degree of substitution (DS) were successfully produced and structurally characterized using HPSEC-MALS, FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques in this study. Results showed that acetylation treatment could cause the degradation of ASKP. Moreover, with the increase of DS, both the molecular weight and radius of gyration increased, as well as the molecular conformation trended to be more compact. Low DS (DS: 0.04 and 0.13) conferred acetylated ASKP a lower viscosity than that of ASKP. With the increase of DS, the viscosity of acetylated ASKPs increased and exceeded that of ASKP. Compared with ASKP, acetylated ASKPs could reduce the surface tension to a greater extent and demonstrated a much smaller droplet size (ZD) in an oil/water emulsion system. Acetylated ASKPs were capable of stabilizing the oil/water emulsion for 3 days at 60°C, whose performance was as good as that of gum acacia. In conclusion, such a hydrophobic modification on ASKP conferred it better emulsifying properties. PMID:27083845

  16. Antimicrobial activity of artemisinin and precursor derived from in vitro plantlets of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalasamy, Suganthi; Lo, Kiah Yann; Ch'ng, Song Jin; Nornadia, Ku; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Chan, Lai-Keng

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., a medicinal herb, produces secondary metabolites with antimicrobial property. In Malaysia due to the tropical hot climate, A. annua could not be planted for production of artemisinin, the main bioactive compound. In this study, the leaves of three in vitro A. annua L. clones were, extracted and two bioactive compounds, artemisinin and a precursor, were isolated by thin layer chromatography. These compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but not Candida albicans. Their antimicrobial activity was similar to that of antibactericidal antibiotic streptomycin. They were found to inhibit the growth of the tested microbes at the minimum inhibition concentration of 0.09 mg/mL, and toxicity test using brine shrimp showed that even the low concentration of 0.09 mg/mL was very lethal towards the brine shrimps with 100% mortality rate. This study hence indicated that in vitro cultured plantlets of A. annua can be used as the alternative method for production of artemisinin and its precursor with antimicrobial activities. PMID:24575401

  17. Artemisinin evaluation in Romanian Artemisia annua wild plants using a new HPLC/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, B; Vlase, L; Corciova, A; Lazar, M I

    2011-04-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L., has received considerable attention in the last few decades as a potent antimalarial drug. Artemisinin has rather low toxicity; it is effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium species and against cerebral malaria. This study reports the development of a rapid and sensitive assay for the quantification of artemisinin in A. annua by reversed phase HPLC/MS. In the selected optimal experimental conditions, artemisinin exhibited a well-defined chromatographic peak with a retention time of 2 ± 0.2 min. The chromatographic signal shows a linear dependence with artemisinin concentration, enabling the use of this signal for artemisinin quantification according to the following regression equation: y = 2665.40x - 14697.61. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9989. For every concentration within the range of the standard curve (0.1-2 µg mL(-1)), accuracy was between 95 and 104%. Artemisinin content in Romanian A. annua wild plants varies between 0.17 and 0.21% (dry weight basis). PMID:21360406

  18. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  19. Protection of DNA during oxidative stress and cytotoxic potential of Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Rahman, Khalilur; Jahan, Nazish; Jamil, Amer; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites (alkoloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonides, steroids, etc.) and considered to be more effective and a safer alternative source to manage a variety of diseases related to liver, heart and kidney disordered. This study determines in vitro antioxidant and in vivo toxicological profile including hemolytic, brine shrimp lethality and mutagenicity of aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium. DNA protection assay was performed on pUC19 plasmid vector using H(2)O(2) as oxidative agent. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric methods. Toxicity of the plant was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality, hemolytic and mutagenic activity. DNA protection assay of the plant showed concentration dependent protective effect and at concentration 10μL/mL revealed complete protective effect against H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was found to be 167.3 (mg GAE 100g DW(-1)) and 14 (mg CE 100g DW(-1)) respectively. Results showed that A. absinthium is potent against standard toxicological procedures, that indicates the presence of bioactive components in the plant and possess antioxidant activity that protects DNA against H(2)O(2) induced oxidative damage. Thus the results showed/support that A. absinthium provides significant health benefits. PMID:27005506

  20. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivatedArtemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

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    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county. PMID:25898599

  2. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

  3. The Hypolipidemic Effects of Artemisia sieberi (A. herba-alba) in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Mansi; Masalmeh Amneh; Hamzah Nasr

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia sieberi aerial part in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Forty male Wister rats with body weight of 180-200 g divided into four groups two control and two experimental groups: Group 1-injected with physiological saline, group 2-received orally water extract of Artemisia sieberi (39 g kg-1 b.wt.) and served as control. Groups 3 and 4 including diabetic rats, group 3 received 10...

  4. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Artemisia judaica, A. herba-alba and A. arborescens from Libya

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    Janaćković Peđa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Artemisia judaica L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso. and Artemisia arborescens L. (cultivated from Libya, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antimicrobial properties were determined using the broth microdilution method against eight bacterial species: Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate, Micrococcus flavus (ATCC10240, Listeria monocytogenes (NCTC7973, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538, Escherichia coli (ATCC35210, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC13311, Enterobacter cloacae (human isolates and eight fungal species: Aspergillus niger (ATCC6275, A. ochraceus (ATCC12066, A. versicolor (ATCC11730, A. fumigatus (ATCC1022, Penicillium ochrochloron (ATCC9112, P. funiculosum (ATCC10509, Trichoderma viride (IAM5061 and Candida albicans (human isolate. The major constituents of A. arborescens oil were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (47.4%. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant constituents in the A. judaica and A. herba-alba oils (54.2% and 77.3%, respectively. Camphor (24.7% and chamazulene (20.9% were the major components in the essential oil of A. arborescens, chrysanthenone (20.8%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (17.6% and cis-thujone (13.6% dominated in the A. herba-alba oil, and the major constituents in the A. judaica oil were piperitone (30.21% and cis-chrysanthenol (9.1%. The best antimicrobial activity was obtained for A. judaica oil and the lowest effect was noticed in A. arborescens oil. The effect of the tested oils was higher against Gram (+ than Gram (- bacteria. All three oils showed the best antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and the lowest against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, compared to streptomycin and ampicillin. All three oils showed better antifungal activities than ketoconazole, except A. arborescens oil against Aspergillus niger. [Projekat Ministarstv nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  5. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  6. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

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    Yuan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies.

  7. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  8. An Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Enhances Insulin Receptor Signaling and Modulates Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle in KKay Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong Q.; RIBNICKY, DAVID; Zhang, Xian H.; Zuberi, Aamir; Raskin, Ilya; Yu, Yongmei; Cefalu, William T.

    2010-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (PMI-5011) has been observed to decrease glucose and insulin levels in animal models, but the cellular mechanisms by which insulin action is enhanced in vivo is not precisely known. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PMI-5011 to modulate gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle of KK-Ay mice. Eighteen male KK-Ay mice were randomized to a diet (W/W) mixed with PMI-5011 (1%) or diet alone for ...

  9. Effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate and 2-isopentenyladenine on artemisinin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    MEHRJERDI, Mahboobeh ZARE; BIHAMTA, Mohammad-Reza; OMIDI, Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in very low amounts in Artemisia annua L. plants, is one of the most effective drugs in treating malaria. In this study, the effect of exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP) in artemisinin production and the main genes of its biosynthesis pathway within a 1-week time period were investigated. Both MeJA and 2-iP increased artemisinin content, but no correlation was found between gene expression and its content. In plants treated ...

  10. Chemotaxonomic study of Artemisia. An approach based on multivariate statistics of skeletal types retrieved from essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Corinne Depege; Louisette Lizzani-Cuvelier; Michel Loiseau; Daniel Cabrol-Bass; Ferreira, Marcelo J. P.; Brant, Antônio J. C.; Júlio S.L.T. Militão; Emerenciano, Vicente P.

    2006-01-01

    Se describe el estudio de los aceites esenciales de especies de Artemisia basado en métodos estadísticos. La composición de los aceites esenciales de 48 especies se han clasificado en base a su contenido en determinados tipos de estructuras químicas de sus constituyentes. Las técnicas estadísticas usadas incluyen la regresión linear múltiple, el mínimo cuadrado parcial, el análisis de componentes principales y el análisis de clusters. Con ellas se intenta establecer relaciones entre la compos...

  11. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

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    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  12. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  13. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

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    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  15. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate. PMID:26822944

  16. Effects of sand burial on survival and growth of Artemisia halodendron and its physiological response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaLin Zhao; Hao Qu; RuiLian Zhou; JianYing Yun; Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of literature on the effects of sand burial upon the survival and growth of desert plants, but the physiological adaption mechanisms of desert plants to sand burial have as yet rarely been studied. Artemisia halodendron is widely distributed in the semi-arid deserts of China and is a dominant species in semi-moving dune vegetation. The growth and physiological properties of A. halodendron seedlings under different sand burial depths were studied in 2010 and 2011 in the Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia, to better understand the ability and physiological mechanism by which desert plants withstand sand burial. The results showed that A. halodendron as a prammophyte species had a stronger ability to withstand sand burial compared to non-prammophytes, with some plants still surviving even if buried to a depth reaching 225% of seedling height. Although seedling growth was inhibited significantly once the depth of sand burial reached 50%of the seedling height, seedling survival did not decrease significantly until the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. Sand burial did not result in significant water stress or MDA (Malondialdehyde) accumulation in the seedlings, but membrane permeability increased significantly when the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. After being subjected to sand burial stress, POD (Peroxidase) activity and proline content increased significantly, but SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and POD activities and soluble sugar content did not. The primary mechanism resulting in in-creased mortality and growth inhibition were that cell membranes were damaged and photosynthetic area decreased when subjected to the severe stress of sand burial, while proline and POD played key roles in osmotic adjustment and protecting cell membranes from damage, respectively.

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of an acid phosphatase from Artemisia vulgaris pollen extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An acid phosphatase from an extract of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris pollen was purified by a factor of 48 by a combination of ion exchange and gel-chromatography. The molecular weights of the enzyme were 76 kDa and 73 kDa, determined by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 sf column and by SDS PAGE (under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. In analytical isoelectrofocusing, the enzyme appears as two very close bands, pI at about 4.2. The optimum pH for the enzyme is 5.4. The apparent Km for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was estimated to be 0.16 mM. The purified enzyme has broad specificity, and hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl phosphate and a-naphthyl phosphate. Pyrophosphate and O-phospho-L-tyrosine were estimated to be the best substrates for this enzyme as potential in vivo substrates. The enzyme is inhibited competitively by phosphate (Ki = 1.25 mM, molybdate (Ki = 0.055 mM and pyrophosphate (Ki = 6.7 mM and non-competitively by fluoride (Ki = 9.8 mM. Metal ions such as Hg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ express an inhibitory effect on the enzyme, while the enzyme is slightly activated by non-ionic detergents, Tween 20 and Triton X-100. There is no change in the enzyme activity in the presence of tartrate, citrate, EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfhydryl-group modifiers such as p-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide.

  18. Antiherpevirus activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in Vero cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casu Laura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New prophylactic and therapeutic tools are needed for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections. Several essential oils have shown to possess antiviral activity in vitro against a wide spectrum of viruses. Aim The present study was assess to investigate the activities of the essential oil obtained from leaves of Artemisia arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Methods The cytotoxicity in Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The IC50 values were determined by plaque reduction assay. In order to characterize the mechanism of action, yield reduction assay, inhibition of plaque development assay, attachment assay, penetration assay and post-attachment virus neutralization assay were also performed. Results The IC50 values, determined by plaque reduction assay, were 2.4 and 4.1 μg/ml for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, while the cytotoxicity assay against Vero cells, as determined by the MTT reduction method, showed a CC50 value of 132 μg/ml, indicating a CC50/IC50 ratio of 55 for HSV-1 and 32.2 for HSV-2. The antiviral activity of A. arborescens essential oil is principally due to direct virucidal effects. A poor activity determined by yield reduction assay was observed against HSV-1 at higher concentrations when added to cultures of infected cells. No inhibition was observed by attachment assay, penetration assay and post-attachment virus neutralization assay. Furthermore, inhibition of plaque development assay showed that A. arborescens essential oil inhibits the lateral diffusion of both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Conclusion This study demonstrates the antiviral activity of the essential oil in toto obtained from A. arborescens against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The mode of action of the essential oil as antiherpesvirus agent seems to be particularly interesting in consideration of its ability to inactivate the virus and to inhibit the cell-to-cell virus diffusion.

  19. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  20. The impact of radioactive pollution to the growth and development of Artemisia Fragrans willd. Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Questions of plant resistance to the action of stress factors, increase plant productivity in difficult environments and relationships with other species attracted more and more close attention of researchers. The ability to hold certain types of ecological niches, belonging to that of a plant community and territory adaptation, suppressing the other, depends on the totality of the mechanisms responsible for the stability and competitiveness. Effective functioning defense mechanisms in plants are manifested in features of their structural organization and functions. It follows that the study of the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of a particular type of plant, the special physiology and biochemistry in their environment is important to identify the mechanisms underlying its adaptation to external factors. Such studies are important from the practical point of view. As an object of research in the given work, fragrant wormwood (Artemisia fragrans) has been selected. The fragrant wormwood seeds were sown in 3 litre pots under controlled laboratory conditions and in radioactive contaminated soils. The sown seeds were germinated after 6-7 days. The growth and development of seedlings were studied. The experiment soil was polluted by natural radionuclides. These radionuclides are K-40, Th-232, Ra-226. The radioactivity of contaminated soils in accordance with these radionuclides was 1440, 140 and 9150 Bk / kg, the exposure dose strength - 200 R / h . The soils that selected for the control and experimental plots were lands of Absheron, gray-brown soils. The working and care taking conditions were the same in both examples. Approximately 64 percent of the seeds in the radioactive contaminated soil were germinated and developed, but in the control soil the number was 47 percent. The bio metric sizes of sample plant were increased by 67 percent compared to control one after 30 days of sowing

  1. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  5. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  6. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  7. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  8. What determines a leaf's shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhar, Jeremy; Pareek, Ashwani

    2014-01-01

    The independent origin and evolution of leaves as small, simple microphylls or larger, more complex megaphylls in plants has shaped and influenced the natural composition of the environment. Significant contributions have come from megaphyllous leaves, characterized usually as flat, thin lamina entrenched with photosynthetic organelles and stomata, which serve as the basis of primary productivity. During the course of evolution, the megaphylls have attained complexity not only in size or venation patterns but also in shape. This has fascinated scientists worldwide, and research has progressed tremendously in understanding the concept of leaf shape determination. Here, we review these studies and discuss the various factors that contributed towards shaping the leaf; initiated as a small bulge on the periphery of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) followed by asymmetric outgrowth, expansion and maturation until final shape is achieved. We found that the underlying factors governing these processes are inherently genetic: PIN1 and KNOX1 are indicators of leaf initiation, HD-ZIPIII, KANADI, and YABBY specify leaf outgrowth while ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR5 control leaf expansion and maturation; besides, recent research has identified new players such as APUM23, known to specify leaf polarity. In addition to genetic control, environmental factors also play an important role during the final adjustment of leaf shape. This immense amount of information available will serve as the basis for studying and understanding innovative leaf morphologies viz. the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes which have evolved to provide additional support to the plant survival in its nutrient-deficient habitat. In hindsight, formation of the pitcher tube in Nepenthes might involve the recruitment of similar genetic mechanisms that occur during sympetaly in Petunia. PMID:25584185

  9. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  10. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safeload of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

  11. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreas...

