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Sample records for artemisia iwayomogi reduces

  1. A Carbohydrate Fraction, AIP1, from Artemisia Iwayomogi Reduces the Action Potential Duration by Activation of Rapidly Activating Delayed Rectifier K+ Channels in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Won Sun; Son, Youn Kyoung; Ko, Eun A.; Choi, Seong Woo; Kim, Nari; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Youn, Hyun Joo; Jo, Su-Hyun; Hong, Da Hye; Han, Jin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a hot-water extract of Artemisia iwayomogi, a plant belonging to family Compositae, on cardiac ventricular delayed rectifier K+ current (IK) using the patch clamp technique. The carbohydrate fraction AIP1 dose-dependently increased the heart rate with an apparent EC50 value of 56.1±5.5 µg/ml. Application of AIP1 reduced the action potential duration (APD) in concentration-dependent fashion by activating IK without significantly altering the resting membrane pote...

  2. Simultaneous quantification and validation of new peroxynitrite scavengers from Artemisia iwayomogi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung; Lim, Sang-Cheol; Karki, Subash; Choi, Jae Sue; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2015-05-01

    Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura (Compositae) has been very widely used for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatitis, jaundice, and gastritis. In the course of our continuing efforts to identify and quantify peroxynitrite scavengers from Compositae plants, A. iwayomogi was used in this study. The present study was aimed to identify and quantify the peroxynitrite scavengers of A. iwayomogi. Silica gel and ODS were used for column chromatography. The isolated compounds were quantified using an HPLC equipped with a Capcell Pak C18 column (5 μm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.), and the method was validated for the quality control. Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging activities of the compounds and extracts were evaluated on the measurement of highly fluorescent rhodamine 123 converted from non-fluorescent dihydrorhodamine (DHR)-123 under the presence of peroxynitrite. Based on the spectroscopic evidences, a new compound, 2"-O-caffeoylrutin (2"-O-trans-caffeic acid ester of quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) was isolated and determined together with patuletin 3-O-glucoside, scopolin, scopoletin, rutin, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. All of them were potent peroxynitrite scavengers (IC50 ≤ 1.88 μg/mL). The peroxynitrite scavengers were mainly distributed in the EtOAc fraction rather than the ether and BuOH fractions. The 70% MeOH extract exhibited a high peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Through the validation, the present HPLC method was verified to be sufficiently sensitive, accurate, precise, and stable. Therefore, this method can be used for the quality control of A. iwayomogi.

  3. Scopoletin and scopolin isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi suppress differentiation of osteoclastic macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Ding, Yan; Yan, Xi Tao; Kim, Young-Ho; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2013-04-26

    Artemisia iwayomogi has been used as a folk medicine for treating various diseases including inflammatory and immune-related diseases. Scopoletin (1) and scopolin (2) were isolated from this species. Scopoletin (1) showed more potent peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, reducing capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity compared to scopolin (2). The inhibitory effect of 1 on the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand-induced osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was also more potent than that of 2. The production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions during differentiation of preosteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells into osteoclasts was attenuated by compounds 1 and 2. These findings indicate that the suppressive effects of 1 and 2 on the differentiation of preosteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells is partially due to their intracellular antioxidant capacity, as they can scavenge ROS and play an important signaling role in the differentiation process.

  4. Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with Adipogenesis in Mice

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    Yeji Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine whether Artemisia iwayomogi (AI extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, and if so, whether these effects are exerted by modulation of the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation. AI extract supplementation for 11 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increments in body weight, visceral adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and plasma levels of lipids and leptin. Additionally, AI extract supplementation resulted in downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and their target genes (CD36, aP2, and FAS in epididymal adipose tissue compared to the HFD alone. The AI extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MCP1, IL-6, IFNα, and INFβ in epididymal adipose tissue and reduced plasma levels of TNFα and MCP1 as compared to HFD alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AI extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders, probably by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue.

  5. Artemisia iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Decreasing the Expression of Genes Associated with Adipogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeji; Yanagawa, Yasuko; Kim, Sungun; Whang, Wan Kyunn; Park, Taesun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and if so, whether these effects are exerted by modulation of the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation. AI extract supplementation for 11 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increments in body weight, visceral adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and plasma levels of lipids and leptin. Additionally, AI extract supplementation resulted in downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ2 and C/EBPα) and their target genes (CD36, aP2, and FAS) in epididymal adipose tissue compared to the HFD alone. The AI extract effectively reversed the HFD-induced elevations in plasma glucose and insulin levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. Furthermore, the extract significantly decreased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MCP1, IL-6, IFNα, and INFβ) in epididymal adipose tissue and reduced plasma levels of TNFα and MCP1 as compared to HFD alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AI extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders, probably by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:23401719

  6. An ethanol extract of Artemisia iwayomogi activates PPARδ leading to activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

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    Si Young Cho

    Full Text Available Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPARδ-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPARδ-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity.

  7. Anti-inflammatory changes of gene expression by Artemisia iwayomogi in the LPS-stimulated human gingival fibroblast: microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2012-03-01

    The leaves and stems of Asteraceae Artemisia iwayomogi (Ai) for a long time have been known to inhibit inflammatory cytokine production and allergic reactions, and have been used to treat liver diseases. It needs to be elucidated in terms of global gene expression whether Ai has an influence as an anti-inflammatory agent on the cultured human gingival fibroblast stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study investigated the anti-inflammatory changes of the genes by Ai using the Affymetrix genechip human gene 1.0 ST array when the cultured human gingival fibroblast was treated with LPS. It was observed that the inflammation- and immune response-related genes were activated by LPS challenge in the cultured human gingival fibroblast. The array analysis showed that 65 of the 344 genes up-regulated by LPS stimulation, when compared to the control, were down-regulated by the Ai treatment. A number of inflammation- and immune response-related genes of the 65 genes were found. In addition, 78 of the 164 genes down-regulated by the LPS, when compared to the control, were up-regulated by the Ai treatment. The regulatory patterns of the representative genes were correlated with the real-time RT-PCR analysis. The Ai extract and its specific components, scopolin and scopoletin, significantly hindered the production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF-α and nitrite in the LPS-challenged fibroblast. This study suggests that Ai can comprehensively inhibit the activation of the inflammation- and immune response-related genes and the inflammatory mediators in the human gingival fibroblast.

  8. Synergistic effects of Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in a mouse model.

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    Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Seol, In-Chan; Im, Hwi-Jin; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-09-15

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi and Curcuma longa radix are both used to treat hyperlipidemia in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of the 30% ethanol extracts of A. iwayomogi (AI), C. longa (CL), and the mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE), using a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model. Six of seven groups of C57BL/6N male mice (i.e., not including the naïve group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Of these six groups, five (i.e., not including the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with AI (100mg/kg), CL (100mg/kg), ACE (50 or 100mg/kg), or Lipitor (20mg/kg). Serum lipid profiles, obesity-related markers, hepatic steatosis, hepatic gene expression, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. AI, CL, and ACE were associated with significant effects on serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC] and triglyceride), body, liver and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress biomarkers. ACE at 100mg/kg was associated with significantly greater improvements in serum TC and triglyceride, hepatic triglyceride, epididymal adipocyte size, and oxidative stress biomarkers, compared with AI and CL. AI, CL and ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expression (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha). ACE exhibits anti-hyperlipidemia properties and is associated with partially synergistic effects compared with AI or CL alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Artemisia Iwayomogi Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice: Potential Involvement of the Adiponectin-AMPK Pathway and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Assembly in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhui; Narayan, Vikram P; Hong, Eun Young; Whang, Wan Kyunn; Park, Taesun

    2017-08-12

    This study aimed to examine the protective effect of Artemisia iwayomogi extract (AI) against hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6N mice were fed chow, HFD, HFD + 0.1% AI, HFD + 0.25% AI, or HFD + 0.5% AI for 10 weeks. The addition of 0.25% and 0.5% AI resulted in dose-dependent improvements in the major parameters of hypertriglyceridemia, including plasma triglyceride, free fatty acids, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein lipase, with parallel reductions in body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance. These beneficial effects were accompanied by the activation of adiponectin-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated signaling cascades in the liver, which downregulated molecules involved in lipogenesis and concurrently upregulated molecules related to fatty acid oxidation. The downregulation of molecules involved in very low density lipoprotein assembly, which was associated with improved hepatic insulin signaling, also appeared to contribute to the AI-induced attenuation of hypertriglyceridemia.

  10. (Artemisia iwayomogi Kitamura) on the pig Longissimus dorsi mus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Kelch-related protein 1, SLA-7, glycine amidinotransferase, and Tpi 1. The other three spots ..... dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol- .... identification by two-dimensional electrophoresis and amino acid analysis.

  11. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

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    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  12. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

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    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  13. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

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    Zohra Aloui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs. Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp., while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+. Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products.

  14. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Chokri; Haoues, Meriam; Neffati, Noura; Bassoumi Jamoussi, Imen; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Boussaid, Mohamed; Karoui, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. PMID:27807464

  15. The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, K; Rivera, S B; Epstein, W W

    2002-01-01

    Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but previously unidentified in this family. 2,2-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran, 2,3-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-4H-pyran and 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhexa-trans-3,5-diene-1-ol were isolated from both A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana and A. cana ssp. viscidula. The irregular monoterpene 2,2-dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran has a carbon skeleton analogous to the biologically important triterpene squalene. Two additional irregular monoterpenes, artemisia triene and trans-chrysanthemal were isolated from A. cana ssp. viscidula and lavandulol was isolated from A. tridentata ssp. spiciformis. This is the first time a compound possessing a lavandulyl-skeletal type has been found in the Anthemideae family.

  16. Artemisia Gentileschi and her world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsy, Ildiko

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with one of the most notable artists of 17th century Italy: Artemisia Gentileschi. Gentileschi holds a unique place in art history, both as a woman artist and as the first female member of the Academy of Design in Florence. Brought up to be an artist by her father--the painter Orazio Gentileschi--she was allowed to work in his studio, use models, receive instruction and collaborate with well-known artists. Artemisia Gentileschi became a follower of the school of Caravaggio--the school's only Caravaggista. She began public life in a notorious way; her father had his colleague Tassi--her painting instructor--charged with raping her. The relationship between historical and art historical events in Gentileschi's lifetime and creative processes are explored. Special attention is given to those vicissitudes of Gentileschi's personal life that may be reflected through her work. Popular psychoanalytic conceptualizations about Gentileschi are discussed, as are mythological and biblical themes in her art.

  17. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  18. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  19. Antidiabetic Activity of Artemisia amygdalina Decne in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Khalid Ghazanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species have been extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Artemisia amygdalina. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and hydroethanolic extracts of Artemisia amygdalina were tested for their antidiabetic potentials in diabetic rats. The effect of extracts was observed by checking the biochemical, physiological, and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats. The hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts each at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b. w significantly reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. The other biochemical parameters like cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL, serum creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatise (ALP, were found to be reduced by the hydroethanolic and methanolic extracts. The extracts also showed reduction in the feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The histopathological results of treated groups showed the regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The current study revealed the antidiabetic potential of Artemisia amygdalina being effective in hyperglycemia and that it can effectively protect against other metabolic aberrations caused by diabetes in rats, which seems to validate its therapeutic traditional use.

  20. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions

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    Monika Skowyra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia annua Extracts in Model Food Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in this Chinese herb, leaf flavonoids have shown a variety of biological activities. The polyphenolic profile of extract from leaves of A. annua was assessed as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were established and three assays were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. The measurement of scavenging capacity against the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were 314.99 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 736.26 µM TE/g DW and 212.18 µM TE/g DW, respectively. A. annua extracts also showed good antioxidant properties in 10% sunflower oil-in-water emulsions during prolonged storage (45 days) at 32 °C. Artemisia extract at 2 g/L was as effective as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.02 g/L in slowing down the formation of hydroperoxides as measured by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results of this study indicate that extract of A. annua may be suitable for use in the food matrix as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of extracts from Artemisia parviflora and A. sieversiana

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    Irum S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the northern areas of Pakistan, the use of Artemisia based therapeutics is a common practice. Plants of genus Artemisia are known to possess anthelmintic and therapeutic effect. Infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes are major threat to livestock industry across the world resulting in loss of production and indirect economic losses due to high cost of anthelmintic drugs. Present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effect of Artemisia sieversiana and Artemisia parviflora on Haemonchus contortus, a parasitic nematode of small ruminants. Methanolic plant extract was tested against three different developmental stages using an egg hatch assay, infective larvae and adult worm motility assay. Different concentrations were used for the bioassays and post exposure mortality was recorded after 8 hr for adult worms and infective larvae, while egg inhibition percentage was observed after 27 hr. A highly significant ability to inhibit the egg hatching (100 % was recorded for both plant extracts while, the highest activity for adult worm assay and larvicidal assay was 90 % for A. sieversiana. The highest activity for adult motility and larvicidal assay for A. parviflora was 89 % and 86.6 % respectively. For in vivo trials maximum parentage reduction was 77.0 % for A. sieversiana and 73.6 % for A. parviflora. It is concluded that selected plant extracts were effective in reducing worm burden in animals.

  3. Antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of Artemisia absinthium L. hydroalcholic extract in rat

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    Mohammadian Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Artemisia absinthium L. (AA is a large, diverse genus of the family Asteraceae. AAhas long been used as customary herbal medicine in world for the treatment of gastric pain, cardiacstimulation, improvement of memory and for the restoration of declined mental function. The aimof present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of AA on some factors ref lecting thedevelopment of oxidative toxic stress in plasma.Methods: Twenty male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups (5 rats each. Group I actedas control (received normal salin. Treatment groups were II, III and IV which were givenArtemisia 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day respectively only by gavage for 24 hours. After treatment,blood specimens were collected. Liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST andalanine aminotransferase (ALT with total antioxidant power (TAP and total thiol groups (TTGconcentrations were measured.Results: Levels of ALT, AST and TTG were decreased in the group II compared to the control(group I. ALT and AST in 50 mg/kg group was observed compared with control group. Also, TTGincreased in Artemisia 50 mg/kg group compared to control group.Conclusion: Results suggests that alcoholic extract of Artemisia can ameliorate liver toxicity inrats through reducing the serum levels of ALT, AST, and oxidative damage.

  4. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  5. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/ml, fungicidal effect – under 50 and 100 mg/ml. The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia maritimа, Artemisia austriaca, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia dracunculus, cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. The chief ingredients of ethereal oil which is synthesized by the plant of Artemisia abrotanum are 1,8-cineole (30.44% and camphor (31.92%. A high 1,8-cineole and camphor content determines antimicrobial properties of the plants. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Artemisia abrotanum is 2.98 percent. By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr in the grass of Artemisia abrotanum we have detected 23 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside as well as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The main compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca are trans-verbenole (30.77 %, pinocarvone (10.77 % and sabinilacetate (18.16 %. In the grass of Artemisia austriaca we have detected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, apigenin, quercetin-bioside and the following acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27.25 mg / g (2.73 %. The main component of ethereal oil of Artemisia dracunculus is methyleugenol (94.65 %. We have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood

  6. Antidiarrheal activity of dehydroleucodine isolated from Artemisia douglasiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, G H; María, A O M; Guzmán, J A; Giordano, O; Pelzer, L E

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia douglasiana, was screened for antidiarrheal effects. DhL inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice by judged by a decrease in the number of wet faeces in the DhL-treatment groups. DhL significantly reduced intestinal transit in mice. Yohimbine and phentolamine counteracted the inhibitory effect of DhL. It is suggested that alpha2-adrenergic receptors mediate the effect of DhL in intestinal motility. DhL reduced also intraluminal accumulation of fluid. Thus, the antidiarrheal activity of DhL is possibly related, at least in part, to its inhibitory action against gastrointestinal motility and the inhibition of enteropooling property.

  7. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.

  8. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and in vitro activity against Candida albicans of volatile fractions prepared from Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Obistioiu, Diana; Cristina, Romeo T; Schmerold, Ivo; Chizzola, Remigius; Stolze, Klaus; Nichita, Ileana; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of essential oils is reported to have significant activity against Candida albicans. But the different chemical composition influences the degree of their activity. The intention of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the activity against Candida albicans of volatile oils obtained from Artemisia dracunculus, A. abrotanum, A. absinthium and A. vulgaris (Asteraceae). The aim of the study was to identify new chemical compounds that have effect aga...

  9. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal effect of Artemisia annua extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsen, E.; Fretté, X. C.; Engberg, R. M.;

    2012-01-01

    be banned in the EU. Extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (AA) showed antimicrobial activity in overnight cultures of CP strains isolated from diseased broilers. The hexane extract (HEX) gave the strongest inhibition (MIC=185ppm) while the dichloromethane extract (DCM) gave a weaker inhibition (MIC......=270ppm). The dietary incorporation of HEX reduced the population of CP and the severity of the associated small intestinal lesions (P>0.05) in broilers when applying a NE disease model. The antibacterial compounds from HEX and DCM, chrysosplenol and ponticaepoxide, were isolated. This is the first...... report of activity against CP for these compounds. HEX, DCM and artemisinin were also tested against HM. The two latter showed highest antiprotozoal effect in vitro (MLC=1.0mg/ml and IC50=1.3mg/ml respectively), and were tested in vivo in infected poultry. However, no effect against HM at the given...

  10. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  11. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  12. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... bacteria. 4597. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of Artemisia annua leaves and extracts preparation: ... was introduced into a test tube, and then preserved in .... Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 12.0.

  13. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

  14. Artemisia spicigera Essential Oil: Assessment of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Properties

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    Ghajarbeygi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Essential oils (EO, also called volatile odoriferous oil, are aromatic oily liquids extracted from different parts of plants. In general, the constituents in EOs are terpenes, aromatic compounds (aldehyde, alcohol, phenol, methoxy derivatives, and so on, and terpenoids (isoprenoids. Essential Oils have been known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, thereby serving as natural additives in foods and food products. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of compounds, with active chemical and antioxidant properties, of Artemisia spicigera essential oil (EO due to the effect of geographic location and season of harvest on the phenolic compounds of the plant. The plant was collected from east Azarbayjan province, Iran (both before and after the flowering stage. Materials and Methods A. spicigera EO was analyzed by gas chromatogram/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content before and after flowering were evaluated by the Folin Ciocalteu method. Also, the yields of essential oil as a percentage based on the level of dry plant and the volume of extracted oil was determined. Results Analysis of A. spicigera EO by gas chromatogram-mass spectrometry showed that spachulenol 1 H cycloprop (18.39% and bicyclo hexan-3-en, 4-met (26.16%, were the prominent EOs of Artemisia before and after the flowering stage; the total phenolic EO before and after the flowering stage was 23.61 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.71 ± 0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Also level of flavonoid content before and after the flowering stage was 37.27 ± 1.70 µg/mL and 29.04 ± 1.30 µg/mL, respectively. This EO was able to reduce the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenol,1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH with an IC50 of 86.14 ± 2.23 and 96.18 ± 2.61 µg/mL, before and after flowering, respectively. Yield of EO before and after flowering was 0.5% and 0.6%, respectively. Conclusions Results have shown that A. spicigera EO

  15. The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage.

  16. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  17. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  18. Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Artemisia herba-alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou El-Hamd H. Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia, one of the larger genera in the family Asteraceae and the largest genus in the tribe Anthemideae, comprises from 200 to more than 500 taxa at the specific or subspecific level. Many Artemisia species have a high economic value in several fields, as food plants and as antihelminthic and antimalaria in medicine. Artemisia herba-alba was known for its therapeutic and medicinal properties, it was used in both traditional and modern medicine. Several papers have been published on the chemical composition of specimens of A. herba-alba. The aim of this work is to review all available scientific literature published on A. herba-alba. The focus will be on the chemical constitutions which have been identified from this species, in addition to all of the reported biological activites of this species have been included as well as the pharmacology and toxicology

  19. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  20. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Hydro Alcoholic Essence of Artemisia sieberi

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    A Doroodgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Iran and many side effects associated with pentavalent antimony compounds use in its treatment, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of Artemisia sieberi essence on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis on BALB/c mice."nMethods: This experimental research was performed to determine the effect of various concentrations of  Artemisia essence in BALB/c mice previously infected with active Leishmania major promastigote. A total of 50 infected BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups (30 mice were used in the experimental condi­tions and the others were assigned as the control groups. The experimental groups received 1%, 3% and 5% of Ar­temisia, respectively. One of the control groups received ethanol 80% and the other received no treatment. The drug was administered by dropping the liquid on the top lesions, three times daily for maximum of 30 d. Every 10 days the ulcers diameter were measured and sampled for amastigote in all groups. Ulcers diameter changes were deter­mined by statistical tests."nResults: After 30 days, diameter of CL lesions increased in 1%, 3% and 5% Artemisia concentrations and the control groups. Ulcers got bigger with the more concentration. Treatments could not reduce the diameter or caused small lesions. In addition, the mice direct smears in microscopic studies were positive."nConclusion: To find the effective concentration and the mechanism of the effectiveness of the drug, further investi­gations with less concentrates of A. sieberi essence are recommended.

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae or compositae known as the ester, daisy or sunflower family is the largest family of flowering plants. Artemisia is a large diverse genus of plants with between 100 to 150 species belonging to the family asteraceae (compositae. It comprises hardy herbs and shrubs known for their volatile oils. They grow in temperate climate of the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere usually in dry or, semidry habitats. The collected herbs were authenticated, dried and extracted to calculate the percentage of yield. Phytochemical studies of the Hexane and alcoholic extracts showed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. carbohydrate, saponins, phytosterol, proteins and amino acid, tannin, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. It was observed that all the extracts show more important chemical constituents for various pharmacological activities. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analysis of this species.

  2. Artemisinin concentration and antioxidant capacity of Artemisia annua distillation byproduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia annua is mostly known as the source of artemisinin, the raw material for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy, used against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum where malaria is endemic. Artemisinin drugs are also effective against helminthic and protozoan parasites tha...

  3. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  5. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  6. Effect of Mentha spicata L. and Artemisia campestris extracts on the shelf life and quality of vacuum-packed refrigerated sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Kuley, Esmeray; Bendeddouche, Badis; Ozogul, Fatih

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of ethanolic extracts obtained from Mentha spicata and Artemisia campestris on the shelf life and the quality of vacuum-packed sardine fillets stored at 3 ± 1°C for a period of 21 days. The three groups were tested were VC, control group; VM, group treated with 1 % mint extract; and VA, group treated with 1 % artemisia extract. The observed shelf life of sardine fillets was 10 days for control samples, whereas the combination of vacuum packaging with mint and artemisia extracts extended the product's shelf life to 17 days. Among the chemical indices determined, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were significantly lower in VM samples. Total volatile base nitrogen was maintained at low levels in VA samples until 17 days of chilled storage. Results of aerobic plate counts and coliform counts showed the existence of a reduced growth in VA group, whereas lactic acid bacteria did not show a significant difference among groups. Natural extract treatments combined with vacuum packaging showed lower microbiological and chemical indices, indicating that the presence of phenolic compounds in mint and artemisia extracts and the removal of oxygen in the pack retarded lipid oxidation and reduced the growth of microorganisms, which resulted in preventing spoilage and extending the product's shelf life.

  7. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  8. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  9. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN γ -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1 β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF- κ B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  10. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA’s anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  11. In vivo evaluation of antiparasitic effects of Artemisia abrotanum and Salvia officinalis extracts on Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculoris tetrapetra and Hymenolepis nana parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amirmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis and Artemisia abrotanum extracts against digestive system parasites of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract was prepared and dissolved in distilled water. The mebendazole was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. After counting eggs per gram feces, infected mice with 16 eggs per gram feces contained two to three parasites of Syphacia obvelata, Aspicoloris terepetra and Hymenolipis nana designated in 4 groups. The first group was given extracts of Artemisia (150 mg/kg, the second group was given Salvia extract (150 mg/kg, the third group was given mebendazole (10 mg/kg and finally the fourth group was given distilled water (2 mL/kg. Results: The ethanol extracts of Artemisia and Salvia plants reduced the number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. Results showed significant reduction (P-value<0.001 in the number of eggs excreted by Hymenolepis nana, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata in mice. Conclusions: These results revealed that antiparasitic effects of Artemisia and Salvia are reasonable and these two plants might be used as antiparasitic natural products.

  12. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia absinthium aqueous extract — A comprehensive study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Kim, Bosung [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Belfield, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); College of Science and Liberal Arts, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Norman, David; Brennan, Mary [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States); Ali, Gul Shad, E-mail: gsali@ufl.edu [Mid-Florida Research and Education Center and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL 32703 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Unlike chemical synthesis, biological synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining tremendous interest, and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources due to their ample availability and wide array of reducing metabolites. In this project, we investigated the reducing potential of aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium L. for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Optimal synthesis of AgNPs with desirable physical and biological properties was investigated using ultra violet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). To determine their appropriate concentrations for AgNP synthesis, two-fold dilutions of silver nitrate (20 to 0.62 mM) and aqueous plant extract (100 to 0.79 mg ml{sup −1}) were reacted. The results showed that silver nitrate (2 mM) and plant extract (10 mg ml{sup −1}) mixed in different ratios significantly affected size, stability and yield of AgNPs. Extract to AgNO{sub 3} ratio of 6:4 v/v resulted in the highest conversion efficiency of AgNO{sub 3} to AgNPs, with the particles in average size range of less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the direct imaging of synthesized AgNPs by TEM revealed polydispersed particles in the size range of 5 to 20 nm. Similarly, nanoparticles with the characteristic peak of silver were observed with EDX. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the differential behavior of plant extract and AgNO{sub 3} to synthesize biologically stable AgNPs. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous extract from Artemisia absinthium when used in appropriate ratio (shown in Eppendorf tubes and microtiter plate) is highly active in reducing elemental silver to colloidal silver nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm size range (shown in TEM image, bottom left panel; DLS histogram, upper left panel; EDX analysis, bottom right panel). - Highlights: • Artemisia absinthium extract provides excellent reducing potential for

  13. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vardapetyan H; Hovhannisyan D; Tiratsuyan S; Chailyan G

    2014-01-01

    In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical...

  14. Effect of Artemisia capillaries on Gene Expression of Lipid Metabolism in Rat

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    Woo-Seok Jang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective :The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Artemisia capillaries on gene expression of lipid metabolism in rats. Method :The author performed several experimental items to analyze the total cholesterol and triglyceride in liver tissue, the gene expressions of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoA reductase. Results :1. In Artemisia capillaries group, the levels of total cholesterol in liver tissue were significantly decreased. 2. In Artemisia capillaries group, the ratios of CYP7A1, HMG-CoA reductase were as same as the normal group. Conclusion :From the above results, Artemisia capillaries can be used to treat hyperlipidemia.

  15. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  16. New Polyphenols Identified in Artemisiae abrotani herba Extract

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    Elisabeta Baiceanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia abrotanum L. (“southernwood” belongs to the Artemisia genus and it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of illnesses. Scarce data is available on the chemical composition of this medicinal plant, most research being focused on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of its essential oil. Our aim was to investigate the content and profile of polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives present in the Artemisiae abrotani herba extract. We conducted LC/MS analysis and we screened for 19 polyphenols, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives. We determined the total content of these compounds and we screened for antioxidant activity. Most polyphenol acids, hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified for the first time in this study. We found an original polyphenol distribution profile with high concentration of sinapic acid, rutin, quercetol, ferulic acid and patuletin. We measured the antioxidant activity, the ethanolic extract presenting a modest radical scavenging activity. The value of this study consists in its novelty as it adds new data on the chemical composition of A. abrotanum L. and it opens novel perspectives for medical and nutritional applications of this plant.

  17. Comparative analysis of ADS gene promoter in seven Artemisia species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Ranjbar; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Hoshang Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Artemisinin is the most effective antimalarial drug that is derived from Artemisia annua. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) controls the first committed step in artemisinin biosynthesis. The ADS gene expression is regulated by transcription factors which bind to the cis-acting elements on the ADS promoter and are probably responsible for the ADS gene expression difference in the Artemisia species. To identify the elements that are significantly involved in ADS gene expression, the ADS gene promoter of the seven Artemisia species was isolated and comparative analysis was performed on the ADS promoter sequences of these species. Results revealed that some of the cis-elements were unique or in terms of number were more in the high artemisinin producer species, A. annua, than the other species. We have reported that the light-responsive elements, W-box, CAAT-box, 5′-UTR py-rich stretch, TATA-box sequence and tandem repeat sequences have been identified as important factors in the increased expression of ADS gene.

  18. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P pistachio (three), hazelnut (two), lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods.

  19. The influence of Artemisia Absinthium on neighbouring plants. (An essay of Experimental Plant Sociology No. III)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funke, G.L.