  12. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: In vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  13. SLN as a topical delivery system for Artemisia arborescens essential oil: in vitro antiviral activity and skin permeation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; De Logu, Alessandro; Zaru, Marco; Müller, Rainer H; Fadda, Anna M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot-pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control. Results showed that both SLN formulations were able to entrap the essential oil in high yields and that the mean particle size increased only slightly after two years of storage, indicating a high physical stability. In vitro antiviral assays showed that SLN incorporation did not affect the essential oil antiherpetic activity. The in vitro skin permeation experiments demonstrated the capability of SLN of greatly improving the oil accumulation into the skin, while oil permeation occurred only when the oil was delivered from the control solution. PMID:18019840

  14. ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS, PUNICA GRANATUM AND BERBERIS VULGARIS INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON PLATELET ADHESION AND COAGULATION FACTORS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Razieh Yazdanparast et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive platelet activity is one of the most important factors responsible for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and, also, play important role in coagulation cascade. In this study, the comparative effects of methanol extracts of three herbs on adhesion of the activated platelets to fibrinogen coated plates and clotting factors were investigated. Artemisia dracunculus, Punica granatum and Brberis vulgaris are used as blood anti-coagulatory plants in Iranian folk medicine. Platelets were prepared and incubated with different concentration of the test samples (50-200 μg/ml for 60 min. The treated and un-treated platelets were then activated with thrombin (0.25U/ml and their adhesions to fibrinogen coated plates were investigated. Based on obtained data, the methanol extract of Artemisia dracunculus, Brberis vulgaris and Punica granatum at a concentration of 200 μg /ml reduced platelet adhesion to coated wells by 35%, 25% and 20%, respectively. In addition, the effects of the crude extracts of each plant on atherogenic lipoproteins were also examined. The results indicated that the LDL and cholesterol concentration were dramatically reduced by 56% and 36%, respectively, by B. vulgaris. This result provided the scientific basis for the traditional use of A.dracunculus and B. vulgaris in treatment of cardiovascular related disorders.

  15. Development of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Quantification of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua and Rat Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suqin; Cui, Yongliang; Wang, Kunbi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Guiyu; Wang, Baomin; Cui, Liwang

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin, extracted from Artemisia annua, and its derivatives are important frontline antimalarials. To produce specific antibodies for the detection and quantification of artemisinin, artemisinin was transformed to 9-hydroxyartemisinin by microbial fermentation, which was used to prepare a 9-succinate artemisinin hapten for conjugation with ovalbumin. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated as 3H7A10, was selected from hybridoma cell lines which showed high specificity to artemisinin. No competitive inhibition was observed with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether for up to 20,000 ng mL(-1). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed, which showed a concentration causing 50% of inhibition (IC50) for artemisinin as 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a working range of 0.6-11.5 ng mL(-1). The icELISA was applied for the quantification of artemisinin in crude extracts of wild A. annua and the study of pharmacokinetics of artemisinin in rat serum after intraperitoneal injection. The results were highly correlated with those determined by HPLC-UV analysis (R(2) = 0.9919). In comparison with reported antiartemisinin mAbs which have broad cross-reactivity with other artemisinin derivatives, the high specificity of 3H7A10 for artemisinin will enable development of methods for quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia plants and antimalarial drugs such as Arco and for pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:26822789

  16. Essential oil compositions, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various populations of Artemisia chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill., Asteraceae, has been used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumor. This study determined the variation in chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of A. chamaemelifolia collected at two phenological stages within five natural habitats in northern Iran.The highest oil yield was obtained from the Shahkoh population with 1.10 ml/100g dry matter harvested at the 50% flowering stage. The highest values of 1,8-cineole (31.82% was obtained from the Pelor population at the 50% flowering stage.The highest percentages of artemisia ketone (12.27%, camphor (17.21%, and borneol (13.50% were obtained from the Kandovan population, harvested before flowering. The highest content of chrysanthenone (18.14% was obtained from the Gadok population before flowering. The essential oil of the Kandovan population harvested at the 50% flowering stage had the highest percentages of Davanone D (28.44% and Davanone (28.88%. The A. chamaemelifolia oils inhibited the growth of four bacterial pathogens, while these same oils exhibit weak antioxidant (DPPH activity. The results indicated A. chamaemelifolia contained three chemotypes: 1,8-cineole, davanone and/or Davanone D, and chrysanthenone. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils obtained from various populations of A. chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages may be significant from a pharmaceutical stand point.

  17. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  18. In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    Aymé Fernández-Calienes Valdés; Judith Mendiola Martínez; Ramón Scull Lizama; Marieke Vermeersch; Paul Cos; Louis Maes

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were...

  19. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life. PMID:24112571

  20. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  1. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N;

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative...

  2. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials...

  3. The Studies of Artemisia ordosica Silage%油蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Arternisia ordosica was used as silage with and without additives. Results showed that showed that the properties of silage were marked as 17 and 18 by sensory evaluations without additives and with additives, respectively. The pH value of silage without additives and silage adding additives were 5.15 and 4.59 respectively. Additives can increase pH value, lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) contents. Silage without additives has less propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) than those with additives. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage with no additive was qualified silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality indicate that Arternisia ordosica can make silage without additive.%以油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)为原料,通过加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨油蒿的可青贮性.结果表明:直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为17和18分,达到了优良等级.添加剂青贮pH为4.59,直接青贮pH为5.15,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,而丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比也表现为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为41分合格,而添加剂青贮为39分不合格.综合感官性状、发酵品质,油蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮更好.

  4. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.A.A.

    2005-11-07

    Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants. Hot air batch drying is the most common drying method for these plants but affects the essential oil content and color. The drying conditions affect essential oil content and color as well as the energy consumption and costs. Process engineers and farmers need to know how they have to dry to obtain the best quality. The objective of this work is to investigate the conditions for optimal drying in terms of quality, energy consumption and costs. Adsorption and desorption experiments were done to find the equilibrium moisture content and water exchange between the material and surrounding air during drying and storage at temperatures of 25C to 70C and relative humidities of 5% to 90%. Drying of tarragon leaves and chopped plants was investigated separately and the best model was selected from the drying equations in literature. The effect of drying temperature and relative humidity on the essential oil content and color change was studied. Experiments were done at temperatures of 40C to 90C and the optimal conditions were. Long-term effects of the drying conditions were also investigated during the storage time. Material dried at 45, 60 and 90C was stored and the essential oil content and color of the material was measured after 15, 30, 60 and 120 days of storage. Drying at 45C was found as the best condition based on the changes of essential oil and color during drying and storage. Optimization of drying of tarragon was studied based on the results of the sorption isotherms, drying equations and the changes of essential oil content and color during drying and storage. Models were made for the drying process, energy consumption and cost calculation. The current conditions

  5. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  6. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  7. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Garland; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1), 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2), scopoletin (3), α-amyrin (4), phytol (5), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6). The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans), Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1-6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin) which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC(50) value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL). Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC(50) of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC(50) value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC(50) values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22693528

  8. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  9. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  10. Functional relationships of leafing intensity to plant height, growth form and leaf habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-Rong; Milla, Rubén; Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Leafing intensity, i.e. the number of leaves per unit of stem volume or mass, is a common developmental correlate of leaf size. However, the ecological significance and the functional implications of variation in leafing intensity, other than its relation to leaf size, are unknown. Here, we explore its relationships with plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit to test a series of corollaries derived from the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. Volume-based leafing intensities and plant heights were recorded for 109 woody species from the subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests of eastern China. In addition, we compiled leafing intensity data from published literature, and combined it with our data to form a 398 species dataset, to test for differences of leafing intensity between plant growth forms (i.e. herbaceous and woody) and leaf habits (i.e. deciduous and evergreens). Leafing intensity was negatively correlated with plant height and individual leaf mass. Volume-based leafing intensities were significantly higher in herbaceous species than in woody species, and also higher in deciduous than in evergreen woody species. In conclusion, leafing intensity relates strongly to plant height, growth form, leaf size, and leaf habit in directions generally in accordance to the leafing intensity premium hypothesis. These results can be interpreted in terms of the evolution of adaptive strategies involving response to herbivory, competitive ability for light and reproductive economy.

  11. How to pattern a leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, N; O'Connor, D; Moon, J; Lewis, M; Hake, S

    2012-01-01

    Leaf development presents a tremendous resource for tackling the question of patterning in biology. Leaves can be simple or highly dissected. They may have elaborated parts such as the tendrils of a pea leaf or the rolled blade of a carnivorous pitcher plant. Despite the variation in size, shape, and function, all leaves initiate in the same manner: from the flanks of a meristem. The maize leaf is useful for analysis of patterning due to the wealth of mutants and the distinct tissues along the proximal distal axis. The blade is distal, the sheath is proximal, and the ligule forms at the blade/sheath boundary. Establishment of this boundary involves the transcription factors LIGULELESS1 and LIGULELESS2 and the kinase LIGULELESS NARROW. The meristem-specific protein KNOTTED1 (KN1) binds and modulates the lg2 gene. Given the localization of KN1 at the proximal end of the leaf from the time of inception, we hypothesize that KN1 has a role in establishing the very proximal end of the leaf, whereas an auxin maximum guides the growing distal tip. PMID:23174765

  12. 冷蒿的青贮特性研究%The Studies on Character of ArtemisiaFrigida Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 米艳杰; 陈士超; 孙启忠; 王田歌

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia frigida was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were nice and good , the mark were 16 and 13 respectively in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive .The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.20 and 5.22 respectively. The addition of the additive can’t increase content of LA and AA . Content of BA and PA in silage without adding additive less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg’s evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a bad silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that Artemisia scoparia can make silage, makingArtemisia frigida silage without adding additive was the best way.%以冷蒿(Artemisiafrigida)为原料,通过直接青贮和使用添加剂青贮,研究其青贮特性。研究结果表明:直接青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.20,感官品质达到优良等级,感官评分为16分;使用添加剂青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.22,感官质量尚好,感官评分为13分。直接青贮的乳酸和乙酸含量高于添加剂青贮,丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比、氨态氮占总氮的百分比低于添加添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮冷蒿为65分,质量良好,而使用添加剂青贮冷蒿为37分,青贮质量达到合格。综合感官性状和发酵品质的评定,结论为冷蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮的方法更好。

  13. Analysis of Peanut Leaf Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, R.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, T.

    2010-01-01

    approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel....... Furthermore, the leaf proteome map will lead to development of protein markers for cultivar identification at seedling stage of the plant. Overall, this study will contribute to improve our understanding of plant genetics and metabolism, and overall assist in the selection and breeding programs geared toward...

  14. Biophysical control of leaf temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, N.; Prentice, I. C.; Wright, I. J.

    2014-12-01

    In principle sunlit leaves can maintain their temperatures within a narrower range than ambient temperatures. This is an important and long-known (but now overlooked) prediction of energy balance theory. Net radiation at leaf surface in steady state (which is reached rapidly) must be equal to the combination of sensible and latent heat exchanges with surrounding air, the former being proportional to leaf-to-air temperature difference (ΔT), the latter to the transpiration rate. We present field measurements of ΔT which confirm the existence of a 'crossover temperature' in the 25-30˚C range for species in a tropical savanna and a tropical rainforest environment. This finding is consistent with a simple representation of transpiration as a function of net radiation and temperature (Priestley-Taylor relationship) assuming an entrainment factor (ω) somewhat greater than the canonical value of 0.26. The fact that leaves in tropical forests are typically cooler than surrounding air, often already by solar noon, is consistent with a recently published comparison of MODIS day-time land-surface temperatures with air temperatures. Theory further predicts a strong dependence of leaf size (which is inversely related to leaf boundary-layer conductance, and therefore to absolute magnitude of ΔT) on moisture availability. Theoretically, leaf size should be determined by either night-time constraints (risk of frost damage to active leaves) or day-time constraints (risk of heat stress damage),with the former likely to predominate - thereby restricting the occurrence of large leaves - at high latitudes. In low latitudes, daytime maximum leaf size is predicted to increase with temperature, provided that water is plentiful. If water is restricted, however, transpiration cannot proceed at the Priestley-Taylor rate, and it quickly becomes advantageous for plants to have small leaves, which do not heat up much above the temperature of their surroundings. The difference between leaf

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  16. A leaf detection method using image sequences and leaf movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Besides harvesting the fruits, a very time demanding task is removing old leaves from cucumber and tomato plants grown in greenhouses. To be able to automate this process by a robot, a leaf detection method is required. One possibility for the detection is to exploit the different dynamic behaviour

  17. Life form-specific gradients in compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of modern leaf waxes along a North American Monsoonal transect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Melissa A; Tipple, Brett J; Hambach, Bastian; Ehleringer, James R

    2015-12-01

    The use of hydrogen isotope ratios (δ(2)H) of sedimentary n-alkanes from leaf waxes has become an important tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental and ancient hydrologic conditions. Studies of modern plant waxes can elucidate driving ecological mechanisms behind geologic deposits. Here, we used a transect across the North American Monsoon region of the western USA from Tucson, Arizona to Salt Lake City, Utah to study variations in leaf wax δ(2)H among co-occurring plants. Three co-occurring life forms were selected: perennial shrub (rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus; sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata); tree (Gambel's oak tree, Quercus gambelii); and annual (sunflower, Helianthus annuus). Our results showed that the distributions and abundances of n-alkanes in perennial plants were similar across all sites and generally did not vary with environmental conditions (e.g., precipitation and temperature). In contrast, variations in n-alkane δ(2)H were significantly correlated with the fraction of the annual precipitation coming during the summer monsoon period. We use a modified Craig-Gordon model to speculate on the possible drivers of the δ(2)H values of leaf wax n-alkanes of plants across the region. The model results suggest that the most likely explanation for variation in wax δ(2)H values was a combination of seasonal source water usage and subsequent environmental conditions. PMID:26310435

  18. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  19. Chemical composition and antiproliferative activity of essential oil from aerial parts of a medicinal herb Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Tilaoui

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Asteraceae, is widely used in Morrocan folk medicine for the treatment of different health disorders. However, no scientific or medical studies were carried out to assess the cytotoxicity of A. herba-alba essential oil against cancer cell lines. In this study, eighteen volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis of the essential oil obtained from the plant's aerial parts. The main volatile constituent in A. herba-alba was found to be a monoterpene, Verbenol, contributing to about 22% of the total volatile components. The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against the acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CEM cell line, with 3 µg/mL as IC50 value. The anticancer bioactivity of Moroccan A. herba-alba essential oil is described here for the first time.

  20. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  1. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  2. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  3. A method to improve leaf succulence quantification

    OpenAIRE

    André Mantovani

    1999-01-01

    Leaf succulence has important physiological and ecological implications. Currently it is quantified by Delf's index (fresh weight/leaf area) and fresh weight/ dry weight ratio. Both indeces are reconsidered and a new index is proposed. Shade and sun leaves from terrestrial, hemiepiphytic and epiphytic aroids were studied. Delf's formula, which does not consider dry weight, overestimated leaf succulence. As fresh weight / dry weight ratio (fw / dw) does not consider leaf area, plants with the ...

  4. Analysis of Circadian Leaf Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Niels A; Jiménez-Gómez, José M

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular timekeeper that controls a wide variety of biological processes. In plants, clock outputs range from the molecular level, with rhythmic gene expression and metabolite content, to physiological processes such as stomatal conductance or leaf movements. Any of these outputs can be used as markers to monitor the state of the circadian clock. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, much of the current knowledge about the clock has been gained from time course experiments profiling expression of endogenous genes or reporter constructs regulated by the circadian clock. Since these methods require labor-intensive sample preparation or transformation, monitoring leaf movements is an interesting alternative, especially in non-model species and for natural variation studies. Technological improvements both in digital photography and image analysis allow cheap and easy monitoring of circadian leaf movements. In this chapter we present a protocol that uses an autonomous point and shoot camera and free software to monitor circadian leaf movements in tomato. PMID:26867616

  5. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25017866

  6. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2277 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526...

  8. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole or broken leaves. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022...

  12. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  13. 7 CFR 29.1162 - Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Green Leaf Immature, tight leaf structure, fleshy, lean in oil, narrow. Uniformity, 70 percent... Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, weak color intensity, narrow... Quality Lemon Leaf Ripe, firm leaf structure, medium body, lean in oil, weak color intensity,...

  14. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  15. Characterization of Nutritional Composition, Antioxidative Capacity, and Sensory Attributes of Seomae Mugwort, a Native Korean Variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyeom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated Seomae mugwort (a Korean native mugwort variety of Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot, exclusively cultivated in the southern Korean peninsula, and the possibility of its use as a food resource. In the present study, we compared the nutritional and chemical properties as well as sensory attributes of Seomae mugwort and the commonly consumed species Artemisia princeps Pamp. In comparison with A. princeps, Seomae mugwort had higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and essential amino acids. In addition, Seomae mugwort had better radical scavenging activity and more diverse volatile compounds than A. princeps as well as favorable sensory attributes when consumed as tea. Given that scant information is available regarding the Seomae mugwort and its biological, chemical, and sensory characteristics, the results herein may provide important characterization data for further industrial and research applications of this mugwort variety.

  16. Comparison of Linear and Non-Linear Regression Models to Estimate Leaf Area Index of Dryland Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, H.; Glenn, N. F.; Ilangakoon, N. T.; Mitchell, J.; Dhakal, S.; Spaete, L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter in global ecosystem studies. LAI is considered a forcing variable in land surface processing models since ecosystem dynamics are highly correlated to LAI. In response to environmental limitations, plants in semiarid ecosystems have smaller leaf area, making accurate estimation of LAI by remote sensing a challenging issue. Optical remote sensing (400-2500 nm) techniques to estimate LAI are based either on radiative transfer models (RTMs) or statistical approaches. Considering the complex radiation field of dry ecosystems, simple 1-D RTMs lead to poor results, and on the other hand, inversion of more complex 3-D RTMs is a demanding task which requires the specification of many variables. A good alternative to physical approaches is using methods based on statistics. Similar to many natural phenomena, there is a non-linear relationship between LAI and top of canopy electromagnetic waves reflected to optical sensors. Non-linear regression models can better capture this relationship. However, considering the problem of a few numbers of observations in comparison to the feature space (nnon-linear regression techniques were investigated to estimate LAI. Our study area is located in southwestern Idaho, Great Basin. Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp) serves a critical role in maintaining the structure of this ecosystem. Using a leaf area meter (Accupar LP-80), LAI values were measured in the field. Linear Partial Least Square regression and non-linear, tree based Random Forest regression have been implemented to estimate the LAI of sagebrush from hyperspectral data (AVIRIS-ng) collected in late summer 2014. Cross validation of results indicate that PLS can provide comparable results to Random Forest.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    OpenAIRE

    Qinghu Wang; Jinmei Jin; Nayintai Dai; Narenchaoketu Han; Jingjing Han; Baiyinmuqier Bao

    2016-01-01

    The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects ag...

  18. Use of essential oils, supercritical extracts and aqueous residues generated during a process for obtaining organic extracts from the Artemisia Absinthium L. plant

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, Mª Fé; Díaz, Carmen E.; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Cabrera, Raimundo; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The present invention starts with a method for obtaining organic extracts of the Artemisia absinthium L. plant, which includes: a methodology phase for producing said plant, an extraction phase during which said essential oil and a non-volatile extract are obtained, and a phase of extracting supercritical extracts with CO2, and refers specifically to the use of the essential oil and/or the supercritical extract extracted as fungicides against phytopathogenic fungi. For said purpose, the ...

  19. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Long-Zen Chang; Kuang-Hway Yih; Hsiao-Fen Wang; Huey-Chun Huang; Tsong-Min Chang

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the es...

  20. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Ismail; Shahid Iqbal; Umer Younas; Kim Wei Chan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of differen...

  1. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Netsanet Worku; Andualem Mossie; August Stich; Arwid Daugschies; Susanne Trettner; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Gerd Birkenmeier

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behav...

  2. The relationship of leaf photosynthetic traits - V cmax and J max - to leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus, and specific leaf area: a meta-analysis and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P; Beckerman, Andrew P; Gu, Lianhong; Kattge, Jens; Cernusak, Lucas A; Domingues, Tomas F; Scales, Joanna C; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Wullschleger, Stan D; Woodward, F Ian

    2014-08-01

    Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting. PMID:25473475

  3. LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping. PMID:23380664

  4. INVESTIGATION OF STRESSES IN MASTER LEAF OF LEAF SPRING BY FEM AND ITS EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. B. Charde; Dr. D. V. Bhope

    2012-01-01

    The main component of leaf spring is master leaf and it is subjected to cyclic loading. There are many causes of master leaf failure. The maximum stress induced in the master leaf is at support. Due to non geometric linearity and large deflection behavior the stress may be occurred at any section over the span of leaf spring. Hence inthis work evaluation of stresses in master leaf over the span is studied using finite element method and strain gauge technique. The stress analysis of half cant...

  5. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  6. In-Vitro Assessment of the Acaricidal Properties of Artemisia Annua and Zataria Multiflora Essential Oils to Control Cattle Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect' of Zataria multiflora and Ar­temisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus.Methods: This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veteri­nary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3 of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus annula­tus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were re­corded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi. Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Meas­ures Analysis of Variance, and compari­son of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure.Results: The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3 to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3 and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively by the end of the experiment (36 hpi. No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. an­nua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essen­tial oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged fe­male ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent.Conclusion: Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus annulatus in vitro.

  7. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Chuan Li; Ding-Ming Kang; Zhang-Liang Chen; Li-Jia Qu

    2007-01-01

    Leaf morphogenesis is strictly controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors, such as transcriptional factors, but also by environmental cues, such as light, water and pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of how leaf rnorphogenesis is regulated by genetic programs and environmental cues is far from clear. Numerous series of events demonstrate that plant hormones, mostly small and simple molecules,play crucial roles in plant growth and development, and in responses of plants to environmental cues such as light. With more and more genetics and molecular evidence obtained from the model plant Arabidopsis,several fundamental aspects of leaf rnorphogenesis including the initiation of leaf primordia, the determination of leaf axes, the regulation of cell division and expansion in leaves have been gradually unveiled.Among these phytohormones, auxin is found to be essential in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis.

  8. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Arun*1,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7 with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application. hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid composite material in automobile leaf spring application.

  9. Leaf meristems: an easily ignored component of the response to human disturbance in alpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiangtao; Ma, Xingxing; Wang, Xiaodan

    2016-04-01

    Grazing and fencing are two important factors that influence productivity and biomass allocation in alpine grasslands. The relationship between root (R) and shoot (S) biomass and the root:shoot ratio (R/S) are critical parameters for estimating the terrestrial carbon stocks and biomass allocation mechanism responses to human activities. Previous studies have often used the belowground:aboveground biomass ratio (M b/M a) to replace the R/S in alpine ecosystems. However, these studies may have neglected the leaf meristem biomass, which belongs to the shoot but occurs below the soil surface, leading to a significant overestimation of the R/S ratio. We conducted a comparative study to explore the differences between the R/S and M b/M a at both the species (Stipa purpurea, Carex moorcroftii, and Artemisia nanschanica) and community levels on a Tibetan alpine grassland with grazing and fencing management blocks. The results revealed that the use of the M b/M a to express the R/S appeared to overestimate the actual value of the R/S, both at species and community levels. For S. purpurea, the M b/M a was three times higher than the R/S. The M b/M a was approximately two times higher than the R/S for the species of C. moorcroftii and A. nanschanica and at the community level. The relationships between the R-S and M b-M a exhibited different slopes for the alpine plants across all the management practices. Compared to the fenced grasslands, the plants in the grazing blocks not only allocated more biomass to the roots but also to the leaf meristems. The present study highlights the contribution of leaf meristems to the accurate assessment of shoot and belowground biomasses. The R/S and M b/M a should be cautiously used in combination in the future research. The understanding of the distinction between the R-S and M b-M a may help to improve the biomass allocation mechanism response to human disturbances in an alpine area. PMID:27110348

  10. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  11. Comparative leaf anatomy of Heisteria (Olacaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, P; Kool, R.

    1983-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of all 33 species of Heisteria is described, based on a study of 143 specimens. There is a considerable amount of diversity in stomatal type (anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, laterocytic or paracytic), in occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, and of fibre bundles along the leaf margin. Outline and thickness of anticlinal epidermal cell walls, cuticle thickness, crystal complement, and stomatal size also vary, but often below the species level. The leaf anatomical div...

  12. Anaerobic Capacities of Leaf Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Kusel, K.; Drake, H L

    1996-01-01

    Leaf litter displayed a capacity to spontaneously form organic acids, alcohols, phenolic compounds, H(inf2), and CO(inf2) when incubated anaerobically at 20(deg)C either as buffered suspensions or in a moistened condition in microcosms. Acetate was the predominant organic product formed regardless of the degree of litter decomposition. Initial rates of acetate formation in litter suspensions and microcosms approximated 2.6 and 0.53 (mu)mol of acetate per g (dry weight) of litter per h, respec...

  13. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  14. Habitat Effect on Allometry of a Xeric Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch in the Mu Us Desert of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and aboveground biomass (AGB of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for desert shrubland, but their validity for biomass estimation has not been tested at a region scale with different habitats. To verify the validity of habitat-specific models, general models (combining data from all habitats/sites, and previously developed models for biomass prediction, we developed both general models and habitat-specific models for aboveground biomass and ANPP of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, a dominant shrub of the Mu Us Desert. Our results showed that models based on crown area or canopy volume consistently explained large parts of the variations in aboveground biomass and ANPP. Model fitting highlighted that general allometric models were inadequate across different habitats, and habitat-specific models were useful for that specific habitat. Previous models might be inappropriate for other sites because of site quality differences. There was a strong habitat effect on the allometric relationships of A. ordosica. Although our study is a case in point, the results indicate that allometric models for desert shrubs should be used with caution and require robust validation if adopted from other studies or applied to different sites/habitats.

  15. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  16. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  17. The jasmonate-responsive AaMYC2 transcription factor positively regulates artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Yan, Tingxiang; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Zhang, Fangyuan; Pan, Qifang; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2016-06-01

    The plant Artemisia annua is well known due to the production of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone that is widely used in malaria treatment. Phytohormones play important roles in plant secondary metabolism, such as jasmonic acid (JA), which can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Nevertheless, the JA-inducing mechanism remains poorly understood. The expression of gene AaMYC2 was rapidly induced by JA and AaMYC2 binds the G-box-like motifs within the promoters of gene CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which are key structural genes in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Overexpression of AaMYC2 in A. annua significantly activated the transcript levels of CYP71AV1 and DBR2, which resulted in an increased artemisinin content. By contrast, artemisinin content was reduced in the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants in which the expression of AaMYC2 was suppressed. Meanwhile, the RNAi transgenic A. annua plants showed lower sensitivity to methyl jasmonate treatment than the wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that AaMYC2 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis and is of great value in genetic engineering of A. annua for increased artemisinin production. PMID:26864531

  18. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology. PMID:25871856

  19. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold, Q9 (3-fold and Q10 (2.5-fold. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules.

  20. Enhanced production of bioactive isoprenoid compounds from cell suspension cultures of Artemisia annua L. using β-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  1. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Francesca; De Paolis, Angelo; Durante, Miriana; Blando, Federica; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs) for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB) on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold), Q9 (3-fold) and Q10 (2.5-fold). Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules. PMID:25338048

  2. Efficient In Vitro Propagation by Ex Vitro Rooting Methods of Artemisia absinthium L., an Ethnobotanically Important Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an important medicinal plant. Owing to the increasing anthropogenic activities and demand from the pharmaceutical industry, this plant species is overexploited; thereby this endangered its genetic stock in the wild. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop nonconventional methods for conservation of A. absinthium. Nodal segments obtained from the field grown 2-month-old plants were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.25 mg/L kinetin (Kn were reported to be optimum for induction of shoots (6.0 ± 0.52 shoots per explant. The shoots were multiplied by repeated transfer of original explants and by subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium augmented with 1.0 mg/L each of BAP and Kn and 0.1 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. All in vitro regenerated shoots (100% were rooted (4.4 ± 0.35 roots on one-fourth strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. Cent percentage shoots rooted ex vitro on sterile Soilrite under the greenhouse conditions when the shoots were treated with 200 mg/L of IBA for 5 min. Plantlets rooted in vitro and ex vitro were acclimatized successfully in the greenhouse and exhibited 87% and 95% survival rate.

  3. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  5. Identification of Eupatilin from Artemisia argyi as a Selective PPARα Agonist Using Affinity Selection Ultrafiltration LC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50. Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals.

  6. The infrared emissivities of soil and Artemisia tridentata and subsequent temperature corrections in a shrub-steppe ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of plant and soil temperatures using remote sensing technology is examined in a shrub-steppe ecosystem. The emissivities of Artemisia tridentata L. shrubs and the soil surface were examined in such an ecosystem. The emissivity of A. tridentata plants was calculated to be 0.97, which is in the range of reported values for other green plants. The soil emissivity was 0.93. Temperature readings from an infrared thermometer (IRT) must be corrected for the emissivity value of the target and the reflected sky radiation. Although these two factors produce errors which are opposite in sign, they will not offset one another. An analysis is presented which quantifies the temperature error resulting from ignoring the corrections. The error is negligible only for emissivity values greater than 0.98. The error is proportional to temperature, and increases rapidly with decreases in emissivity. The true emissivities must be determined, and the above corrections must be calculated in order to obtain accurate temperatures in an ecosystem from remote sensing methods

  7. Artemisia arborescens Essential Oil Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antimicrobial Activity from Different Wild Populations from the Mediterranean Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Militello, Marcello; Saia, Sergio; Settanni, Luca; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Bombarda, Isabelle; Vanloot, Pierre; Roussel, Christian; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 - 98.8% of the total EO. All EOs showed a similar terpene profile, which was rich in chamazulene, β-thujone, and camphor. However, the concentration of such compounds varied among the EOs. A. arborescens EO inhibited up to 83.3% of the L. monocytogenes strains, but the inhibitory spectrum varied among the EOs, with those from Algeria showing a higher inhibition degree than the Italian EOs. Such effect likely depended on the ketone (β-thujone + camphor) content of the EO. The differences in the EO composition support the hypothesis that A. arborescens has at least two different chemotypes: a β-thujone and a chamazulene type. The EO inhibitory spectrum indicates the A. arborescens EO as a valuable option in the control of the food-borne pathogens. PMID:27447740

  8. Effects of surface cracks on the rhizospheric microhabitat of Artemisia ordosica in subsidence area caused by coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao DU; Yin-Li BI; Fei GAO; Wei-Ling LV

    2013-01-01

    The effects of surface cracks caused by underground coal mining on microhabitat in the rhizosphere of Artemisia ordosias were studied based on field investigation and sample analysis.The results show that the amounts of microorganisms,enzyme activity and water content in soil vary with the biomass ofA.ordosias,and that the account exhibits in an order of large A.ordosias>medium A.ordosias>small A.ordosias.Surface cracks apparently decrease microbial quantities and enzymatic activities,and change the composition and structure of microbial community in the rhizosphere of A.ordosias.Surface cracks reduce water content and electrical conductivity,enhance the R/S (ratio of root and soil) of water content,electrical conductivity and pH value,and raise the content of Na and Pb in rhizosphere soil of A.ordosicas.It can be concluded that the disturbance of underground coal mining on the microhabitat in the rhizosphere ofA.ordosica is obvious in the early days.

  9. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  10. Leaf hydraulic conductance in relation to anatomical and functional traits during Populus tremula leaf ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasamaa, Krõõt; Niinemets, Ulo; Sõber, Anu

    2005-11-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) and several characteristics of hydraulic architecture and physiology were measured during the first 10 weeks of leaf ontogeny in Populus tremula L. saplings growing under control, mild water deficit or elevated temperature conditions. During the initial 3 weeks of leaf ontogeny, most measured characteristics rapidly increased. Thereafter, a gradual decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with a decrease in leaf osmotic potential under all conditions, and with increases in leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity under mild water deficit and control conditions. From about Week 3 onward, K(leaf) was 33% lower in trees subjected to mild water deficit and 33% higher in trees held at an elevated temperature relative to control trees. Mild water deficit and elevated temperature treatment had significant and opposite effects on most of the other characteristics measured. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was correlated positively with the width of xylem conduits in the midrib, but negatively with the overall width of the midrib xylem, number of lateral ribs, leaf dry mass per area and bulk modulus of elasticity. The ontogenetic maximum in K(leaf) was also correlated positively with the proportion of intercellular spaces and leaf osmotic potential, but negatively with leaf thickness, volume of mesophyll cells and epidermis and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume, the closest relationships being between leaf osmotic potential and number of cells per total mesophyll cell volume. It was concluded that differences in protoplast traits are more important than differences in xylem or parenchymal cell wall traits in determining the variability in K(leaf) among leaves growing under different environmental conditions. PMID:16105808

  11. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van, M.; Struik, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplanted at 18/12 or 26/20°C (tuber production phase, 6 weeks). Boosts in leaf area increase and leaf appearance occurred in the first days after planting to soil. A shock in leaf area increase occurred...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2530 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2530 Leaf structure. The cell development of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2530 Section 29.2530 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2278 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2278 Leaf... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.2278 Section 29.2278...