    1943-01-01

    Eighteen species of plants, most of which were chosen at random, were sown beside a hedge of Artemisia Absinthium; they were severely injured and in one ease ( Levisticum officinale) even killed by the chemical excretions of the latter within a distance of ± 100 cm; seedlings of Artemisia Absinthium

  20. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to identify five commonly used Artemisia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Hexia; Liang, Junsong

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the genus Artemisia are important for medicinal purposes with multiple pharmacological properties. Often, these herbal plants sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Routine testing and identification of these herbal materials should be performed to ensure that the raw materials used in pharmaceutical products are suitable for their intended use. In this study, five commonly used Artemisia species included Artemisia argyi, Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia indica, and Artemisia atrovirens were analyzed using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. The melting profiles of the ITS2 amplicons of the five closely related herbal species are clearly separated so that they can be differentiated by HRM method. The method was further applied to authenticate commercial products in powdered. HRM curves of all the commercial samples tested are similar to the botanical species as labeled. These congeneric medicinal products were also clearly separated using the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Therefore, HRM method could provide an efficient and reliable authentication system to distinguish these commonly used Artemisia herbal products on the markets and offer a technical reference for medicines quality control in the drug supply chain. PMID:27698485

  1. 蒿属植物的农药活性及其有效成分%Pesticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Artemisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利娟; 桑晓清; 孙永艳; 杨文杰

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on pesticidal activities and the corresponding active ingredients of Artemisia are presented. Artemisia annua, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia selengensis, Artemisia vestita, Artemisia parvijlora, Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia capillarie, Artemisia mongoli-ca, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia monosperma and Artemisia judaica possess insecticidal activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, borneol, camphor, caryophyllene, isoaryophyllene and farnesene. Artemisia annua, Artemisia ludoviciana, Artemisia tournefortiana, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia taurica, Artemisia judaica, Artemisia borealis, Artemisia molinieri, Artemisia stolonifera show fungicidal activities and the main active ingredients are camphor, cineole, borneol, flavonoids, olefins, terpene hydrocarbons, alkanes and organic acids. Artemisia caerulescens subsp. gallica, Artemisia ordosica, Artemisia roxburghiana,Artenisia annua, Artemisia tridentate, Artemisia scoparia and Artemisia taurica exhibit herbicide activities and the main active ingredients are cineole, camphor, arteether, monoterpenes and ses-quiterpenes. Artemisia absinthium shows nematicidal activity. Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia dracunculus have mollusicidal activities. In all, Artemisia annua, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia borealis and Artemisia judaica show multiple activities and may be used as botanical pesticides.%综述了蒿属植物的杀虫、杀螨、杀菌、除草、杀线虫和杀软体动物活性及相应的有效成分.该属中具有杀虫杀螨活性的主要有黄花蒿、野艾蒿、苦艾、蒌蒿、毛莲蒿、西南牡蒿、大籽蒿、猪毛蒿、茵陈蒿、蒙古蒿、巴儿古津蒿、南亚蒿、犹地蒿和Artemisia monsperma等,其主要有效成分是桉树脑、龙脑、樟脑、石竹烯、异石竹烯和β-法呢烯等.该属中具有杀菌活性的主要有黄花蒿、银叶艾蒿

  2. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  3. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI ARTEMISININ DARI HERBA Artemisia annua L .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Malaria is still a major problem in Indonesia, because mortality in patients with severe malaria remains high. Many cases are occurs in endemic areas (e.g. Papua,Kalimantan, Bali and Sulawesi. Chloroquin is the most common antimalarial drug which is widely used since 1934. Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine was reported in some countries (e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. To delay the development of resistance, WHO recommended antimalarial combination therapy. Artemisinin and its derivatives (artesunate, artemether, dihydroartemisin produce rapid clearance of parasitemia and rapid resolution of symptoms compare with chloroquine. Artemisinin is obtained from Artemisia annua L. Even though there are some research produced a chemical synthetic of artemisinin, but it is not efficient and notstable. Our purposes are to conduct a preliminary research to obtain a method of isolation and identification of artemisinin which is the first step to develop a raw material of artemisinin as antimalarial drug in Indonesia.The first step of isolation is extraction from herb Artemisia annua L with n-hexane thatproduced n-hexane extract, this process is well-known as soxhletation. The second step isidentification of chemical substances from n-hexane extract. The third step is to obtain isolate from n-hexane extract by fractionation with acetonitril and separation with column chromatography. The last step is chemical and physical identification of isolateby TLC (Thin Layer (Chromatography and FT-IR.The result from n-hexane extract measurement is 4.33 % and from acetonitril fraction is2. 40 %. Chemical identification of n-hexan extract found there are terpenoid, phenol, flavonoid, fatty acid, atsiri oil and saponin. Organoleptic identification of isolate is white crystal, monosubstrate, odorless and bitter. Identification of isolate with TLC and FT-IR confirmed that the isolate is artemisinin.Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia

  4. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium Linn. is an important medicinal plant of family Asteraceae. It is commonly known as Afsanteen. The whole plant is used in Indian traditional systems of medicine specifically indicated in chronic fever, swellings, inflammation of liver, gastric problems, enlargement of spleen, urinary disorders and for wound healing. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to undertake the standardization of its aerial parts. The results of preliminary pharmacognostic standardization of aerial parts of A. absinthium are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  5. High-fat diet-induced neuropathy of prediabetes and obesity: effect of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Ribnicky, David M; Raskin, Ilya; Obrosova, Irina G

    2010-01-01

    Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mg kg(-1) d(-1), 7 weeks) normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  6. Two torymid species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Torymidae developing on Artemisia gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two parasitoid wasps, Torymus artemisiae Mayr and Torymoides violaceus (Nikol’skaya, were reared on Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae galles, in central Iran. Torymus artemisiae and T. violaceus were developed from the gall midges: Rhopalomyia navasi Tavares and R. hispanica Tavares, respectively. The occurrence of these two parasitic wasps in Iran, and their associations with R. navasi and R. hispanica, are new. Data on the wasps’ biological associations and geographical distribution are provided. The parasitoid compositions of the genus Rhopalomyia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were also discussed.

  7. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30–50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications. - Highlights: • Au and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using Artemisia annua leaf aqueous extract. • Nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, TEM, EDX, XRD, and TGA. • Au and Ag nanoparticles were of size 25 and 30 nm respectively, in spherical forms. • Nanoparticles showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities.

  8. Comprehensive characterization and identification of antioxidants in Folium Artemisiae Argyi using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binsong; Xin, Zhongquan; Ma, Shasha; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bingyang; Ran, Lu; Yi, Lunzhao; Ren, Dabing

    2017-09-15

    Antioxidants from natural sources, such as vegetables and fruits, are attracting more and more interest. In this work, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of Folium Artemisia Argyi, a traditional Chinese herb medicine and food supplement. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant ability of the crude extracts and fractions obtained from consecutively partition of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were measured and compared. Ethyl acetate fraction shows the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and highest antioxidant capability with regard to DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion free radical scavenging ability, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. In addition, the potential antioxidant components were screened by DPPH-UHPLC-MS experiments and subsequently characterized by using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. This work finally identified 45 antioxidants, including organic acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and methoxylated flavonoids. The results suggested that Folium Artemisiae Argyi is a potential inexpensive resource of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative pharmacognostical evaluation of two Artemisia species found in Nilgiris biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, J; Elango, K; Dhanabal, S P; Paramakrishnan, N; Suresh, B

    2007-10-01

    Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as "Davana" in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as "Southernwood" (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme.

  10. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  11. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of Artemisia species includes antitumor [9-16], antimalarial [17,18], antibacterial [19,20], antifungal [21,22], antimutagenic [22,23], repellent ...lactones [47-50] and monoterpenes [51]. Scopoletin (coumarin) detected in the water extract of Artemisia feddei was reported as an inducible nitric...Aldrich Chemie (Steinheim, Germany). For the antifungal assay, potato-dextrose broth (Difco, Detroit, MI, USA), glass silica gel thin layer

  12. Survey of artemisinin production by diverse Artemisia species in northern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Muhammad F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin is the current drug of choice for treatment of malaria and a number of other diseases. It is obtained from the annual herb, Artemisia annua and some microbial sources by genetic engineering. There is a great concern that the artemisinin production at current rate will not meet the increasing demand by the pharmaceutical industry, so looking for additional sources is imperative. Methods In current study, artemisinin concentration was analysed and compared in the flowers, leaves, roots and stems of Artemisia annua and 14 other Artemisia species including two varieties each for Artemisia roxburghiana and Artemisia dracunculus using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The highest artemisinin concentration was detected in the leaves (0.44 ± 0.03% and flowers (0.42 ± 0.03% of A. annua, followed by the flowers (0.34 ± .02% of A. bushriences and leaves (0.27 ± 0% of A. dracunculus var dracunculus. The average concentration of artemisinin varied in the order of flowers > leaves > stems > roots. Conclusion This study identifies twelve novel plant sources of artemisinin, which may be helpful for pharmaceutical production of artemisinin. This is the first report of quantitative comparison of artemisinin among a large number of Artemisia species.

  13. Composition of the Essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Tajikistan

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    Farukh S. Sharopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of Artemisia absinthium were collected from two different locations in the central-south of Tajikistan. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. A total of 41 compounds were identified representing 72-94% of total oil compositions. The major components of A. absinthium oil were myrcene (8.6-22.7%, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7-17.9%, a dihydrochamazulene isomer (5.5-11.6%, germacrene D (2.4-8.0%, β-thujone (0.4-7.3%, linalool acetate (trace-7.0%, α-phellandrene (1.0-5.3%, and linalool (5.3-7.0%. The chemical compositions of A. absinthium from Tajikistan are markedly different from those from European, Middle Eastern, or other Asian locations and likely represent new chemotypes.

  14. Purification of artemisinin excerpt from Artemisia annua L

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    Chemat-Djenni Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The active pharmaceutical substance artemisinin found in Artemisia annua L. remains the most effective remedy against malaria. The objective of this work is the purification of the active ingredient through a natural matrix composed of clay sandwiched by aluminum. The purification process is carried by adsorption of the extracts on sodium type and bridged clay type. The XRD characterization of this material shows an increase in the basal distance of 10 Å to 17 Å. This shows the success of the intercalation of aluminum polycation. We find a better purification of the extract when using aluminum bridged clay compared to sodium clay. The best performance of 80.64% adsorption is obtained at 40 ° C for the clay matrix bridged with aluminum complex.

  15. Chemical composition of Artemisia annua L. leaves and antioxidant potential of extracts as a function of extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-05-21

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  16. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Zhu, Xiao-Xin, E-mail: zhuxx59@163.com [Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Kmoníèková, Eva [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Zídek, Zdenìk [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeòská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  17. Artemisia spp. essential oils against the disease-carrying blowfly Calliphora vomitoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Stefano; Flamini, Guido; Cosci, Francesca; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Echeverria, Maria Cristina; Guidi, Lucia; Landi, Marco; Lucchi, Andrea; Conti, Barbara

    2017-02-13

    Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated. Both Artemisia EOs deterred C. vomitoria oviposition on fresh beef meat. At 0.05 μl cm(-2) A. dracunculus EO completely inhibited C. vomitoria oviposition. Toxicity tests, by contact, showed LD50 of 0.49 and 0.79 μl EO per fly for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. By fumigation, LC50 values were 49.55 and 88.09 μl l(-1) air for A. dracunculus and A. annua, respectively. EOs AChE inhibition in C. vomitoria (IC50 = 202.6 and 472.4 mg l(-1), respectively, for A. dracunculus and A. annua) indicated that insect neural sites are targeted by the EOs toxicity. Finally, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the two Artemisia EOs may assist in the reduction of transmission of microbial infections/contaminations. Results suggest that Artemisia EOs could be of use in the control of C. vomitoria, a common vector of pathogenic microorganisms and agent of human and animal cutaneous myiasis. The prevention of pathogenic and parasitic infections is a priority for human and animal health. The Artemisia EOs could represent an eco-friendly, low-cost alternative to synthetic repellents and insecticides to fight synanthropic disease-carrying blowflies.

  18. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Sayari, Nadhim; Kallel, Rim; Bougatef, Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated some biological properties of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well its global chemical compositions. Twenty four rats were excised on the posterior neck skin area and divided into 4 groups, treated respectively with: sterile saline, glycerol, CICAFLORA and ACAE. The wound closure rate, histopathology evolution and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in skin tissue were evaluated. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Animals were divided into 3 groups pre-treated respectively with sterile saline, acetylsalicylic acid (AA) and ACAE. The antibacterial activity was tested against six bacteria and the antioxidant activity was estimated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and β-carotene activities. Our results demonstrated a significant improvement in wound healing progression and in oxidative stress damage in the wounds tissues of ACAE-treated rats, compared to control. ACAE-treated rats revealed also a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced hind paws edema as confirmed by the histological analysis. In addition to the antioxidant activity, ACAE showed considerable antibacterial activities. ACAE exhibited important wound healing effect probably due to the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of its phytochemical contents. Therefore, this study confirms its popular use and highlights its promise in the development of new drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    In a factorial experiment, effects of dried leaves of Artemisia annua as an anti-parasitic supplement in two different broiler genotypes, raised in a free range system, were investigated. Birds were grown indoors until 29 days of age free of parasites. Twelve groups, each of 35 randomly selected...... birds naturally infected with coccidia (Eimeria spp.), were placed in plots cultivated with a mix of grass and white clover (previous two years without poultry) thus forming three replicates for each treatment combination (2 genotypes and +/- supplementation of A. annua). Ten individual birds from each...... to treatment or genotype. A median of 3 larvae per broiler was observed. In conclusion, an integrated system for parasite management may benefit from A. annua supplementation to reduce negative effects of coccidiosis whereas it is difficult to avoid infections with A. galli, if paddocks are permanently used...

  20. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  1. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  2. The effects of dried leaves of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua on coccidiosis in organically reared pullets in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of Manihot esculenta and Artemisia annua as natural coccidiostats were investigated as compared to a vaccinated group. The inclusion of Artemisia annua showed poorer performance compared to the vaccinated group whereas dried leaves of M. esculenta presented similar results of a commercia...

  3. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract(CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control(no addition)

  4. Efficient in vitro micropropagation and regeneration of Artemisia vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Govindaraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes efficient propagation of Artemisia vulgaris using shoot tip explants isolated from 35 daysold in vitro grown seedlings. Optimum proliferation was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s salts and B5 vitamins supplementedwith 3% sucrose, 4.44 μM BA, and 0.7% agar. Shoot proliferation was maximal (99.8% with 14-23 shoots per explant after6 weeks of culture. Shoots with a minimum length of 1.5 cm were transferred to shoot elongation medium supplemented with0.44 μM BA and 1.44 μM GA3. The successfully elongated shoots with a height of 7.2-12.1 cm were transferred to rootingmedium augmented with 8.56 μM IAA. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing autoclaved garden soil,farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1 for hardening. Plantlets were initially maintained under culture room conditions (5 weeks,followed by normal laboratory conditions (4 weeks and finally transferred to a Botanical Evaluation Garden and maintainedthere.

  5. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Antifertility Effect of Artemisia kopetdaghensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Oliaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia Kopetdaghensis. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. Kopetdaghensis on reproduction of female rats. The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400 mg/kg of A. Kopetdaghensis hydroalcoholic extract from the 2nd to 8th day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Also, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and ovary (Cho cell lines. The A. Kopetdaghensis had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥200 μg/mL significantly (P<0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/mL (P<0.01. Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. Kopetdaghensis in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  6. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Characterization of chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xia; Wu, Fang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-11-20

    The biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides are related to the substitution positions of functional groups. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SO(3-) group (S(6+), high binding energy of 168.7eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharides. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that C-2 and C-3 substitution was occurred but not fully sulfation. Meanwhile, C-6 substituted signals near 65ppm were not observed. The degree of substitution varied from 0.44 to 0.63 in SRSASP which could be attributed to the low reactivity at secondary hydroxyl. Monosaccharide composition result showed a decrease in the ratio of mannose/glucose, indicating the change of chemical composition in sulfated polysaccharides. In size-exclusion chromatograph analysis, a decrease in molecular weight and broadening of molecular weight distribution of sulfated polysaccharides was also observed. It could be attributed to the hydrolysis of polysaccharide in the sulfated reaction.

  7. Variation in bioactive principles of Artemisia amygdalina Decne. in wild and tissue culture regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Rafia; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Akbar, Seema; Kamili, Azra Nahaid; Dar, Muhammad Younus; Masood, Akbar

    2013-05-01

    Wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina, a critically endangered and endemic plant of Kashmir and North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan were screened for the amount of bioactive principles and in particular antimalarial compound artemesinin. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of terpenes, alkaloids, phenolics, tannins (polyphenolics), cardiac glycosides and steroids in wild (aerial, inflorescence) and tissue culture regenerants (in vitro grown plant, callus and green house acclimatized plants). HPLC of Artemisia amygdalina revealed the presence of artemesinin in petroleum ether extracts of wild aerial part, tissue culture raised plant and green house acclimatized plants. Acetonitrile and water in 70:30 ratios at flow rate of 1ml/min was standardised as mobile phase. Retention time for standard chromatogram was 6.7. Wild inflorescences and callus does not produce artemesinin. This is the first report of phytochemical screening and artemesinin estimation of wild and tissue culture raised regenerants of Artemisia amygdalina.

  8. Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito de la flora Española

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Andrés, Florentino; Sánchez Rodríguez, Juan Antonio

    1982-01-01

    [ES] Se denuncia por vez primera la presencia en España de Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb., neófito poco conocido en Europa occidental. Así mismo se estudia su corologia y su comportamiento ecológico. Finalmente se discuten sus caracteres diferenciales con respecto a otras especies anuales próximas y se describe. [EN] The presence in Spain of Artemisia tournefortiana Rchb. is announced for the first time and the plant is described. This is a neophyte wich is rather in Western Europe. Its co...

  9. Natural regeneration processes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), is the dominant plant species of large portions of semiarid western North America. However, much of historical big sagebrush vegetation has been removed or modified. Thus, regeneration is recognized as an important component for land management. Limited knowledge about key regeneration processes, however, represents an obstacle to identifying successful management practices and to gaining greater insight into the consequences of increasing disturbance frequency and global change. Therefore, our objective is to synthesize knowledge about natural big sagebrush regeneration. We identified and characterized the controls of big sagebrush seed production, germination, and establishment. The largest knowledge gaps and associated research needs include quiescence and dormancy of embryos and seedlings; variation in seed production and germination percentages; wet-thermal time model of germination; responses to frost events (including freezing/thawing of soils), CO2 concentration, and nutrients in combination with water availability; suitability of microsite vs. site conditions; competitive ability as well as seedling growth responses; and differences among subspecies and ecoregions. Potential impacts of climate change on big sagebrush regeneration could include that temperature increases may not have a large direct influence on regeneration due to the broad temperature optimum for regeneration, whereas indirect effects could include selection for populations with less stringent seed dormancy. Drier conditions will have direct negative effects on germination and seedling survival and could also lead to lighter seeds, which lowers germination success further. The short seed dispersal distance of big sagebrush may limit its tracking of suitable climate; whereas, the low competitive ability of big sagebrush seedlings may limit successful competition with species that track climate. An improved understanding of the

  10. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  11. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  12. Comprehensive GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the volatile aroma constituents of Artemisia indica and Artemisia vestita essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the leaf volatile constituents of the essential oils of Artemisia indica Willd. and Artemisia vestita Wall were studied using a combination of capillary GC–FID, GC–MS and FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infra-Red analytical techniques. The analysis led to the identification of 42 compounds in the essential oil of A. indica, representing 96.6% of the essential oil and the major components were found to be artemisia ketone (42.1%, germacrene D (8.6%, borneol (6.1% and cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (4.8%. The essential oil was dominated by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes constituting 65.2% of the total oil composition followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene hydrocarbons constituting 15.7% and 10.7%, respectively of the total oil composition. The essential oil composition of A. vestita was found to contain a total of 18 components representing 94.2% of the total oil composition. The principal components were found to be 1,8-cineole (46.8%, (E-citral (13.7%, limonene (9.8%, α-phellandrene (6.4%, camphor (5.0%, (Z and (E-thujones (3.0% each. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant group of terpenes in the essential oil constituting 73.1% of the total oil composition followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (17.3%. The results of the current study reveal remarkable differences in the essential oil compositions of these two Artemisia species already reported in the literature from other parts of the globe.

  13. Otimização do processo de extração e isolamento do antimalárico artemisinina a partir de Artemisia annua L. Optimization of the extraction and isolation of the antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu, a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  15. Dendrochronology of Atriplex portulacoides and Artemisia maritima in Wadden Sea salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decuyper, M.; Slim, P.A.; Loon-Steensma, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study uses a rather unusual method, dendrochronology, to investigate the growth and survival of Atriplex portulacoides L. and Artemisia maritima L. on salt marshes at two field sites on the Dutch North Sea barrier islands of Terschelling and Ameland. By providing information on longevity of thes

  16. ARTEMISININ, RELATED SESQUITERPENES, AND ESSENTIAL OIL IN ARTEMISIA-ANNUA DURING A VEGETATION PERIOD IN VIETNAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; CHAN, NG; BANG, BT; BOS, R; VANUDEN, W; Y, PV; BOI, NV; BATTERMAN, S; LUGT, CB

    1994-01-01

    The active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, is currently being developed to a registered antimalarial drug. For production purposes, plants with a high artemisinin content are required. We followed the development of the artemisinin content and of the biosynthetically related sesquiterp

  17. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  18. Dendrochronology of Atriplex portulacoides and Artemisia maritima in Wadden Sea salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decuyper, M.; Slim, P.A.; Loon-Steensma, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study uses a rather unusual method, dendrochronology, to investigate the growth and survival of Atriplex portulacoides L. and Artemisia maritima L. on salt marshes at two field sites on the Dutch North Sea barrier islands of Terschelling and Ameland. By providing information on longevity of

  19. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Broad Substrate Terpenoid Oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Litjens, Ralph; Takahashi, Shunji; Quax, Wim; Osada, Hiroyuki; Bouwmeester, Harro; Kayser, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids, a

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a broad substrate terpenoid oxidoreductase from Artemisia annua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Litjens, R.; Takahashi, S.; Quax, W.J.; Osada, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Kayser, O.

    2010-01-01

    From Artemisia annua L., a new oxidoreductase (Red 1) was cloned, sequenced and functionally characterized. Through bioinformatics, heterologous protein expression, and enzyme substrate conversion assays, the elucidation of the enzymatic capacities of Red1 was achieved. Red1 acts on monoterpenoids,

  2. Quality, energy requirement and costs of drying tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus L.) is a favorite herbal and medicinal plant. Drying is necessary to achieve longer shelf life with high quality, preserving the original flavor. Essential oil content and color are the most important parameters that define the quality of herbal and medicinal plants.

  3. Sesquiterpene lactone! a promising antioxidant, anticancer and moderate antinociceptive agent from Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Ismail; Ali, Niaz; Adhikari, Achyut; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ishtiaq, Saiqa; Khan, Jahangir; Khan, Shahzeb; Umer, Mohammad Naveed

    2017-01-01

    ... fraction of Artemisia macrocephala Jacquem. The antioxidant activity of the isolated STLs was determined by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity, anticancer activity was determined on 3 T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells by MTT assay while...

  4. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide from Artemisia annua : A novel biosynthetic precursor of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, TE; Pras, N; Quax, WJ

    1999-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinic acid hydroperoxide (2) was isolated for the first time as a natural product from the plant Artemisia annua in a 29% yield. Its structure was identified by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 is known as an intermediate of the photochemical oxidation of dihydroartemisinic aci

  5. Abiotic and biotic influences on Bromus tectoreum invasion and Artemisia tridentata recovery after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea Condon; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Native sagebrush ecosystems in the Great Basin (western USA) are often invaded following fire by exotic Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), a highly flammable annual grass. Once B. tectorum is established, higher fire frequencies can lead to local extirpation of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush) and have cascading effects on sagebrush ecosystems and...

  6. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  7. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIslamuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 % followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %. AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 µg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 µg ml─1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide (NO generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 µg ml─1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w. to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90 % in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL.

  8. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  9. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of sevenArtemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Mohabatkar; Mandana Behbahani; Mohammad Reza Rahimi Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of sevenArtemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity andHIV-1 replication. Methods:The studiedArtemisia species wereArtemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi andArtemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts onHIV-1 replication andCD4 expression was performed byHIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increasedPBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency ofCD4 expression inPBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect onHIV-1 replication. Conclusions:In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts ofArtemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Pullulan film incorporated with Artemisia sieberi essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh hedayati rad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: A large number of non-recyclable packaging materials, which are harmful for the health of consumers, are produced all over the world. The Suggested solution is using films and coatings which are biodegradable in nature. Pullulan is a biopolymer that is produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and used in order to produce edible films. These edible films could contain antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The primary aim of this study is to produce edible blended films that form pullulan whit Artemisia sieberi essential oil and the secondary goal is to investigate the antimicrobial attributes of the obtained film. Materials and Methods: The Essential oil of Artemisia sieberi was added to the solution of pullulan films in seven concentrations. Then, the antimicrobial attributes were determined with the dick diffusion method. Finally, minimal inhibitory concentration was calculated for each microbe. The SAS program (Version 9.1 was used for the completely randomized design of data analyses. Results: It is possible to produce pullulan film containing Artemisia sieberi essential oil. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus had maximum and minimum resistance towards the antimicrobial attributes of Artemisia sieberi essential oil, respectively. MIC of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Escherichia coli were respectively obtained at 15%, 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Due to the possibility of the production of biodegradable films with the addition of natural antimicrobial agents such as essential oils it can be concluded that it is appropriate to use these materials in order to decrease microbial load and increase the shelf life of foods.

  11. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of some representatives of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium (genus Artemisia, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular cytogenetic study has been performed in three species of the genus Artemisia, complementing previous works on two subgenera that had been scarcely studied from this standpoint, Artemisia ( A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris and Absinthium ( A. absinthium. Chromomycin A3 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI banding have been carried out, as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal DNA. Morphometrical data of karyotype characters were calculated and idiograms with the position of the AT- and GC-rich regions as well as rDNA loci were constructed. Colocalization of most of these regions has been observed, confirming previous findings in this genus. Both ribosomal DNA appear always colocalized, which is a distinct feature with respect to most angiosperms surveyed. Regarding the differential characteristics of each species, a symmetrical karyotype has been found in the species studied. Artemisia absinthium shows long chromosomes and absence of centromeric banding signals that, conversely, are absent in A. vulgaris andA. chamaemelifolia. The last species also presents B-chromosomes in which ribosomal DNA and heterochromatin have been detected. Despite these differences, karyotype morphology and signal pattern of the three species are quite coincidental. This might reflect a close phylogenetic relationship between both subgenera, which is consistent with the available molecular phylogenies presenting species of the subgenera Artemisia and Absinthium intermixed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio citogenético molecular en tres especies del género Artemisia, que complementa trabajos previos sobre dos subgéneros que han sido poco estudiados desde este punto de vista, Artemisia (A. chamaemelifolia, A. vulgaris y Absinthium (A. absinthium. Se han efectuado tinciones de bandeo con cromomicina A3

  12. High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuropathy of Prediabetes and Obesity: Effect of PMI-5011, an Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Watcho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species are a rich source of herbal remedies with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on neuropathy in high-sfat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and proinflammatory changes in peripheral nervous system. C57Bl6/J mice fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks developed obesity, moderate nonfasting hyperglycemia, nerve conduction deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. They displayed 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression, 12(S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid accumulation, and nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and spinal cord. PMI-5011 (500 mgkg-1d-1, 7 weeks normalized glycemia, alleviated nerve conduction slowing and sensory neuropathy, and reduced 12/15-lipoxygenase upregulation and nitrated protein expression in peripheral nervous system. PMI-5011, a safe and nontoxic botanical extract, may find use in treatment of neuropathic changes at the earliest stage of disease.

  13. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-10-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  14. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  15. Artemisia annua L.: Polyploidy and NIRS, two tools to improve breeding efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quennoz, Mélanie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breeding a new cultivar needs 5 to 15 years according to the species and the breeding objectives from bioprospection up to cultivar registration. This is a very long time for companies developing and trading plant based products. To react more quickly to the requirements of the stakeholders, methods to accelerate the breeding procedures have to be taken into account. Among different possibilities, polyploidy induction and rapid methods to measure target traits with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS were tested on Artemisia annua L. Tetraploid progenies were compared to the cultivar Apollon. These tests showed no significant differences between the tetraploid plants and the cultivar Apollon for the artemisinin content, as well for the leaf and the artemisin yield. The determination of artemisinin in powder of Artemisia annua using a hand-held NIRS device showed accurate results in predicting artemininin contents. Root mean square error values of cross-validation and prediction of 0.1 % were calculated, in both cases.

  16. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  17. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Artemisinin Extracts from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Su; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Woo Joong; Lee, Dong Chae; Sohn, Uy Dong; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases. PMID:25605993

  18. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vardapetyan H; Hovhannisyan D; Tiratsuyan S; Chailyan G

    2014-01-01

    In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5...

  19. Method for extracting bioinsecticide deriv atives from the plant artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Díaz, Carmen E.; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for the extraction of bioinsecticide derivatives from the plant Artemisia absinthimn L, characterised by agronomic and economic parameters relating to the organic production ofthe plant with a specific chemotype in order to produce organic extracts consisting of essential oil and a non-volatile extract, and in another phase supercritical extracts of characterised chemical composition, obtained with pressurised CO2 as the main solvent. The main industr...

  20. Phytochemical investigation on Artemisia dracunculus L. due to its introduction in the Ukrainian Polissya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Ivashchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 15 components in etheric oil of Artemisia dracunculus plants has been determined by the method of gas and liquid chromatography. The main component appeared to be methyleugenol (94.65%. Using highly effective method of liquid chromatography, we have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood. Within the discovered compounds, four substances have been identified as follows: rutin, luteolin‑7‑glycoside, apigenin‑7‑glycoside and isochlorogenic acid.