  16. Leaf Histology--Two Modern Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for examining leaf structure are presented; both methods involve use of "superglue." The first method uses the glue to form a thin, permanent, direct replica of a leaf surface on a microscope slide. The second method uses the glue to examine the three-dimensional structure of spongy mesophyll. (JN)

  17. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, β-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-α-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  18. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  19. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  20. 不同萃取技术获得的Artemisia sp的甲醇提取物其抗氧化和抗菌活性的比较%Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of the Artemisia sp.Recovered by Different Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivana Karabegovi(c); Milena Nikolova; Dragan Veli(c)kovi(c); Sa(s)a Stoji(c)evi(c); Vlada Veljkovi(c); Miodrag Lazi(c)

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained by classical,ultrasonic and Soxhlet extractions from dry aerial parts of two Artemisia species (Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia campestris) were compared. Ultrasound positively affected the yield of extractive substance and the kinetics of extraction, but the extract obtained by the classical extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained higher total contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids than the extracts obtained by two other extraction techniques. Both flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, quercetin, quercetin 3,3'-dimethyl ether) and flavonoid glycosides (rutin, hyperoside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside) were identified by thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analysis in the extracts from both species. A. campestris extracts were richer in quercetin than A. vulgaris and its antimicrobial activity was also better than A. vulgaris. Extracts obtained from both species were found to be more effective on the tested yeasts than bacteria. The kinetics of the total extractive substances, such as phenolic, flavonoids and quercetin extraction, was successfully described by the model of unsteady-state diffusion.

  1. Controls on compound specific 2H/1H of leaf waxes along a North American monsoonal transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Tipple, B. J.; Hambach, B.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The use of hydrogen isotope ratios of sedimentary n-alkanes from leaf waxes has become an important method for the reconstruction of paleohydrologic conditions. Ideally, the relationship between lipid 2H/1H values and source water is one-to-one. But the extent to which the 2H/1H values are altered between initial source water and lipid 2H/1H values varies by plant type and environment. Additionally, these variables may be confounded by use of varied source waters by plants in the same ecosystem. Here, we use a transect study across the arid southwestern landscape of the United States, which is heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon, to study the variability in 2H/1H values of leaf waxes in co-occurring plants from Tucson, Arizona to Salt Lake City, Utah. Perennials, including rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) and an annual plant, sunflower (Helianthus annuus), were chosen for their wide geographic distribution along the entire transect. Our results indicate that n-alkane distribution for each plant was similar and generally showed no relationship to environmental variables (elevation, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and temperature). However, we find evidence of n-alkane 2H/1H value relating to transect latitude, a relationship that is weaker for all samples combined than the strong individual correlation for each plant species. Further, these 2H/1H values suggest that not all plants in the monsoon region utilize monsoon-delivered precipitation. These results imply an adaptation to discontinuous spatial coverage and amount of monsoonal precipitation and suggest care must be taken when assuming consistent source water for different plants, particularly in regions with highly seasonal precipitation delivery.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva; Pedro Melillo de Magalhães; Mônica Regina Farias Costa; Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim; Francisco Célio Maia Chaves; Ari de Freitas Hidalgo; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Pedro Paulo Ribeiro Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and ar...

  3. Utjecaj eteričnog ulja bijeloga pelina (Artemisia absinthium) na antioksidativni status tovnih pilića invadiranih oocistama Eimeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinović, Ljiljana M.; Popović, Sanja J.; Puvača, Nikola М.; Čabarkapa, Ivana S.; Kormanjoš, Šandor M.; Lević, Jovanka D.

    2016-01-01

    U radu je istražen utjecaj eteričnog ulja bijeloga pelina (Artemisia absinthium) (AAEO) na enzimsku aktivnost superoksid dismutaze (SOD), glutation peroksidaze (GSHPx), glutation reduktaze (GR), peroksidaze (POD) i ksantin-oksidaze (XOD), kao i sadržaj lipidnih peroksida (LPx) i glutationa (GSH) u tovnim pilićima inficiranim smjesom oocista Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis i Eimeria necatrix u odnosu na kokcidiostatik salinomicin. Istraživanje in vivo provedeno je na 240 pilića Arbor acres, oba...

  4. An Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. Inhibits Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activity and Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in a Murine Model of Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Kirk-Ballard; Wang, Zhong Q.; Priyanka Acharya; Zhang, Xian H.; Yongmei Yu; Gail Kilroy; David Ribnicky; Cefalu, William T.; Z Elizabeth Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Impaired insulin signaling is a key feature of type 2 diabetes and is associated with increased ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent protein degradation in skeletal muscle. An extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. (termed PMI5011) improves insulin action by increasing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. We sought to determine if the effect of PMI5011 on insulin signaling extends to regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. C2C12 myotubes and the KK-A(y) murine model of type 2 diabetes were use...

  5. APPLICATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF ARTEMISIA HERBA ALBA AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR STEEL IN 0.5 M H2SO4

    OpenAIRE

    O. OUACHIKH; A. BOUYANZER; M. BOUKLAH; J.-M. DESJOBERT; Costa, J; Hammouti, B.; L. MAJIDI

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been de...

  6. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  7. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soheil Salehi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Farinaz Ghanbar,3 Mohammad Raouf Darvish,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5 Amir Mirzaie,2 Mohsen Jafari6 1Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (IAUPS, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 3Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, 4Department of Chemistry, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose

  8. In Vivo Antimalarial Effects of Iranian Flora Artemisia khorassanica against Plasmodium berghei and Pharmacochemistry of its Natural Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Amini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial effects of Iranian flora Artemisia khorassanica against Plasmodium berghei in vivo and pharmacochemistry of its natural components."nMethods: The aerial parts of Iranian flora A. khorasanica were collected at flowering stage from Khorassan Province, northeastern Iran in 2008. They were air-dried at room temperature; powder was macerated in methanol and the extract defatted in refrigerator, filtered, diluted with water, then eluted with n-hexane and finally non-polar components were identified through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS. Toxicity of herbal extracts was assessed on naïve NMRI mice, and its anti-malarial efficacy was investigated on infected Plasmodium berghei animals. This is the first ap­plication on A. khorssanica extract for treatment of murine malaria. The significance of differences was determined by Analysis of Variances (ANOVA and Student's t-test using Graph Pad Prism Software."nResults: The herbal extract was successfully tested in vivo for its anti-plasmodial activity through ar­temisin composition, which is widely used as a standard malaria treatment."nConclusion: Although, this study confirmed less anti-malarial effects of A. khorssanica against mur­ine malaria in vivo, how­ever there are some evidences on reducing pathophysiology by this medica­tion. In complementary assay, major components were detected by GC-MS analysis in herbal extract including chrysanthe­none (7.8%, palmitic acid (7.4% and cis-thujone (5.8%.  The most retention indices of the compo­nent are given as n-eicosane, palmitic acid and n-octadecane.

  9. Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew Kan Sprenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.

  10. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0–5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs. PMID:26102584

  11. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27151203

  12. Phenolic composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf.

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. Silva; Oliveira, A.P.; Pereira, J.A.; Valentão, P.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic profile of 36 Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf samples, from 3 different geographical origins of Portugal, harvested in 3 collection months, was determined by HPLC/DAD. Quince leaf presented a common profile composed by 9 constituents: 3-0-, 4-0- and 5-0-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3-0 galactoside, quercetin-3-0-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-0-glycoside, kaempferol-3-0-g1ucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside. C. oblonga leaf total content varied from 4...

  13. Evaluation of Methane from Sisal Leaf Residue and Palash Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisutha, S.; Baredar, P.; Deshpande, D. M.; Suresh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate methane production from sisal leaf residue and palash leaf litter mixed with different bulky materials such as vegetable market waste, hostel kitchen waste and digested biogas slurry in a laboratory scale anaerobic reactor. The mixture was prepared with 1:1 proportion. Maximum methane content of 320 ml/day was observed in the case of sisal leaf residue mixed with vegetable market waste as the feed. Methane content was minimum (47 ml/day), when palash leaf litter was used as feed. This was due to the increased content of lignin and polyphenol in the feedstock which were of complex structure and did not get degraded directly by microorganisms. Sisal leaf residue mixtures also showed highest content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared to palash leaf litter mixtures. It was observed that VFA concentration in the digester first increased, reached maximum (when pH was minimum) and then decreased.

  14. Wheat leaf photosynthesis loss due to leaf rust, with respect to lesion development and leaf nitrogen status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Corinne; Bancal, Marie-Odile; Ney, Bertrand; Lannou, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Soissons) plants grown under three different fertilisation treatments, we quantified the effect of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) on flag leaf photosynthesis during the whole sporulation period. Bastiaans' model: Y = (1 - x)beta was used to characterize the relationship between relative leaf photosynthesis (Y) and disease severity (x). The evolution of the different types of symptoms induced by the pathogen (sporulating, chlorotic and necrosed tissues) was evaluated using image analysis. The beta-values varied from 2 to 11, 1.4-2, and 0.8-1 during the sporulation period, when considering the proportion of sporulating, sporulating + necrotic, and total diseased area, respectively. Leaf nitrogen (N) content did not change the effect of the disease on host photosynthesis. We concluded that leaf rust has no global effect on the photosynthesis of the symptomless parts of the leaves and that the large range in the quantification of leaf rust effect on the host, which is found in the literature, can be accounted for by considering the different symptom types. We discuss how our results could improve disease assessments and damage prediction in a wheat crop. PMID:15720636

  15. Prospect inversion for indirect estimation of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, A.; Darvishzadeh, R; Skidmore, A.-K.; Duren, I.-V.; U. Heiden; Heurich, M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of vegetation properties plays an indispensable role in assessments of ecosystem function with leaf dry mater content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) being two important vegetation properties. Methods for fast, reliable and accurate measurement of LDMC and SLA are still lacking. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate these two leaf parameters. Inversion of PROSPECT traditionally aims at quantifying its direct inpu...

  16. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    OpenAIRE

    Hsien Ming Easlon; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares ...

  17. Independence of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in six Euphorbiaceae tree species with contrasting leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2009-08-01

    Hydraulic traits and hydraulic-related structural properties were examined in three deciduous (Hevea brasiliensis, Macaranga denticulate, and Bischofia javanica) and three evergreen (Drypetes indica, Aleurites moluccana, and Codiaeum variegatum) Euphorbiaceae tree species from a seasonally tropical forest in south-western China. Xylem water potential at 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (P50(stem)) was more negative in the evergreen tree, but leaf water potential at 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductivity (P50(leaf)) did not function as P50(stem) did. Furthermore, P50(stem) was more negative than P50(leaf) in the evergreen tree; contrarily, this pattern was not observed in the deciduous tree. Leaf hydraulic conductivity overlapped considerably, but stem hydraulic conductivity diverged between the evergreen and deciduous tree. Correspondingly, structural properties of leaves overlapped substantially; however, structural properties of stem diverged markedly. Consequently, leaf and stem hydraulic traits were closely correlated with leaf and stem structural properties, respectively. Additionally, stem hydraulic efficiency was significantly correlated with stem hydraulic resistance to embolism; nevertheless, such a hydraulic pattern was not found in leaf hydraulics. Thus, these results suggest: (1) that the evergreen and deciduous tree mainly diverge in stem hydraulics, but not in leaf hydraulics, (2) that regardless of leaf or stem, their hydraulic traits result primarily from structural properties, and not from leaf phenology, (3) that leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than stem in the evergreen tree, but not always in the deciduous tree and (4) that there exists a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety for stem hydraulics, but not for leaf hydraulics. PMID:19495788

  18. Effect of herbivore damage on broad leaf motion in wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Nicholas; Kothari, Adit

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial plants regularly experience wind that imposes aerodynamic forces on the plants' leaves. Passive leaf motion (e.g. fluttering) and reconfiguration (e.g. rolling into a cone shape) in wind can affect the drag on the leaf. In the study of passive leaf motion in wind, little attention has been given to the effect of herbivory. Herbivores may alter leaf motion in wind by making holes in the leaf. Also, a small herbivore (e.g. snail) on a leaf can act as a point mass, thereby affecting the leaf's motion in wind. Conversely, accelerations imposed on an herbivore sitting on a leaf by the moving leaf may serve as a defense by dislodging the herbivore. In the present study, we investigated how point masses (>1 g) and holes in leaves of the tuliptree affected passive leaf motion in turbulent winds of 1 and 5 m s-1. Leaf motion was unaffected by holes in the leaf surface (about 10% of leaf area), but an herbivore's mass significantly damped the accelerations of fluttering leaves. These results suggest that an herbivore's mass, but not the damage it inflicts, can affect leaf motion in the wind. Furthermore, the damping of leaf fluttering from an herbivore's mass may prevent passive leaf motions from being an effective herbivore defense.

  19. 7 CFR 29.3647 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3647 Heavy Leaf (B Group). This group consists of leaves... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy Leaf (B Group). 29.3647 Section 29.3647... specifications, and tolerances B1F Choice Quality Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Ripe medium body, open leaf...

  20. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3648 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.3648 Section 29.3648... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure,...

  2. What Is a Leaf? An Online Tutorial and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A leaf is a fundamental unit in botany and understanding what constitutes a leaf is fundamental to many plant science activities. My observations and subsequent testing indicated that many students could not confidently and consistently recognise a leaf from a leaflet, or recognise basic leaf arrangements and the various types of compound or…

  3. Phytotoxic volatiles in the roots and shoots of Artemisia tridentata as detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Zamanizadehnajari, Simin; Baldwin, Ian Thomas

    2010-12-01

    In the vicinity of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the growth of Nicotiana attenuata is negatively affected, in part due to the alleopathic effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) which is produced in large quantities by the aerial parts of sagebrush. Preliminary experiments suggested that growth-inhibiting substances were being emitted from the sagebrush roots. To identify the allelochemical secondary metabolites, we tested different root extracts in seedling growth bioassays with the naturally co-occurring native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, in a two-chamber Petri dish assay, optimized for tests of volatiles. Fractions rich in volatile compounds were particularly phytotoxic. We analyzed the volatiles emitted from the roots of intact Artemisia tridentata plants grown in soil, sand, and hydroponic cultures by using dynamic headspace extraction, headspace solvent-microextraction (HSME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME), and GC-MS. Camphor, 1,8-cineol, nerol, and neryl isovalerate were phytotoxic and released as the major constituents. In addition to the phytotoxic monoterpenes, himachalenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and acetylenic spiroethers, were found as characteristic components in the root's volatiles. The allelopathic potential of these root volatiles was compared with that of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), one of the most active compounds emitted from above-ground parts of the plant. PMID:21086024

  4. High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Watcho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mgkg-1d-1, 7 weeks normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  5. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Tilaoui

    Full Text Available Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba.Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs.Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86% and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%; esters constituted the major fraction (62.8% of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

  6. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  7. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco...

  8. EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF MANGIFERA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratul Chandra Sarmah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From the time of immemorial people have used various plant extracts in their own ethnic therapeutic system. Mango (Mangifera indica is adorned all over the world as a fruit. But these plants have some medicinal utility also. The present research work is done to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of mango leaf on albino rat. Phytochemical tests are made with ethanolic extract of mango leaf. Albino rats were treated with ethanolic plant extract at the dose of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. Another group of diabetic rats are given standard insulin dose as hypoglycemic agent. The blood sugar levels are monitored separately for different groups at different time periods. A significant reduction in blood glucose level is observed at 200mg/kg level after four hours of leaf extract application. It shows that Mangifera leaf is almost equipotent to insulin in its ability to reduce blood sugar.

  9. Spectroscopic Measurement of Leaf Water Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Boardman, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A leaf drying experiment was carried out in the laboratory in which simultaneous spectral reflectance in the 350-2450 nm region, and leaf weights, were measured at 10 second intervals over a 40 minute period. As the leaf water weight dropped from approximately 60 to 38%. a nearly-linear rise in reflectance at all wavelengths beyond 1000 nm was observed. A principal components analysis of the time series of spectra in the 2000-2500 nm wavelength region showed that over 99% of the variance in the spectra, that were individually scaled to have a sum equal to that of the mean spectrum and subsequently mean corrected, was in the first component. This result shows that it is feasible to determine leaf water content remotely with an imaging spectrometer independent of the surface irradiance effects caused by topography.

  10. Research on the modeling method of soybean leafs structure simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Leaf is one of the most important organs of soybean. The modeling of soybean leaf structure is useful to research of leaf function. The paper discussed it from two aspects that were distilling method of leaf profile and establishing method of leaf simulation model. It put forward basic method of soybean leaf digital process, and successfully established simulation model of soybean leaf structure based on L-system. It also solved a critical problem in the process of establishing soybean growth simulation model. And the research had guiding significance to establishment of soybean plant model.