  1. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  2. Artemisia extracts activate PPARγ, promote adipogenesis, and enhance insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Allison J; Burris, Thomas P; Sanchez-Infantes, David; Wang, Yongjun; Ribnicky, David M; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that the inability of adipose tissue to properly expand during the obese state or respond to insulin can lead to metabolic dysfunction. Artemisia is a diverse group of plants that has a history of medicinal use. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia scoparia (SCO) and Artemisia santolinifolia (SAN) to modulate adipocyte development in cultured adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Adipogenesis was assessed using Oil Red O staining and immunoblotting. A nuclear receptor specificity assay was used to examine the specificity of SCO- and SAN-induced PPARγ activation. C57BL/6J mice, fed a high-fat diet, were gavaged with saline, SCO, or SAN for 2 wk. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was examined using insulin tolerance tests. WAT depots were assessed via immunoblotting for markers of insulin action and adipokine production. We established that SCO and SAN were highly specific activators of PPARγ and did not activate other nuclear receptors. After a 1-wk daily gavage, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had lower insulin-induced glucose disposal rates than control mice. At the end of the 2-wk treatment period, SCO- and SAN-treated mice had enhanced insulin-responsive Akt serine-473 phosphorylation and significantly decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in visceral WAT compared with control mice; these differences were depot specific. Moreover, plasma adiponectin levels were increased following SCO treatment. Overall, these studies demonstrate that extracts from two Artemisia species can have metabolically favorable effects on adipocytes and WAT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxicity of Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium and Artemisia aucheri by Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghavamizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, toxic compounds derived from plants used against microbes and cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of Dorema aucheri, Achillea millefollium and Artemisia aucheri using brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana, lethality test. Methods: In this experimental study, the plants were collected from the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, then identified by a botanist. Clean and air-dried aerial parts of plants were extracted with suitable solvents. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using larvae hatched cysts were purchased from Urmia. Live larvae were exposed to different concentrations of extract and the numbers of live and dead larvae were counted after 24 hours. Mean of LC 50 of any extracts from control and exposed live larvae were examined. The data were analyzed using the Finney’s Probit analysis. Results: Hydro ethanol and chloroform extracts of Achillea millefolium, Dorema aucheri and Artemisia aucheri exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality with LC50 67.8±0.53μg.ml-1, 76.50±0.60μg.ml-1, 92.70±6.05μg.ml-1 respectively. The degree of lethality was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of extracts. Conclusion: According to BSLT, LC50 of D. aucheri, A. millefolium and A. aucheri, they were considered as toxic. So these plants could be a source of new compounds with biological activity. Key words: Artemia urmiana, Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia aucheri, Cytotoxicity

  4. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model

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    Gayan S. Bamunuarachchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. Methods: A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg, Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. Results: The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤0.01 inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. Interpretation & conclusion: The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  5. ITS2, a Better DNA Barcode than ITS in Identification of Species in Artemisia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yue Wang; Si-hao Zheng; Yang Liu; Jian-ping Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective To select a more suitable DNA barcode to identify the species in Artemisia L.Methods ITS,ITS2,and three other major universal barcode candidates (matK,rbcL,and psbA-trnH) were evaluated in the identification efficiency using a total of 1433 sequences downloaded from GenBank representing 343 species in Artemisia L.ITS and ITS2 were evaluated in the PCR and sequencing rate,sequencing peak quality (Q value),and misread rate.One hundred and twelve A.annua samples were collected from 11 populations across over China,which were amplified with universal primers on the ITS and ITS2 regions.Results ITS and ITS2 shared a higher identification efficiency and exhibited 71.43% and 64.11% detectability at the species level,respectively.The Q values of ITS and ITS2 showed that the direct PCR sequencing data were reliable for the ITS2 region and ITS exhibited poor sequencing trace quality.In certain sites,the ITS sequences exhibited reading ambiguities and errors,indicating that the misread and deletion sites in the ITS region would incorrectly inflate the identification ratio.Conclusion ITS2 is a suitable barcode for identification of species in Artemisia L.,which enlarges the optimal range of divergence levels for taxonomic inferences using ITS2 sequences.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Elfawal, Mostafa A.; Towler, Melissa J.; Acquaah-Mensah, George K.; Rich, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance The Chinese have used Artemisia annua as a tea infusion to treat fever for > 2,000 yrs. The active component is artemisinin. Previously we showed that when compared to mice fed an equal amount of pure artemisinin, a single oral dose of dried leaves of Artemisia annua (pACT) delivered to Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice reduced parasitemia at least fivefold. Dried leaves also delivered >40 times more artemisinin in the blood with no toxicity. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of artemisinin delivered from dried plant material has not been adequately studied. Material and Methods Healthy and P. chabaudi-infected mice were oral gavaged with pACT to deliver a 100 mg kg−1 body weight dose of artemisinin. Concentrations of serum artemisinin and one of its liver metabolites, deoxyartemisinin, were measured over two hours by GCMS. Results The first order elimination rate constant for artemisinin in pACT-treated healthy mice was estimated to be 0.80 hr−1 with an elimination half-life (T½) of 51.6 min. The first order absorption rate constant was estimated at 1.39 hr−1. Cmax and Tmax were 4.33 mg L−1 and 60 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 299.5 mg·min L−1. In contrast, the AUC for pACT-treated infected mice was significantly greater at 435.6 mg·min L−1. Metabolism of artemisinin to deoxyartemisinin was suppressed in infected mice over the period of observation. Serum levels of artemisinin in the infected mice continued to rise over the 120 min of the study period, and as a result, the elimination T½ was not determined; the Cmax and Tmax were estimated at ≥ 6.64 mg L−1 and ≥ 120 min, respectively. Groups of healthy mice were also fed either artemisinin or artemisinin mixed in mouse chow. When compared at 60 min, artemisinin was undetectable in the serum of mice fed 100 mg AN kg−1 body weight. When plant material was present either as mouse chow or A. annua pACT, artemisinin levels in the serum rose to 2

  7. Combining Sprague-Dawley rat uterus cell membrane chromatography with HPLC/MS to screen active components from Leonurus artemisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiangbo; Wei, Fen; Zhang, Yu; Su, Hongli; Ji, Zongzheng; He, Jianyu; Han, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Leonurus artemisia (Lour.) S.Y.Hu (Lamiaceae) (YiMuCao in Chinese) is a traditional Chinese medicine. Leonurus artemisia has been shown to have many pharmacological effects such as increasing uterine contraction amplitude, and tension, but the active components are still unknown. The objective of this study is to determine active components of L. Artemisia that are responsible for the biological activity using HPLC and cell membrane-based system. The whole L. artemisia ethanol extract and its eight fractions were screened using Sprague-Dawley rat uterus cell membrane chromatography (CMC) combined with the HPLC/MS system. Oxytocin was used to investigate the activity of CMC column. The effect of active components screened from L. artemisia was studied by tension measurement of isolated rat uterine strips in vitro at a dose of 10(-7)-10(-4 )mol/L with oxytocin as a control. The acetone extract showed obvious activity when compared with the eight extracts of L. artemisia. From the acetone extract, in the negative ionization mode, the active compound was identified as genkwanin, with a molecular weight of 283. In vitro pharmacological experiments proved that genkwanin promoted uterine contractions at a dose from 10(-7) to 10(-4 )mol/L. The EC50 value was 4.86 ± 4.21 μmol/L for genkwanin and 4.30 ± 3.65 μmol/L for oxytocin on the contractile amplitude of uterine strips isolated from rats. Genkwanin was identified as the active compound in L. artemisia by this method. In vitro pharmacological experiments proved that genkwanin promoted uterine contractions. Genkwanin may be used to uterine inertia and may have an effect on postpartum hemorrhage.

  8. 艾叶油驱蚊乳液的制备%Preparation of artemisia oil emulsion for mosquito repellent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化丹丹; 刁水华; 谢洪德; 蒋耀兴

    2014-01-01

    以艾叶油为原料,复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,利用相转化法制备了艾叶油乳液。研究了乳化工艺对乳液粒径及其分布的影响,采用扫描电镜对乳液形貌进行了表征,并测定了乳液整理锦纶袜子的驱蚊效果。结果显示,艾叶油驱蚊乳液最佳制备工艺为:乳化剂HLB值8,乳化剂质量分数3%,艾叶油质量分数18%,剪切时间8 min;电镜观察显示,艾叶油乳液粒径较小且分布均匀;整理锦纶丝袜具有良好的驱蚊效果。%The artemisia oil emulsion was prepared by the phase transformation method with artemisia oil as raw material and compound surfactant as emulsifier. The effects of emulsification process on particle size and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. The morphology of artemisia oil emulsion was characterized by SEM, and the effect of the nylon socks finished with artemisia oil emulsion was measured. The results showed that the optimal emulsion process was as fol ows: HLB value of compound emulsifier was 8, mass fraction of emulsifier was 3%, mass fraction of artemisia oil was 18%, and shearing time was 8 min. The SEM photos showed that particle size of artemisia oil emulsion was smal and its distribution was uniformity. The nylon socks finished by artemisia oil emulsion had good mosquito repel ent effect.

  9. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Artemisia campestris L. from Eastern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Ikram; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Wauters, Jean Noel; Assaidi, Asmae; Mekhfi, Hassane; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Frederich, Michel; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2017-07-12

    Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) has many traditional uses, among which treatment of diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in order to confirm the antihypertensive and hypotensive effects of A. campestris L. aqueous extract (AcAE) and to explore the underlying mechanism of action of its vasorelaxant effect, besides the acute toxicity. Also, the chemical composition of AcAE was investigated. the chemical content of AcAE was determined by using HPLC and NMR techniques. The antihypertensive effect was assessed indirectly by tail-cuff method on L-NAME induced hypertensive rats, while the hypotensive action was monitored intravenously by invasive method on normotensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and vascular mechanism of action were studied in the presence of antagonists and blockers on aorta isolated from normotensive rats. On the other side, the acute toxicity was studied by oral feeding of extract to the mice. The global phytochemical profile of AcAE reveals the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. campestris L. infusion was characterized by mono- and di-cinnamoyl compounds, with 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (isochlorogenic A) acid being the main compound, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant compound among flavonoids. The daily treatment with AcAE at 150mg/kg/day prevented the installation of hypertension on L-NAME hypertensive rats, and reduced SBP from 172mmHg up to 144mmHg. At the dose 40mg/kg, AcAE provoked reduction of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), without affecting the heart rate. Also, AcAE (10(-2)-2mg/ml) relaxed the precontracted aorta by 95.8±1.3%. The denudation and preincubation of aorta with atropine, calmidazolium, L-NAME, hydroxycobalamin, ODQ, 8-RP-Br-PET-cGMP, thapsigargin and verapamil attenuated the vasorelaxant response, while the pre-treatment with 4-AP, TEA, glibenclamide and BaCl2 did not

  10. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

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    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  12. Evaluation of PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., on peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Tane, Pierre; Shevalye, Hanna; Maksimchyk, Yury; Pacher, Pal; Obrosova, Irina G

    2011-03-01

    We previously reported that PMI-5011, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., alleviates peripheral neuropathy in high fat diet-fed mice, a model of prediabetes and obesity developing oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory changes in the peripheral nervous system. This study evaluated PMI-5011 on established functional, structural, and biochemical changes associated with Type I diabetic peripheral neuropathy. C57Bl6/J mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes of a 12-week duration, developed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity deficits, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, tactile allodynia, and intra-epidermal nerve fiber loss. PMI-5011 (500 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks) alleviated diabetes-induced nerve conduction slowing, small sensory nerve fiber dysfunction, and increased intra-epidermal nerve fiber density. PMI-5011 blunted sciatic nerve and spinal cord 12/15-lipoxygenase activation and oxidative-nitrosative stress, without ameliorating hyperglycemia or reducing sciatic nerve sorbitol pathway intermediate accumulation. In conclusion, PMI-5011, a safe and non-toxic botanical extract, may find use in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  13. Preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Artemisia annua and their in vitro antibacterial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Idhayadhulla, Akber; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-10-01

    This work describes a plant-mediated approach to the preparation of metal nanoparticles using leaf extract of Artemisia annua (A. annua), an ethno-medicinal plant widely found in Asia, which was used as reducing and stabilizing agent. A. annua is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate fever. Au and Ag nanoparticles were prepared using a one-step aqueous method at room temperature without any toxic chemicals. The formation of Au and Ag nanoparticles was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TEM analysis of Au nanoparticles showed that they had triangular and spherical shapes with sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm. The silver nanoparticles were predominantly spherical and uniformly sized (30-50 nm). The Au and Ag nanoparticles produced showed significant tyrosinase inhibitory and antibacterial effects. These results suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles provide good alternatives in varied medical and industrial applications.

  14. Engineering Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. for the Production of Taxadiene: A Key Intermediate of Taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxadiene is the first committed precursor to paclitaxel, marketed as Taxol, arguably the most important anticancer agent against ovarian and breast cancer. In Taxus, taxadiene is directly synthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP that is the common precursor for diterpenoids and is found in most plants and microbes. In this study, Artemisia annua L., a Chinese medicinal herb that grows fast and is rich in terpenoids, was used as a genetic engineering host to produce taxadiene. The TXS (taxadiene synthase gene, cloned from Taxus and inserted into pCAMBIA1304, was transformed into Artemisia annua L. using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Thirty independent transgenic plants were obtained, and GC-MS analysis was used to confirm that taxadiene was produced and accumulated up to 129.7 μg/g dry mass. However, the high expression of TXS did not affect plant growth or photosynthesis in transgenic Artemisia annua L. It is notable that artemisinin is produced and stored in leaves and most taxadiene accumulated in the stem of transgenic Artemisia annua L., suggesting a new way to produce two important compounds in one transgenic plant: leaves for artemisinin and stem for taxadiene. Overall, this study demonstrates that genetic engineering of the taxane biosynthetic pathway in Artemisia annua L. for the production of taxadiene is feasible.

  15. 茵陈酸奶的工艺研究%Study on the Technology of Herba Artemisiae Yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪清美; 刘敏杰; 杨海军; 徐倩

    2015-01-01

    With fresh milk and Herba Artemisiae as main raw materials, on the basis of single factor experiments, studied from the adding amount of sucrose,fresh milk and Herba artemisiae juice,and decided the optimum process paraemeters.The optimal parameters are:the Herba artemisiae juice amount is 5%,sugar mount is 6%,and fresh milk amount is 90%.%以鲜乳和茵陈为主要原料,在单因素试验的基础上,从蔗糖添加量、鲜乳添加量和茵陈汁添加量三方面进行优化,确定茵陈酸奶最佳工艺参数:茵陈汁添加量5%,蔗糖添加量6%,鲜乳添加量90%。

  16. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  17. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  18. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  19. Origen del polen de "artemisia" en la atmósfera de Extremadura "so España"

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Origen del polen de Artemisia en la atmósfera de Extremadura (SO España). Mediante tres captadores volumétricos de tipo Hirst se ha podido conocer la concentración de granos de polen de Artemisia en Extremadura entre 1993 y 1998 para Badajoz y entre 1996 y 1998 para Cáceres y Mérida. Su presencia es muy esporádica y la cantidad reducida, aparece centrada fundamentalmente entre agosto y noviembre, aunque se detectan también en menor cantidad entre enero y marzo, la cantidad encontrada nunca ll...

  20. Colture cellulari di Artemisia annua L. per lo studio della via biosintetica e la produzione dell’antimalarico artemisinina

    OpenAIRE

    Nisi, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    La malaria è una malattia febbrile acuta diffusa dalla puntura della zanzara femmina del genere Anopheles. Per più di 350 anni questa malattia è stata trattata con chinino, ma nell’ultimo decennio è stato scoperto che il chinino, non ha più effetto su molti ceppi resistenti di P. falciparum. Oggi un trattamento alternativo, efficace e sicuro, contro la malaria è rappresentato dall’artemisinina, un sesquiterpene lattone estratto da una pianta medicinale cinese Artemisia annua L. L’Artemisia an...

  1. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gustavo F; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig M; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Hermansen, John E

    2012-05-25

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40, a pure slow-growing line, and Kosmos 8 Ross, a hybrid genotype with medium growing characteristics, were used. Broilers were raised indoor until 29-days-old and kept free of parasites. Twelve groups of 30 randomly selected broilers were placed in the range forming three replicates for each treatment combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as "seeders" were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35 animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology and localization upon necropsy were used to identify the Eimeria species involved in the infection. In general, broilers from both genotypes in the range coped well with a coccidia infection caused by Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima as no clinical symptoms, or deaths, were reported during the experiment. In general, broilers supplemented with A. annua dried leaves showed a significantly (ptreatment - accounted mainly for the fact that Kosmos females responded positively to the Artemisia treatment while Kosmos males responded negatively, and only minor differences were found between sexes for the White Bresse genotype. In conclusion, supply of A. annua dried leaves as a botanical coccidiostat significantly reduced oocyst output in free ranged broilers and thus may form part

  2. In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Assessment of Genetic Stability of In Vitro Raised Artemisia absinthium L. Plants Using ISSR and SSAP Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigations were made attempting to develop a rapid, reliable, and reproducible in vitro regeneration protocol for Artemisia absinthium L., a medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. Out of several auxin-cytokinin combinations tested, Murashige and Skoog’s (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mgL−1 kinetin (Kn was found to be the best for the callus induction. On the other hand, 4.5 mgL−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.5 mgL−1 1-α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA in the medium resulted in maximum shoot induction from the callus. Similarly, BAP and NAA at a concentration of 1.5 mgL−1 and 0.5 mgL−1, respectively, proved to be the best for the multiple shoot induction from nodal explants. Numerous shoots were obtained from nodal explants after third subculture. In vitro rooting was maximum on medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0.5 mgL−1. The genetic stability of the in vitro raised plants of Artemisia absinthium was assessed using the intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR and sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP molecular markers. Both markers were able to detect the somaclonal variations in the callus regenerated plants, while no variation was detected in the plants regenerated from the nodal explants. SSAP has been found to be more useful in detection of variability as compared to ISSR molecular marker. The results of present study concluded that the direct regeneration protocol will be useful for the production of true to type plants of this medicinally important plant. This will go a long way in reducing the pressure on the natural populations for the secondary metabolite production, especially for extraction of essential oils.

  3. Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Díaz, Carmen E.; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L, caracterizado por unos parámetros agronómicos y económicos de producción orgánica de la planta con un quimiotipo específico con el fin de producir extractos orgánicos consistentes en aceite esencial y extracto no volátil, y en otra fase extractos supercríticos de composición química caracterizada, obtenidos con CO2 a presión como disolvente mayoritario, siendo las principales ...

  4. Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia Absinthium L.

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Urieta Navarro, José Antonio; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Fraga González, Manuel; Reina, Matías; Cabrera, Raimundo; Martínez Díaz, Rafael; Mainar Fernández, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    Procedimiento de extracción de derivados bioinsecticidas de la planta Artemisia absinthium L., caracterizado por unos parámetros agronómicos y económicos de producción orgánica de la planta con un quimiotipo específico con el fin de producir extractos orgánicos consistentes en aceite esencial y extracto no volátil, y en otra fase extractos supercríticos de composición química caracterizada, obtenidos con CO2 a presión como disolvente mayoritario, siendo las principales aplicaciones industrial...

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Artemisia annua L. from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Verdian-rizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil obtained from the dried flowering aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Compositae was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-two components were identified in the essential oil of A. annua L. with campher (48.00%, 1,8-cineole (9.39%, camphene (6.98% and spathulenol (4.89% as major components. The essential oil was evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities . The activity was more pronounced against fungal organisms than against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. [Responses of spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population to the precipitation gradient on Ordos Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-shuang; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fei; Lai, Li-ming; Zhang, Li; Li, Wen-ting; Bai, Hua; Zheng, Yuan-run

    2009-09-01

    Five sites along the precipitation gradient (336-249 mm x a(-1)) from east to west in Ordos Plateau were selected to study the spatial distribution pattern of Artemisia ordosica population and its responses to the precipitation gradient by the methods of variance mean ratio, aggregative index, and point pattern analysis. The reduction of precipitation affected the spatial distribution pattern of A. ordosica population significantly. With decreasing precipitation gradient, the spatial pattern of A. ordosica population changed from uniform to random in small scale, and from random to clumpy in large scale, suggesting that in the ecological restoration of Ordos Plateau, a rational arrangement of A. ordosica should be made.

  7. Cultivo in vitro de Artemisia annua L. para a produção de artemisinina

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Isabel Paola Hinojosa Chang

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: A malária, um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países tropicais, vem sendo combatida através de medicamentos sintéticos como a cloroquina e derivados, os quais apresentam sérios efeitos colaterais e cuja eficácia é afetada principalmente pela resistência do agente causador da malária a estes medicamentos. Um extrato vegetal de Artemisia annua, contendo artemisinina vem sendo utilizado à milhares de anos na China e tem-se mostrado eficaz no combate às febres, entre elas a mal...

  8. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  9. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Zant; Daniel A. Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement.Results:The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  10. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifleyohannes, Tsegabirhan; Terefe, Getachew; Tolossa, Yacob H; Giday, Mirutse; Kebede, Nigatu

    2014-06-24

    Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Swiss white male mice aged 8-12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 10(5) trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals.

  11. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  12. Extraction and identification of three major aldose reductase inhibitors from Artemisia montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Islam, M D Nurul; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jin, Seong Eun; Son, You Kyung; Park, Jin Ju; Sohn, Hee Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2011-02-01

    Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) provide an important therapeutic and preventive opportunity against hyperglycemia associated diabetic complications. The methanolic extracts of 12 species from the genus Artemisia exhibited significant in vitro rat lens AR (RLAR) inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 0.51 to 13.45 μg/mL (quercetin, 0.64 μg/mL). Since the whole plant of Artemisia montana showed the highest RLAR inhibitory activity, bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to obtain ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. Repeated column chromatography of two active fractions, yielded fifteen compounds, including four chlorogenic acids (3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid), six flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, luteolin 7-rutinoside), and five coumarins (umbelliferone, scoparone, scopoletin, esculetin, and scopolin); their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid, as well as test flavonoids, displayed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 0.19 to 5.37 μM. Furthermore, the HPLC profiles of the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions indicated that 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside, as major compounds, might play crucial roles in RLAR inhibition. The results suggest that A. montana and three key AR inhibitors therein would clearly be potential candidates as therapeutic or preventive agents for diabetic complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate drives adaptive genetic responses associated with survival in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Richardson, Bryce A.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation for survival in Artemisia tridentata(big sagebrush). Artemisia tridentata is a widespread and foundational shrub species in western North America. This species has become extremely fragmented, to the detriment of dependent wildlife, and efforts to restore it are now a land management priority. Common-garden experiments were established at three sites with seedlings from 55 source-populations. Populations included each of the three predominant subspecies, and cytotype variations. Survival was monitored for 5 years to assess differences in survival between gardens and populations. We found evidence of adaptive genetic variation for survival. Survival within gardens differed by source-population and a substantial proportion of this variation was explained by seed climate of origin. Plants from areas with the coldest winters had the highest levels of survival, while populations from warmer and drier sites had the lowest levels of survival. Survival was lowest, 36%, in the garden that was prone to the lowest minimum temperatures. These results suggest the importance of climatic driven genetic differences and their effect on survival. Understanding how genetic variation is arrayed across the landscape, and its association with climate can greatly enhance the success of restoration and conservation.

  14. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ivanescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation.

  15. Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah; Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herba-alba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6%(v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic ac-tivity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.

  16. QUERCETIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARMENIAN CRATAEGUS LAEVIGATA, PLANTAGO MAJOR AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM PLANTS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardapetyan H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study in vitro antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of Armenian plants Crataegus laevigata, Plantago major and Artemisia absinthium was investigated by DPPH stable radical chemical model with simultaneous monitoring of the total flavonoids and selected polyphenolic compounds content. Experimental results indicates that ethanolic extract of Crataegus laevigata exhibit the highest radical scavenging activity in neutralization of DPPH with an IC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.08 µl, while the lowest activity was reported in Plantago major extract (IC50 = 45 ± 0.1 µl and IC50 of Artemisia absinthium extract was 35 ± 0.1 µl. Present study also demonstrates a possible relationship between quercetin content and antioxidant activity of extracts. Crataegus laevigata ethanoic extract showed highest antiradical potential as well as the highest concentration of quercetin (7.47 ± 0.2 µg/ml and it can be proposed as a potential sources of natural antioxidants and bioactive phytopharmaceuticals.

  17. Insect communities on experimental mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) plots along an urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, C; Schmidt, Holger

    1998-01-01

    We studied the ability of insect herbivores and their natural enemies to colonize exposed, potted mugwort plants (Artemisia vulgaris L.) along a rural-urban gradient in 1994 in Hamburg (northern Germany). Ectophagous insects, leafmines and galls were monitored weekly from mid-May to mid-September. Endophagous insects were counted by harvesting and dissecting the stems at the end of the growing season. The rural-urban gradient was characterized by a gradient of vegetation-free areas and increasing proportion of ground covered in concrete, tarmac, paving and other impermeable surfaces surrounding the Artemisia plots, i.e. six different zones of increasing isolation. Numbers of insect species (herbivores, parasitoids and predators) decreased along the gradient from 43 to 12. Monophagous herbivores were not more affected than polyphagous herbivores, but parasitoids, especially rare species, were more strongly affected by isolation than predators. Some dominant herbivorous species were very successful colonizers and occurred in inner city sites devoid of all natural vegetation. Sometimes their abundance increased in the inner city to significantly higher densities than in the urban fringe. Isolation appeared to be the main reason for the observed patterns, since area and soil conditions were held constant in the experiment. Microclimate and pollution were considered to play a minor role.

  18. Compositional Characters and Antimicrobial Potential of Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Manika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological investigations were carried out to evaluate the composition and anti-microbial potential of a rare Artemisia species viz. Artemisia stricta Edgew. f. stricta Pamp. essential oil for the first time. GC and GC/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27 compounds, which constituted 93.2% volatile constituents of the oil. The major constituents were capillene (41.6%, spathulenol (14.6% and β-caryophyllene (13.4%. The oil was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against eight bacterial and six fungal strains. The oil exhibited both antifungal and antibacterial activities. Among bacteria, the oil was most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC 0.625 mg/mL followed by Staphylococcu. Aureus (MIC 1.25 mg/mL . While among fungi, the oil was most effective against Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Sporothrix schenckii with MIC as low as 0.625 mg/mL.

  19. Subcellular compartmentalization in protoplasts from Artemisia annua cell cultures: engineering attempts using a modified SNARE protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Rizzello, Francesca; Durante, Miriana; Caretto, Sofia; Nisi, Rossella; De Paolis, Angelo; Faraco, Marianna; Montefusco, Anna; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-05-20

    Plants are ideal bioreactors for the production of macromolecules but transport mechanisms are not fully understood and cannot be easily manipulated. Several attempts to overproduce recombinant proteins or secondary metabolites failed. Because of an independent regulation of the storage compartment, the product may be rapidly degraded or cause self-intoxication. The case of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin produced by Artemisia annua plants is emblematic. The accumulation of artemisinin naturally occurs in the apoplast of glandular trichomes probably involving autophagy and unconventional secretion thus its production by undifferentiated tissues such as cell suspension cultures can be challenging. Here we characterize the subcellular compartmentalization of several known fluorescent markers in protoplasts derived from Artemisia suspension cultures and explore the possibility to modify compartmentalization using a modified SNARE protein as molecular tool to be used in future biotechnological applications. We focused on the observation of the vacuolar organization in vivo and the truncated form of AtSYP51, 51H3, was used to induce a compartment generated by the contribution of membrane from endocytosis and from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole trafficking. The artificial compartment crossing exocytosis and endocytosis may trap artemisinin stabilizing it until extraction; indeed, it is able to increase total enzymatic activity of a vacuolar marker (RGUSChi), probably increasing its stability. Exploring the 51H3-induced compartment we gained new insights on the function of the SNARE SYP51, recently shown to be an interfering-SNARE, and new hints to engineer eukaryote endomembranes for future biotechnological applications.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power. Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

  2. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  3. ANALYSIS OF ARTEMISININ AND RELATED SESQUITERPENOIDS FROM ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L BY COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS-SPECTROMETRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; PRAS, N; BOS, R; VISSER, JF; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1991-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (3) and its biosynthetic precursors arteannuic acid (1), arteannuin B (2) and artemisitene (4) can be separated and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry both as a mixture of reference standards as well as in extracts of Artemisia annua L. From t

  4. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2017-09-12

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  5. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid from Artemisia annua and its possible role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; van Uden, W; Lubberink, H.G M; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinic acid (2) was isolated as a natural product from Artemisia annua in a 66% yield, and its structure was confirmed by H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Compound 2 could be chemically converted to artemisinin (4) under conditions that may also be present in the living plant. The results

  6. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of a beta-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Xu, Ran; Jia, Jun-Wei; Pang, Jihai; Matsuda, Seiichi P T; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2002-09-01

    Artemisia annua plants produce a broad range of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, which contribute to the characteristic fragrance of this medicinal species. A cDNA clone, QH6, contained an open reading frame encoding a 582-amino acid protein that showed high sequence identity to plant monoterpene synthases. The prokaryotically expressed QH6 fusion protein converted geranyl diphosphate to (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-alpha-pinene in a 94:6 ratio. QH6 was predominantly expressed in juvenile leaves 2 weeks postsprouting. QH6 transcript levels were transiently reduced following mechanical wounding or fungal elicitor treatment, suggesting that this gene is not directly involved in defense reaction induced by either of these treatments. Under a photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (light/dark), the abundance of QH6 transcripts fluctuated in a diurnal pattern that ebbed around 3 h before daybreak (9th h in the dark phase) and peaked after 9 h in light (9th h in the light phase). The contents of (-)-beta-pinene in juvenile leaves and in emitted volatiles also varied in a diurnal rhythm, correlating strongly with mRNA accumulation. When A. annua was entrained by constant light or constant dark conditions, QH6 transcript accumulation continued to fluctuate with circadian rhythms. Under constant light, advanced cycles of fluctuation of QH6 transcript levels were observed, and under constant dark, the cycle was delayed. However, the original diurnal pattern could be regained when the plants were returned to the normal light/dark (12 h/12 h) photoperiod. This is the first report that monoterpene biosynthesis is transcriptionally regulated in a circadian pattern.

  8. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group (P levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers (P antioxidant capacity and regulating the pertinent mRNA expression. The appropriate inclusion level of EA in broiler diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  9. Antimicrobial and efflux pump inhibitory activity of caffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia absinthium against gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

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    Yiannis C Fiamegos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay-driven purification and structural determination of compounds from plant sources have yielded a number of pump inhibitors which acted against gram positive bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report the identification and characterization of 4',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4',5'-ODCQA from Artemisia absinthium as a pump inhibitor with a potential of targeting efflux systems in a wide panel of gram-positive human pathogenic bacteria. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, 3',5'-ODCQA, 4',5'-ODCQA was based on hyphenated chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography with post column solid-phase extraction coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. Microbial susceptibility testing and potentiation of well know pump substrates revealed at least two active compounds; chlorogenic acid with weak antimicrobial activity and 4',5'-ODCQA with pump inhibitory activity whereas 3',5'-ODCQA was ineffective. These initial findings were further validated with checkerboard, berberine accumulation efflux assays using efflux-related phenotypes and clinical isolates as well as molecular modeling methodology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These techniques facilitated the direct analysis of the active components from plant extracts, as well as dramatically reduced the time needed to analyze the compounds, without the need for prior isolation. The calculated energetics of the docking poses supported the

  10. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

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    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  11. Polyphenols from Artemisia annua L Inhibit Adhesion and EMT of Highly Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231.

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    Ko, Young Shin; Lee, Won Sup; Panchanathan, Radha; Joo, Young Nak; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, Jin-Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that polyphenolic compounds from plants have anti-invasion and anti-metastasis capabilities. The Korean annual weed, Artemisia annua L., has been used as a folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Here, we isolated and characterized polyphenols from Korean A. annua L (pKAL). We investigated anti-metastatic effects of pKAL on the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells especially focusing on cancer cell adhesion to the endothelial cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Firstly, pKAL inhibited cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not that of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs). Polyphenols from Korean A. annua L inhibited the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to ECs through reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression of MDA-MB-231 and ECs, but not intracellular adhesion molecule-1 at the concentrations where pKAL did not influence the cell viability of either MDA-MB-231 cells nor EC. Further, pKAL inhibited tumor necrosis factor-activated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and EMT. Moreover, pKAL inhibited phosphorylation of Akt, but not that of protein kinase C. These results suggest that pKAL may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis at least in part by inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion to ECs through suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and invasion through suppression of EMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dades sobre la biologia d'espècies ibèrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L.

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    Vallès Xirau, Joan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [ca] S'estudien diversos aspectes de la biologia de les espècies ib èrico-baleàriques d'Artemisia L., fonamentalment de les seccions Artemisia L. i Seriphidium Besser. La germinació de les cipseles, el tipus de cicle biològic, la biologia de la reproducció i la fenologia són els principals termes tractats. [fr] On étude des aspects divers de la biologie des espèces ibéro-baléariques du genre Artemisia L., notamment des sections Artemisia L. et Seriphidium Besser. La germination des cypseles, le type du cycle biologique, la biologie de la reproduction et la phénologie sont les principaux points traités.

  13. 黄蒿的青贮特性研究%Studies on Artemisia scoparia Silage

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    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia adding additive and without additive were used to study the silage quality.The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were good in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive,the score were 16 and 17, respectively.The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.09 and 4.26, respectively.The silage with additive increased the contents of lactic acid and Acetic acid,while the content of PA in direct silage was higher.The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was excellent with 87 score, while the silage adding additive was a qualified silage with 56 score.Judging from comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, Artemisia scoparia silage without adding additive was the prior way.%以黄蒿(Artemisia scoparia)为原料,比较加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的青贮性.试验结果表明:直接青贮和加入添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16分和17分,均达到优良等级.加入添加剂青贮后为pH 4.26,直接青贮后的pH 5.09,乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比以直接青贮较高,丁酸占总酸的百分比以加入添加剂青贮后较高,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮,而加入添加剂青贮为56分,为合格.综合感官性状和发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿青贮时采用直接青贮的方法更好.

  14. Studies on Silage of Artemisia Scoparia%黄蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    以黄蒿为原料,通过添加采禾添加剂青贮和和直接青贮,探讨黄蒿的可青贮性。试验结果表明,直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为16和17分,达到了优良等级。添加剂青贮后的pH值为4.26,直接青贮后的pH值为5.09,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比表现为直接青贮高于添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为87分,为优良青贮;而添加剂青贮为56分,为合格。综合感官性状、发酵品质,黄蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,对黄蒿%Artemisia scoparia was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages achieved excellent grade, and the score were 16 and 17 respectively. The pH value of silage without adding additive and with it were 5.09 and 4.26 respectively. The addition of the additive can't increase content of LA and AA. Content of PA in silage without adding additive was less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a qualified silage. By the comprehensive combination of sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that artemisia scoparia can make silage, and making Artemisia ordosica silage without adding additive was the best way.

  15. Methanolic Extract’s Activity of Artemisia absinthium, Vitexagnus-castus and Phytolacaamericana Against Leishmania major; in vitro and in vivo

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    Khanjani Jafroodi S.1 MSc,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Leishmaniasis is the most prevalent vector- borne parasitic disease in Iran. Drug treatment is the best way to treat leishmaniasis, while the common drugs are not efficient enough and inevitable side effects limit using these drugs. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro and in vivo activity of the methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnus-castus and Phytolaca americana Against Leishmania major. Materials & Methods The methanolic extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnuscastus and Phytolaca americana were prepared by cold percolation method. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 of the plant extracts was determined against L. major promastigotes followed by efficacy evaluation of the extracts against amastigotes and in vivo assay in the BALB/c animal model. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19 software using Student’s T test and ANOVA. Findings Artemisia absinthium had the highest amount of active compounds against promastigotes of L. major (IC50=159.45 and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia absinthium on both forms of L. major (extracellular promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes was the highest (MI=33%. Vitex agnus-castus had the least toxic effect for macrophages (8%. All extracts limited the progression of lesion size versus control group, however, only inhibitory effect of Artemisia absinthium extract was statistically significant. Conclusion Artemisia absinthium is the most effective growth inhibitor of amastigotes in animal lesions and it is safe for drug application in human and animals.

  16. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

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    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  17. Acute hypotensive and diuretic activities of Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoufel Ali Zeggwagh; Jean Baptiste Michel; Mohamed Eddouks

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Artemisia herba alba (A. herba alba) intravenous injection on cardiovascular and renal function in normal rats. Methods:The effect of intravenous injection of A. herba alba extract at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated in normal rats. Diuresis, heart frequency and electrolytes concentrations were analyzed. Results: Intravenous bolus injection of A. herba alba at the different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg produced a dose dependent reduction in arterial blood pressure (P Conclusions: We conclude that the aqueous A. herba alba extract possesses a potent acute hypotensive effect on normal rats. In addition, A. herba alba perfusion may affect renal function to increase urine and electrolytes excretion.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Seven Flavonoids in Aerial Parts of Artemisia frigida by HPLC

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    WANG Qing-hu; AO Wu-li-ji; TAI Wen-quan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of seven flavonoids from the aerial part of Artemisia frigida.Methods Hypersil ODS-2 (300 mm× 4.6 mm,5 μm) column was used,with acetonitril-0.2% phosphoric acid (gradient elution) as a mobile phase,and the detection wavelength was at 283 nm with flow rate at 1mL/min.Results All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9990) within the tested range.All average recovery was more than 98.00% and RSD was less than 3.0% (n =6).Conclusion The method is steady and with good repeatability,and could be used to determine the content of flavonoids in A.frigida from different areas.

  19. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  20. Development of monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) by fermentation with Monascus pilosus.

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    Lee, Dong Sub; Lee, Inhyung

    2012-07-01

    Monacolin K-enriched ganghwayakssuk (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) was developed by fermentation with Monascus sp. Among the 15 Monascus spp. isolated previously from Monascus fermentation products, Monascus pilosus KMU108 produced 2,219 mg/kg of monacolin K during ganghwayakssuk fermentation with no detectable citrinin. The optimum concentrations of ganghwayakssuk and glucose determined from the response surface methodology (RSM) design were 2.2% and 3.8%, respectively. By applying these conditions, the monacolin K productivity was increased to 3,007 mg/kg after 15 days of fermentation. On the other hand, other characteristics such as the total content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity were relatively unchanged. Therefore, Monascusfermented ganghwayakssuk is an excellent biomaterial for the development of functional foods because of its high level of monacolin K, known to lower cholesterol levels.

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of extracts of endophytic fungi from Artemisia annua

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    Huawei Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic extracts of 11 fungi associated with asympomatic Artemisia annua Linn., were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against three human pathogenic microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum, and two plant pathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that these endophytic extracts had different inhibitory effects on microbial pathogens at 100 mg/mL. Among these fungal endophytes, three strains Aspergillus spp. SPS-02, SPS-04 and SPS-01 respectively showed the strongest antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureu, T. rubrum. An endophytic Mucor sp. SPS-11 had the most pronounced effect on R. cerealis. Two strains Aspergillus sp. SPS-02 and Cephalosporium sp. SPS-08 exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activities against M. grisea. These anti-pathogenic endophytes could be applied as new sources of antibiotics in agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Inhibitory activity of coumarins from Artemisia capillaris against advanced glycation endproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Park, Jin Ju; Islam, Md Nurul; Jin, Seung Eun; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyun; Sohn, Hee Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2012-06-01

    Since glycation can lead to the onset of diabetic complications due to chronic hyperglycemia, several indigenous Artemisia species were evaluated as potential inhibitors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Among them, the Artemisia capillaris plant demonstrated the highest AGE inhibitory activity. Repeated column chromatography was performed to isolate a new acylated flavonoid glycoside, acacetin-7-O-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, along with 11 known flavonoids (acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside, linarin, quercetin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, isorhamnetin 3-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-arabinoside, isorhamnetin 3-robinobioside, arcapillin, and cirsilineol), six coumarins (umbelliferone, esculetin, scopoletin, scopolin, isoscopolin, and scoparone), and two phenolic derivatives (4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid). In determining the structure-activity relationship (SAR), it was found that the presence and position of hydroxyl group of test coumarins (coumarin, esculin, isoscopoletin, daphnetin, 4-methylcoumarin, and six isolated coumarins) may play a crucial role in AGE inhibition. A free hydroxyl group at C-7 and a glucosyl group instead of a methoxyl group at C-6 are two important parameters for the inhibitory potential of coumarins on AGE formation. A. capillaris and five key AGE inhibitors, including 4,5-di-Ocaffeoylquinic acid, umbelliferone, esculetin, esculin, and scopoletin, were identified as potential candidates for use as therapeutic or preventive agents for diabetic complications and oxidative stress-related diseases. We understand this to be the first detailed study on the SAR of coumarins in AGE inhibition.

  3. Potent α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from Artemisia capillaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Islam, Md; Jung, Hyun Ah; Sohn, Hee Sook; Kim, Hye Mi; Choi, Jae Sue

    2013-05-01

    As a part of our ongoing effort to identify anti-diabetic constituents from natural sources, we examined the inhibitory activity of the methanol extracts of 12 species of the genus Artemisia, against α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The methanol extracts of different species exhibited promising α-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities. Since the methanol extract of Artemisia capillaris exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity together with significant PTP1B inhibitory activity, it was selected for further investigation. Repeated column chromatography based on bioactivity guided fractionation yielded 10 coumarins (esculetin, esculin, scopolin, isoscopolin, daphnetin, umbelliferone, 7-methoxy coumarin, scoparone, scopoletin, 6-methoxy artemicapin C), 8 flavonoids (hyperoside, quercetin, isorhamnetin, cirsilineol, arcapillin, isorhamnetin 3-robinobioside, linarin, isorhamnetin 3-glucoiside), 6 phenolic compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoylquinic acid), and one chromone (capillarisin). Among these compounds, esculetin, scopoletin, quercetin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to the positive control acarbose. In addition, esculetin and 6-methoxy artemicapin C displayed PTP1B inhibitory activity. Interestingly, all isolated dicaffeoylquinic acids showed significant PTP1B inhibitory activity. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate the potential of the A. capillaris extract to inhibit α-glucosidase and PTP1B. These inhibitory properties can be largely attributed to a combination of different chemical structures, including coumarins, flavonoids, and dicaffeoylquinic acids, which could be further explored to develop

  4. Feeding Artemisia annua alters digesta pH and muscle lipid oxidation products in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, G; Orr, A; Burke, I C; Pan, W

    2013-04-01

    Because of growing consumer concern about the use of antimicrobials and the ban on most antibiotic feed additives in the European Union, there is increased interest in using alternatives to antimicrobials in poultry diets. Dried leaves of Artemisia annua have been used in Oriental medicine due to their antimicrobial activities. In the current study, the effect of including A. annua in broiler diets on hindgut and ceca pH, lipid oxidation products, and phenolic content of dark and white meat, and bird performance were investigated. A total of 96 broiler chicks were kept in 48 cages. Two cages with 2 birds per each cage are considered as 1 replicate, and there were 8 replications per treatment. The birds were fed corn-soy diets containing 0% (control), 2% (ART2), or 4% (ART4) dried A. annua leaves from d 14 through d 42. Cecal digesta pH was the lowest in birds fed the ART4 diet (P muscle of birds fed ART2 and ART4 diets compared with the control (P abdominal fat pads, or breast or thigh muscle content (P > 0.05). Artemisia annua addition did not affect final BW, weight gain, feed consumption, carcass weight, or feed:gain. No difference was observed in the relative weight of liver, abdominal fat, spleen, or heart tissue. Gastric acidity is protective against intestinal colonization and translocation of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, gut pH and muscle tissue TBARS reduction in birds fed ART2 and ART4 suggest that A. annua may prove useful as a natural phytogenic feed additive with antioxidant potential that could be incorporated into poultry diets.

  5. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala.

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    Lijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown.Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified.The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the fatty acid

  6. Genome-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of the Desert Shrub Artemisia sphaerocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijing; Hu, Xiaowei; Miao, Xiumei; Chen, Xiaolong; Nan, Shuzhen; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala, a semi-shrub belonging to the Artemisia genus of the Compositae family, is an important pioneer plant that inhabits moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of northwest and north-central China. It is very resilient in extreme environments. Additionally, its seeds have excellent nutritional value, and the abundant lipids and polysaccharides in the seeds make this plant a potential valuable source of bio-energy. However, partly due to the scarcity of genetic information, the genetic mechanisms controlling the traits and environmental adaptation capacity of A. sphaerocephala are unknown. Here, we present the first in-depth transcriptomic analysis of A. sphaerocephala. To maximize the representation of conditional transcripts, mRNA was obtained from 17 samples, including living tissues of desert-growing A. sphaerocephala, seeds germinated in the laboratory, and calli subjected to no stress (control) and high and low temperature, high and low osmotic, and salt stresses. De novo transcriptome assembly performed using an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform resulted in the generation of 68,373 unigenes. We analyzed the key genes involved in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway and identified 26 A. sphaerocephala fad2 genes, which is the largest fad2 gene family reported to date. Furthermore, a set of genes responsible for resistance to extreme temperatures, salt, drought and a combination of stresses was identified. The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the important traits of A. sphaerocephala and contributes to the current understanding of molecular adaptive mechanisms of A. sphaerocephala in the desert environment. Identification of the key genes in the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway could increase understanding of the biological regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid composition traits in plants and facilitate genetic manipulation of the fatty acid composition of oil

  7. Chemical Composition of Artemisia annua L. Leaves and Antioxidant Potential of Extracts as a Function of Extraction Solvents

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC, flavonoid (TFC contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.

  8. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  9. Wind-dispersed Seed Deposition Patterns and Seedling Recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a Moving Sandy Land

    OpenAIRE

    LI, FENG-RUI; Wang, Tao; ZHANG, AI-SHENG; ZHAO, LI-YA; KANG, LING-FEN; Chen, Wen

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings.

  10. Types of Artemisia pollen season depending on the weather conditions in Wrocław (Poland), 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiewicz, Małgorzata; Klaczak, Kamilla; Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, Anetta; Krynicka, Justyna; Migała, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise Artemisia pollen season types according to weather conditions in Wrocław (south-western Poland) in the years 2002-2011. Over the period analysed, the start date of the pollen season (determined by the 95 % method) ranged from 10 July 2002 to 28 July 2010. The start date of the pollen season can be determined by using Crop Heat Units (CHUs). During the period 2002-2011, the Artemisia pollen season started after the cumulative value of CHUs had reached 2,000-2,100 °C. The three distinguished types of Artemisia pollen season are best described by the frequency of weather types defined by the type of circulation, mean daily air temperature, and the occurrence of rain. The variation in these factors affected the dynamics of the pollen season. The noteworthy frequency of days with rain and high seasonal sum of precipitation totals as well as the dominance of cyclonic weather from the westerly direction had an impact on the extension of the pollen season. The meteorological factors that directly affect pollen release and transport primarily include air humidity, expressed as vapour pressure (r > 0.3, p  0.5, p < 0.01). Based on the correlation analysis, the meteorological variables were selected and regression equations were established using stepwise backward regression analysis.

  11. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Lim, K Yoong; Chester, Michael; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarík, Ales

    2009-02-01

    Typically in plants, the 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) encoding two major ribosomal RNA species occur at separate loci. However, in some algae, bryophytes and ferns, they are at the same locus (linked arranged). Southern blot hybridisation, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridisation, cloning and sequencing were used to reveal 5S and 35S rDNA genomic organisation in Artemisia. We observed thousands of rDNA units at two-three loci containing 5S rDNA in an inverted orientation within the inter-genic spacer (IGS) of 35S rDNA. The sequenced clones of 26-18S IGS from Artemisia absinthium appeared to contain a conserved 5S gene insertion proximal to the 26S gene terminus (5S rDNA-1) and a second less conserved 5S insertion (5S rDNA-2) further downstream. Whilst the 5S rDNA-1 showed all the structural features of a functional gene, the 5S-rDNA-2 had a deletion in the internal promoter and probably represents a pseudogene. The linked arrangement probably evolved before the divergence of Artemisia from the rest of Asteraceae (>10 Myrs). This arrangement may have involved retrotransposons and once formed spread via mechanisms of concerted evolution. Heterogeneity in unit structure may reflect ongoing homogenisation of variant unit types without fixation for any particular variant.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Chanyong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN- gamma (γ, tumour necrosis factor- (TNF- alpha (α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues.

  13. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia biennis Willd. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines

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    Zahra Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Artemisia is a genus of herbs and small shrubs forms an important part of natural vegetation in Iran. It has been reported that several Artemisia species possess anti-proliferative effects. Considering the value of this genus in anti-cancer researches we have chosen Artemisia biennis for cytotoxic and mechanistic studies. Materials and Methods:In this study we have investigated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethanol:water (1:1 v/v extracts of A. biennis Willd. on two cancer human cell lines (K562 and HL-60 and J774 as normal cells. Results: CH2Cl2 extract was found to have the highest anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. IC50 values obtained in AlamarBlue® assay for CH2Cl2 extract were 64.86 and 54.31 µg/ml on K562 and HL-60 cells respectively. In flow cytometry histogram of the cells treated with CH2Cl2 extract, sub-G1 peak was induced. DNA fragmentation, increased in the level of Bax and cleavage of PARP protein all showed the induction of apoptosis with CH2Cl2 extract after 48 hr contact with cells. Conclusion: The results can corroborate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the CH2Cl2 extract of A. biennis on the K562 and HL-60 cancer cell lines.

  14. Anti-Alzheimer's disease potential of coumarins from Angelica decursiva and Artemisia capillaris and structure-activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Ran Joo; Roy, Anupom; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-02-01

    To use structure-activity analysis to study the anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD) activity of natural coumarins isolated from Angelica decursiva and Artemisia capillaris, along with one purchased coumarin (daphnetin). Umbelliferone, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, scopoletin, isoscopoletin, 7-methoxy coumarin, scoparone, scopolin, and esculetin have been previously isolated; however 2'-isopropyl psoralene was isolated from Angelica decursiva for the first time to evaluate their inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) enzyme activity. We scrutinized the potentials of coumarins as cholinesterase and BACE1 inhibitors via enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulation. Among the test compounds, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin exhibited potent inhibitory activity against AChE, BChE and BACE1. Both esculetin and daphnetin have a catechol group and exhibit significant anti-AD activity against AChE and BChE. In contrast, presence of a sugar moiety and methoxylation markedly reduced the anti-AD activity of the coumarins investigated in this study. With respect to BACE1 inhibition, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin contained carboxyl or catechol groups, which significantly contributed to their anti-AD activities. To further investigate these results, we generated a 3D structure of BACE1 using Autodock 4.2 and simulated binding of umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin. Docking simulations showed that different residues of BACE1 interacted with hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the binding energies of umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin were negative (-4.58, -6.25 and -6.37 kcal/mol respectively). Taken together, our results suggest that umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin have anti-AD effects by inhibiting AChE, BChE and BACE1, which might be useful

  15. Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens,Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Birgitte GJESING; Xing-ai KONG; Jing-yuan WANG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide.The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia,Ambrosia,and Humulus in northern China.Methods:A total of 1144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources.Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris,Ambrosia artemisiifolia,and Humulus scandens,and against the purified allergens,Art v 1 and Amb a 1.Results:Of 1 144 subjects,170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing.The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana,Artemisia annua,A.artemisiifolia,and H.scandens was 11.0%,10.2%,3.7%,and 6.6%,respectively.Among the intradermal positive subjects,the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A.vulgaris was 58.3%,to A.artemisiifolia 14.7%,and to H.scandens 41.0%.The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%,and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%.The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A.vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high.Subjects with A.artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A.vulgaris specific IgE,but with relatively high levels of A.vulgaris IgE antibodies.There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H.scandens and A.vulgaris or to H.scandens and A.artemisiifolia.Conclusions:The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%.Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.

  16. Antiviral effect of artemisinin from Artemisia annua against a model member of the Flaviviridae family, the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marta R; Serrano, Maria A; Vallejo, Marta; Efferth, Thomas; Alvarez, Marcelino; Marin, Jose J G

    2006-10-01

    The antiviral activity versus flaviviruses of artemisinin, a safe drug obtained from Artemisia annua and commonly used to treat malaria, has been investigated using as an IN VITRO model bovine epithelial cells from embryonic trachea (EBTr) infected with the cytopathic strain Oregon C24V, of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), which is a member of the Flaviviridae family. Antiviral activity was estimated by the degree of protection against the cytopathic effect of BVDV on host cells and by the reduction in BVDV-RNA release to the culture medium. To induce an intermediate cytopathic effect in non-treated cells, EBTr cells were first exposed to BVDV for 48 h and then incubated with virus-free medium for 72 h. Ribavirin and artemisinin (up to 100 microM) induced no toxicity in host cells, whereas a slight degree of toxicity was observed for IFN-alpha at concentrations above 10 U/mL up to 100 U/mL. Treatment of infected cells with IFN-alpha, ribavirin and artemisinin markedly reduced BVDV-induced cell death. A combination of these drugs resulted in an additive protective effect. These drugs induced a significant reduction in the production/release of BVDV virions by infected EBTr cells; there was also an additive effect when combinations of them were assayed. These results suggest a potential usefulness of artemisinin in combination with current pharmacological therapy for the treatment of human and veterinary infections by flaviviruses.

  17. Protective effects of fractions from Artemisia biennis hydro-ethanolic extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells

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    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was designed to indicate whether different fractions from Artemisia biennis hydroethanolic extract could provide cytoprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by doxorubicin (DOX in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12. Material and Methods:Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Also, activation of caspase-3 and superoxide dismutase were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS and measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were performed by flowcytometry. Results:  Treatment of PC12 cells with DOX reduced viability dose dependently. For evaluation of the effect of fractions (A-G on DOX-induced cytotoxicity, PC12 cells were pretreated for 24 hr with the A. biennis fractions and then cells were treated with DOX.  The fractions C and D increased PC12 cells viability significantly compared to DOX treated cells.  Moreover, pretreatment with fractions C and D for 24 hr attenuated DOX-mediated apoptosis and the anti-apoptotic action of A. biennis fractions was partially dependent on inhibition of caspase 3 activity and also increasing the  mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Selected A. biennis fractions also suppressed the generation of ROS and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Conclusion: Taken together our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of aforementioned fractions of A. biennis hydroetanolic extract has protective effect against apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cell. The results highlighted that fractions C and D may exert cytoprotective effects through their antioxidant actions.

  18. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

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    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro  β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.83 ± 0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 ± 0.04 and 2.62 ± 0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 ± 0.006 and 0.71 ± 0.006 mg/mL, respectively.

  19. The achene mucilage hydrated in desert dew assists seed cells in maintaining DNA integrity: adaptive strategy of desert plant Artemisia sphaerocephala.

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    Xuejun Yang

    Full Text Available Despite proposed ecological importance of mucilage in seed dispersal, germination and seedling establishment, little is known about the role of mucilage in seed pre-germination processes. Here we investigated the role of mucilage in assisting achene cells to repair DNA damage during dew deposition in the desert. Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes were first treated γ-irradiation to induce DNA damage, and then they were repaired in situ in the desert dew. Dew deposition duration can be as long as 421 min in early mornings. Intact achenes absorbed more water than demucilaged achenes during dew deposition and also carried water for longer time following sunrise. After 4-d dew treatment, DNA damage of irradiated intact and demucilaged achenes was reduced to 24.38% and 46.84%, respectively. The irradiated intact achenes exhibited much higher DNA repair ratio than irradiated demucilaged achenes. Irradiated intact achenes showed an improved germination and decreased nonviable achenes after dew treatment, and significant differences in viability between the two types of achenes were detected after 1020 min of dew treatment. Achene mucilage presumably plays an ecologically important role in the life cycle of A. sphaerocephala by aiding DNA repair of achene cells in genomic-stressful habitats.

  20. Anti-Giardial Activity of Chloroformic Extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua in vitro

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    Shirzad Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardiasis is a one of the most prevalent intestinal parasitic diseases in human, treatment of this disease through medicinal plants is very important since parasite resistance to chemical drugs exists. Thus, in this study, the in vitro anti-giardial activity of chloroformic extract of Tanacetum parthenium and Artemisia annua on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia were separately investigated.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study chloroformic extracts of Artemisia annua and Tanacetum parthenium on cyst and trophozoite of G. lamblia in vitro were prepared in 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg∕ml concentrations for 5, 10, 30, 60 and 180 min. Purified cysts were used for encystations and culture in TYI-S-33 medium. Then, 2 ml of each solution was placed in test tubes, to which 10,000 washed cysts and trophozoites were added. The contents of the tubes were gently mixed and incubated. The percentages of dead parasites were determined by counting 500 cysts. Non treated parasites were considered a control group in each experiment and the viability of the parasites checked with Eeosin staining and statistical analysis were done. Results: The results showed that chloroformic extracts of A. annua at 100 mg/ml concentration affected on Gardia cyst 86% and 100% trophozoite after 1 hour. T. parthenium at 50mg/ml concentration killed cysts (83% and trophozite (100% after 1 hour, respectively. T. parthenium chloroformic extract had a better effect on cyst and trophozoite of Giardia at 50 mg/ml after 1 hour exposure than A. annua extract. Conclusion: According to this study, A. annua and T. parthenium chlorofomic extracts could be considered as a more effective anti-giardial agent. Chloroformic extract of T. parthenium was also shown the anti-giardial activity compared with A. annua and control groups at all exposure times. Therefore, in the future research using these plants are recommended against Giardia in low concentration in the in vivo

  1. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

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    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  2. Transcriptome characterization and polymorphism detection between subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata

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    Cronn Richard C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata is one of the most widely distributed and ecologically important shrub species in western North America. This species serves as a critical habitat and food resource for many animals and invertebrates. Habitat loss due to a combination of disturbances followed by establishment of invasive plant species is a serious threat to big sagebrush ecosystem sustainability. Lack of genomic data has limited our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecological adaptation in this species. Here, we report on the sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in subspecies of big sagebrush. Results cDNA of A. tridentata sspp. tridentata and vaseyana were normalized and sequenced using the 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Assembly of the reads resulted in 20,357 contig consensus sequences in ssp. tridentata and 20,250 contigs in ssp. vaseyana. A BLASTx search against the non-redundant (NR protein database using 29,541 consensus sequences obtained from a combined assembly resulted in 21,436 sequences with significant blast alignments (≤ 1e-15. A total of 20,952 SNPs and 119 polymorphic SSRs were detected between the two subspecies. SNPs were validated through various methods including sequence capture. Validation of SNPs in different individuals uncovered a high level of nucleotide variation in EST sequences. EST sequences of a third, tetraploid subspecies (ssp. wyomingensis obtained by Illumina sequencing were mapped to the consensus sequences of the combined 454 EST assembly. Approximately one-third of the SNPs between sspp. tridentata and vaseyana identified in the combined assembly were also polymorphic within the two geographically distant ssp. wyomingensis samples. Conclusion We have produced a large EST dataset for Artemisia tridentata, which contains a large sample of the big sagebrush

  3. The effect of Artemisia annua on broiler performance, on intestinal microbiota and on the course of a Clostridium perfringens infection applying a necrotic enteritis disease model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Ivarsen, Elise

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Artemisia annua contain essential oils having antimicrobial properties against Clostridium perfringens Type A, the causal agent for necrotic enteritis in broilers. In two experiments, the influence of increasing dietary concentrations of dried A. annua leaves (0, 5, 10...... and 20 g/kg) and n-hexane extract from fresh A. annua leaves (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) on broiler performance was investigated. Dried plant material decreased feed intake and body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and 10 and 20 g/kg diet tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. The n......-hexane extract also reduced feed intake, but broiler weight tended to decrease only at the highest dietary concentration. The feed conversion ratio tended to improve when birds received 250 and 500 mg/kg n-hexane extract. In a third experiment, a necrotic enteritis disease model was applied to investigate...