  11. Leaf-Cutter Ant Parasitoids: Current Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia J. Folgarait

    2013-01-01

    This review updates and summarizes the current knowledge about the interaction of leaf-cutter ants and their parasitoids by providing comparable data for Acromyrmex and Atta ants. First, an overview of the relevant aspects of the biology and taxonomy of leaf cutters and of their parasitoids is provided. Second, I show the peculiarities of the parasitoids attacking behaviors towards their host as well as the responses or ant defenses against the phorids exhibited by their hosts. Third, I discu...

  12. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Barringtonia acutangula leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Dharamaraj; Susheela, Lakshmi; Bharathi, Rajkishore Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Family: Lecythidaceae) is an evergreen tree with simple, alternate leaves, long pendulous racemes, dark scarlet flowers, and ellipsoid to ovoid berries containing one ovoid black seed. The present study deals with a detailed pharmacognostical study on the leaf of the crude drug, B. acutangula. Morphoanatomy of the leaf was studied using light and confocal microscopy and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal pl...

  13. Leaf stripe resistance of spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Nielsen, Bent J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of six years of screening trials clearly indicate that effective resistance against barley leaf stripe is available, also in modern cultivars. Among the spring barley cultivars that are currently most widely grown in Denmark, Cabaret, Troon, Sebastian, Justina and Brazil appear most resistant, but only Brazil combines a favourable resistance performance (= low mean and standard deviation of environment-adjusted leaf stripe incidence) with a high number of observations (= years of test...

  14. Analysis of Parabolic Leaf Spring Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kainulainen, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this final project was to make an the fracture analysis for a parabolic leaf spring. The leaf spring type is used in a mining machine. The machine is designed for personnel and equipment transportation in a mine environment. The objectives were to gather information about effects of the improvement in the spring’ structure and study phenomena which eventually lead to the fracture of the spring. The project was divided into theoretical and experimental sections. The theoreti...

  15. Peach Leaf Senescence Delayed by Criconemella xenoplax

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Wood, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Fall annual leaf senescence of peach was delayed in the field and in microplots in the presence of Criconemella xenoplax. Soil from the rhizosphere of orchard trees with greener leaves had ca. 2.5 × more nematodes than soil around trees in a more advanced state of fall senescence. In microplots, monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of leaf cytokinins indicated that concentration of zeatin riboside-like substances and chlorophyll content were greater in leaves of trees growing in nemat...

  16. Remote sensing of leaf water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.; Schrumpf, Barry J.

    1987-01-01

    Relative water content (RWC) measurements were made concurrently with spectral reflectance measurements from individual snapbean leaves. The relationships between spectra and RWC were described using second order polynomial equations. The middle infrared bands most sensitive to changes in leaf RWC also had the highest water absorption coefficients, as published by Curcio Petty (1951). The relationship between reflectance at 2100nm and total water potential for a single leaf was found to be linear.

  17. Zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland : Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin am Wendelstein bei Nebra (Sachsen-Anhalt) und Orobanche bohemica Čelak. am Spaten bei Hemleben (Thüringen)

    OpenAIRE

    Pusch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Es werden zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland vorgestellt. Zum einen wird über einen Fund der in Sachsen-Anhalt seit Jahrzehnten verschollen geglaubten Panzer-Sommerwurz (Orobanche artemisiae-campestris) bei Wendelstein und zum anderen über einen weiteren Thüringer Nachweis der Böhmischen Sommerwurz (Orobanche bohemica) bei Hemleben berichtet.

  18. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. PMID:26714739

  19. Leaf spring puller for nuclear fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogg, J.L.

    1981-11-03

    A fuel rod puller in the form of a collet for pulling fuel rods from a storage area into grids of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. The rod puller moves longitudinally through the grids to a storage area where projections on the end of leaf springs grasp onto an end plug in a fuel rod. Drive apparatus then pulls the rod puller and connected fuel rod from the storage area into the fuel assembly grids. The rod puller includes an outer tube having leaf springs on one end thereof in one modification, mounted within the outer tube is a movable plunger which acts to urge the leaf springs outwardly to a position to permit passing or with the end of a end plug. Upon withdrawal of the plunger, the leaf springs move into a groove formed in the end of a fuel rod end plug, and the fuel rod subsequently is pulled into the fuel assembly grids. In another modification, the leaf springs on the outer rod are biased in an outward direction and a longitudinally movable tube on the outer rod is moved in a direction to contract the leaf springs into a position where the projections thereof engage the groove formed in a fuel rod end plug.

  20. Association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus with leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Yasir, Muhammad; El-Kafrawy, Sherif Ali; Abbas, Ayman T; Mousa, Magdi Ali Ahmed; Bakhashwain, Ahmed A

    2016-06-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable crop and its production is adversely affected by leaf curl disease caused by begomovirus. Leaf curl disease is a serious concern for tomato crops caused by begomovirus in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tomato leaf curl disease has been shown to be mainly caused either by tomato leaf curl Sudan virus or tomato yellow leaf curl virus as well as tomato leaf curl Oman virus. Many tomato plants infected with monopartite begomoviruses were also found to harbor a symptom enhancing betasatellites. Here we report the association of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The complete genome sequence analysis showed highest (99.9 %) identity with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing leaf curl disease in Arabian Peninsula. In phylogenetic relationships analysis, the identified virus formed closest cluster with tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. Findings of this study strongly supports the associated virus is a variant of tomato leaf curl Sudan virus causing disease in Sudan, Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. The betasatellites sequence analysis showed highest identity (99.8 %) with tomato leaf curl betasatellites-Amaranthus-Jeddah. The phylogenetic analysis result based on betasatellites formed closed cluster with tomato yellow leaf curl Oman betasatellites. The importance of these findings and occurrence of begomovirus in new geographic regions causing leaf curl disease of tomato in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are discussed. PMID:27366765

  1. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  2. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Jingtian; Peng Dacheng; Wang Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysa...

  3. PREDICTION OF LEAF SPRING PARAMETERS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.D.V.V.KRISHNA PRASAD; J.P.KARTHIK

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to predict the optimum design parameters using artificial neural networks. For this static and dynamic analysis on various leaf spring configuration is carried out by ANSYS and is used as training data for neural network. Training data includes cross section of the leaf, load on the leaf spring, stresses, displacement and natural frequencies. By creating a network using thickness and width of the leaf, load on the leaf spring as input parameters and stresses, ...

  4. Barley Leaf Area and Leaf Growth Rates Are Maximized during the Pre-Anthesis Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Alqudah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf developmental traits are an important component of crop breeding in small-grain cereals. Surprisingly, little is known about the genetic basis for the differences in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. leaf development. The two barley row-type classes, i.e., two- and six-rowed, show clear-cut differences in leaf development. To quantify these differences and to measure the genetic component of the phenotypic variance for the leaf developmental differences in both row-type classes we investigated 32 representative spring barley accessions (14 two- and 18 six-rowed accessions under three independent growth conditions. Leaf mass area is lower in plants grown under greenhouse (GH conditions due to fewer, smaller, and lighter leaf blades per main culm compared to pot- and soil-grown field plants. Larger and heavier leaf blades of six-rowed barley correlate with higher main culm spike grain yield, spike dry weight, and harvest index; however, smaller leaf area (LA in two-rowed barley can be attributed to more spikes, tillers, and biological yield (aboveground parts. In general, leaf growth rate was significantly higher between awn primordium and tipping stages. Moderate to very high broad-sense heritabilities (0.67–0.90 were found under all growth conditions, indicating that these traits are predominantly genetically controlled. In addition, our data suggests that GH conditions are suitable for studying leaf developmental traits. Our results also demonstrated that LA impacts single plant yield and can be reconsidered in future breeding programs. Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1 is the major determinate of barley row-types, the differences in leaf development between two- and six-rowed barleys may be attributed to the regulation of Vrs1 in these two classes, which needs further testing.

  5. Molecular characterization of Chilli leaf curl virus and satellite molecules associated with leaf curl disease of Amaranthus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, B; Kumar, R Vinoth; Chakraborty, S

    2014-04-01

    Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is an annual or short-lived perennial plant used as leafy vegetables, cereals and for ornamental purposes in many countries including India. During 2011, leaf samples of Amaranthus plants displaying leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf crinkling and yellow leaf margins were collected from Banswara district, Rajasthan in India. Full-length clones of a monopartite begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were characterized. The complete nucleotide sequence of the isolated begomovirus features as a typical 'Old World' begomovirus with the highest nucleotide per cent identity with Chilli leaf curl virus and hence, considered as an isolate of Chilli leaf curl virus. The complete nucleotide sequences of betasatellite and alphasatellite possess maximum nucleotide identity with Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite and Chilli leaf curl alphasatellite, respectively. This is the first report of the association of chilli-infecting begomovirus and satellite molecules infecting a new host, Amaranthus, causing leaf curl disease. PMID:24368759

  6. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of −31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus

  7. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  8. Development of leaf area and leaf number of micropropagated potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Aboveground leaf area and leaf number development of in vitro produced potato plantlets was studied over three growth phases. In vitro plantlets were produced at 17 or 23°C (normalisation phase, 3 weeks), planted in soil at 18/12 or 26/20°C (transplant production phase, 2 weeks), and later transplan

  9. Leaf endophyte load and fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material that is relatively low in fungal endophyte content. Such a preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in thei...

  10. Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkin, O.; Bloomfield, K.; Reich, P.B.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Asner, G.; Bonal, D.; Bönisch, G.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf dark respiration (R-dark) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of R-dark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwood

  11. MedLeaf: Mobile Application for Medicinal Plant Identification Based on Leaf Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Sandya Prasvita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes MedLeaf as a new mobile application for medicinal plants identification based on leaf image. The application runs on the Android operating system. MedLeaf has two main functionalities, i.e. medicinal plants identification and document searching of medicinal plant. We used Local Binary Pattern to extract leaf texture and Probabilistic Neural Network to classify the image. In this research, we used30 species of Indonesian medicinal plants and each species consists of 48 digital leaf images. To evaluate user satisfaction of the application we used questionnaire based on heuristic evaluation. The evaluation result shows that MedLeaf is promising for medicinal plants identification. MedLeaf will help botanical garden or natural reserve park management to identify medicinal plant, discover new plant species, plant taxonomy and so on. Also, it will help individual, groups and communities to find unused and undeveloped their skill to optimize the potential of medicinal plants. As the results, MedLeaf will increase of their resources, capitals, and economic wealth.

  12. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.POZHILARASU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carrying capacity and stiffness. Therefore the objective of this paper is to present a general study on the performance comparison of composite (Glass Fibre Reinforced plastic - GFRP leaf spring and conventional leaf spring. Leaf spring is modelled in Unigraphics NX4 software and it is imported in ANSYS 11.0. The conventional steel leaf spring and the composite leaf spring were analysed under similar conditions using ANSYS software and the results are presented.

  13. The INDETERMINATE DOMAIN Protein BROAD LEAF1 Limits Barley Leaf Width by Restricting Lateral Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöst, Moritz; Hensel, Götz; Kappel, Christian; Druka, Arnis; Sicard, Adrien; Hohmann, Uwe; Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Waugh, Robbie; Kumlehn, Jochen; Stein, Nils; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Variation in the size, shape, and positioning of leaves as the major photosynthetic organs strongly impacts crop yield, and optimizing these aspects is a central aim of cereal breeding [1, 2]. Leaf growth in grasses is driven by cell proliferation and cell expansion in a basal growth zone [3]. Although several factors influencing final leaf size and shape have been identified from rice and maize [4-14], what limits grass leaf growth in the longitudinal or transverse directions during leaf development remains poorly understood. To identify factors involved in this process, we characterized the barley mutant broad leaf1 (blf1). Mutants form wider but slightly shorter leaves due to changes in the numbers of longitudinal cell files and of cells along the leaf length. These differences arise during primordia outgrowth because of more cell divisions in the width direction increasing the number of cell files. Positional cloning, analysis of independent alleles, and transgenic complementation confirm that BLF1 encodes a presumed transcriptional regulator of the INDETERMINATE DOMAIN family. In contrast to loss-of-function mutants, moderate overexpression of BLF1 decreases leaf width below wild-type levels. A functional BLF1-vYFP fusion protein expressed from the endogenous promoter shows a dynamic expression pattern in the shoot apical meristem and young leaf primordia. Thus, we propose that the BLF1 gene regulates barley leaf size by restricting cell proliferation in the leaf-width direction. Given the agronomic importance of canopy traits in cereals, identifying functionally different BLF1 alleles promises to allow for the generation of optimized cereal ideotypes. PMID:26996502

  14. Field trials of sex attractant for Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae ).%沙蒿木蠹蛾性信息素野外诱捕效果测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 周娇; 刘鑫海; 骆有庆; 李月华; 宗世祥

    2011-01-01

    为了明确沙蒿木蠹蛾性信息素的诱捕距离和效果,在受害的黑沙蒿林外,主要风向的上风向、下风向及侧风向区域分别等距离设置7个诱捕器.诱捕结果表明:上风向的诱捕效果最好,诱捕量占到诱捕总量的60%,侧风向的效果好于下风向;在上风向设置的不同距离的诱捕器中,距林缘30~210 m处均能诱捕到成虫,但以60 m处诱捕到的数量最多;该性信息素的持效期为25~34 d;3种不同类型诱捕器的野外诱捕效果显示.船形和三角形诱捕器的诱捕效果明显好于实用新型诱捕器.除了沙蒿木蠹蛾,该性信息素还对草地螟、冬麦异夜蛾和蜂虻等有较明显的诱捕效果.%The trapping effect and distance of the sex attractant for Holcocerus artemisiae was tested with seven traps set equidistantly from damaged Artemisia ordosica in the upwind, downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. The upwind trap was optimal( accounting for 60% of males) and crosswind trap was better than that in the downwind direction. Males were trapped at the distances of 30 - 210 m upwind, with the largest capture number at 60 m. The sex pheromone could last up to 25 - 34 days. The boat and triangle traps were effective than novel practical type. In addition to H. artemisiae, the sex attractant also attracted Loxostege sticticalis, Protexarnis squalid and Bombyliidae species.

  15. Computer vision cracks the leaf code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies. PMID:26951664

  16. A Leaf Recognition Of Vegetables Using Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Jaan D. Caldito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing plants is a vital problem especially for biologists agricultural researchers and environmentalists. Plant recognition can be performed by human experts manually but it is a time consuming and low-efficiency process. Automation of plant recognition is an important process for the fields working with plants. This paper presents an approach for plant recognition using leaf images. In this study the proponents demonstrated the development of the system that gives users the ability to identify vegetables based on photographs of the leaves taken with a high definition camera. At the heart of this system is a modernize process of identification so as to automate the way of identifying the vegetable plants through leaf image and digital image processing. The system used the Gabor Filter Edge Detection RGB Color and Grayscale Image to acquire the physical parameter of the leaves. The output parameters are used to compute well documented metrics for the statistical and shape. Base on the study the following conclusion are drawn The system can extract the physical parameters from the leafs image that will be used in identifying Vegetables. From the extracted leaf parameters the system provides the statistical analysis and general information of the identified leaf. The used algorithm can organize data and information to useful resources to the future researchers.

  17. Persimmon leaf flavonoid promotes brain ischemic tolerance**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingsan Miao; Xuexia Zhang; Ming Bai; Linan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Persimmon leaf flavonoid has been shown to enhance brain ischemic tolerance in mice, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded using a micro clip to block blood flow for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes of ischemic preconditioning, 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg persimmon leaf flavonoid or 20 mg/kg ginaton was intragastrical y administered per day for 5 days. At 1 hour after the final administration, ischemia/reperfusion models were estab-lished by blocking the middle cerebral artery for 2 hours. At 24 hours after model establishment, compared with cerebral ischemic rats without ischemic preconditioning or drug intervention, plasma endothelin, thrombomodulin and von Wil ebrand factor levels significantly decreased and intercel-lular adhesion molecule-1 expression markedly reduced in brain tissue from rats with ischemic pre-conditioning. Simultaneously, brain tissue injury reduced. Ischemic preconditioning combined with drug exposure noticeably improved the effects of the above-mentioned indices, and the effects of 200 mg/kg persimmon leaf flavonoid were similar to 20 mg/kg ginaton treatment. These results indicate that ischemic preconditioning produces tolerance to recurrent severe cerebral ischemia. However, persimmon leaf flavonoid can elevate ischemic tolerance by reducing inflammatory reactions and vascular endothelial injury. High-dose persimmon leaf flavonoid showed an identical effect to ginaton.