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil From the Aerial Parts of Artemisia Herba

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    A. Nezhadali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of the plant artemisia herba were collected in the May 2007 from Babaaman (North Khorassan Province of Iran. The plant was isolated by hydro distillation. A total of 61 constituents, representing more than 98% of the oil were identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main compounds, were alpha-pinene (3.28%, champhene (4.8%, sabinen (5.18%, beta-myrcene (3.04, cis,beta-terpineol (11.31%, camphor (6.11%, 8-hydroxylinalool (2.64%, L-4-terpineol ( 2.5%, alpha- therpineol (2.33%, myrtenol (3.27%, bornyl acetate (6.2%, alpha-terpinol acetate (3.06%, germacrene (2.06%, davanone (8.49%, trans-farnesol (4.27%, cis-fernesol (2.07% and 1,3,dicyclopentyl cyclopentane (2.29%. This herbal medicine traditionally uses as anti-infectious, anti-bacterial, emmenagogue, parasiticide, digestive and stomachic and gastric tonic in Iran.

  5. Artemisia tilesii Ledeb hairy roots establishment using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Shakhovsky, A M; Belokurova, V B; Drobot, K O

    2016-05-18

    An efficient and rapid protocol for the establishment of Artemisia tilesii "hairy" root culture is reported. Leaf explants of aseptically growing plants were cocultured with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 wild strain or A. rhizogenes carrying the plasmids with nptII and ifn-α2b genes. Root formation on the explants started in 5-6 days after their cocultivation with bacterial suspension. Prolongation of explant cultivation time on the medium without cefotaxime led to stimulation of root growth. The effects of sucrose concentration as well as of the levels of synthetic indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and native growth regulator Emistim on the stimulation of A. tilesii "hairy" root growth were studied. Maximum stimulating effect both for the control and for transgenic roots was observed in case of root cultivation on the media supplemented with IBA-up to 7.95- and 9.1-fold biomass increase, respectively. Cultivation on the medium with 10 μl/L Emistime has also led to the control roots growth stimulation (up to 2.75-fold). Emistime at 5 μl/L concentration led to 5.46-fold mass increase in only one "hairy" root line. Higher sucrose content (40 g/L) stimulated growth of two hairy root lines but had no effect on growth of the control roots.

  6. Tissue culture and regeneration of an antimalarial plant, Artemisia sieberi Besser

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    A. Sharafi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available WHO recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs as the most effective choice to treat malaria. For developing transgenic plants with high accumulation of artemisinin (by introducing genes encoding enzymes which regulate the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, an efficient protocol for tissue culture and plant regeneration is necessary. In the present study, leaf explants of Artemisia sieberi were cultivated in Murashige & Skoog based medium supplemented by combination of different plant growth regulators including 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BA, α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, picloram (Pic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The highest frequency of shoot induction was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA plus 0.05 mg/L NAA (95% regeneration and MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA plus 0.5 mg/L IAA (85% regeneration. Rooting was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg/L NAA. The present study has revealed a simple, reliable, rapid and high efficient regeneration system for A. sieberi Besser as a source of artemisinin in short period via adventitious shoot induction procedure.

  7. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

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    Fabio F. Perazzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  8. Antimicrobial, antioxidative, and insect repellent effects of Artemisia absinthium essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Jovanović, Boris; Jović, Jovana; Ilić, Budimir; Miladinović, Dragoljub; Matejić, Jelena; Rajković, Jelena; Dorđević, Ljubiša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Zlatković, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ethnopharmacological uses of this plant species in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and wounds, and as an insect repellent. The aerial part of the plant was hydrodistilled, and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Forty-seven compounds, corresponding to 94.65 % of the total oil, were identified, with the main constituents being sabinene (24.49 %), sabinyl acetate (13.64 %), and α-phellandrene (10.29 %). The oil yield was 0.23 % (v/w). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated against ten bacterial isolates (from patients wounds and stools) and seven American Type Culture Collection strains using a microwell dilution assay. The minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentration of the oil ranged from insect larvae. Starting with the concentration of 0.38 % of essential oil in medium, significant mortality of larvae exposed to the oil was noted when compared to the control. Probit analysis revealed that the LC50 value of A. absinthium essential oil for D. melanogaster larvae after 15 days of exposure was 6.31 % (49 mg/mL). The essential oil also affected the development of D. melanogaster larvae and significantly delayed achievement of the pupa stadium.

  9. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical microbial strains and antioxidant properties of Artemisia parviflora

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    Ahameethunisa Abdul R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract. Results Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil. Conclusions The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs.

  12. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

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    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use of A. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthium Spanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence of trans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oil Extracted from Artemisia Absinthium

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    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils are found to have multiple active components which can show in vitro cytotoxic action against various cancerous cell lines. This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae growing wild in Iran. Methods: Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, north-western Iran, was examined for its cytotoxic effects using a modified MTT assay. Air-dried aerial parts of A. absinthium was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus. Cytotoxicity of the essential oil was measured against Hela and human healthy peripheral blood cells. Results: The 50% cytotoxic concentrations were found to be 48.59 µg/ml and 5456.07 µg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The volatile oil displayed good cytotoxic action against the human tumor cell line. Conclusion: The IC50 shows that cytotoxicity of the oil against human tumor cell line is much higher than that required for healthy human cells. These results indicate low adverse effects for this oil. The findings of this study necessitate the need for further consideration of this essential oil in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy.

  14. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

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    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  15. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivatedArtemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto Martínez-Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthiumbased on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs. The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11 against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9. The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Nine lignans from Artemisia absinthium L.%苦艾中的九个木脂素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿不拉江·图拉克; 姜勇; 屠鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Nine lignans were isolated and purified by silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies,preparative HPLC and recrystallization from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium L.,and identified as follows:diayangambin (1),sesartemin (2),epiyangambin (3),(+)arborone (4),(-)syringaresinol (5),epiashchantin (6),caruilignan C (7),7β-caruilignan C (8),yangambin (9).Compounds 4,5,7,8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.%从苦艾的地上部分通过硅胶、反相、凝胶柱层析,制备高效液相色谱和重结晶于段分离纯化得到九个木脂素,分别为diayangambin (1),sesartemin (2),epiyangambin (3),(+)arborone (4),(-)syringaresinol(5),epiashchantin (6),caruiligan C(7),7β-caruilignanC(8),yangambin (9).其中化合物4,5,7,8为首次从苦艾中分离得到.

  17. Effect of irradiated sodium alginate and phosphorus on biomass and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Siddiqi, T O; Moinuddin; Varshney, Lalit

    2014-09-22

    It is now being realized that irradiation products of natural bioactive agents can also be beneficially utilized to impart value addition in agriculture by converting these bioactive agents into more useful form. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. Artemisinin has been increasingly popular as an effective and safe alternative therapy against malaria; also proved effective against the highly adaptable malaria parasite, which has already become resistant to many other drugs. The drug artemisinin can be extracted from the leafy tissues of Artemisia annua. Therefore, experiments were conducted with an aim to evaluate artemisinin production and overall plant development though depolymerized sodium alginate application and nutrient supply. In the present study, sodium alginate, irradiated by Co-60 gamma rays together with various phosphorus doses, was used to study their effect on growth, physiological and biochemical processes and production of artemisinin in A. annua. Among various applied doses of phosphorus fertilizer, P40 (40 kg Pha(-1)) together with ISA80 (80 mg L(-1)) significantly improved all the parameters studied. Increase in plant height as well as weight was noted at this treatment. Dry leaf yield, artemisinin concentration in leaves and artemisinin yield was also significantly enhanced by the treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, Tariq, E-mail: tarik.alig@gmail.co [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Khan, M. Masroor A.; Idrees, M.; Naeem, M.; Moinuddin,; Hashmi, Nadeem [Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Degrading the natural bioactive agents by ionizing radiation and then using them as growth promoting substances is a novel emerging technology to exploit the genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield and quality. Polysaccharides, such as sodium alginate, have proven to be wonderful growth promoting substances in their depolymerized form for various plants. The effect of depolymerized form of sodium alginate, produced by irradiating the latter by {sup 60}Co gamma rays, was studied on Artemisia annua L. with regard to growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters and artemisinin content. The study revealed that the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), applied as leaf-sprays at a concentration of 20-120 mg L{sup -1}, improved the growth attributes, photosynthetic capability, enzyme activities and artemisinin content of the plant significantly. Application of ISA at 80 mg L{sup -1} increased the values of the attributes studied to the maximum extent. The enhancement of leaf-artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in the leaves. -- Highlights: {yields} Application of ionizing radiation to degrade natural bioactive agents is a novel emerging technology. {yields} Sodium alginate has been used as the growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. {yields} The study revealed that irradiated sodium algiante at 20-120 ppm concentration improved the plant growth. {yields} The enhancement of artemisinin content was ascribed to the ISA-enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content in leaves.

  19. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus application on artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rupam; Chaudhary, Vidhi; Bhatnagar, A K

    2007-10-01

    Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) produces an array of complex terpenoids including artemisinin, a compound of current interest in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. However, this promising antimalarial compound remains expensive and is hardly available on the global scale. Synthesis of artemisinin has not been proved to be feasible commercially. Therefore, increase in yield of naturally occurring artemisinin is an important area of investigation. The effects of inoculation by two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum, either alone or supplemented with P-fertilizer, on artemisinin concentration in A. annua were studied. The concentration of artemisinin was determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The two fungi significantly increased concentration of artemisinin in the herb. Although there was significant increase in concentration of artemisinin in nonmycorrhizal P-fertilized plants as compared to control, the extent of the increase was less compared to mycorrhizal plants grown with or without P-fertilization. This suggests that the increase in artemisinin concentration may not be entirely attributed to enhanced P-nutrition and improved growth. A strong positive linear correlation was observed between glandular trichome density on leaves and artemisinin concentration. Mycorrhizal plants possessed higher foliar glandular trichome (site for artemisinin biosynthesis and sequestration) density compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. Glandular trichome density was not influenced by P-fertilizer application. The study suggests a potential role of AM fungi in improving the concentration of artemisinin in A. annua.

  20. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  1. Physiological water strategy of Artemisia ordosica around soil threshold of drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for plants around the soil threshold of drought (close to the soil wilting water content) is a problem that needs to be further explored. In this paper, Artemisia ordosica, which grows in the Tengri Desert, was selected to analyze the changes in the plant water potentials in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC), the water contents in the roots, shoots and leaves of A. ordosica, and the indices in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. Based on the statistics, we discussed the water physiology mechanism around the soil drought threshold. The results show that, around the soil drought threshold, besides absorbing and transporting water, the roots could serve as temporary water reservoirs that enable A. ordosica to continue to transport the SPAC water and survive severe drought. As drought becomes more severe, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increases and they have significant correlations with the tissue water content. The activity of peroxidase (POD) decreases and it has no significant correlation with the tissue water content. During daytime, when temperature is high, the soluble sugar does not participate in the osmotic adjustment but eliminate the active oxygen free radicals. Thus, around the soil threshold of drought, A. ordosica maintains a physiological water metabolism by harmo-nizing water itself and eliminate the active oxygen and the free radicals by the joint efforts of enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems.

  2. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

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    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  3. Efecto microbicida de la radiación solar (SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua

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    Mariana Muñoz-Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el método SODIS y SODIS combinado con Artemisia annua como una alternativa para la desinfección del agua en comunidades sin acceso a agua segura. Se determinó la eficiencia del método en la remoción de Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis y Salmonella typhimurium usando botellas tipo PET con agua destilada estéril y una concentración inicial de 1x106 UFC/ml de cada microorganismo. Para la combinación SODIS-A. annua se adicionó a las botellas una infusión de A. annua al 10% (v/v; las botellas fueron expuestas al sol durante mínimo 6 horas y se determinaron las variables temperatura del agua, radiación solar y turbidez. Se encontró que el tratamiento SODIS fue más eficiente en la remoción de los cuatro microorganismos que el tratamiento SODIS + A. annua. Las remociones más altas se encontraron a partir de las cuatro horas de exposición para las especies bacterianas en estado vegetativo.

  4. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a novel granulated formulation of Artemisia extract on broiler coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboutari, Jahangir; Arab, Hossien Ali; Ebrahimi, Kambiz; Rahbari, Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease in poultry industry. Owing to the development of drug resistance against Eimeria and concerns about drug residues, attentions toward the alternative compounds including herbal medicines have been increased. This study aimed to examine the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a new formulation derived from Artemisia sieberi extract on avian coccidiosis. The extract was obtained from A. sieberi using petroleum ether, and then, it was formulated into a wet granule. Three hundred and sixty 1-day-old broilers were divided into six groups, each with three replicates (n = 20); the first group was chosen as the noninfected control group and the remainders were challenged by oral administration of 250,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella per chick on day 21. Group 2 (as nontreated control) received no treatment, but group 3 (as prophylactic group) received 0.5 mg/kg artemisinin 10 days before challenging with E. tenella. However, groups 4, 5, and 6 received 1 mg/kg artemisinin on the next day and at 24 and 48 h after the challenge, respectively, for 5 days. Mortality rate, bloody diarrhea score, lesion score, and oocysts per gram (OPG) of feces were used to determine the anticoccidial effects of the formulation. The granule significantly (p coccidiosis.

  5. Effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil on antioxidative systems of broiler's liver

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    Kostadinović Ljiljana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil (AAEO on enzymatic activity of super-oxide-dismutase (SOD, glutathione-peroxidase (GSHPx, glutathione-reductase (GR, peroxidase (POD, xantine-oxidase (XOD and non-enzymatic (content of lipid peroxides (LPx and gluthathione (GSH antioxidative status of broilers infected with mixture of oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria necatrix in comparison to coccidiostat salinomycin was investigated. The in vivo investigation were carried out on 120 Arbor acres broilers of both sexes. Broilers were randomly distributed into four groups. Group A was uninfected and untreated; group B was infected and was kept untreated; group C preventively received coccidiostatic salinomycin in quantity of 60 mg/kg of feed and was inoculated with coccidia species at 21st day-of-age and group D received in feed AAEO in quantity of 3 g/kg and was infected with Eimeria oocysts at 21st day-of-age. Livers were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidative status. It was concluded that AAEO added in feed for broilers prevented the development of coccidia oocysts and therefore it can be used as prophylactic feed additive.

  6. Effects of soil nitrogen:phosphorus ratio on growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To address how the ratios of nitrogen and phosphorus (N:P ratios) in soil affect plant growth, we performed a two-factor (soil available N:P ratios and plant density) randomized block pot experiment to examine the relationships between soil N:P ratios, and the N:P ratios and growth rate of Artemisia ordosica seedlings. Under moderate water stress and adequate nutrient status, both soil N:P and plant density influenced the N:P ratios and growth rates of A. ordosica. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, the growth rates of A. ordosica seedlings decreased significantly. With the increase of soil N:P ratios, N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings increased significantly. While the nitrogen concentrations in the plant increased slightly, the phosphorus concentrations significantly decreased. With the increase of plant density, the shoot N:P ratios and growth rates significantly decreased, which resulted from soil N:P ratios. Thus, soil N:P ratios influenced the N:P ratios in A. ordosica seedlings, and hence, influenced its growth. Our results suggest that, under adequate nutrient environment, soil N:P ratios can be a limiting factor for plant growth.

  7. Functional and chemical stability of a medicinal herb, Artemisia capillaris, following gamma sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Jeong, Ill Yun; Bae, Mun Hyoung; Byun, Myung Woo; Jo, Sung Kee [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The stability of functional and chemical properties of gamma-irradiated (10 kGy) Artemisia capillaris, a widely used herb in the traditional Oriental medicine, was investigated. Functional properties of the extracts of gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris were compared in antioxidant activities, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and protection of lymphocyte and plasmid DNA. Their chemical properties were assessed by HPLC analysis, comparing with chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, which were isolated from ethylacetate fraction as major compounds with strong antioxidant activities. No significant difference in functional properties between irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris was found in all antioxidant assays. Also HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fractions of irradiated and non-irradiated A. capillaris revealed the preservation of chlorogenic acid ({sub t}R=3.124 min) and caffeic acid ({sub t}R=3.672 min), and showed almost the same pattern in the general peaks. These results suggest that the chemical components and antioxidant properties of A. capillaris are not affected largely by gamma-ray irradiation. Therefore, this study may provide evidence that the irradiated herbs retain their potential functional properties.

  8. Terpenes and polyacetylenes from cultivated Artemisia granatensis boiss (Royal chamomile) and their defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Portero, Adriana González; Burón, Pilar Arteaga; Arteaga, Jesús F; Alquézar, Jesús Burillo; Díaz, Carmen Elisa; Coloma, Azucena González

    2013-10-01

    Artemisia granatensis, an endemic endangered plant species from Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been successfully cultivated in artificial systems (plants in artificial soil and transformed in vitro roots) to generate enough plant biomass (aerial and root) to allow for its chemical and biological study and at the same time to provide with methods for the sustainable production of the plant and its metabolites. A eudesmanolide (17) along with six sesquiterpenes (11-16), nine monoterpenes (2-10), one nor-monoterpene (1), three acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters (18-20) and one coumarin (21) have been identified from the aerial plant ethanolic extract. Acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters 18-19 and coumarins 21-23 have been isolated from the transformed root ethanolic extract. These extracts and some isolated compounds or mixtures of them have been tested for their insect antifeedant effects against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Significant antifeedant properties were determined for the aerial plant extract, spiroacetals 19-20 and secoguaianolides 13+14 and 16.

  9. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides.

  10. Identification and purification of novel chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present work has been carried out to study the identification and purification of chlorogenic acids in Artemisia annua L. Thirty-six chlorogenic acids were identified from this plant. Among these fifteen viz. two monocaffeoylquinic acids (Mr354, five dicaffeoylquinic acids (Mr516, one feruloylquinic acid (Mr368, three caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (Mr530, two ferulylquinic acids (Mr544, one dimethoxy-cinnamoylquinic acid (Mr382 and one p-coumaroylquinic acid (Mr338 were reported first time in present study by LC/MSn . Cis-isomers of these chlorogenic acids were also identified. Furthermore, column chromatography was used for the separation and purification of these chlorogenic acid; by the use of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate decolorization methods as mentioned in the literature, thus separation and purification process carried out at the same time. Polyamide and dextran were also used to purify Dicaffeoylquinic acid and purity level reached 85.7% with a yield of 53.4% after the secondary purification by Sephadex LH-20. Result of study revealed that A. annua can not only used for the production of artemisinin, but also yielding different kinds of chlorogenic acids, thus making comprehensive utilization of this plant.

  11. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

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    Ainehchi Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and Chinese hamster ovary (Cho cell lines. Results: The A. lanata had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥ 200 μg/ml significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/ml (P < 0.010. Conclusion: Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. lanata in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  12. The anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris suppresses adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

    2011-08-01

    Growing adipose tissue is thought to require adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Close examination of developing adipose tissue microvasculature reveals that angiogenesis often precedes adipogenesis. Since our previous study demonstrated that Ob-X, the anti-angiogenic herbal composition composed of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae), reduced adipose tissue mass in obese mice, we hypothesized that adipogenesis can be inhibited by Ob-X. To investigate the effects of the anti-angiogenic herbal extracts Ob-X on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Ob-X, we studied the effects of Ob-X on triglyceride accumulation and expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and ECM remodeling. Treatment of cells with Ob-X inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) mix. Ob-X reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A, -B, -C, -D, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors [(thrombospondin-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2)] in differentiated cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were also decreased in Ob-X-treated cells. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. These events may be mediated by changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, angiogenesis, and the MMP system. Thus, by reducing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic Ob-X provides a possible therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and its related disorders.

  13. Effect of water extracts from Artemisia absinthium L. on feeding of selected pests and their response to the odor of this plant

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    Milena RUSIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts from fresh and dry matter of Artemisia absinthium L. on the feeding of selected pests. Moreover their reactions on the smell of this plant by using the olfactometer were examined. Beetles feeding intensity assessment was carried out by measuring the surface of feeds caused by Sitona lineatus L. In the case of Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris contact poisoning on mortality of adults and larvae were tested. In determining the effect of extracts of A. absinthium L. on Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. food weight eaten by adult beetles and larvae and changes in larvae body weight were established. In studies on the olfactory reaction of above mentioned insects, for S. lineatus and L. decemlineata glass olfactometer Y-tube was used and for winged A. pisum females - 4-armed arena olfactometer. The results of the experiment showed that extract from dry matter of A. absinthium L. at concentration of 10% greatly reduced feeding of Sitona lineatus L. The highest mortality of A. pisum Harris was observed in objects in which extracts from dry and fresh matter of the highest concentrations (10% and 30% respectivelly were applied. Extract from fresh matter in concentration of 30% made the greatest contribution to reduce feeding of L. decemlineata Say, while extract made from the dry matter at concentration of 10% significantly contributed to reduce the weight of food eaten by the larvae of this pest. Studies using the olfactometer showed a strong deterring reaction of odors derived from A. absinthium L. in relation to S. lineatus (both males and females and males of L. decemlineata Say.

  14. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils

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    A Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene. Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC 50 . Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium.

  15. Inhibitory Action of Artemisia annua Extracts and Artemisinin on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Solution

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    P. C. Okafor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of ethanol (EEAA, acid (AEAA, and toluene (TEAA extracts from Artemisia annua and Artemisinin (ATS on mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions was investigated using gravimetric and gasometric techniques. The extracts and ATS functioned as good inhibitors, and their inhibition efficiencies (%IE followed the trend: EEAA > AEAA > TEAA > ATS. %IE increased with increase in inhibitors concentration and decreased with increase in temperature. The enhanced %IE values of the extracts were attributed to synergistic effect of the components of the plant extracts with ATS. The adsorption of the inhibitors was consistent with Langmuir isotherm. Physisorption is proposed as the mechanism of inhibition.

  16. Extracción con solventes de artemisinina y otros metabolitos de Artemisia annua L. silvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Cafferata, Lázaro F. R.; Jeandupeux, René; Servicio de Difusión de la Creación Intelectual (SeDiCI), Universidad Nacional de La Plata

    2007-01-01

    Se han llevado a cabo metodologías alternativas para la extracción de artemisinina de hojas e inflorescencias del comunmente denominado ajenjo dulce ("sweetwormwood", Artemisia annua L.), ya sea de ejemplares de crecimiento expontáneo (silvestre) como de aquellos expresamente cultivados en regiones ubicadas en las Provincias de Buenos Aires y de Entre Ríos de la República Argentina. Fueron experimentalmente ensayadas y al mismo tiempo optimizadas, las diferentes condiciones de extracción, alg...

  17. The anti-angiogenic herbal composition Ob-X from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris regulates obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Michung; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-06-01

    The growth and development of adipose tissue leading to obesity is suggested to depend on angiogenesis. Our previous study showed that Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, M. alba, M. officinalis, and A. capillaris, can regulate obesity. To investigate the inhibitory effect of Ob-X on obesity in genetically obese ob/ob mice. The effect of Ob-X on angiogenesis was measured using a mouse Matrigel plug assay. The effects of Ob-X on obesity were investigated in ob/ob mice. Ob-X inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by decreased blood vessel density in a mouse matrigel plug assay. Administration of Ob-X to ob/ob mice for 5 weeks produced a significant reduction in body weight gain by 27% compared with control (12.1 ± 3.01 vs. 16.6 ± 2.24 g, respectively). Ob-X also significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue mass by 15% (0.87 ± 0.12 vs. 1.02 ± 0.15 g, respectively). The size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue was reduced by 46% in Ob-X-treated mice. Ob-X treatment inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and significantly decreased circulating glucose levels compared with controls (197 ± 56.5 vs. 365 ± 115 mg/dL, respectively). These results suggest that Ob-X, which has an anti-angiogenic activity, reduces body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue mass in genetically obese mice, providing evidence that obesity can be prevented by angiogenesis inhibitors.

  18. Essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in culture media and Iranian white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Raeisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated in culture media and Iranian white cheese.Materials and Methods: The tarragon essential oil (EO obtained by the steam distillation method and its antibacterial activity was evaluated in 96-well microtiter plates containing brain heart infusion broth. The enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli in cheese samples were carried out on the following media: Baired parker agar for S.aureus, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h; and MacConkey sorbitol agar for E. coli, incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Iranian white cheese was produced from fresh and whole pasteurized cow milk (2.5%. Bacteria (103 cfu/mL were inoculated to different batches. Cheese was treated with different concentrations of EO (15 and 1500 μg/mL and separated into four parts in an equal manner. The sensory evaluation was done by a panel of four judges.Results: According to the results obtained, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for E. coli and S. aureus were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. Also, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the mentioned microorganisms were 5000 and 2500 μg/mL, respectively. All the EO concentrations for each bacteria result in reducing bacterial count of cheese samples compared to control (P < 0.05. Also, with increasing concentration of EO in cheese samples, the bacterial count was reduced further (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Based on our findings, tarragon essential oil has antibacterial effect on two important pathogen bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli and can be applied as a preservative in foods such as cheese.

  19. 冷蒿的开花动态与花粉活力及柱头可授性研究%Observation on the Flowering Dynamic, Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity in Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅荣; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东

    2012-01-01

    Flowering dynamic was observed in test field, pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with TTC method, and stigma receptivity of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method. The results showed that flowers in inflorescence of Artemisia frigida Willd. Bloomed from up to down and outer florets bloomed before others, then middle florets bloomed later. The pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was lower at initial stage, higher on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering, and then reduced evidently, but a few pollen viability still existed until inflorescence withered. The life-span of pollen was about 20 days. The stigma receptivity of outer female flowers appeared on the first flowering day, and lasted longer, the highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering. The stigma receptivity of middle flowers appeared latter than the outer female flowers, but the stigma receptivity were highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering and lasted longer. The best stage of stigma receptivity and pollination was on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering.%在试验地观察了冷蒿的开花动态,用TTC法测定了冷蒿花序花粉的活力,采用联苯胺—过氧化氢法测定了其柱头的可授性.结果表明,冷蒿花序的开花顺序是自上而下的,小花的开放是自外轮至中央小花.冷蒿的花粉活力在盛花期开花之初很低,第2~3d花粉活力较高,随后活力明显下降,但直至其花序枯萎,少量的花粉仍具有部分活力.花粉寿命较长,约为20d.冷蒿边缘雌花柱头的可授性在开花当天就具有,并且持续时间较长,在第2~3d可授性最强.中央两性小花柱头可授性要稍晚于边缘小花,但是在开花后第2~3d可授性也达到最高,其可授性时间也较长.柱头可授性的最佳时期为开花后第2~3d.冷蒿的最佳授粉期在开花后2~3d左右.

  20. Nitric Oxide Potentiates Oligosaccharide-induced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Artemisia annua roots induced by an oligosaccharide elicitor (OE) from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the potentiation role of NO in the elicitation of artemisinin accumulation. The OE (0.3 mg total sugar/mL) induced a rapid production of NO in cultures, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 8 h of OE treatment. Artemisinin content in 20-day-old hairy roots was increased from 0.7 mg/g dry wt to 1.3 mg/g dry wt by using the OE treatment for 4d. In the absence of OE, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 10, 50 μM and 100 μM enhanced the growth of hairy roots, but had no effect on artemisinin synthesis. The combination of SNP with OE increased artemisinin content from 1.2 mg/g dry wt to 2.2 mg/g dry wt, whereas the maximum production of artemisinin in cultures was 28.5 mg/L, a twofold increase over the OE treatment alone. The effects of SNP on the OE-induced artemisinin were suppressed strongly by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). The results suggest that NO can strongly potentiate elicitor-induced artemisinin synthesis in A. annua hairy roots.

  1. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  2. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

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    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified allergens (allergoids have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastrointestinal tract conditions (saliva, and gastric fluid were simulated in accordance with the EU Pharmacopoeia. The biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives following exposure to different conditions were monitored by determining the number of residual amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, SDS PAGE, immunoblotting and inhibition of mugwort-specific IgE. Exposure to saliva fluid for 2 min did not influence the biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives. In the very acidic conditions of the simulated gastric fluid, the degree of demaleylation and desuccinylation, even after 4 h exposure, was low, ranging from 10 to 30 %. The digestion patterns with pepsin proceeded rapidly in both the unmodified and modified samples. In all four cases, a highly resistant IgE-binding protein theMwof which was about 28 – 35 kD, was present. Within the physiological conditions, no new IgE binding epitopes were revealed, as demonstrated by immunoblot and CAP inhibition of the mugwort specific IgE binding. An important conclusion of this study is the stability of the modified derivatives in the gastrointestinal tract of patients, within physiological conditions. The means that they are suitable for use inmuch higher concentrations in local forms of immunotherapy than unmodified ones.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

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    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  4. Clinical cross-reactivity between Artemisia vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Morín, F; Sánchez Machín, I; García Robaina, J C; Fernández-Caldas, E; Sánchez Triviño, M

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris is a common weed and an important source of allergens on the subtropical island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. It pollinates mainly from July to September, although, due to some local climatic conditions, it may flower throughout the year. Cross-reactivity with hazelnut, kiwi, birch, several Compositae (Ambrosia, Chrysanthemum, Matricaria, Solidago) and grass allergens has been suggested. Few studies have addressed the issue of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla. The objective of this study was to perform conjunctival and bronchial challenges with A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla and oral challenge with chamomile in 24 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis sensitized primarily to A. vulgaris. Skin prick tests with M. chamomilla were positive in 21 patients. Eighteen patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a A. vulgaris pollen extract and 13 patients had a positive conjunctival provocation test with a M. chamomilla pollen extract. Bronchial provocation tests with A. vulgaris were positive in 15 patients and with M. chamomilla pollen in another 16 individuals. Oral provocation tests, conducted with a commercial chamomile infusion were positive in 13 patients. Nine of these individuals were skin test positive to food allergens and 17 to others pollens of the Compositae family. This study confirms a high degree of in vivo cross-reactivity between A. vulgaris and M. chamomilla. Sensitization to A. vulgaris seems to be a primary risk factor for experiencing symptoms after the ingestion of chamomile infusions. Based on the results of bronchial provocation tests, M. chamomilla pollen could be a relevant inhalant allergen.