  18. Enhancing Accuracy of Plant Leaf Classification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have become an important source of energy, and are a fundamental piece in the puzzle to solve the problem of global warming. Living beings also depend on plants for their food, hence it is of great importance to know about the plants growing around us and to preserve them. Automatic plant leaf classification is widely researched. This paper investigates the efficiency of learning algorithms of MLP for plant leaf classification. Incremental back propagation, Levenberg–Marquardt and batch propagation learning algorithms are investigated. Plant leaf images are examined using three different Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP modelling techniques. Back propagation done in batch manner increases the accuracy of plant leaf classification. Results reveal that batch training is faster and more accurate than MLP with incremental training and Levenberg– Marquardt based learning for plant leaf classification. Various levels of semi-batch training used on 9 species of 15 sample each, a total of 135 instances show a roughly linear increase in classification accuracy.

  19. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  20. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  1. Plant Leaf Recognition through Local Discriminative Tangent Space Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning based dimensionality reduction algorithms have been payed much attention in plant leaf recognition as the algorithms can select a subset of effective and efficient discriminative features in the leaf images. In this paper, a dimensionality reduction method based on local discriminative tangent space alignment (LDTSA is introduced for plant leaf recognition based on leaf images. The proposed method can embrace part optimization and whole alignment and encapsulate the geometric and discriminative information into a local patch. The experiments on two plant leaf databases, ICL and Swedish plant leaf datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  2. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Selection of material is based on the cost and strength of material. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy, storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio compared to steel. This paper briefs about the research carried out for the part of three decades on design, analysis, and selection of material, experiments and fabrication of composite leaf spring.   Keywords: Composite Leaf Spring, Composite Materials, Finite Element Analysis, Weight Reduction, Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP.

  3. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  4. In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Vermeersch, Marieke; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed. PMID:18949336

  5. In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Fernández-Calienes Valdés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed.

  6. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40......, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-daysold and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment...... for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part of a strategy to prevent commercial losses....

  7. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  8. Storage of biomass and net primary productivity in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhao; QI Yu-chun; DONG Yun-she

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are two important parameters in determining ecosystem carbon pool and carbon sequestration. The biomass storage and NPP in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau were investigated with method of harvesting standard size shrub in the growing season (June-October) of 2006. Results indicated that above- and belowground biomass of the same size shrubs showed no significant variation in the growing season (p>0.1), but annual biomass varied significantly (p< 0.01). In the A.ordosica community, shrub biomass storage was 699.76 1246.40 g·m-2 and annual aboveground NPP was 224.09 g·m-2·a-1. Moreover, shrub biomass and NPP were closely related with shrub dimensions (cover and height) and could be well predicted by shrub volume using power regression.

  9. 皮革用艾蒿油微胶囊整理剂的制备%Preparation of Artemisia Oil Microcapsule Finishing Agent for Leather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭生龙; 贾静霞; 王辉强; 郭焱德; 王全杰

    2012-01-01

    本文采用复凝聚法制备了艾蒿精油微胶囊整理剂.通过热分析和抗菌实验发现,所制备的微胶囊整理剂具有一定的缓释性能和热稳定性,对常见的细菌和皮革上的霉菌具有一定的抑菌效果.%In this study, artemisia argyllem oil microcapsule finishing agent was prepared by complex coacervation. Studied by TGA and the antibacterial experiments, the finishing agent had certain slow release property and thermostability. It also had certain bacteriostatic effects on the common bacteria and the leather mould.

  10. Bio-raffinage de plantes aromatiques et médicinales appliqué à l'Hibiscus sabdariffa L. et à l'Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Endrias, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer les potentialités aromatiques et médicinales de deux plantes (Hibiscus sabdariffa et Artemisia annua). Les performances et rendement de plusieurs méthodes d'extraction et de solvants sur des calices et des graines d'hibiscus, issus de trois pays (Vietnam, Sénégal et Mexique) ont été comparés. Les profils en composés volatifs diffèrent selon les extraits. La teneur en acide gras, stérols et tocophérols des huiles des graines d'hibiscus est comparable à cel...

  11. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter;

    O78). Streptococcus spp. (5/19) or Proteus spp. (5/19) were isolated from four protozoal cultures. Staphylococcus sp. was isolated once. No antibacterial effect was noticed with compound concentrations identical to the antihistomonal screening. Combining the results of the antiprotozoal screening......Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...

  12. Application of Essential Oil of Artemisia Herba Alba as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouachikh, O.; Bouyanzer, A.; Bouklah, M.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.

    Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been determined. A. herba alba essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition oil was investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The major components were chrysanthenone (30.6%) and camphor (24.4%).

  13. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity of Different Extracts and Essential oil Compositions Obtained from Artemisia Sieberi Besser Using Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aghajani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with essential oils of the aerial parts of Artemisia sieberi Besser which was obtained by hydrodistillation (HD and simultaneous water steam distillation-organic solvent extraction (SDE methods and compared regard to their components. The major compounds of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation were verbenol (16.09 % and myristicin (13.76%. However, by using SDE, E-epoxy ocimen (14.02 % and verbenol (13.93% were detected as the major components. SDE obtained essential oil was very higher than that of hydrodistillation method based on the yield. Antioxidant activities of various extracts from A.sieberi were also evaluated via DPPH radical scavenging assay; total phenolic compounds were also measured using Folin-ciocalteu reagent. The results exhibited that, water extract of A.sieberi has considerable antioxidant activity and it seems that this activity drops off sharply with reducing polarity of extraction solvent.

  14. An Experiment on Standardized Cell Culture Assay in Assessing the Activities of Composite Artemisia Capillaris Tablets against Hepatitis B Virus Replication in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jin; ZHAO Yan-ling; SHAN Li-mei; HUANG Feng-jiao; XIAO Xiao-he

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the activities of Composite Artemisia Capillaris Tablet (复方茵陈片,CACT) against hepatitis B virus replication in vitro. Methods: By means of radioimmunoassay (RIA), Dot blot and Southern blot, the surface and e antigen production of 2.2.15 cells, HBV DNA in 2.2.15 cell culture medium and that in 2.2.15 cells were examined respectively. Results: HBsAg, HBeAg values of 2.2.15 cells treated by CACT were lower than those of the control, the HBV DNA quantities in culture medium and in 2.2.15 cells decreased as compared with those cells with no treatment by CACT given to them. Conclusion:CACT could inhibit HBV DNA replication, showing its potential antiviral activity in hepatitis B treatment.

  15. Pharmacognostical Evalution of Fragaria vesca linn leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana R. Dhole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragria vesca Dc. (Family:Rosaceae are used for various medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostical studies mainly include includes collection, identification, microscopical and phytochemical evaluation of leaves of fragaria vesca. The preliminary phytochemical studies indicate the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phytosterols, tannins and fixed oils. The sections were taken and cellular structures were studied. The T.S of leaf shows the presence of epidermis, parenchymatous cells, collateral vascular bundle, lateral vein. Powder microscopy of the leaf shows the presence of epidermal peelings and  unicellular unbranched trichomes.

  16. Mueller matrix of a dicot leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of the information contained in the spectral, polarized bidirectional reflectance and transmittance of leaves may lead to improved techniques for identifying plant species in remotely sensed imagery as well as better estimates of plant moisture and nutritional status. Here we report an investigation of the optical polarizing properties of several leaves of one species, Cannabis sativa, represented by a 3x3 Mueller matrix measured over the wavelength region 400-2,400 nm. Our results support the hypothesis that the leaf surface alters the polarization of incident light - polarizing off nadir, unpolarized incident light, for example - while the leaf volume tends to depolarized incident polarized light.

  17. In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. using cell sensitivity and flow cytometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Kourosh; Shahidi-Hakak, Fatemeh; Asgari, Qasem; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ramin; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar

    2016-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected human diseases with an estimated global burden ranking second in mortality and fourth in morbidity among the tropical infections. Chemotherapy involving the use of drugs like glucantime is the mainstay treatment in endemic areas of Iran. Drug resistance is increasingly prevalent, so search for alternative therapy is gathering pace. Medicinal herbs, like wormwood Artemisia, have chemical compounds effective against a number of pathogens. In this study, the efficacy of ethanol extract from Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae) against Leishmania major L. was investigated in vitro. The outcome of different effective doses (1-40 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts from this medicinal herb, A. absinthium, on a standard Iranian parasite strain of L. major was examined. The L. major promastigote cell sensitivity and mortality or viability effects due to the addition of herbal extract were measured using the MTT assay and the flow cytometry technique, respectively. There was complete agreement between the two assays. The lethal concentration (LC50) was measured as 101 mg/ml. Some contrasting relationships between the medicinal herb concentrations and the viability of parasites were observed; so that there was an increased multiplication of the parasite at low concentrations of the drug, but an anti-parasitic apoptotic effect was seen at high concentrations of A. absinthium. It was concluded that there might be one or more chemical constituents within the herbal extract of wormwood which at high concentration controlled cell division and affected the relevant activity within the only one giant mitochondrion in this flagellate parasite. At low doses, however, it showed the opposite effect of leading to mitotic cell divisions. PMID:27605775

  18. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (pKosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part of a strategy to prevent commercial losses

  19. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    V.POZHILARASU; Dr. T.PARAMESHWARAN PILLAI

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components that are being still used widely in automobiles. Weight reduction is also given due importance by automobile manufacturers. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the use of composite leaf spring in the place of conventional steel leaf spring due to its high strength to weight ratio. The introduction of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction in load carryin...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  3. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status. PMID:20199625

  4. New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

    1976-01-01

    Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

  5. Leaf Stomata as Bioindicators: Stimulating Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    Stomata are the pores on leaves through which carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor are exchanged with the atmosphere. Researchers have found that leaf stomatal densities change in response to several environmental variables, including humidity, light intensity, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas (Van Der Burgh, Dilcher,…

  6. Variable depth recursion algorithm for leaf sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of extraction and sweep are basic segmentation steps that are used in leaf sequencing algorithms. A modified version of a commercial leaf sequencer changed the way that the extracts are selected and expanded the search space, but the modification maintained the basic search paradigm of evaluating multiple solutions, each one consisting of up to 12 extracts and a sweep sequence. While it generated the best solutions compared to other published algorithms, it used more computation time. A new, faster algorithm selects one extract at a time but calls itself as an evaluation function a user-specified number of times, after which it uses the bidirectional sweeping window algorithm as the final evaluation function. To achieve a performance comparable to that of the modified commercial leaf sequencer, 2-3 calls were needed, and in all test cases, there were only slight improvements beyond two calls. For the 13 clinical test maps, computation speeds improved by a factor between 12 and 43, depending on the constraints, namely the ability to interdigitate and the avoidance of the tongue-and-groove under dose. The new algorithm was compared to the original and modified versions of the commercial leaf sequencer. It was also compared to other published algorithms for 1400, random, 15x15, test maps with 3-16 intensity levels. In every single case the new algorithm provided the best solution

  7. A Journey Through a Leaf: Phenomics Analysis of Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaeren, Hannes; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, leaves contribute to the largest part of the aboveground biomass. In these organs, light is captured and converted into chemical energy, which plants use to grow and complete their life cycle. Leaves emerge as a small pool of cells at the vegetative shoot apical meristem and develop into planar, complex organs through different interconnected cellular events. Over the last decade, numerous phenotyping techniques have been developed to visualize and quantify leaf size and growth, leading to the identification of numerous genes that contribute to the final size of leaves. In this review, we will start at the Arabidopsis rosette level and gradually zoom in from a macroscopic view on leaf growth to a microscopic and molecular view. Along this journey, we describe different techniques that have been key to identify important events during leaf development and discuss approaches that will further help unraveling the complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie leaf growth. PMID:26217168

  8. [Final pick-over of leaf for coarse leaf, etc.] T9

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    278 x 210 mm. A view looking down on a group of female workers sorting through the leaf, with estate foremen and a manager watching over the proceedings. Annotated 'T9' on the bottom right hand corner. Date approximate.

  9. 7 CFR 29.2663 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent injury tolerance. C4G Fair Green Thin Leaf. Thin, immature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak... tolerance. C4L Fair Light-brown Thin Leaf. Thin, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak, dull finish... Thin Leaf. Thin, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak, dull finish, pale color intensity,...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2438 - Thin Leaf (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent injury tolerance. C4G Fair Green Thin Leaf. Thin to medium body, immature, close, lean in oil... Fair Light-brown Thin Leaf. Thin to medium body, mature to ripe, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak... Light-brown Thin Leaf. Thin to medium body, mature to ripe, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak,...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2662 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... B4G Fair Green Heavy Leaf. Medium to heavy body, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak, dull... percent injury tolerance. B4F Fair Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil... tolerance. B5F Low Medium-brown Heavy Leaf. Medium body, mature, close, lean in oil, inelastic, weak,...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1163 - Smoking Leaf (H Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1163 Smoking Leaf (H Group). This group consists of... characteristic of very ripe leaf tobacco. Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances H3F—Good... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking Leaf (H Group). 29.1163 Section...

  13. Study on creation of an indocalamus leaf flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.

  14. Cassava leaf methanolic extract as an alternative to control of fall armyworm and leaf cutter ants

    OpenAIRE

    Mírian Aparecida Isidro Santos; Angelita Duarte Corrêa; Ana Paula de Carvalho Alves; Anderson Assaid Simão; Dejane Santos Alves; Rodrigo Lopes de Oliveira; Adelir Aparecida Saczk; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize phenolic compounds and evaluate the effect, under laboratory conditions, of the cassava leaf powder methanol extract on the development of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and of leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa. The extract was incorporated into an artificial diet, to which the armyworm was exposed, at concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg-1, in order to evaluate biological characteristics. Soon after the insects emergen...

  15. Independence of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in six Euphorbiaceae tree species with contrasting leaf phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Qiang ZHANG; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic traits and hydraulic-related structural properties were examined in three deciduous (Hevea brasiliensis, Macaranga denticulate, and Bischofia javanica) and three evergreen (Drypetes indica, Aleurites moluccana, and Codiaeum variegatum) Euphorbiaceae tree species from a seasonally tropical forest in south-western China. Xylem water potential at 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (P50stem) was more negative in the evergreen tree, but leaf water potential at 50% loss of leaf hydra...

  16. Xylem cavitation in the leaf of Prunus laurocerasus and its impact on leaf hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, A; Tyree, M T; Salleo, S

    2001-04-01

    This paper reports how water stress correlates with changes in hydraulic conductivity of stems, leaf midrib, and whole leaves of Prunus laurocerasus. Water stress caused cavitation-induced dysfunction in vessels of P. laurocerasus. Cavitation was detected acoustically by counts of ultrasonic acoustic emissions and by the loss of hydraulic conductivity measured by a vacuum chamber method. Stems and midribs were approximately equally vulnerable to cavitations. Although midribs suffered a 70% loss of hydraulic conductance at leaf water potentials of -1.5 MPa, there was less than a 10% loss of hydraulic conductance in whole leaves. Cutting and sealing the midrib 20 mm from the leaf base caused only a 30% loss of conduction of the whole leaf. A high-pressure flow meter was used to measure conductance of whole leaves and as the leaf was progressively cut back from tip to base. These data were fitted to a model of hydraulic conductance of leaves that explained the above results, i.e. redundancy in hydraulic pathways whereby water can flow around embolized regions in the leaf, makes whole leaves relatively insensitive to significant changes in conductance of the midrib. The onset of cavitation events in P. laurocerasus leaves correlated with the onset of stomatal closure as found recently in studies of other species in our laboratory. PMID:11299351

  17. 牛尾蒿水浸液对几种植物种子萌发的化感作用%Allelopathy of Artemisia roxburghiana extract to plant seeds germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦刚; 陈静; 张付斗

    2012-01-01

      Allelopathy is common in higher plants. Appling allelopathy to control farmland weeds is a new research trend. Artemisia species has been commonly used as medicinal plants in traditional Chinese medicine in China for a long time. To explore the application of Artemisia plants in weed control, the water extract of Artemisia roxburghiana Bess. was used to study the allelopathic effects on the germination of lettuce, amaranth, radish, ryegrass, and wild oat seed. The results show that it obviously inhibited the germination of seeds. Allelopathy of Artemisia roxburghiana Bess. has a significant different effects on dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants.%  植物化感作用在高等植物中普遍存在,而应用植物化感作用防除农田杂草是目前较为新颖的研究方向。蒿属植物早就是我国中医中常用的药用植物,为探究蒿属植物在农田生态除草方面的应用,选择资源较为丰富的牛尾蒿为研究对象,通过用牛尾蒿水浸提液对莴笋、小米菜、萝卜、黑麦草、野燕麦等植物种子发芽率的试验,表明牛尾蒿对这几种植物有明显的化感作用,并且对双子叶植物和单子叶植物的化感作用有明显的差异

  18. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chang; HU, DONG-HUI; Feng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8-cineole, against certain respiratory infection-causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A micro-well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibit...

  19. A model for net photosynthesis of rose leaves as a function of photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical description for the relationship between the rate of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) leaf net photosynthesis and photosynthetically active radiation, leaf temperature, and leaf age is developed. The model provides a tool for the prediction of these rates for leaves growing in a rose crop canopy. (author)

  20. Genome-wide association study of rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaf traits with a high-throughput leaf scorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Chenglong; Wang, Ke; Jiang, Ni; Feng, Hui; Chen, Guoxing; Liu, Qian; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-09-01

    Leaves are the plant's solar panel and food factory, and leaf traits are always key issues to investigate in plant research. Traditional methods for leaf trait measurement are time-consuming. In this work, an engineering prototype has been established for high-throughput leaf scoring (HLS) of a large number of Oryza sativa accessions. The mean absolute per cent of errors in traditional measurements versus HLS were below 5% for leaf number, area, shape, and colour. Moreover, HLS can measure up to 30 leaves per minute. To demonstrate the usefulness of HLS in dissecting the genetic bases of leaf traits, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for 29 leaf traits related to leaf size, shape, and colour at three growth stages using HLS on a panel of 533 rice accessions. Nine associated loci contained known leaf-related genes, such as Nal1 for controlling the leaf width. In addition, a total of 73, 123, and 177 new loci were detected for traits associated with leaf size, colour, and shape, respectively. In summary, after evaluating the performance with a large number of rice accessions, the combination of GWAS and high-throughput leaf phenotyping (HLS) has proven a valuable strategy to identify the genetic loci controlling rice leaf traits. PMID:25796084

  1. Ex vivo effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoudene Djamel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1 cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages.

  2. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m2·g-1) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m-2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m2·m-2). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m2) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm2·g-1. Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant relationship between SLA and soil properties was observed. Both SLA and leaf area had

  3. The Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis of a Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Ye; Zhi Yuan; Shuanqin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the heat and mass transfer processes of plant leaves is essential for plant bionic engineering.A general thermophysical model was established for a plant leaf with particular emphasis on the transpiration process.The model was verified by the field measured stomatal resistance and temperature of a camphor leaf.A dynamical simulation revealed that diurnal transpiration water consumption is dominated by the solar irradiance and the day-average temperature of the leaf is dominated by the ambient air temperature; transpiration plays an important role in the cooling of the leaf,in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf in summer.To imitate the thermal infared characteristic of the real leaf,the up surface of the bionic leaf must have emissivity and solar absorptivity close to those of a real leaf and its shape and surface roughness must be similar to those of the real leaf.The key point is that the bionic leaf must be able to evaporate water to simulate the transpiration of a plant leaf,appropriate adsorbent can be used to realize this function.

  4. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  5. Effects of leaf movement on leaf temperature, transpiration and radiation interception in soybean under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varietal differences in leaf movement were examined in terms of radiation interception, leaf temperature and transpiration under water stressed conditions. Five cultivars (Qindou 7232, Gaofei 16, Dongnong 87 - 138, 8285 - 8 and 8874) were grown in a concrete frame field in Xinjiang, China. Irrigation treatments (irrigation and no irrigation) were made from the flowering to the pod filling stage. A leaflet in the uppermost layer of the canopy was restrained horizontally. Leaf temperatures, transpiration rate (stem sap flow rate of the main stem per unit leaf area) and intercepted radiation of each leaflet were measured. There were greater varietal differences in leaf movement, leaf temperature and transpiration rate. Leaf temperature seemed to be adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration. The extent to which is adjusted by leaf movement and transpiration differed among the cultivars; leaf temperature was influenced mainly by leaf movement for Gaofei 16 and Dongnong 87 - 138, mainly by transpiration for Qindou 7232 and 8874, and by both for 8285 - 8. Intercepted radiation in the upper two layers of the canopy (20 cm from the uppermost) was greater in the irrigated plot, although the mean values of total leaflets of the irrigated plot were not different as compared to the non-irrigated plot. Although paraheliotropic leaf movement decreased radiation interception, it offers some possibilities for the improvement in radiation penetration within a dense canopy. Cumulated amount of transpiration during a day was compared between the restrained-leaf and the non-leaf-restrained plants in 8874. Paraheliotropic leaf movement reduced water loss by 23% in the irrigated and 71% in the non-irrigated plots

  6. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  7. Okra Leaf Cotton, its Commercial Utilization in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Soomro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were under taken to assess the yield, earliness and insect pest resistance of some newly developed okra leaf strains compared with normal leaf commercial varieties CRIS-9 and NIAB-78. Accordingly, almost all the okra leaf mutants yielded better than NIAB-78. Out of nine okra leaf strains, three were better yields, two equally good and four gave low yield than CRIS-9 the second check variety. Highest yielding okra leaf strain produced 27 and 35 percent higher yield than CRIS-9 and NIAB-78 respectively. Okra leaf strains were documented as early maturing, whitefly tolerant and boll rot disease resistant. Realizing the better performance of okra leaf strains with reduced insecticide applications, the commercial utilization of these varieties in Sindh can not be ignored and may prove better replacement of current cultivars.

  8. Leaf endophyte load influences fungal garden development in leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Bael Sunshine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has shown that leaf-cutting ants prefer to cut leaf material with relatively low fungal endophyte content. This preference suggests that fungal endophytes exact a cost on the ants or on the development of their colonies. We hypothesized that endophytes may play a role in their host plants’ defense against leaf-cutting ants. To measure the long-term cost to the ant colony of fungal endophytes in their forage material, we conducted a 20-week laboratory experiment to measure fungal garden development for colonies that foraged on leaves with low or high endophyte content. Results Colony mass and the fungal garden dry mass did not differ significantly between the low and high endophyte feeding treatments. There was, however, a marginally significant trend toward greater mass of fungal garden per ant worker in the low relative to the high endophyte treatment. This trend was driven by differences in the fungal garden mass per worker from the earliest samples, when leaf-cutting ants had been foraging on low or high endophyte leaf material for only 2 weeks. At two weeks of foraging, the mean fungal garden mass per worker was 77% greater for colonies foraging on leaves with low relative to high endophyte loads. Conclusions Our data suggest that the cost of endophyte presence in ant forage material may be greatest to fungal colony development in its earliest stages, when there are few workers available to forage and to clean leaf material. This coincides with a period of high mortality for incipient colonies in the field. We discuss how the endophyte-leaf-cutter ant interaction may parallel constitutive defenses in plants, whereby endophytes reduce the rate of colony development when its risk of mortality is greatest.

  9. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  10. Anatomy of Begonia lucernae Wettst. (Begoniaceae leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents anatomical aspects concerning the leaf structure of Begonia lucernae Wettst. belonging to Begoniaceae family. Anatomically, the petiole has a unistratous epidermis and a differentiated mesophyll. The vascular system is fascicular type with a large number of collateral bundles placed into a basic tissue. The lamina is composed of an upper and a lower epidermis and hypodermis as well and the mesophyll. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade tissue and spongy tissue with the same vascular bundle structure such as those of the petiole but with foliar arrangement of the conductive tissues. Stomata are present to the lower epidermis. Paradermal section discloses stright walls epidermal cells and anisocytic stomata. It was calculated the number of stomata/mm2 of leaf surface and the stomatal index as well.

  11. Phyllotaxis involves auxin drainage through leaf primordia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Yamini; Marti, Dominik; Frenz, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, known as phyllotaxis, is controlled by an auxin-dependent reiterative mechanism that leads to regular spacing of the organs and thereby to remarkably precise phyllotactic patterns. The mechanism is based on the active cellular transport...... of the phytohormone auxin by cellular influx and efflux carriers, such as AUX1 and PIN1. Their important role in phyllotaxis is evident from mutant phenotypes, but their exact roles in space and time are difficult to address due to the strong pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants in phyllotaxis. Models...... of phyllotaxis invoke the accumulation of auxin at leaf initials and removal of auxin through their developing vascular strand, the midvein. We have developed a precise microsurgical tool to ablate the midvein at high spatial and temporal resolution in order to test its function in leaf formation and phyllotaxis...

  12. Anatomy of Begonia lucernae Wettst. (Begoniaceae) leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica BERCU

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents anatomical aspects concerning the leaf structure of Begonia lucernae Wettst. belonging to Begoniaceae family. Anatomically, the petiole has a unistratous epidermis and a differentiated mesophyll. The vascular system is fascicular type with a large number of collateral bundles placed into a basic tissue. The lamina is composed of an upper and a lower epidermis and hypodermis as well and the mesophyll. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade tissue and spongy tissue with t...

  13. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Muneerudeen J; Himanshu Joshi; Gururaja M.P.; Devi Swapna PV; Lekshmi P; Jipnomon J; C S Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extract...

  14. Pharmacognostical Evalution of Fragaria vesca linn leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Archana R. Dhole; S. K. Mohite; Magdum, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Fragria vesca Dc. (Family:Rosaceae) are used for various medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostical studies mainly include includes collection, identification, microscopical and phytochemical evaluation of leaves of fragaria vesca. The preliminary phytochemical studies indicate the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phytosterols, tannins and fixed oils. The sections were taken and cellular structures were studied. The T.S of leaf shows the presence of ...

  15. A survey of GFRP composite leaf spring

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, S; S. Nakkeran; GB. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components, they are still frequently used in the automobile vehicles. Weight reduction is the main focus in the automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better materials, design optimization, and better manufacturing processes. The achievement of weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composite a very good replacement material for conventional steel. Se...

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectrum inside a leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Moya, Ismael; Goulas, Yves; Jacquemoud, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence can be used as an early stress indicator. Fluorescence is also connected to photosynthesis so it can be proposed for global monitoring of vegetation status from a satellite platform. Nevertheless, the correct interpretation of fluorescence requires accurate physical models. The spectral shape of the leaf fluorescence free of any re-absorption effect plays a key role in the models and is difficult to measure. We present a vegetation fluorescence emission spectrum fre...

  17. Bioinformatic pipelines in Python with Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Francesco; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Tagliaferri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background An incremental, loosely planned development approach is often used in bioinformatic studies when dealing with custom data analysis in a rapidly changing environment. Unfortunately, the lack of a rigorous software structuring can undermine the maintainability, communicability and replicability of the process. To ameliorate this problem we propose the Leaf system, the aim of which is to seamlessly introduce the pipeline formality on top of a dynamical development process with minimum...

  18. Leaf morphology shift linked to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Greg R.; Wen, Haixia; Lowe, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is driving adaptive shifts within species, but research on plants has been focused on phenology. Leaf morphology has demonstrated links with climate and varies within species along climate gradients. We predicted that, given within-species variation along a climate gradient, a morphological shift should have occurred over time due to climate change. We tested this prediction, taking advantage of latitudinal and altitudinal variations within the Adelaide Geosyncline region, Sout...

  19. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, J; Baas, P

    1981-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the arms are important characters to separate the Asiatic genera. The hairs of Knema can be classified further into different types. Many species of Myristicaceae have a layer of cutinaceous, alveolar m...

  20. Quantification of uncertainties in fossil leaf paleoaltimetry: Does leaf size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian

    2010-12-01

    The utility of multivariate foliar physiognomy, specifically the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), to yield reliable estimates of enthalpy and, hence, paleoelevation has been demonstrated by comparison with other proxies, yet concerns have arisen regarding uncertainties arising from (1) apparent ambiguities in the scoring regime and (2) the way leaf size is scored. Regarding the first concern, scoring ambiguities are examined by reporting on scoring tests with novice users and interlaboratory comparisons. The uncertainties were found to be less than those arising from the statistical methodology underpinning CLAMP. In respect to the second concern, the effect of removing all size data both from modern test sites and fossil data was tested. Specifically, the effect of removing leaf size data from the 15 Ma Namling data set from south central Tibet was investigated. Removal of all size data from modern sites demonstrated that size data contributes little to estimates of mean annual temperature and enthalpy. Similarly, the removal of leaf size information from the Namling data set alone, but with calibration unchanged, and from both the Namling site and calibration sites, this time with recalibration, still yield paleoelevation estimates that have been independently matched by oxygen isotope techniques. Moreover, the removal of all leaf size information results in only small increases in uncertainty (±52 m).

  1. Leaf Morpho–physiology and Leaf-Fe Content of Selected Quince Genotypes from Different Parts of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mirabdulbaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare genotype variability of leaf morphophysiology and leaf-Fe content, as well as to select quince genotypes possessing desirable characteristics for possible use in breeding projects. Leaves were sampled from 28 quince genotypes that were selected from different parts of Iran. Selected genotypes were grown under the same environmental conditions in nursery of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. The results suggest that estimated variations of studied leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were slight, but statistically significant. The highest variability was estimated for the leaf area, and somewhat lower for the specific leaf area. The leaves of genotype KM1 had the smallest amount of leaf area and leaf laminar length. Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD-Values and leaf laminar petiole were the highest for the genotype NB2. The genotype SHAI had the highest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0. The highest value of fluorescence variable (FV and chlorophyll fluorescence (FM belonged to Moghavem2. The lowest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and the highest value of photochemical capacity of photosystem 2 (FV/FM belonged to the Khosro. The highest amount of leaf laminar width, leaf dry weight and leaf area belonged to sahelborgmoghavem. The leaves of genotype KVD1 had the highest amount of specific leaf area. Simple correlation analysis showed significant negative and positive correlations for some important characteristics. Factor analysis revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence (FM, fluorescence variable (FV, minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and leaf area were related to the main factor components. Cluster analysis for selective factors divided quince genotypes to five main groups.

  2. Investigation of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Artemisia annua L.in Guizhou%贵州青蒿精油成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占南; 余正文; 罗世琼; 彭全材

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze chemical constituents of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.grown in Jinsha county,Guizhou province,China.Methods GC-MS analytical method was adopted.Results 29 compounds were identified,in which Monoterpenes [monoterpene (52.45%~75.32%) and Sesquiterpene (24.68%~47.55%)] were predominant,Camphor,Lborneol,Copaene,Caryophyllene,beta.-Bisabelene,Germacrene D,Germacrene B,(-)-Neoclovene-(Ⅱ),Isoaromadendrene epoxide and Lanceol,cis.Conclusion The chemical composition of the essential oil from three Artemisia annua L.is consistent,although the content of each compound is different,these informations can help to study the relationship of biosynthesis path of terpenes and Artemisinin in the future.%利用GC-MS分析方法,对生长在贵州金沙县3个产地的青蒿叶中青蒿精油化学成分进行分析,共鉴定了29个化合物,其中,萜类化合物[单萜(52.45%~75.32%)和倍半萜(24.68%~47.55%)]是青蒿精油的主要成分,它们分别是樟脑,L-龙脑,古杷烯,β-石竹烯,红没药烯,大根香叶烯D,大根香叶烯B,(-)-新丁子香烯-(Ⅱ),异香树烯过氧化物和顺式-澳白檩醇等.3个青蒿精油样品的化学成分相一致,但是各个化学成分的含量有不同,这些信息有助于进一步研究青蒿中青蒿素与其他萜类物质之间生物合成途径的相关性.