  5. Green Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Artemisia capillaris Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Hyeon; Ahn, Eun-Young; Park, Youmie

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a water extract of Artemisia capillaris (AC-AuNPs) under different extract concentrations, and their catalytic activity was evaluated in a 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction in the presence of sodium borohydride. The AC-AuNPs showed violet or wine colors with characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 534 543 nm that were dependent on the extract concentration. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 16.88 ± 5.47 29.93 ± 9.80 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy. A blue shift in the maximum surface plasmon resonance was observed with increasing extract concentration. The face-centered cubic structure of AC-AuNPs was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on phytochemical screening and Fourier transform infrared spectra, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and amino acids present in the extract contributed to the reduction of Au ions to AC-AuNPs. The average size of the AC-AuNPs decreased as the extract concentration during the synthesis was increased. Higher 4-nitrophenol reduction reaction rate constants were observed for smaller sizes. The extract in the AC-AuNPs was removed by centrifugation to investigate the effect of the extract in the reduction reaction. Interestingly, the removal of extracts greatly enhanced their catalytic activity by up to 50.4 %. The proposed experimental method, which uses simple centrifugation, can be applied to other metallic nanoparticles that are green synthesized with plant extracts to enhance their catalytic activity.

  6. Water relations and photosynthesis along an elevation gradient for Artemisia tridentata during an historic drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Loik, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions. Snowfall, total precipitation, and soil moisture increased with elevation, but air temperature and soil N content did not. Plant water potential (Ψ), stomatal conductance (g s), maximum photosynthetic rate (A max), carboxylation rate (V cmax), and electron transport rate (J max) all significantly increased with elevations. Addition of water increased Ψ, g s, J max, and A max only at the lowest elevation; g s contributed about 30 % of the constraints on photosynthesis at the lowest elevation and 23 % at the other two elevations. The physiology of this foundational shrub species was quite resilient to this 1-in-1200 year drought. However, plant water potential and photosynthesis corresponded to differences in soil moisture across the gradient. Soil re-wetting in early summer increased water potential and photosynthesis at the lowest elevation. Effects on water relations and photosynthesis of this widespread, cold desert shrub species may be disproportionate at lower elevations as drought length increases in a future climate.

  7. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases isolated from trichome enriched fraction of Artemisia annua L. leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amita; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Gupta, Madan M; Dwivedi, Upendra N; Shasany, Ajit K

    2012-12-01

    CYPs have major role in the biosynthesis and modification of secondary metabolites. Predicting the possible involvement of CYPs in secondary metabolism, 20 partial sequences were amplified from the cDNA of trichome enriched tissue of Artemisia annua. Seven CYPs were converted to full length and assigned to different families based on sequence homology. These were co-expressed with CPR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and microsome fractions were assayed for conversion of sesquiterpenes, phenols and fatty acid substrates. CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP05(c81) converted trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid; and capric acid, lauric acid to their hydroxylated products, respectively. Higher expression of CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP03(c72a), CIM_CYP06(c72b), CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) was observed in the mature leaf, whereas expression of CIM_CYP05(c81) was more in the seedling. CIM_CYP71AV1, CIM_CYP02(c73) and CIM_CYP04(c83) expressed more in the flower bud compared to the leaf, with minor expression in stem. All CYPs' expression increased progressively with time after wounding except for CIM_CYP07(c92). These results relate involvement of CIM_CYP02(c73) to phenyl-propanoid metabolism in the leaf and CIM_CYP05(c81) to fatty acid metabolism in the seedling. Expression of CIM_CYP71AV1 and CIM_CYP02(c73) significantly increased when sprayed with trans-cinnamic acid indicating a relationship between phenylpropanoid and artemisinic acid pathways.

  8. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  9. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon, may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  10. Effects of sand burial on survival and growth of Artemisia halodendron and its physiological response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaLin Zhao; Hao Qu; RuiLian Zhou; JianYing Yun; Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of literature on the effects of sand burial upon the survival and growth of desert plants, but the physiological adaption mechanisms of desert plants to sand burial have as yet rarely been studied. Artemisia halodendron is widely distributed in the semi-arid deserts of China and is a dominant species in semi-moving dune vegetation. The growth and physiological properties of A. halodendron seedlings under different sand burial depths were studied in 2010 and 2011 in the Horqin Sand Land, Inner Mongolia, to better understand the ability and physiological mechanism by which desert plants withstand sand burial. The results showed that A. halodendron as a prammophyte species had a stronger ability to withstand sand burial compared to non-prammophytes, with some plants still surviving even if buried to a depth reaching 225% of seedling height. Although seedling growth was inhibited significantly once the depth of sand burial reached 50%of the seedling height, seedling survival did not decrease significantly until the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. Sand burial did not result in significant water stress or MDA (Malondialdehyde) accumulation in the seedlings, but membrane permeability increased significantly when the burial depth exceeded 100%of the seedling height. After being subjected to sand burial stress, POD (Peroxidase) activity and proline content increased significantly, but SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and POD activities and soluble sugar content did not. The primary mechanism resulting in in-creased mortality and growth inhibition were that cell membranes were damaged and photosynthetic area decreased when subjected to the severe stress of sand burial, while proline and POD played key roles in osmotic adjustment and protecting cell membranes from damage, respectively.

  11. Studies on Acaricidal Bioactivities of Artemisia annua L. Extracts Against Tetranychus cinnabarinus Bois. (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; DING Wei; ZHAO Zhi-mo; WU Jing; FAN Yu-hu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction technique, the most suitable solvent, the optimal plant parts,and the acaricidal activities of Artemisia annua L. The petroleum ether (30-60℃), petroleum ether (60-90℃), ethanol,acetone, and water parallel and sequenced extracts were obtained from the leaves, stems and roots of different period of A. annua L. in April, May, June, July and September respectively. And then the acaricidal bioactivities against Tetranychus cinnabarinus of all extracts were determined by the slide-capillary method in the laboratory. The results indicated that the acaricidal bioactivities elevated as the development of A. annua plant at the concentration of 5 mg mL-1. The general tendency exhibited the sequence of July > June > May > April, but September decreased comparing to July. However, the most effective extracts in five months were all acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf, and the corrected mortalities treated after 48 h ranged from 74 to 100%. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) against T. cinnabarinus of acetone parallel extracts of A. annua leaves in September, July, June, May and April were 0.5986, 0.4341, 0.8376, 0.9443 and 1.3817 mg mL-1, respectively, treated after 48 h. The 13 groups were isolated from acetone extracts of A. annua leaves in July by column chromatography, both the 11th and 12th groups exhibited strong bioactivities. The median lethal concentrations of the 11th and 12th groups against T. cinnabarinus were 0.3683 and 0.1586 mg mL-1, respectively. The acetone parallel extract of A. annua leaf in July was the most toxic to T. cinnabarinus and the corrected mortality was 100% after 48 h. The acetone parallel extract of the 11th and 12th groupswere the most active components, acted as the emphases in further study.

  12. Randomized comparative clinical trial of artemisia sieberi 5% lotion and clotrimazole 1% lotion for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rad Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the therapeutic effects of topical Artremisia sieberi 5% lotion with topical clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor and microscopic identification of Malassezia furfur were randomly assigned to treatment with either topical Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion (group 1 or topical clotrimazole 1% lotion (group 2 for 2 weeks. Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 51 and 49 patients respectively. The patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically at baseline and every 2 weeks for a period of 4 weeks. Results: At the end of the second week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 65.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, but at the same time mycological cure rate was 92.2% for group 1 and 73.5% for group 2 ( P < 0.05. At the end of the fourth week, clinical cure rates were 86.3% and 59.2% for group 1 and group 2 respectively ( P < 0.01, and at the same time mycologic cure rate was 96.1% for group 1 and 65.3% for group 2 ( P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that Artemisia sieberi 5% lotion was more effective than clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor.

  13. Essential oil compositions, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of various populations of Artemisia chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi Pirbalouti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia chamaemelifolia Vill., Asteraceae, has been used as an antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antitumor. This study determined the variation in chemical composition, and antibacterial and antioxidant activity of A. chamaemelifolia collected at two phenological stages within five natural habitats in northern Iran.The highest oil yield was obtained from the Shahkoh population with 1.10 ml/100g dry matter harvested at the 50% flowering stage. The highest values of 1,8-cineole (31.82% was obtained from the Pelor population at the 50% flowering stage.The highest percentages of artemisia ketone (12.27%, camphor (17.21%, and borneol (13.50% were obtained from the Kandovan population, harvested before flowering. The highest content of chrysanthenone (18.14% was obtained from the Gadok population before flowering. The essential oil of the Kandovan population harvested at the 50% flowering stage had the highest percentages of Davanone D (28.44% and Davanone (28.88%. The A. chamaemelifolia oils inhibited the growth of four bacterial pathogens, while these same oils exhibit weak antioxidant (DPPH activity. The results indicated A. chamaemelifolia contained three chemotypes: 1,8-cineole, davanone and/or Davanone D, and chrysanthenone. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils obtained from various populations of A. chamaemelifolia at two phenological stages may be significant from a pharmaceutical stand point.

  14. Research Progress on the Essential Oil of Artemisia Annua L.%青蒿挥发油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 胡浩斌; 郑旭东; 王春林

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of extraction method, harvesting time, storage time, producing area, collection position and planting season, the influence factors of essential oil yield of Artenisia annua L. were analyzed, and essential oil components were collected from different places.The results showed that there was great difference in the chemical composition of essential oils, and the major chemical composition of essential oil are sesquiterpene and monoterpene, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, caryophyllene oside, caryophyllene, seltnene, camphene, pinene and germacrene D.%从提取方法、采收期、贮存期、产地、采集部位和种植季节6个方面分析青蒿挥发油收率的影响因素.并收集整理了不同产些的挥发油组分,总结出青蒿挥发油化学成分差异较大,以倍半萜和单萜为主,主要成分是樟脑(Camphor)、1,8-按叶素(1,8-cineole)、蒿酮(Artemisia ketone)、石竹烯氧化物(Caryophyllene oside)、石竹烯(Caryophyllene)、芹予烯(Seltnene)、莰烯(Camphene)、蒎烯(Pinene)和大根香叶烯D(Germacrene D)等化合物.

  15. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  16. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers, we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negativ...

  17. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for treating fevers and malaria. The primary anti-malarial component is the sesquiterpene lactone peroxide artemisinin, which is accumulated in glandular trichomes. This study investigated the effect of treating plants with chitosan...

  18. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  19. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arokiyaraj S; Sripriya N; Bhagya R; Radhika B; Prameela L; Udayaprakash NK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methanolic extracts of leaves of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus for phytochemical analysis, antibacterial activity and free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Antibacterial activity was performed by disc diffusion method against two gram positive and four gram negative strains. Free radical scavenging potential was evaluated using total antioxidant activity (thiocyanate method) and diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Results of the present study showed that Clerodendrum siphonanthus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae (30 mm), Proteus mirabilis (16 mm), Salmonella typhi (16 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Escherichia coli (11.5 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm). Mimosa pudica and Artemisia nilagirica showed good antibacterial effects. Clerodendrum siphonanthus was found to be extremely effective in scavenging lipid peroxide (IC50 8 mg/mL) and DPPH radicals (IC50 7 mg/mL), whereas Artemisia nilagirica andMimosa pudica showed moderate activity. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed presence of tannins, alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids and glycosides. Conclusions: This study showed that Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus may serve as a potential agent for new therapeutics.

  20. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  1. Consequences of pre-inoculation with native arbuscular mycorrhizae on root colonization and survival of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) seedlings after transplanting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Eugene Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a common practice aimed at improving seedling establishment. The success of this practice largely depends on the ability of the inoculum to multiply and colonize the growing root system after transplanting. These events were investigated in Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush...

  2. 蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis L.)修复洞庭湖土壤Cd污染的强化措施研究%STRENGTHEN MEASURES USED FOR ARTEMISIA SELENGENSIS L.TO REPAIR Cd CONTAMINATED SOIL OF DONGTING LAKE WETLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董萌; 赵运林; 库文珍; 周小梅; 李燕子; 陈小玲

    2013-01-01

    洞庭湖土壤镉污染严重,蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis L.)是在洞庭湖湿地新发现的一种对镉具有较强富集能力的优势植物,已证实该种植物对土壤中的镉具有较好的修复效果和潜能,将来可作为洞庭湖土壤镉污染的理想修复材料.以南洞庭湖Cd污染土壤为栽培基质,分别在蒌蒿幼苗期、成株期添加EDTA等7种螯合剂和调控物质,研究了不同添加物对蒌蒿生长状况及Cd富集效果的影响.结果表明,HEDTA、EDTA、DTPA等3种螯合剂不同程度地降低了蒌蒿地上部分的生物量,但增加了土壤中有效态Cd的含量,使蒌蒿茎叶中Cd的富集浓度分别上升了35.5%、98.4%、42.1%,可显著提高萎蒿的修复效果;生石灰的添加则使土壤有效态Cd明显减少,抑制了蒌蒿对Cd的富集;有机腐殖质和复合肥的施加虽促进了蒌蒿生长,但未对其富集效果产生显著影响;幼苗期施加调控物质,在植株生物量、Cd富集浓度及土壤有效态Cd含量等方面造成的影响均大于成株期.%Based on the serious situation of Cd pollution in the wetland of the Dongting Lake,a series of studies were conducted to evaluate the Cd enrichment characteristics and repairing effects of kinds of plants growing in the Dongting Lake area.The results show that Artemisia selengensis is an outstanding species to repair Cd pollution for its remarkable capacity to accumulate Cd from lake soil.Artemisia verlotorum shows a good capacity to absorb Cd and could be selected as a potential candidate to treat Cd pollution.Because of their higher Cd accumulation in the root parts and their higher biomass of stem and leave which could be harvested every year,Phragmites australis and Miscanthus lutarioriparius could also play a role in controlling Cd pollution in the wetland of the Dongting Lake.In this study,a pot experiment was conducted to study the biological traits and the Cd accumulation characteristics of Artemisia selengensis to

  3. Flowering phenology and potential pollen emission of three Artemisia species in relation to airborne pollen data in Poznań (Western Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogawski, Paweł; Grewling, Łukasz; Frątczak, Agata

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen in Europe. In Poznań (Western Poland), three Artemisia species, A. vulgaris, A. campestris and A. absinthium, are widely distributed. However, the contributions of these species to the total airborne pollen are unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the flowering phenology and pollen production of the three abovementioned species and to construct a model of potential Artemisia pollen emission in the study area. Phenological observations were conducted in 2012 at six sites in Poznań using a BBCH phenological scale. Pollen production was estimated by counting the pollen grains per flower and recalculating the totals per inflorescence, plant and population in the study area. Airborne pollen concentrations were obtained using a Hirst-type volumetric trap located in the study area. Artemisia vulgaris began to flower the earliest, followed by A. absinthium and then A. campestris. The flowering of A. vulgaris corresponded to the first peak in the airborne pollen level, and the flowering of A. campestris coincided with the second pollen peak. The highest amounts of pollen per single plant were produced by A. vulgaris and A. absinthium. A. campestris produced considerably less pollen, however, due to its common occurrence, it contributed markedly (30 %) to the summation of total of recorded pollen. A. vulgaris is the most important pollen source in Poznań, but the roles of two other Artemisia species cannot be ignored. In particular, A. campestris should be considered as an important pollen contributor and likely might be one of the main causes of allergic reactions during late summer.

  4. The Studies of Artemisia ordosica Silage%油蒿的可青贮性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 孙启忠; 包娜

    2011-01-01

    Arternisia ordosica was used as silage with and without additives. Results showed that showed that the properties of silage were marked as 17 and 18 by sensory evaluations without additives and with additives, respectively. The pH value of silage without additives and silage adding additives were 5.15 and 4.59 respectively. Additives can increase pH value, lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) contents. Silage without additives has less propionic acid (PA) and butyric acid (BA) than those with additives. The results of Flieg's evaluation showed that the silage with no additive was qualified silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality indicate that Arternisia ordosica can make silage without additive.%以油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)为原料,通过加入添加剂采禾青贮和直接青贮,探讨油蒿的可青贮性.结果表明:直接青贮和添加剂青贮后感官性状的评分分别为17和18分,达到了优良等级.添加剂青贮pH为4.59,直接青贮pH为5.15,直接青贮乳酸和乙酸占总酸的百分比高于添加剂青贮,而丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮,氨态氮占总氮的百分比也表现为添加剂青贮高于直接青贮.通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮为41分合格,而添加剂青贮为39分不合格.综合感官性状、发酵品质,油蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮更好.

  5. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  6. Relative expression of genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues of Artemisia annua L

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    Lundgren Anneli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Artemisia annua L. (annual or sweet wormwood has received increasing attention due to the fact that the plant produces the sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide artemisinin, which today is widely used for treatment of malaria. The plant produces relatively small amounts of artemisinin and a worldwide shortage of the drug has led to intense research in order to increase the yield of artemisinin. In order to improve our understanding of terpene metabolism in the plant and to evaluate the competition for precursors, which may influence the yield of artemisinin, we have used qPCR to estimate the expression of 14 genes of terpene metabolism in different tissues. Results The four genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway (amorpha-4,11-diene synthase, amorphadiene-12-hydroxylase, artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13 reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 showed remarkably higher expression (between ~40- to ~500-fold in flower buds and young leaves compared to other tissues (old leaves, stems, roots, hairy root cultures. Further, dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase showed a very high expression only in hairy root cultures. Germacrene A and caryophyllene synthase were mostly expressed in young leaves and flower buds while epi-cedrol synthase was highly expressed in old leaves. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase exhibited lower expression in old leaves compared to other tissues. Farnesyldiphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase showed only modest variation in expression in the different tissues, while expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase was 7-8-fold higher in flower buds and young leaves compared to old leaves. Conclusions Four genes of artemisinin biosynthesis were highly expressed in flower buds and young leaves (tissues showing a high density of glandular trichomes. The expression of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase has been suggested to have a

  7. The site effect on germinability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L. achenes

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    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L. extremely spreads on uncultivated agricultural land and expands to arable land. Three sites were chosen in the local area of Uherské Hradiště: field (arable land, balk (adjacent to arable land and rubble heap (distant from arable land. At each site, 50 plants were selected from which mature achenes were collected in 2002 and 2003. The achenes germinated in a laboratory at a room temperature and were subjected to various germination conditions. A part of them was exposed to the temperature of – 20 °C in a freezer, the other part was stored at a room temperature. The germination was carried out either on filter paper in Petri dishes or in 30 mm layer of siliceous sand. One part of the achenes germinated in daylight, the other part in Petri dishes in the dark. The achenes cultivated in siliceous sand were covered with a 5 mm layer of the sand. The results were statistically assessed using Unistat software, analysis of variance and methods of least significant differences (LSD. Total average germinability of mugwort achenes was 67,7 %. The differences in germinability of frozen (66,7 % and non-frozen (72,6 % achenes were not statistically significant. Germinability of the achenes that matured in 2003 (69,9 % was highly significantly higher than that of the achenes matured in 2002 (65,4 %. The achenes germinated highly significantly more (77,9 % in daylight as compared with those germinated in the dark (57,4 %. Germinability of the achenes that germinated in siliceous sand was highly significantly higher (70,7 % than of those that germinated in Petri dishes (64,7 %. Germinability of the achenes matured in the field (64,1 % was significantly lower in comparison with the germinability of the achenes from a balk (69,7 % and rubble heap (69,2 %. The results of germinability of the achenes that matured in a rubble heap and balk did not significantly differ.

  8. Modeling regeneration responses of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) to abiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nuttall (Asteraceae), which are the most widespread ecosystems in semiarid western North America, have been affected by land use practices and invasive species. Loss of big sagebrush and the decline of associated species, such as greater sage-grouse, are a concern to land managers and conservationists. However, big sagebrush regeneration remains difficult to achieve by restoration and reclamation efforts and there is no regeneration simulation model available. We present here the first process-based, daily time-step, simulation model to predict yearly big sagebrush regeneration including relevant germination and seedling responses to abiotic factors. We estimated values, uncertainty, and importance of 27 model parameters using a total of 1435 site-years of observation. Our model explained 74% of variability of number of years with successful regeneration at 46 sites. It also achieved 60% overall accuracy predicting yearly regeneration success/failure. Our results identify specific future research needed to improve our understanding of big sagebrush regeneration, including data at the subspecies level and improved parameter estimates for start of seed dispersal, modified wet thermal-time model of germination, and soil water potential influences. We found that relationships between big sagebrush regeneration and climate conditions were site specific, varying across the distribution of big sagebrush. This indicates that statistical models based on climate are unsuitable for understanding range-wide regeneration patterns or for assessing the potential consequences of changing climate on sagebrush regeneration and underscores the value of this process-based model. We used our model to predict potential regeneration across the range of sagebrush ecosystems in the western United States, which confirmed that seedling survival is a limiting factor, whereas germination is not. Our results also suggested that modeled

  9. Optimization of genetic transformation of Artemisia annua L. Using Agrobacterium for Artemisinin production

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    Elfahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a choice and effective drug for malaria treatment. Due to the low yield of artemisinin in plants, there is a need to enhance the production of artemisinin from A. annua and biotechnological technique may be one of the methods that can be used for the purpose. Aim: To study the transformation efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in A. annua that could be applied to enhance the production of artemisinin by means of transgenic plants. Setting and Designs: The factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. annua were explored to optimize the transformation system, which included A. tumefaciens strain and effect of organosilicone surfactants. Three strains of A. tumefaciens, that is, LBA4404, GV1301, and AGL1 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1303 have been used for transformation. The evaluation was based on transient β-glucuronidase (GUS. Materials and Methods: Plant cell cultures were inniatiated from the seeds of A. annua using the germination Murashige and Skoog medium. A. tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA were tranformed into the leaves of A.annua cultures from 2-week-old-seedling and 2-month-old-seedling for 15 min by vacuum infiltration. Transformation efficiency was determinated by measuring of blue area (GUS expression on the whole leaves explant using ImageJ 1.43 software. Two organosilicon surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were used to improve the transformation efficiency. Results: The transformation frequency with AGL1 strain was higher than GV3101 and LBA4404 which were 70.91, 49.25, and 45.45%, respectively. Effect of organosilicone surfactants, that is, Silwet L-77 and Silwet S-408 were tested on A. tumefaciens AGL1 and GV3101 for their level of transient expression, and on A. rhizogenes R1000 for its hairy root induction frequency. For AGL1, Silwet S-408 produced higher level of

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

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    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  11. 冷蒿的青贮特性研究%The Studies on Character of ArtemisiaFrigida Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞香; 米艳杰; 陈士超; 孙启忠; 王田歌

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia frigida was used as material to make silage without adding additive and make silage adding additive. The results showed that sensory evaluation of the silages were nice and good , the mark were 16 and 13 respectively in silage without adding additive and in silage adding additive .The pH value of silage without adding additive and silage adding additive were 5.20 and 5.22 respectively. The addition of the additive can’t increase content of LA and AA . Content of BA and PA in silage without adding additive less than in the silage adding additive. The results of Flieg’s evaluation showed that the silage without adding additive was an excellent silage, the silage adding additive was a bad silage. Comprehensive sensory evaluation and fermentation quality, we found that Artemisia scoparia can make silage, makingArtemisia frigida silage without adding additive was the best way.%以冷蒿(Artemisiafrigida)为原料,通过直接青贮和使用添加剂青贮,研究其青贮特性。研究结果表明:直接青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.20,感官品质达到优良等级,感官评分为16分;使用添加剂青贮冷蒿的pH值为5.22,感官质量尚好,感官评分为13分。直接青贮的乳酸和乙酸含量高于添加剂青贮,丙酸和丁酸占总酸的百分比、氨态氮占总氮的百分比低于添加添加剂青贮。通过费氏评分法的评价结果来看,直接青贮冷蒿为65分,质量良好,而使用添加剂青贮冷蒿为37分,青贮质量达到合格。综合感官性状和发酵品质的评定,结论为冷蒿可以采用青贮方式进行保存,且直接青贮的方法更好。

  12. Correlation among agronomic, physiological and phytochemical traits in Artemisia annua L. varieties Correlação entre caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos em variedades de Artemisia annua L

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    C.O. Bolina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the correlations among agronomic, physiological and phytochemical traits of two varieties of Artemisia annua and to identify correlations that can be used in selection and breeding processes for this species. The design was completely randomized and the treatments were for Artemisia annua varieties 2/39x5x3M and 2/39x1V, which were subjected to agronomic, physiological and phytochemical evaluations. The relationship among the studied traits was estimated with Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the significance level of correlations was established by the t-test using Genes software. A significant positive correlation was found between the traits canopy volume and essential oil yield for 2/39x5x3M variety, showing that the selection of plants with a larger canopy volume would facilitate indirect selection of the trait essential oil yield. This correlation was not found for the 2/39x1V variety. In both varieties, there was a significant negative correlation between canopy volume and artemisinin content, which suggested that the selection of plants with a large canopy volume and a large number of branches should be avoided if the goal is to increase artemisinin content.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as correlações existentes entre caracteres agronômicos, fisiológicos e fitoquímicos em duas variedades de Artemisia annua e identificar correlações que possam ser utilizadas em processos de seleção e melhoramento da espécie. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e os tratamentos foram às variedades 2/39x5x3M e 2/39x1V de Artemisia annua, submetidas a avaliações agronômicas, fisiológicas e fitoquímicas. A relação existente entre os caracteres estudados foi estimada através do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e o nível de significância das correlações pelo teste t, realizadas no programa Genes. Encontrou-se correlação positiva e significativa entre os caracteres volume

  13. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  14. Cloning and enzymology analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene from a superior strain of Artemisia annua L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cDNA(af1) encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase AaFPS1 (FPS, EC2.5.1.1/EC2.5.1.10) from a high yield Artemisia annua strain 025 has been cloned from its cDNA library. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 343 amino acid (aa) residues with molecular weight of 39 kD. Deduced aa sequence of the cDNA was similar to FPS from other plants, yeast and mammals, containing 5 conserved domains found in both prenyl transferase and polyprenyl synthase. The expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli showed measurable specific activity of FPS in vitro. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography and its kinetics was measured. These results would further promote the molecular regulation of artemisinin biosynthesis.

  15. Effects of Overexpression of the Endogenous Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase on the Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Artemisinin Is a novel effective antimalarial drug extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Owing to the tight market and low yield of artemislnin, there is great interest in enhancing the production of artemisinin.In the present study, farnesyl dlphosphate synthase (FPS) was overexpressed in high-yield A. annua to increase the artemislnin content. The FPS activity in transgenic A. annua was two- to threefold greater than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The highest artemisinin content in transgenic A. annua was approximately 0.9% (dry weight), which was 34.4% higher than that in non-transgenic A. annua. The results demonstrate the regulatory role of FPS in artemisinin biosynthesis.

  16. Preparative isolation of guaipyridine sesquiterpene alkaloid from Artemisia rupestris L. flowers using high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen; Wu, Hankui; Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Slukhan, Usmanova; Aripova, Salimakhon

    2008-07-01

    Although the medicinal plant Artemisia rupestris L. has been widely researched for several decades, its alkaloids have never been isolated before. To our surprise, the alkaloids in the plant were not detected in the stems but detected in the flowers. Herein, a novel and strange guaipyridine sesquiterpene alkaloid with a carboxyl group named rupestine was purified successfully from the total alkaloids extracted from the flowers by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The two-phase solvent system used was composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:1:7, v/v/v). Fifty six milligrams of rupestine was obtained at over 97% purity and 95% recovery from 200 mg of the total alkaloids in one-step separation. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including high resolution ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC), Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC), and Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY).

  17. The Presence of Amorpha-4, 11-Diene Synthase, a Key Enzyme in Artemisinin Production in Ten Artemisia Species

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    GA. Garoosi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods : The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. Results: The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion: The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.

  18. Comparison of the anticoccidial effect of granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi with monensin in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Kaboutari Katadj, Jahangir; Bahadoran, Shahab; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Cheraghchi Bashi, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease of the poultry production industry. Due to increasing resistance to conventional anticoccidial agents, it is necessary to find new anticoccidial compounds. Herbal compounds such as those from Artemisia species are promising weapons in this regard since preliminary studies have shown its anticoccidial effects. To compare the anticoccidial effect of a granulated extract of Artemisia sieberi (GEAS) versus monensin in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 120 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided in four groups, each with three replicates (n=10). Group 1 was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment. At 21days of age, groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with a mixed suspension of 2×10(5) oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria necatrix. Group 2 was maintained as an infected positive control and received no treatment while groups 3 and 4 received GEAS (5mg/kg feed), and monensin (110mg/kg feed) from the first day until 42days of age as a feed additive, respectively. Five days after inoculation, the number of oocycts per gram (OPG) of feces for 7 successive days was measured. Also, mean body weight (MBW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined weekly in all groups and replicates. The results showed that GEAS and monensin improved performance attributes (FI, MBW, WG, FCR) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased OPG in inoculated broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao

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    Geoffrey D. Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu, which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes, and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another. As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products

  20. Study on effect of Artemisia sieberi hydro-alcoholic extract on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in probiotic yoghurt

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    Saeed Akbari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study, the possibility of probiotic yoghurt production using Artemisia sieberi hydro- alcoholic extract and also the effects of different concentrations of this medicinal herb on the survival of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis, in probiotic yoghurt were investigated. Materials and Methods: In different treatments, the amounts of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 gr/lit of Artemisia sieberi extract together with conventional yoghurt starter, Bif. lactis and lact. acidophilus were added to 1 liter of boiled milk. The samples were incubated at 37˚centigrade, and then, the acidity and pH changes every two hours during the incubation period were examined up to approximately 80˚ of the survival of probiotic bacteria was tested during the storage of the samples in the refrigerator. On the tenth day, after yoghurt production, all the samples were examined for sensory evaluation using a panel test and the obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS software (V:19. Results: There was no significant difference in the acidity and pH changes during the production process of probiotic yoghurt in different treatments. The probiotic yoghurt containing 0.4 gr/lit  of Artemisia hydro-alcoholic extract had the best quality in terms of organoleptic properties and shelf life of the product. During 21 days storage in the refrigerator none of the treatments showed the number of probiotic bacteria less than 106 bacteria in gram. Conclusion: It was found that appropriate concentrations of Artemisia sieberi extract can be used for the production of probiotic yoghurt, as a new functional food containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifodobacterium lactis.

  1. Effect of NaCI Stress on Ultrastructure of Halophytes Artemisia anethifolia%NaCl胁迫对盐生植物碱蒿超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范华; 董宽虎; 侯燕平; 方志红

    2011-01-01

    为研究盐胁迫对盐生植物碱蒿(Artemisia anethi folia)超微结构的影响,用透射电子显微镜对NaCl胁迫下碱蒿的叶片和茎进行了观察与研究.结果表明:未胁迫的碱蒿叶片及茎细胞中各细胞器结构完整.200 mmol·L-1 的NaCl胁迫,引起碱蒿超微结构的变化,叶片中部分叶绿体结构正常,部分被破坏的叶绿体肿胀变形,类囊体模糊不清;线粒体数增多,嵴减少甚至模糊;液泡中出现内含物,叶肉细胞中出现传递细胞.碱蒿茎中叶绿体与叶片类似,另外,茎中含有较多大的淀粉粒;线粒体数增多;细胞质中有晶体存在;其液泡中有内含物.这些结果表明虽然盐胁迫对植物超微结构有严重的破坏作用,但盐生植物碱蒿存在适应盐胁迫的结构特征.%The ultrastructures of halophytes Artemisia anethifolia leaf and stem were studied using transmission electron microscope. Results showed that various organelles of mesophyll and stem maintained morphological integrity under normal condition, while their ultrastructure changed under 200mmol/L NaCl stress. In mesophyll cells, one part of chloroplasts remained normal. The destroyed part of chloroplast swelled and thylakoids were blurred. The numbers of mitochondria increased but with crista reducing. There were few vacuolar inclusions and transfer cells in leaf tissue. The chloroplast was similar to the mesophyll cells in stem cells but with more and bigger starch grains. The numbers of mitochondrion were also increased. There were crystals in cytoplasm and contents in vacuole. These results indicated that salt stress cause severe damages to the ultrastructure of Arternisia anethifolia, but halophytes had some structural characteristics that adapt to salt stress.

  2. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyeom Seo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps residues (APR as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC. The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG, APR, and its fermented form (FAPR. The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01; pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07, especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05; however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW. Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06. Conversely, the fermentation

  3. In vivo gastric residence and gastroprotective effect of floating gastroretentive tablet of DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica, in beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeong Soo Kim,1 Kwang Ho Cha,1 Seung Yeob Kang,1 Donghan Won,1 Sun Woo Jang,1 Miwon Son,1 Moon Ho Son,1 Ho Jung Choi,2 Young Won Lee,2 Myung Joo Kang3 1Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 3College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam, South Korea Objective: DA-9601, an extract of Artemisia asiatica containing eupatilin and jaceosidin as active compounds, has been prescribed to treat gastritis in Asia. In recent times, sustained-release, floating gastroretentive (GR tablets of DA-9601 are available on the market. In the present study, the physical properties and in vitro drug release profile, in vivo gastric residence time, and gastroprotective effect of GR tablet were compared to those of immediate release (IR tablets of DA-9601.Method: In vitro buoyancy behavior (floating lag time and duration and release profile of eupatilin were assessed in acidic medium. The in vivo intragastric behaviors of the barium sulfate-loaded IR and GR tablets were evaluated in beagle dogs by radiographic studies. Local gastroprotective effect was compared in an experimentally induced gastric lesion in beagle dogs after oral administration of IR (three times per day or GR (twice daily tablets for 15 days.Results: Upon contact with gastric juice, a low-density floating tablet (apparent density of 0.93 g/cm3 was buoyant on the medium and was upheld for 14 hours, providing sustained drug release profile, whereas the IR tablet disintegrated within 10 minutes, showing complete drug release within 2 hours. In vivo radiographic studies showed that the GR tablet was retained for >4 hours in the stomach. Both DA-9601 formulations remarkably alleviated gastric mucosal injury compared to placebo group, when observed by gastric endoscopy.Conclusion: Twice-daily GR tablets exhibited a prolonged gastric residence

  4. Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract and their efficacy of larvicidal activity against dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, B; Ranjitha Kumari, B D

    2017-03-18

    The Aedes aegypti L. mosquito transmits dengue and yellow fever, which cause millions of death every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread worldwide particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates areas. The present study denotes a simple and eco-friendly biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Artemisia vulgaris L. leaf extract as reducing agent. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Solid state (13)C NMR was utilized to confirm the presence of larvicidal compound Beta caryophyllene in the synthesized AuNPs. Larvicidal activity of the synthesized AuNPs was measured against A. aegypti over 12 and 24h exposure periods and compared with essential oil in various concentrations (25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 400ppm). After a 12h exposure period, the larvicidal activity of 3(rd) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=156.55ppm and LC90=2506.21ppm, while and essential oil displayed LC50=128.99ppm and LC90=1477.08ppm. Larvicidal activity of 4(th) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=97.90ppm and LC90=1677.36ppm, while essential oil displayed LC50=136.15ppm and LC90=2223.55ppm. After a 24h of exposure period, larvicidal activity of 3(rd) instar larva by AuNPs showed LC50=62.47ppm and LC90=430.16ppm and essential oil showed LC50=111.15ppm and LC90=1441.51ppm. The larvicidal activity of 4(th) instar larva and AuNPs displayed LC50=43.01ppm and LC90=376.70ppm and for essential oil LC50=74.42ppm, LC90=858.36ppm. Histopathology of A. aegypti with AuNPs for 3(rd)and 4(th) stage larvae after 24h exposure at the highest mortality concentration (400ppm) showed that the area of the midgut, epithelial cells and cortex were highly affected. The present findings demonstrate that the

  5. The essential oil isolated from Artemisia capillaris prevents LPS-induced production of NO and PGE(2) by inhibiting MAPK-mediated pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Moon, Sang-Eun; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is used in traditional Korean herbal medicine for its believedanti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies have suggested that the essential oil of A. capillaris contains the active components responsible for its pharmacological effect, even though the mechanism for its action is unclear. This study examined the inhibitory effects of the essential oil of A. capillaris on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The essential oil significantly inhibited the production of NO in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, which was mediated by the down-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression but not by its direct cytotoxic activity. The essential oil also blocked the secretion of PGE(2) and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-stimulated cells. Western blot analysis showed that the essential oil inhibited the phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha, nuclear translocation of p65, and subsequent activation of NF-kappaB. In addition, the essential oil suppressed the LPS-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as the AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Moreover, MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced the LPS-induced production of NO and PGE(2). Collectively, we suggest that the oil inhibits the expression and production of inflammatory mediators by blocking the MAPK-mediated pathways and inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  6. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  7. Galanthamine, an anticholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentate Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neutrotransmitter signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleotile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  8. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and skin inflammation by the aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Song; Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2011-09-01

    The aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae) have been used in Chinese medicine as a liver protective agent, diuretic, and for amelioration of skin inflammatory conditions. This study was conducted to establish the scientific rationale for treating skin inflammation and to find active principles from A. capillaris. To accomplish these goals, the 70% ethanol extract of the aerial parts of A. capillaris (AR) was prepared and its 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory action was studied since 5-LOX products are known to be involved in several allergic and skin inflammatory disorders. AR showed potent inhibitory activity against 5-LOX-catalyzed leukotriene production by ionophore-induced rat basophilic leukemia-1 cells, with an IC(50) of scopolin, scoparone, esculetin, quercetin, capillarisin, isorhamnetin, 3-O-robinobioside, isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid, were isolated from A. capillaris, and their effects were examined to identify the active principle(s). Several coumarin and flavonoid derivatives were found to be 5-LOX inhibitors. In particular, esculetin and quercetin were potent inhibitors, with IC(50) values of 6.6 and 0.7 μM, respectively. Against arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice, AR, and esculetin strongly inhibited edematic response. AR and esculetin also inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity response in mice. In conclusion, AR and some of their major constituents are 5-LOX inhibitors, and these in vitro and in vivo activities may contribute to the therapeutic potential of AR in skin inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine.

  9. Three-Dimensional Evaluation on Ecotypic Diversity of Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Case Study of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Josef, Brinckmann A; Liu, Bing; Zheng, Sihao; Huang, Linfang; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Artemisinin is the first-line drug for anti-malaria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). As the sole natural plant source of artemisinin, ecotypes of Artemisia annua L. vary widely in artemisinin content between nations, and China is the main producing area of A. annua. Here we present a three-dimensional evaluation on ecotypic diversity of A. annua from 12 main producing areas in China using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) method, DNA barcoding and ecological analyses. The results indicated that A. annua exhibited high ecotypic diversity. A. annua grown in the South of the Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River Line had a high artemisinin content, whereas the northern ones were low. Similar pattern was noted in the genetic diversity. The southern A. annua had high intraspecific variation in contrast to the northern A. annua. In terms of ecological analyses, humidity and sunshine time could be the major limiting ecological factors that affect the accumulation of artemisinin. This is the first reported three-dimensional evaluation integrating chemical, molecular and ecological analyses of the ecotypic diversity of A. annua. The work will facilitate exploring the genetic basis of chemical variations and developing strategies for the breeding and cultivation of high quality A. annua.

  10. Efficient In Vitro Propagation by Ex Vitro Rooting Methods of Artemisia absinthium L., an Ethnobotanically Important Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal S. Shekhawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium is an important medicinal plant. Owing to the increasing anthropogenic activities and demand from the pharmaceutical industry, this plant species is overexploited; thereby this endangered its genetic stock in the wild. Therefore, it is urgently needed to develop nonconventional methods for conservation of A. absinthium. Nodal segments obtained from the field grown 2-month-old plants were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.25 mg/L kinetin (Kn were reported to be optimum for induction of shoots (6.0 ± 0.52 shoots per explant. The shoots were multiplied by repeated transfer of original explants and by subculturing of in vitro raised shoots on MS medium augmented with 1.0 mg/L each of BAP and Kn and 0.1 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. All in vitro regenerated shoots (100% were rooted (4.4 ± 0.35 roots on one-fourth strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. Cent percentage shoots rooted ex vitro on sterile Soilrite under the greenhouse conditions when the shoots were treated with 200 mg/L of IBA for 5 min. Plantlets rooted in vitro and ex vitro were acclimatized successfully in the greenhouse and exhibited 87% and 95% survival rate.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding RING zinc finger ankyrin protein from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiuhong Yang; Chao Sun; Yuanlei Hun; Zhongping Lin

    2008-03-01

    A RING zinc finger ankyrin protein gene, designated AdZFP1, was isolated from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum Spreng by mRNA differential display and RACE. Its cDNA was 1723 bp and encoded a putative protein of 445 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 7.49. A typical C3HC4-type RING finger domain was found at the C-terminal region of the AdZFP1 protein, and several groups of ankyrin repeats were found at the N-terminal region. Alignments of amino acid sequence showed that AdZFP1 was 66% identical to the Arabidopsis thaliana putative RING zinc finger ankyrin protein AAN31869. Transcriptional analysis showed that AdZFP1 was inducible under drought stress in root, stem and leaf of the plant. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the transcript of AdZFP1 was strongly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and also by salinity, cold and heat to some extent. Overexpression of the AdZFP1 gene in transgenic tobacco enhanced their tolerance to drought stress.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  13. Insect feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of scopoletin isolated from Artemisia annua against Spilarctia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar Tripathi; Rajendra Singh Bhakuni; Shikha Upadhyay; Rashmi Gaur

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) is well known for its antimalarial activities due to presence of the compound artemisinin. We isolated a methoxy coumarin from the stem part of A. annua and confirmed its identity as scopoletin through mass spectral data.The structure was established from 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR.The compound scopoletin was evaluated for its feeding deterrence and growth inhibitory potential against a noxious lepidopteran insect, Spilartctia obliqua Walker. Scopoletin gave FD50 (feeding deterrence of 50%) value of 96.7 μg/g diet when mixed into artificial diet. S. obliqua larvae (12-day-old) exposed to the highest concentration (250 μg/g diet)of scopoletin showed 77.1% feeding-deterrence. In a growth inhibitory assay, scopoletin provided 116.9% growth inhibition at the highest dose of 250 μg/g diet with a GI50 (growth inhibition of 50%) value of 20.9μg/g diet. Statistical analysis showed a concentrationdependent dose response relationship toward both feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities. Artemisinin is found mainly in the leaves of A. annua and not in the stems,which are typically discarded as waste. Therefore identification of scopoletin in stems of A. annua may be important as a source of this material for pest control.

  14. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  15. Habitat Effect on Allometry of a Xeric Shrub (Artemisia ordosica Krasch in the Mu Us Desert of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei She

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models are useful for assessment of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and aboveground biomass (AGB of forests and shrubs, and are widely implemented in forest inventory and management. Multiple forms of allometric models have been used to estimate vegetation carbon storage for desert shrubland, but their validity for biomass estimation has not been tested at a region scale with different habitats. To verify the validity of habitat-specific models, general models (combining data from all habitats/sites, and previously developed models for biomass prediction, we developed both general models and habitat-specific models for aboveground biomass and ANPP of Artemisia ordosica Krasch, a dominant shrub of the Mu Us Desert. Our results showed that models based on crown area or canopy volume consistently explained large parts of the variations in aboveground biomass and ANPP. Model fitting highlighted that general allometric models were inadequate across different habitats, and habitat-specific models were useful for that specific habitat. Previous models might be inappropriate for other sites because of site quality differences. There was a strong habitat effect on the allometric relationships of A. ordosica. Although our study is a case in point, the results indicate that allometric models for desert shrubs should be used with caution and require robust validation if adopted from other studies or applied to different sites/habitats.

  16. Effect of cadmium on photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation,antioxidants, and artemisinin in hydroponically grown Artemisia annua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Li; Manxi Zhao; Lanping Guo; Luqi Huang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different cadmium(Cd)concentrations(0,20,60,and 100 μmol/L)on hydroponically grown Artemisia annua L.were investigated.Cd treatments applied for 0,4,12,24,72,144,216,and 336 hr were assessed by measuring the changes in photosynthetic pigments,electrolyte leakage,malondialdehyde(MDA)and antioxidants(ascorbic acid and glutathione),while the artemisinin content was tested after 0,12,144,216,and 336 hr.A significant decrease was observed in photosynthetic pigment levels over time with increasing Cd concentration.Chlorophyll b levels were more affected by Cd than were chlorophyll a or carotenoid levels.The cell membrane was sensitive to Cd stress,as MDA content in all treatment groups showed insignificant differences from the control group,except at 12 hr treatment time.Ascorbic acid(AsA)content changed slightly over time,while glutathione(GSH)content took less time to reach a maximum as Cd concentration increased.Cd was found to promote synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin,especially at concentrations of 20 and 100 μmol/L.In conclusion,Cd stress can damage to photosynthetic pigments,and vigorously growing A.annua showed a strong tolerance for Cd stress.Appropriate amounts of added Cd aided synthesis and accumulation of artemisinin.

  17. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  18. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology.

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  20. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Choul Ryu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.

  1. Chemical constituents from the Folium Artemisiae Argyi(Ⅱ)%艾叶的化学成分(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉双; 卢桂荣; 孟大利; 李宁; 李铣

    2010-01-01

    目的 对中药艾叶(Folium Artemisiae Argyi)的化学成分进行分离鉴定.方法 采用反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、制备TLC、重结晶等方法进行分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和波谱分析等手段鉴定其化学结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为isotanciloide(1)、伞形花内酯(umbelliferone,2)、瑞香素(daphnetin,3)、圣草酚(eriodictyol,4)、鼠李素(rhamnetin,5)、高车前素(hispidulin,6)、L-2-O-甲基-手-肌醇(L-2-O-methyl-chiro-inositol,7)、豆甾醇(stigmasterol,8)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,9)、4-甲氧基-3-羟基苯酚(4-methoxyl-3-hydroxyphenol,10).结论 其中,化合物10为新天然产物,化合物1-5、7为首次从艾叶中分离得到.

  2. Identification of Eupatilin from Artemisia argyi as a Selective PPARα Agonist Using Affinity Selection Ultrafiltration LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongsoo; Jung, Yujung; Kim, Su-Nam

    2015-07-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50). Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals.

  3. Identification of Eupatilin from Artemisia argyi as a Selective PPARα Agonist Using Affinity Selection Ultrafiltration LC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsoo Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are key nuclear receptors and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases through the regulation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although a few drugs that target PPARs have been approved, more diverse and novel PPAR ligands are necessary to improve the safety and efficacy of available drugs. To expedite the search for new natural agonists of PPARs, we developed a screening assay based on ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS that is compatible with complex samples such as dietary foods or botanical extracts. The known PPARα and/or PPARγ ligands resveratrol and rosiglitazone were used as positive controls to validate the developed method. When applied to the screening of an Artemisia argyi extract, eupatilin was identified as a selective PPARα ligand. A PPAR competitive binding assay based on FRET detection also confirmed eupatilin as a selective PPARα agonist exhibiting a binding affinity of 1.18 μM (IC50. Furthermore, eupatilin activation of the transcriptional activity of PPARα was confirmed using a cell-based transactivation assay. Thus, ultrafiltration LC-MS is a suitable assay for the identification of PPAR ligands in complex matrixes such as extracts of dietary foods and botanicals.

  4. 大籽蒿花粉过敏原的分离、鉴定与纯化%Identification and purification of major allergens in Artemisia sieversiana pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴永; 肖小军; 孙宏治; 何韶衡; 杨平常; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate,identify and purify the Artemisia sieversiana pollen ,the mostly widespread pollen among the Artemisia pollens in China.Methods: Artemisia sieversiana extract was precipitated by saturated ammonium sulfate and then electrophoresed by SDS-PAGE.The molecular mass of each protein band was determined by gel media system.The primary allergen proteins were identified by Western blot.Allergen proteins were purified and identified by DEAE-cellulose DE-52 ion exchange chroma-tography ( IEC) and Western blot.Results: We isolated more than twenty protein bands from Artemisia sieversiana pollen extract , including the most abundant six bands whose Mr were 62 kD,57 kD,38 kD,29 kD,25 kD,14 kD espectively.The protein bands with Mr were 62 kD and 16 kD had the highest binding capacity with the specific IgE from Artemisia pollen allergic patients.The DEAE-cellulose DE-32 IEC was used to purify the primary allergen proteins with Mr 62 kD and 16 kD.Conclusion:The primary allergens of Artemisia sieversiana include the allergen proteins whose Mr are 62 kD,16 kD and the allergen of Mr 62 kD and 16 kD can be purified by chromatography.%目的:对我国蒿属花粉中常见的大籽蒿花粉进行分离、鉴定与纯化。方法:提取大籽蒿花粉粗浸液,通过聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离蛋白质组分,并用凝胶成像系统测定各组分的相对分子质量(Mr);免疫印迹(Western blot)鉴定花粉主要过敏原;通过DEAE-Cellulose DE-52离子交换层析( Ion exchange chromatography ,IEC)对大籽蒿花粉过敏原进行纯化和免疫印迹鉴定。结果:分离后得到20多种蛋白组分,其中分子量( Mr)为62、57、38、29、25、14 kD 6个条带蛋白含量最丰富,其中Mr为62 kD和16 kD的蛋白条带与确诊的蒿属花粉过敏患者血清特异性IgE结合率最高(均>50%),为其主要过敏原,离子交换层析纯化后可得到Mr为62、16 kD的过敏原。结论

  5. 不同萃取技术获得的Artemisia sp的甲醇提取物其抗氧化和抗菌活性的比较%Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of the Artemisia sp.Recovered by Different Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivana Karabegovi(c); Milena Nikolova; Dragan Veli(c)kovi(c); Sa(s)a Stoji(c)evi(c); Vlada Veljkovi(c); Miodrag Lazi(c)

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenol content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained by classical,ultrasonic and Soxhlet extractions from dry aerial parts of two Artemisia species (Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia campestris) were compared. Ultrasound positively affected the yield of extractive substance and the kinetics of extraction, but the extract obtained by the classical extraction showed the highest antioxidant activities and contained higher total contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids than the extracts obtained by two other extraction techniques. Both flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, quercetin, quercetin 3,3'-dimethyl ether) and flavonoid glycosides (rutin, hyperoside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside) were identified by thin layer chromatograph (TLC) analysis in the extracts from both species. A. campestris extracts were richer in quercetin than A. vulgaris and its antimicrobial activity was also better than A. vulgaris. Extracts obtained from both species were found to be more effective on the tested yeasts than bacteria. The kinetics of the total extractive substances, such as phenolic, flavonoids and quercetin extraction, was successfully described by the model of unsteady-state diffusion.

  6. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  7. Forecasting of the selected features of Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnh., Artemisia L. and Ambrosia L. pollen season in Szczecin, north-western Poland, using Gumbel's distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The allergenic pollen content of the atmosphere varies according to climate, biogeography and vegetation. Minimisation of the pollen allergy symptoms is related to the possibility of avoidance of large doses of the allergen. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 13 years (2000-2012 inclusive) permitted prediction of theoretical maximum concentrations of pollen grains and their probability for the pollen season of Poaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. Moreover, the probabilities were determined of a given date as the beginning of the pollen season, the date of the maximum pollen count, Seasonal Pollen Index value and the number of days with pollen count above threshold values. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS). Linear trend with determination coefficient (R(2)) was calculated. Model for long-term forecasting was performed by the method based on Gumbel's distribution. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between the duration of pollen season of Poaceae and Artemisia and the Seasonal Pollen Index value. Seasonal, total pollen counts of Artemisia and Ambrosia showed a strong and statistically significant decreasing tendency. On the basis of Gumbel's distribution, a model was proposed for Szczecin, allowing prediction of the probabilities of the maximum pollen count values that can appear once in e.g. 5, 10 or 100 years. Short pollen seasons are characterised by a higher intensity of pollination than long ones. Prediction of the maximum pollen count values, dates of the pollen season beginning, and the number of days with pollen count above the threshold, on the basis of Gumbel's distribution, is expected to lead to improvement in the prophylaxis and therapy of persons allergic to pollen.

  8. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the preventive effect of Artemisia annua L. dried leaves supplied as a botanical coccidiostat to two broiler genotypes reared in a Danish free-range system in a factorial experiment (two genotypes and ± supplement of dried A. annua leaves). The genotypes White Bresse L40...... animals per plot. This infection strategy was meant to imitate the transmission pathway observed at farm level. Ten individual birds from each of the 12 groups, in total 120 animals of mixed sex, were monitored twice weekly for 30 days for oocysts excretion. PCR of pooled faecal samples, oocyst morphology...

  9. Antihistomonal effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts in vitro could not be confirmed by in vivo experiments in turkeys and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, I.C.N.; Liebhart, D.; Hess, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Five different Artemisia annua-derived materials (i.e. dry leaves, pure artemisinin, and hexane, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of leaves) were screened for their in vitro activities against six clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis. Except for the methanol extract, all tested materials....... The dichloromethane extract of dry leaves (Ext-DCM) (minimal lethal concentration1.0 mg/ml) and artemisinin (half-maximal inhibitory concentration1.295 mg/ml) had the most promising antihistomonal properties and were therefore subsequently tested in a standardized experimental infection model in both turkeys...

  10. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on xenic bacteria isolated from clonal cultures of Histomonas meleagridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøfner, Ida; Hess, Claudia; Liebhart, Dieter

    Infection with the protozoa Histomonas meleagridis in poultry has re-emerged since the ban of effective drugs. Consequently efforts are set to find alternatives to chemotherapeutics to combat histomonosis. At present histomonads need accompanying bacteria when cultured in vitro, probably serving...... nutrient supply due to their appearance in parasitic food vacuoles. However, the relationship of the parasite and the bacteria is not fully clear. Six previously established clonal cultures of H. meleagridis were used to evaluate the effect of five Artemisia annua derived materials (i.e. dry leaves...

  11. Produção e detecção de artemisinina em plantas de Artemisia annua L. submetidas a estresses abioticos

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Abramo Marchese

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Artemisia annua L., uma planta nativa da China e aclimatada no Brasil, é uma fonte abundante de artemisinina, uma lactona sesquiterpênica que apresenta comprovada eficácia no controle das cepas resistentes do gênero Plasmodium, parasita causador da malária. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da deficiência hídrica e da temperatura no acúmulo de artemisinina em A.annua. Plantas submetidas à deficiência hídrica moderada (YW -1, 39 MPa) e à deficiência hídrica...

  12. Fisiologia da floração e atividade alelopática de Artemisia annua L. cultivar Artemis cultivada em clima subtropical úmido

    OpenAIRE

    Magiero,Emanuelle Cavazini

    2012-01-01

    A Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) é uma planta herbácea, nativa da Ásia e aclimatada no Brasil. As folhas apresentam até 1,4% do peso seco em artemisinina, sendo fonte abundante desta lactona sesquiterpênica que, conjuntamente aos seus derivados semi-sintéticos, apresentam ação efetiva contra as cepas resistentes das espécies de Plasmodium causadoras da malária. A artemisinina também está sendo testada com sucesso no tratamento de câncer e apresenta-se efetiva contra inúmeros parasitas que af...

  13. Avaliação das atividades anticâncer, antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória de produtos oriundos das Artemisia annua L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício de Faveri Favero

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A artemisinina, uma lactona sesquiterpênica que possui um grupamento endoperóxido, isolada da Artemisia annua L., é responsável pela ação esquizonticida no controle da malária. As lactonas sesquiterpênicas têm demonstrado atividade biológica para o controle do câncer e inflamação. Os objetivos desse trabalho consistiram nas avaliações das atividades antiproliferativa in vitro, anti-câncer in vivo, antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória em diferentes modelos, além da avaliação da atividad...

  14. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  15. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soheil Salehi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Farinaz Ghanbar,3 Mohammad Raouf Darvish,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5 Amir Mirzaie,2 Mohsen Jafari6 1Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (IAUPS, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 3Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, 4Department of Chemistry, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose

  16. (3R)-Linalool synthase from Artemisia annua L.: cDNA isolation, characterization, and wound induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, J W; Crock, J; Lu, S; Croteau, R; Chen, X Y

    1999-12-01

    Artemisia annua is an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. A cDNA library was constructed from leaves of A. annua seedlings and target sequences were amplified by PCR using degenerate primers derived from a consensus sequence of angiosperm terpene synthases. Two clones, QH1 and QH5, with high sequence similarity to plant monoterpene synthases were ultimately obtained and expressed in Escherichia coli. These cDNAs encode peptides of 567 aa (65.7 kDa) and 583 aa (67.4 kDa), respectively, and display 88% identity with each other and 42% identity with Mentha spicata limonene synthase. The two recombinant enzymes yielded no detectable activity with isopentenyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, chrysanthemyl diphosphate, farnesyl diphosphate, (+)-copalyl diphosphate, or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, but were active with geranyl diphosphate in yielding (3R)-linalool as the sole product in the presence of divalent metal cation cofactors. QH1-linalool synthase displays a K(m) value of 64 microM for geranyl diphosphate, which is considerably higher than other known monoterpene synthases, and a K(m) value of 4.6 mM for Mg(+2). Transcripts of QH1 and QH5 could be detected by RT-PCR in the leaves and inflorescence of A. annua, but not in the stem stele or roots; transcripts of QH5 could also be detected in stem epidermis. Linalool could not be detected by GC-MS in the essential oil of A. annua, nor in acid or base hydrolysates of aqueous extracts of leaves. RT-PCR demonstrated a wound-inducible increase in QH1 and QH5 transcript abundance in both leaves and stems over a 3-day time course. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-05

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant.

  18. Clinal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Artemisia californica: implications for the response of a foundation species to predicted climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jessica D; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-08-01

    Local adaptation and plasticity pose significant obstacles to predicting plant responses to future climates. Although local adaptation and plasticity in plant functional traits have been documented for many species, less is known about population-level variation in plasticity and whether such variation is driven by adaptation to environmental variation. We examined clinal variation in traits and performance - and plastic responses to environmental change - for the shrub Artemisia californica along a 700 km gradient characterized (from south to north) by a fourfold increase in precipitation and a 61% decrease in interannual precipitation variation. Plants cloned from five populations along this gradient were grown for 3 years in treatments approximating the precipitation regimes of the north and south range margins. Most traits varying among populations did so clinally; northern populations (vs. southern) had higher water-use efficiencies and lower growth rates, C : N ratios and terpene concentrations. Notably, there was variation in plasticity for plant performance that was strongly correlated with source site interannual precipitation variability. The high-precipitation treatment (vs. low) increased growth and flower production more for plants from southern populations (181% and 279%, respectively) than northern populations (47% and 20%, respectively). Overall, precipitation variability at population source sites predicted 86% and 99% of variation in plasticity in growth and flowering, respectively. These striking, clinal patterns in plant traits and plasticity are indicative of adaptation to both the mean and variability of environmental conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of long-term coastal climate data in turn indicates an increase in interannual precipitation variation consistent with most global change models and, unexpectedly, this increased variation is especially pronounced at historically stable, northern sites. Our findings demonstrate the

  19. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Molnár

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1, 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13-en-12,6α-olide (2, iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3 and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4, were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica. When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1 population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  20. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia lancea against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Dai, J L; Yang, L; Qiu, J

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged use of chemical anthelmintics has been found to result in anthelmintic resistance and environmental issues, thereby limiting the application of these drugs in domestic animals and prompting interest in the study of plant extracts as alternative sources thereof. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia lancea against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay, and larval migration inhibition assay. The EO yield of extraction was 0.63% (w/w), and the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.56%) and camphor (16.65%). In the egg hatch assay, an inhibition greater than 99% was observed with the EO at 10 mg mL(-1) and the LC50 was 1.82 mg mL(-1). 1,8-Cineole demonstrated moderate ovicidal activity with a LC50 of 4.64 mg mL(-1), whereas camphor did not show enough activity to have its LC50 determined. In the larval development assay, the EO, 1,8-cineole, and camphor inhibited 93.6%, 65.2%, and 57% of larval development at 10 mg mL(-1) and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 1.66, 5.07, and 7.80 mg mL(-1), respectively. In the migration inhibition assay, the EO and 1,8-cineole at best inhibited 77% and 60.3% of larval migration at 10 mg mL(-1), respectively. Camphor showed low inhibition capacity, and its efficacy was not dose dependent. The results indicate that the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the EO of A. lancea may be associated with the additive action of the two major constituents, as well as other more minor terpenoid components.