  3. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

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    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  4. Regulation of Leaf Senescence and Crop Genetic Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yuan Wu; Ben-Ke Kuai; Ji-Zeng Jia; Hai-Chun Jing

    2012-01-01

    Leaf senescence can impact crop production by either changing photosynthesis duration,or by modifying the nutrient remobilization efficiency and harvest index.The doubling of the grain yield in major cereals in the last 50 years was primarily achieved through the extension of photosynthesis duration and the increase in crop biomass partitioning,two things that are intrinsically coupled with leaf senescence.In this review,we consider the functionality of a leaf as a function of leaf age,and divide a leaf's life into three phases:the functionality increasing phase at the early growth stage,the full functionality phase,and the senescence and functionality decreasing phase.A genetic framework is proposed to describe gene actions at various checkpoints to regulate leaf development and senescence.Four categories of genes contribute to crop production:those which regulate (Ⅰ) the speed and transition of early leaf growth,(Ⅱ) photosynthesis rate,(Ⅲ) the onset and (Ⅳ) the progression of leaf senescence.Current advances in isolating and characterizing senescence regulatory genes are discussed in the leaf aging and crop production context.We argue that the breeding of crops with leaf senescence ideotypes should be an essential part of further crop genetic improvement.

  5. Ginseng leaf-stem: bioactive constituents and pharmacological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jingtian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ginseng root is used more often than other parts such as leaf stem although extracts from ginseng leaf-stem also contain similar active ingredients with pharmacological functions. Ginseng's leaf-stems are more readily available at a lower cost than its root. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of ginseng leaf-stem on some diseases and adverse effects due to excessive consumption. Ginseng leaf-stem extract contains numerous active ingredients, such as ginsenosides, polysaccharides, triterpenoids, flavonoids, volatile oils, polyacetylenic alcohols, peptides, amino acids and fatty acids. The extract contains larger amounts of the same active ingredients than the root. These active ingredients produce multifaceted pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, as well as on the cardiovascular, reproductive and metabolic systems. Ginseng leaf-stem extract also has anti-fatigue, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. In normal use, ginseng leaf-stem extract is quite safe; adverse effects occur only when it is over dosed or is of poor quality. Extracts from ginseng root and leaf-stem have similar multifaceted pharmacological activities (for example central nervous and cardiovascular systems. In terms of costs and source availability, however, ginseng leaf-stem has advantages over its root. Further research will facilitate a wider use of ginseng leaf-stem.

  6. Phyllochron and differential growth between plants of French tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L. with different source of propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Lizarazo John Cristhian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    French tarragon is included within the brochure of herbs that Colombia is offering to export. Although renewal is recommended every three or four years, in Colombia there are crops more than eight years of age and with low yield because its traditional vegetative propagation is difficult, therefore it is necessary to establish alternative propagation methods to improve its yield. In order to analyze the phyllochron and growth between French tarragon plants with different origin of propagation (micropropagation and traditional propagation, parameters to simulate field behavior from a model was estimated. From cardinal temperatures, a quadratic function of tarragon’s phyllocron, whose rate was higher in plants from micropropagation during establishment, was determined. The general meristematic activity in plants of in vitro treatment shown to be greater than plants of field treatment, as well as leaf area index (LAI, fraction of intercepted light (FLINT extinction coefficient (K and radiation use efficiency (RUE, which involved differences in the architecture of plants in both treatments. Distribution of biomass to leaves and stems was similar in both treatments. This is the first study using a deterministic model to analyze the effect of micropropagation in field tarragon’s growth.

  7. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  8. Drug: D06894 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available daisy family) Artemisia leaf (dried) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for replenishing blood D06894 *Artemisiae folium; Gaiyo Drugs for external use Drugs

  9. Leaf age dependent changes in within-canopy variation in leaf functional traits: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-05-01

    Within-canopy variation in leaf structural and photosynthetic characteristics is a major means by which whole canopy photosynthesis is maximized at given total canopy nitrogen. As key acclimatory modifications, leaf nitrogen content (N A) and photosynthetic capacity (A A) per unit area increase with increasing light availability in the canopy and these increases are associated with increases in leaf dry mass per unit area (M A) and/or nitrogen content per dry mass and/or allocation. However, leaf functional characteristics change with increasing leaf age during leaf development and aging, but the importance of these alterations for within-canopy trait gradients is unknown. I conducted a meta-analysis based on 71 canopies that were sampled at different time periods or, in evergreens, included measurements for different-aged leaves to understand how within-canopy variations in leaf traits (trait plasticity) depend on leaf age. The analysis demonstrated that in evergreen woody species, M A and N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, but the change in A A plasticity was less suggesting a certain re-acclimation of A A to altered light. In deciduous woody species, M A and N A gradients in flush-type species increased during leaf development and were almost invariable through the rest of the season, while in continuously leaf-forming species, the trait gradients increased constantly with increasing leaf age. In forbs, N A plasticity increased, while in grasses, N A plasticity decreased with increasing leaf age, reflecting life form differences in age-dependent changes in light availability and in nitrogen resorption for growth of generative organs. Although more work is needed to improve the coverage of age-dependent plasticity changes in some plant life forms, I argue that the age-dependent variation in trait plasticity uncovered in this study is large enough to warrant incorporation in simulations of canopy photosynthesis through the growing period. PMID

  10. Elucidating the Role of Transport Processes in Leaf Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan;

    2014-01-01

    glucosinolates in Arabidopsis, also play key roles in glucosinolate allocation within a mature leaf by effectively importing apoplastically localized glucosinolates into appropriate cells. Detection of glucosinolates in root xylem sap unambiguously shows that this transport route is involved in root...... the margin accumulation is established through transport, little is known about these transport processes. Here, we show through leaf apoplastic fluid analysis and glucosinolate feeding experiments that two glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2, essential for long-distance transport of......-to-shoot glucosinolate allocation. Detailed leaf dissections show that in the absence of GTR1 and GTR2 transport activity, glucosinolates accumulate predominantly in leaf margins and leaf tips. Furthermore, we show that glucosinolates accumulate in the leaf abaxial epidermis in a GTR-independent manner. Based on our...

  11. From genes to shape: regulatory interactions in leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoulas, Michalis; Galinha, Carla; Grigg, Stephen P; Tsiantis, Miltos

    2007-12-01

    In the past two years novel connections were described between auxin function and transcription factor patterning systems involved in both leaf initiation and elaboration of leaf axial patterning. A cascade of small RNA-based regulatory steps was suggested to facilitate delimitation of cell types comprising the upper versus lower parts of the leaf. Developmental regulation of cellular growth emerged as a crucial component in regulation of leaf form with TCP and CUC2 transcription factors playing a key role in this process. Finally, cis-regulatory evolution of developmental genes emerged as a process that likely contributed to diversification of leaf form, while studies in seedless land plants have begun to elucidate the ancestral and derived aspects of leaf development pathways. PMID:17869569

  12. Landmark Analysis Of Leaf Shape Using Polygonal Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Zakhi; Herdiyeni, Yeni; Paruhum Silalahi, Bib; Douady, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a method to extract landmark of leaf shape using static threshold of polygonal approximation. Leaf shape analysis has played a central role in many problems in vision and perception. Landmark-based shape analysis is the core of geometric morphometric and has been used as a quantitative tool in evolutionary and developmental biology. In this research, the polygonal approximation is used to select the best points that can represent the leaf shape variability. We used a static threshold as the control parameter of fitting a series of line segment over a digital curve of leaf shape. This research focuses on seven leaf shape, i.e., eliptic, obovate, ovate, oblong and special. Experimental results show static polygonal approximation shows can be used to find the important points of leaf shape.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

  15. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Rocha e Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species. The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m. The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 μL/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  17. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  18. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: adaptive strategy of desert plant Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wenhao; Dong, Ming; Boubriak, Ivan; Huang, Zhenying

    2011-01-01

    Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats. PMID:21912689

  19. Composition and intraspecific chemical variability of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in a Tunisian arid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighri, Hédi; Akrout, Ahmed; El-jeni, Hajer; Zaidi, Slah; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph; Neffati, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    The intraspecific chemical variability of essential oils (50 samples) isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso growing wild in the arid zone of Southeastern Tunisia was investigated. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 54 essential oil components. The main compounds were β-thujone and α-thujone, followed by 1,8-cineole, camphor, chrysanthenone, trans-sabinyl acetate, trans-pinocarveol, and borneol. Chemometric analysis (k-means clustering and PCA) led to the partitioning into three groups. The composition of two thirds of the samples was dominated by α-thujone or β-thujone. Therefore, it could be expected that wild plants of A. herba-alba randomly harvested in the area of Kirchaou and transplanted by local farmers for the cultivation in arid zones of Southern Tunisia produce an essential oil belonging to the α-thujone/β-thujone chemotype and containing also 1,8-cineole, camphor, and trans-sabinyl acetate at appreciable amounts. PMID:21072770

  20. Consequences of inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis seedlings after transplanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bill E; Novak, Stephen J; Serpe, Marcelo D

    2016-08-01

    In arid environments, the propagule density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may limit the extent of the plant-AMF symbiosis. Inoculation of seedlings with AMF could alleviate this problem, but the success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These phenomena were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings inoculated with native AMF. Seedlings were first grown in a greenhouse in soil without AMF (non-inoculated seedlings) or with AMF (inoculated seedlings). In spring and fall, 3-month-old seedlings were transplanted outdoors to 24-L pots containing soil from a sagebrush habitat (spring and fall mesocosm experiments) or to a recently burned sagebrush habitat (spring and fall field experiments). Five or 8 months after transplanting, colonization was about twofold higher in inoculated than non-inoculated seedlings, except for the spring field experiment. In the mesocosm experiments, inoculation increased survival during the summer by 24 % (p = 0.011). In the field experiments, increased AMF colonization was associated with increases in survival during cold and dry periods; 1 year after transplanting, survival of inoculated seedlings was 27 % higher than that of non-inoculated ones (p soil, leading to higher rates of survival. PMID:27075898

  1. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12. Material and Methods:Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were performed by flowcytometry. Results:  Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX.  The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells.  Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the  mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions.

  2. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nadia; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Yim, Soon-Ho; Batkhuu, Galzad Javzan; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2016-01-01

    There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. PMID:27528883

  3. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes. Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders.

  4. Evaluation of the In Vitro Efficacy of Artemisia annua, Rumex abyssinicus, and Catha edulis Forsk Extracts in Cancer and Trypanosoma brucei Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Mossie, Andualem; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Trettner, Susanne; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The current drugs against sleeping sickness are derived from cancer chemotherapeutic approaches. Herein, we aimed at evaluating the in vitro effect of alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua (AMR), Rumex abyssinicus (RMA), and Catha edulis Forsk (CEF) on proliferation/viability of 1321N1 astrocytoma, MCF-7 breast cancer, THP-1 leukemia, and LNCaP, Du-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells and on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Proliferation of tumor cells was evaluated by WST-1 assay and viability/behaviour of T. brucei by cell counting and light microscopy. CEF was the most efficient growth inhibitor in comparison to AMR and RMA. Nevertheless, in LNCaP and THP-1 cells, all extracts significantly inhibited tumor growth at 3 μg/mL. All extracts inhibited proliferation of T. brucei cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Microscopic analysis revealed that 95% of the T. brucei cells died when exposed to 33 μg/mL CEF for 3 hrs. Similar results were obtained using 33 μg/mL AMR for 6 hrs. In case of RMA, however, higher concentrations were necessary to obtain similar effects on T. brucei. This demonstrates the antitumor efficacy of these extracts as well as their ability to dampen viability and proliferation of T. brucei, suggesting a common mechanism of action on highly proliferative cells, most probably by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:25937964

  5. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  6. Chlorogenic acid, an antioxidant principle from the aerial parts ofArtemisia iwayomogi that acts on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Lee, C K; Kang, S S; Jung, H A; Choi, J S

    1997-04-01

    The antioxidant activity ofArtemisia iwayomogi was determined by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical The methanol extract ofA. iwayomogi showed strong antioxidant activity, and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate>n-butanol>water>chloroform>n-hexane fraction. The ethyl acetate andn-butanol soluble fractions exhibiting strong antioxidant activity were further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant chlorogenic acid was isolated as one of the active principles from then-butanol fraction, together with the inactive components, 1-octacosanol, scopoletin, scopolin, apigenin 7,4'-di-O-methylether luteolin 6,3'-di-O-methylether (jaceosidin), apigenin 7-methylether (genkwanin), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quebrachitol. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid, which is a well known antioxidant. PMID:18975193

  7. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Cansee1,

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  8. Wettability and water uptake of holm oak leaf surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Sancho Knapik, Domingo; Guzmán, Paula; Peguero Pina, José Javier; KARABOURNIOTIS, GEORGE; Khayet, Mohamed; Fasseas, Costas; Heredia Guerrero, José Alejandro; Heredia Bayona, Antonio; Gil Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-01-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) as model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops on to abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper l...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  10. Spring Wheat Leaf Appearance and Temperature: Extending the Paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, Gregory S.; WILHELM, W. W.; PALIC, D. B.; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive research shows temperature to be the primary environmental factor controlling the phyllochron, or rate of leaf appearance, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experimental results suggest that soil temperature at crown depth, rather than air temperature above the canopy, would better predict wheat leaf appearance rates. To test this hypothesis, leaf appearance in spring wheat (‘Nordic’) was measured in a 2‐year field experiment (Nunn clay loam soil; fine, smectitic, mesic Aridic, Argiu...

  11. Observation on Plant Leaf Transection by Gelatin Blotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Dahai; LI Fuheng; WANG Xiaocen; HUANG Fushan

    2011-01-01

    Blotting was used to observe cell structures of leaf epidermis cells, and the key method of leaf transaction observation was paraffin section. The concentration, suitable solidification time, melting temperature of gelatin solution and the stain for the gelatin blotting were studied in this research. The results showed that the gelatin blotting could be used to study leaf transaction, it was benefit to make operation easily, and save time, money and so on

  12. Identification and Classification of Leaf Diseases in Turmeric Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nandhini M,; Pream Sudha V

    2016-01-01

    Plant disease identification is the most important sector in agriculture. Turmeric is one of the important rhizomatous crops grown in India. The turmeric leaf is highly exposed to diseases like rhizome rot, leaf spot, and leaf blotch. The identification of plant diseases requires close monitoring and hence this paper adopts technologies to manage turmeric plant diseases caused by fungi to enable production of high quality crop yields. Various image processing and machine learning ...

  13. LEAF FEATURES EXTRACTION AND RECOGNITION APPROACHES TO CLASSIFY PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Faizal Ab Jabal; Suhardi Hamid; Salehuddin Shuib; Illiasaak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Plant classification based on leaf identification is becoming a popular trend. Each leaf carries substantial information that can be used to identify and classify the origin or the type of plant. In medical perspective, images have been used by doctors to diagnose diseases and this method has been proven reliable for years. Using the same method as doctors, researchers try to simulate the same principle to recognise a plant using high quality leaf images and complex mathematical formulae for ...

  14. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  15. High Precision for Leaf Area Measurement and Instrument Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on embedded technology and image processing technology, the study presents a memory minimizes algorithm, named as IBRA. Measurement of plant leaf area is an important parameter in the modern precision agriculture. How to fast, accurately, low-costly measure the leaf area, is a long-term project to be researched. A new measuring instrument of leaf area with low-cost and portable has been developed. It is a high-accuracy, portable measuring instruments for plant leaf area measurement.

  16. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneerudeen J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extracts produced no signs of hemolysis indicating that the extracts are not toxic to normal erythrocytes.

  17. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  18. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  19. Architectural changes in larval leaf shelters of Noctuana haematospila (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) between host plant species with different leaf thicknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Greeney, Harold F.; Walla, Thomas R.; Ryan L. Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Insect-food-plant associations have been shown to be influenced by the chemical, physical and nutritional characteristics of plants. We suggest that among insect larvae that use leaf material to build shelters, food-plant use may be constrained by differences in host leaf structure, illuminating a rarely investigated aspect of insect-plant interactions. To explore the potential effects of leaf structure on shelter building behavior in a Neotropical skipper butterfly, we investigated shelter b...

  20. Effects of Different Level Leaf Collecting and Leaf Fertilizer Applications on Grape Yield and Quality of Sultana Grape Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAY, K.; AKIN, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted on 13 year-old Sultana (Vitis vinifera L.) grape cultivar grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2012 in Manisa province. In this research, it was examined whether the applications of Control (C), Few Number Leaf Collection (FNLC), Normal Number Leaf Collection (NNLC), Much Number Leaf Collection (MNLC), FNLC+Potassium Humate (PH), NNLC+PH, MNLC+PH, FNLC+Micronized Calcite (MC), NNLC+MC, MNLC+MC, FNLC+PH+MC, NNLC+PH+MC, MNLC+PH+MC, on a leaf had effects on gr...