  1. Changes of Enzymes Activity and Production of Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia aucheri in Different Altitudes and Its Relation to Adaptation

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    Hassan Zare-maivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia plants are the most abundant plants species in Iran which contain strong antioxidant properties and as such, have medicinal and economic value. Despite wide distribution of Artemisisa species, ecophysiology of its adaptation to changes in altitude and soil property had not been investigated. In this study, the relationships between ecophysiological and adaptation capabilities of A. aucheri to altitude changes through measuring changes in the activity of its antioxidant enzymes and secondary metabolites in situ was investigated based on a completely randomized experiment. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and the amount of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, malondialdehyde and chlorophylls A and B were measured in A. aucheri plants growing in three different altitudes at and above the 36° latitude on the southern slopes of Eastern Alborz Mountain ranges in triplicate 10*10 m quadrates. Statistical analysis of data showed that soil type was loamy significantly becoming more sandy- loam with lowering in altitude and the soil contained greater amounts of oxides of silicone, aluminum, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus in upper altitude except calcium which was present in greater quantity in lower altitude. With increasing altitude, activity of superoxide dismutase and quantities of chlorophylls and total phenols in leaves increased. Some biochemical factors in A. aucheri showed significant positive correlation(P ≤ 0.05 between them. Adaptation of A. aucheri to changes in altitude occurred through changing its antioxidant enzymes activity and production of secondary metabolites in response to factors related to the altitude including soil type and texture, moisture level, temperature and most importantly radiation

  2. Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp

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    Lew Kan Sprenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47μg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.

  3. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer

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    Jorge F.S. Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is currently the only commercial source of the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin.Since artemisinin was discovered as the active component of A. annua in early 1970s, hundreds of papers have focused on the anti-parasitic effects of artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artesunate. Artemisinin per se has not been used in mainstream clinical practice due to its poor bioavailability when compared to its analogs. In the past decade, the work with artemisinin-based compounds has expanded to their anti-cancer properties. Although artemisinin is a major bioactive component present in the traditional Chinese herbal preparations (tea, leaf flavonoids, also present in the tea, have shown a variety of biological activities and may synergize the effects of artemisinin against malaria and cancer. However, only a few studies have focused on the potential synergistic effects between flavonoids and artemisinin. The resurgent idea that multi-component drug therapy might be better than monotherapy is illustrated by the recent resolution of the World Health Organization to support artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, instead of the previously used monotherapy with artemisinins. In this critical review we will discuss the possibility that artemisinin and its semi-synthetic analogs might become more effective to treat parasitic diseases (such as malaria and cancer if simultaneously delivered with flavonoids. The flavonoids present in A. annua leaves have been linked to suppression of CYP450 enzymes responsible for altering the absorption and metabolism of artemisinin in the body, but also have been linked to a beneficial immunomodulatory activity in subjects afflicted with parasitic and chronic diseases.

  4. Wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and seedling recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a moving sandy land.

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    Li, Feng-Rui; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Li-Ya; Kang, Ling-Fen; Chen, Wen

    2005-07-01

    Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings. * The spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron were examined by investigating the numbers of deposited seeds, emerged and surviving seedlings using sampling points at a range of distances from the parent plant in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. * Wind-dispersed seed deposition showed considerable variation between directions and years. Wind transported A. halodendron seeds only a few meters away from the parent plant in all eight directions. Seedling emergence and establishment also showed between-direction and between-year variability, but the spatial pattern of seedling distribution differed from that of seed deposition. Only a very small fraction (seeds emerged in the field and survived for long enough to be included in our seedling censuses at the end of the growing season. * The spatial variation in wind speed and frequency strongly affects the pattern of seed deposition, although the variation in seed deposition does not determine the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment. Seeds of A. halodendron are not dispersed very well by wind. The low probability of recruitment success for A. halodendron seedlings suggests that this species does not rely on seedling recruitment for its persistence and maintenance of population.

  5. Atividade ovicida e larvicida do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua sobre parasitas gastrintestinais de bovinos

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    L.K. Sprenger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Os parasitas gastrintestinais causam enorme prejuízo econômico na bovinocultura, tanto nacional como mundial, ocasionado principalmente por Bunostumom sp., Cooperia sp. e Trichostrongylus sp. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a eficácia in vitro do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua (H.7 frente a esses endoparasitas. O H.7 foi produzido com sete dias de percolação a 4ºC e posteriormente liofilizado. Com esse fitoterápico, realizaram-se testes de eclodibilidade de ovos (TEO e de migração larvar em ágar (TMLA, com seis repetições, com concentrações crescentes (0,78 a 50mg/mL. Para analisar a composição química do fitoterápico, procedeu-se à marcha fitoquímica completa. No TEO, a eficácia variou de 94,08±2,58% na maior concentração a 15,67±0,97% na menor concentração. Já no TMLA os valores encontrados variaram de 90,05±0,55% a 4,12±0,46%. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram encontrados diversos compostos com propriedades de combater os nematódeos, tanto direta como indiretamente. Os resultados obtidos nos testes in vitro evidenciam que o extrato produzido possui potencial de combater nematódeos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Novos estudos devem ser realizados buscando maximizar a eficácia do H.7 e de outras extrações obtidas a partir de A. annua, uma vez que foram demonstrados excelentes resultados em ambos os experimentos.

  6. N and P resorption in a pioneer shrub (Artemisia halodendron) inhabiting severely desertified lands of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLin LI; Chen JING; Wei MAO; Duo CUI; XinYuan WANG; XueYong ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient resorption is an important conservation mechanism for plants to overcome nutrient limitation in the less fertile area of desertified land. In the semi-arid Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, the shrub Artemisia halodendron usually colonizes into the bare ground of severely desertified land as a pioneer species. It is, therefore, expected that A. halodendron will be less dependent on current nutrient uptake through efficient and proficient re-sorption of nutrients. In this study, we found that averaged nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in se-nesced leaves significantly varied from 12.3 and 1.2 mg/g in the shifting sand dune to 15.9 and 1.9 mg/g in the fixed sand dune, respectively, suggesting that foliar N and P resorption of A. halodendron were more proficient in the shifting sand dune. In particular, positive relationships between nutrient concentrations in senesced leaves and soil nutrient availability indicate that A. halodendron in infertile habitats is more likely to manage with a low level of nu-trients in senesced leaves, giving this species an advantage in infertile soil. Moreover, foliar N- and P-resorption efficiencies and proficiencies showed limited inter-annual variability although annual precipitation varied greatly among 2007-2009. However, N and P resorption of A. halodendron were not more efficient and proficient than those previously reported for other shrubs, indicating that the pioneer shrub in sand dune environments does not rely more heavily than other plants on the process of resorption to conserve nutrients. Incomplete resorption of nutrients in A. halodendron suggests that senesced-leaf fall would return litter with high quality to the soil, and thereby would indirectly improve soil nutrient availability. The restoration of desertified land, therefore, may be ac-celerated after A. halodendron pioneers into shifting sand dunes.

  7. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China.

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    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0-5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

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    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

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    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor.

  10. 青蒿蛀虫——白钩小卷蛾初步研究%Prelimary study of the Artemisia apiacea stem borer :Epiblema foenella

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    曾爱平; 陈永年; 曾颖

    2012-01-01

    Epiblema foenella L. Is a stem borer of Artemisia apiacea Hance. Through a systematic survey at fixed spotsand times we determined that E. Foenella had three generations per year in Changsha, and overwintered as old instar larvaein the stumps and hollowed out roots of its host. The effective accumulated temperature of a generation for E. Foenella is726. 52 degree-days and the threshold temperature for development is 12. ℃. The morphological characters and habitsof the different life-stages and larval instars of E, foenella are described and forecasting techniques and control methodspresented.%白钩小卷蛾Epiblema foenella L.是药用植物青蒿(Artemisia apiacea Hance)的蛀干害虫,通过田间定点定时系统调查,得出该虫在长沙地区田间1年发生3代,以高龄幼虫在寄主残株及根部蛀洞内越冬,世代发育起点温度为12.122℃,有效积温为726.52日·度.描述了白钩小卷蛾各虫态及各龄幼虫的形态特征及生活习性,提出了有关预测技术及防治措施的建议.

  11. Exploration of a ternary deep eutectic solvent of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid for the selective recognition of rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

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    Ma, Wanwan; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid, a green ternary deep eutectic solvent, was applied as a functional monomer and dummy template simultaneously in the synthesis of a new molecularly imprinted polymer. Ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers are used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent in the separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized using different molar ratios of chalcone. The static and competitive adsorption tests were performed to examine the recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers to rutin and quercetin. The ternary deep eutectic solvent consisting of formic acid/chalcone/methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1:0.05:0.5) had the best molecular recognition effect. After optimization of the washing solvents (methanol/water, 1:9) and eluting solvents (acetonitrile/acetic acid, 9:1), a reliable analytical method was developed for strong recognition towards rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae with satisfactory extraction recoveries (rutin: 92.48%, quercetin: 94.23%). Overall, the chalcone ternary deep eutectic solvent-based molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with solid-phase extraction is an effective method for the selective purification of multiple bioactive compounds in complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effects of Artemisia dracunculus Aqueous Extract on Blood Sugar, Serum Insulin, Triglyceride and Liver Enzymes in Fructose Drinking Water Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Artemisia are various groups of plants which are used as an herbal medicine in all countries; the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia dracunculus (AD leaves aqueous extract on blood sugar, serum insulin, and triglyceride and liver enzymes in Fructose Drinking water (FDW male rats. Methods At the beginning of experiment, 48 Wistar-albino male rats, weighing 200 - 250g were divided into control (C and FDW groups (n = 24. FDW group received FDW (10%, w/v for a month but control group did not receive any agents during the trial period. A half of control and FDW groups received AD L aqueous extract daily during trial period. At the end, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from cervical vessels. Serum insulin, Blood glucose, insulin resistance index, triglyceride and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-17 via one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results Our results showed that serum insulin, blood sugar, insulin resistance index, triglyceride, Aspartate amino transferase (AST and Alanine amino transferase (ALT values in FDW group significantly increased compared to C and C + E groups but these values in group FDW + E were significantly decreases compared to group FDW (P < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that AD L aqueous extract improves blood sugar, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and liver enzymes in rat model.

  13. Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L.

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    Khlifi, Daycem; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Amouri, Sameh; Laouini, Dhafer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-05-01

    In this study, biological activities of methanolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. plants, collected in Centre of Tunisia, were investigated. Results showed an important phenolic composition of Artemisia herba-alba (123.95±4.3g GAE/kg of dry mass). The extract of this plant showed, using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and AAPH/linoleic acid methods) and an IFN-γ/LPS induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages' assay, the highest antioxidant (IC50 (DPPH assay) 20.64±0.84mg/L) and anti-inflammatory (72% inhibition at 150mg/L) activities, respectively. Excepting Peganum harmala L. extract, the two other extracts showed a high anticancer activity against several cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 and human myelogenous leukemia K562), for A. herba-laba IC50=81.59±4.4, 59.05±3.66 and 90.96mg/L respectively, but not on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities.

  14. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells.

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    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used.

  15. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Trogoderma granarium (Everst (Coleoptera, Dermestidae

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    Ben Slimane Badreddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the chemical components and toxicity of Artemisia herba-alba (A. herbaalba essential oil against two major stored cereal pests, Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum and Trogoderma granarium (T. granarium. Methods: Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect of A. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil contained β-thujone (12.50%, α-thujone (8.78%, sabinyl acetate (8.56%, terpinene-4-ol (8.51%, α-terpineol (3.35%, 1,8-cineol (5.45%, γ-terpene (4.82%, camphor (4.52%, dimethylethylbenzene (3.93% and α-terpinene (3.35% as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed that A. herba-alba oil was more toxic than T. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL and T. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity of A. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum and T. granarium. The Artemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects

  16. Evaluation of anti-malarial activity of Artemisia turcomanica and A. kopetdaghensis by cell-free β-hematin formation assay

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    M. Mojarrab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:The plants of genus Artemisia (Asteraceae have been conventionally used for prevention and medication of a number of ailments. In the present research, ten extracts with different polarities from aerial parts of two Artemisia species, A. kopetdaghensis and A. turcomanica were evaluated for their potential anti-malarial properties. Methods: The plant materials were extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAC, ethanol, and ethanol-water (1:1 v/v  by cold maceration method. Cell free β-hematin formation assay were used for assessing anti-malarial activity of obtained extracts. Results: DCM extract of A. kopetdaghensis and PE extract of A. turcomanica showed remarkable anti-malarial activity with IC50 values of 1.04±0.02 mg/mL and 0.90±0.27 mg/mL, respectively, compared to positive control (chloroquine, IC50 0.04±0.01 mg/mL. Conclusion:  It seems that the anti-malarial activity of these extracts might be bound up with the presence of compounds with low or medium polarity; hence, this preliminary test indicated that these potent extracts could be considered for further investigations to find new sources of anti-malarial phytochemicals.

  17. 不同产地差不嘎蒿的质量对比研究%Study on quality contrast of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.from different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 刘辉; 辛艳; 黄胜阳; 周海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察不同产地差不嘎蒿药材的各项质量指标,为其质量标准建立及优质产地的筛选提供一定的实验依据。方法:采用 HPLC 法,流动相:乙腈-0.2%甲酸水(35∶65)流量:0.8ml /min;检测波长:288nm;柱温:30℃,测定指标性成分异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚的含量;按照2010年版《中国药典》(一部)附录方法测定其醇溶性浸出物、水分、杂质、灰分含量及其酸败度,综合评定药材质量。结果:不同产地的药材之间有一定的差异,其中异樱花素、圣草酚-7-甲醚含量差异较为明显,水分随保藏年份的增加而减少,其他项的差异保持在一定范围内。结论:不同产地的差不嘎蒿药材的质量有所不同,内蒙古自治区赤峰市可作为优质种源。%Objective Study the quality indicators of Artemisia halodendron Turcz.In different areas,to provide some academic basis for quality criterion and origin select of Artemisia halodendron.Method The methods of HPLC (mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid water (35:65);The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 288 nm,column temperature 30℃)was used to determine the content of the signature ingredients -Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether.According to the 2010 pharmacopoeia appendix method for determining the ethanol - soluble,moisture,impurities,ash content and its degree of rancidity.To evaluate the quality of Artemisia halodendron in a comprehensive way.Results There are many differences between all the medicines,especially the content of Isosakuranetin and Eriodictyol -7 -methyl ether .Moisture content decreased with the increase of the preservation time,and other quality indexs remain within a certain range of differences.Conclusion The content of chemical com-positions in Artemisia halodendron from different place has a significant difference and and Artemisia halodendron in Chifeng

  18. Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement.

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    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vestita and to determine the antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its two major components, grandisol and 1,8‑cineole, against certain respiratory infection‑causing bacterial strains, in vitro and in vivo. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry. A micro‑well dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of the essential oil and its major constituents. A model of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mice was used to determine its in vivo activities. Lung and blood samples were obtained to assess bacterial cell counts. Toxicity evaluation of the essential oil and its components was completed by performing biochemical analysis of the serum, particularly monitoring aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, urea and creatinine. The essential oil exhibited potent antibacterial activity, whereas the two major constituents were less potent. The essential oil exhibited MIC values between 20 and 80 µg/ml, while the values of the two constituents were between 130 and 200 µg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that the essential oil inhibited biofilm formation and altered its architecture. Survival curves indicated that the essential oil led to a reduction in the viability of different bacteria. The essential oil also induced significant leakage of potassium ions from S. pyogenes. The essential oil (100 µg/mouse) and grandisol (135 µg/mouse) significantly reduced the number of viable bacterial cells in the lungs (Pessential oil or grandisol 135 µg/mouse once or twice each day for 9 days did not produce any toxic effects in the mice. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the essential oil of A. vestita and one of its major constituents, grandisol, can significantly inhibit the growth of different

  19. Discussion on the rational water content for restoring semi - shrub Artemisia in desert grassland%温性荒漠草地蒿类半灌木合理需水量探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶茂; 徐海量; 乔木; 任铭

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the status of the severe degeneration of desert grassland in Yili fiver valley, different water irrigation for semi - shrub Artemisia experiment were conducted for two years. The variation of aboveground bio- mass per square of semi - shrub Artemisia with different water content was studied. The results showed that with increasing water content, aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia increased distinctly firstly and then declined. The regression relationship between water content and aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was: Y = 0. 00000001x^3 -0. 0002x^2 + 0. 795x + 138.28 ( P 〈 0.001, R2 = 0. 962). Based on the result of the sensitivity index, the variation ratio of the aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was maximum, namely SK = 0.624 when the irrigated water content was 433kg/(m^2·a) while SK was 〈 0 at irrigated water content of more than 1498kg/( m^2·a). This indicated that the aboveground biomass of semi -shrub Artemisia began to decline with increasing water content of more than1498kg/(m^2·a). According to the change of the sensitivity curve with different irrigated water content, variation of aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia could be divided into three ranges. The variation ratio of aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia was greatly signif- icant and the increased degree of the aboveground biomass of semi - shrub Artemisia exceeded more than that of the irrigated water content at the water content range of 226kg/(m^2·a) - 778kg/(m^2·a). Therefore the rational range of the irrigated water content for restoring the local grassland was 226kg/( m^2·a) - 778kg/(m^2·a). From the water utilization efficiency, it is reasonable that irrigated water content of 228kg/(m^2·a) is regarded as the minimum water demand for restoring semi -shrub Artemisia in the study area.%文中对新疆伊犁河流域温性荒漠草地蒿类半灌木生物量随水分条件的

  20. Genetic Differentiation of Artemisia ordosica Populations in Different Types of Sandy Land of Maowusu Based on ISSR%毛乌素不同类型沙地油蒿种群遗传分化的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤月; 朴顺姬; 王大川; 包萨如拉; 许庆杰; 高占成

    2012-01-01

    利用12对微卫星引物对毛乌素沙地油蒿种群的遗传分化、基因流进行分析,采用Nei's指数和Shannon指数估算3个不同类型沙地种群的遗传多样性,计算种群相似系数和遗传距离,利用遗传距离构建系统树.结果表明:(1)种群遗传多样性分析显示,油篙种群多态位点百分率为100%,说明油蒿种群基因组ISSR具有较高的多样性.(2)在遗传距离为6.0处可将184个样株大致分为三类,涵盖了135个样株,占采样总量的73.34%.结合样地定位记录,聚类结果与样株空间分布具有一致性,即可分为流动沙地、固定沙地、半固定沙地油蒿种群.(3)流动沙地与固定、半固定沙地油蒿种群间的基因流较小,分别为0.7929和0.6848,半固定与固定沙地油蒿种群间存在着较高的基因流,为6.2930.半固定与固定沙地种群间的遗传一致度较高,为93.77%;流动沙地种群Shannon指数低.%The level of genetic differentiation, gene flow among three Artemisia ordosica populations in Maowusu sandy land were analyzed using 12 pair of microsatellite primers. Similarity and genetic distance matrices were established based on the ISSR data on the basis of Nei's and Shannon's estimates of ' similarity indices and genetic distance. The results showed that: 1. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, which meant that they own high genetic diversity. 2. At genetic distance of 6. 0, 184 samples can be divided into three groups, covering the 135 sample plants, accounting for 73. 34% of total sample. Combined with locating records, clustering results was in accordance with the spatial distribution, I. E. They can be divided into Artemisia ordosica population in moving sandy land, Artemisia ordosica population in fixed sandy land and Artemisia ordosica population in semi-fixed sandy land. 3. There was lower gene communication between Artemisia ordosica population in moving sandy land and Artemisia ordosica population in fixed

  1. Biomass Production of Hairy Roots of Artemisia annua and Arachis hypogaea in a Scaled-Up Mist Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Liu, Chunzhao; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy roots have the potential to produce a variety of valuable small and large molecules. The mist reactor is a gas phase bioreactor that has shown promise for low-cost culture of hairy roots. Using a newer, disposable culture bag, mist reactor performance was studied with two species, Artemisia annua L. and Arachis hypogaea (peanut), at scales from 1 to 20 L. Both species of hairy roots when grown at 1 L in the mist reactor showed growth rates that surpassed that in shake flasks. From the information gleaned at 1 L, Arachis was scaled further to 4 and then 20 L. Misting duty cycle, culture medium flow rate, and timing of when flow rate was increased were varied. In a mist reactor increasing the misting cycle or increasing the medium flow rate are the two alternatives for increased delivery of liquid nutrients to the root bed. Longer misting cycles beyond 2–3 min were generally deemed detrimental to growth. On the other hand, increasing the medium flow rate to the sonic nozzle especially during the exponential phase of root growth (weeks 2–3) was the most important factor for increasing growth rates and biomass yields in the 20 L reactors. A. hypogaea growth in 1 L reactors was μ = 0.173 day−1 with biomass yield of 12.75 g DWL−1. This exceeded that in shake flasks at μ = 0.166 day−1 and 11.10 g DWL−1. Best growth rate and biomass yield at 20 L was μ = 0.147 and 7.77 g DWL−1, which was mainly achieved when medium flow rate delivery was increased. The mist deposition model was further evaluated using this newer reactor design and when the apparent thickness of roots (+hairs) was taken into account, the empirical data correlated with model predictions. Together these results establish the most important conditions to explore for future optimization of the mist bioreactor for culture of hairy roots. PMID:20687140

  2. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%, spathulenol (10.65%, α-terpineol (10.09%, and linalool (7.56%, followed by 4-terpineol (3.92% and patchoulol (3.05%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD50 value of 414.48 µg/cm2. α-Terpinyl acetate (LD50 = 92.59 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD50 = 140.30 µg/cm2, 4-terpineol (LD50 = 211.35 µg/cm2, and linalool (LD50 = 393.16 µg/cm2. The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC50 = 6.67 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC50 values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  3. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2-4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter

  4. Ecophysiological Evidence for the Competition Strategy of Two Psammophytes Artemisia halodendron and A. frigida in Horqin Sandy Land, Nei Mongol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUHai-Yan; LISheng-Gong; LIXin-Rong; ZHAOAi-Fen; ZHAOHa-Lin; FANHeng-Wen; WANGGang

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, water relations and leaf chemical characteristics were examined of twodominant psammophytes: Artemisia frigida Willd and A halodendron Turcz. ex Bess in Horqin sandy land, NeiMongol, China under different water regimes. The measurements were conducted by submitting the plantsto five different irrigation levels. A. fTigida was characterized by lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), lowertranspiration rate ( TR and lower shoot water potential (ψuw) relative to A. halodendron. Foliage of A frigdahad higher values of relative water deficit (RWD), bound water content (BWC), ratio of bound water contentto free water content (BWC/FWC) and integrated drought-resistant index (DI than that of A. halodendron.Water relations differed significantly between two species in response to soil water availability. ψw, BWCand BWC/FWC ratio of A halodendron exhibited large variation with gradual decrease of soil moisture.However, in terms of these parameters, A. fRIGIDA was characterized by higher capacity of water holding anddrought tolerance relative to A halodendron. Proline and total soluble sugar contents of A frigida and Ahalodendron tended to increase with decrease of soil moisture and the former had a larger increaseamplitude than the latter. This shows that A frigida has a higher osmotic regulation ability than A halodendron.Under the extreme drought conditions, ψw, RWD, BWC and BWC/FWC of two species were approximate,but soluble proteins degraded largely. A large amount of accumulation of organic matter, proline and totalsoluble sugars were observed in both A halodendron and A frigida. The increase in proline and total solublesugar contents and soluble protein degradation of A frigida far exceeded those of A. halodendron. Webelieve that the accumulated materials at this moment are mostly of nutrient substances available for therecovery of plants after the drought. This is one of the reasons why A halodendron plants died while Afrigida plants survived under extremely

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L. Essential Oils and Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Msaada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical variability of wormwood extracts as affected by the growing region. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were also investigated. The essential oil composition variability of A. absinthium L. aerial parts collected from four different Tunisian regions was assessed by gas chromatography (GC/FID and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In addition, total polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of methanolic extract and essential oils were undertaken. Chromatographic analysis of wormwood essential oils showed the predominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by chamazulene. RP-HPLC analysis of wormwood methanolic extract revealed the predominance of phenolic acids. Antiradical activity was region-dependant and the methanolic extract of Bou Salem region has the strongest activity (CI50=9.38±0.82 µg/mL. Concerning the reducing power, the methanolic extract of Bou Salem, Jérissa, and Boukornine regions was more active than the positive control. Obtained results of antimicrobial activities showed that wormwood essential oil is endowed with important antibacterial activity which was strongly related to the organoleptic quality of oil which appeared strongly region-dependant. A. absinthium L. EOs investigated are quite interesting from a pharmaceutical standpoint because of their biological activities.

  6. 沙蒿木蠹蛾生物学特性研究%Bionomics of the sand sagebrush carpenterworm, Holcocerus artemisiae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 骆有庆; 宗世祥

    2011-01-01

    沙蒿木蠹蛾Holcocerus artemisiae Chou et Hua是危害油蒿Artemisia ordosica Krasch和籽蒿A.sphaerocephala Krasch的重要钻蛀性害虫,以幼虫蛀食根部,导致寄主植物长势衰弱甚至死亡.为有效控制其危害,我们对该虫形态和生物学特征结合野外调查和室内饲养观察进行了研究.结果表明:在宁夏,该虫2年发生1代,以幼虫在被害油蒿根部越冬;老熟幼虫于5月中旬从受害根部钻出,在周围的沙土里结茧化蛹,蛹期平均19.5±3.5 d;成虫始见于6月初,终见于8月末,期间经历3次羽化高峰,分别为6,7,8月的上旬.成虫羽化主要在14:00-17:00,整个过程持续30~45 min;羽化当日即可交配,交配时间为20:00-21:00,高峰期为20:30左右;雄虫有2次交尾现象.雄虫寿命2~3 d,雌虫寿命1~3 d,极少4 d.雌雄性比约为1∶2.16.卵初见于6月中旬,初孵幼虫初见于6月下旬.幼虫常单独危害,且具有转移危害的习性,蛀食坑道不规则.5-9月,油蒿受害率为11%~44%,平均24%,株虫口密度为0.13头/株.幼虫对油蒿的树龄和地径有较明显的选择性,主要危害1~4年生、地径16~34mm的油蒿.沙蒿木蠹蛾生物学特征的系统研究为其控制措施的制定提供了科学依据.%The sand sagebrush carpenterworm, Holcocerus artemisiae Chou et Hua, is a severe pest of Artemisia ordosica and A.sphaerocephala, with the larval stages boring into the roots of the host plants.Morphological and biological characteristics of H.artemisiae in Ningxia were studied through field survey and laboratory breeding and observation.The results showed that a generation takes two years in fields of Ningxia.Larvae of all instars were found to overwinter in the host plant roots.Mature larvae begin to pupate in mid May in the soil around the base of plant stems, with the average pupal stage lasting 19.5 ±3.5 d.Moths emerge from the beginning of June to the end of August, with three peaks of eclosion observed in the early June

  7. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  8. In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Fernández-Calienes Valdés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed.

  9. 皮革用艾蒿油微胶囊整理剂的制备%Preparation of Artemisia Oil Microcapsule Finishing Agent for Leather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭生龙; 贾静霞; 王辉强; 郭焱德; 王全杰

    2012-01-01

    本文采用复凝聚法制备了艾蒿精油微胶囊整理剂.通过热分析和抗菌实验发现,所制备的微胶囊整理剂具有一定的缓释性能和热稳定性,对常见的细菌和皮革上的霉菌具有一定的抑菌效果.%In this study, artemisia argyllem oil microcapsule finishing agent was prepared by complex coacervation. Studied by TGA and the antibacterial experiments, the finishing agent had certain slow release property and thermostability. It also had certain bacteriostatic effects on the common bacteria and the leather mould.

  10. Storage of biomass and net primary productivity in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhao; QI Yu-chun; DONG Yun-she

    2007-01-01

    Biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) are two important parameters in determining ecosystem carbon pool and carbon sequestration. The biomass storage and NPP in desert shrubland of Artemisia ordosica on Ordos Plateau were investigated with method of harvesting standard size shrub in the growing season (June-October) of 2006. Results indicated that above- and belowground biomass of the same size shrubs showed no significant variation in the growing season (p>0.1), but annual biomass varied significantly (p< 0.01). In the A.ordosica community, shrub biomass storage was 699.76 1246.40 g·m-2 and annual aboveground NPP was 224.09 g·m-2·a-1. Moreover, shrub biomass and NPP were closely related with shrub dimensions (cover and height) and could be well predicted by shrub volume using power regression.

  11. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  12. An Experiment on Standardized Cell Culture Assay in Assessing the Activities of Composite Artemisia Capillaris Tablets against Hepatitis B Virus Replication in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jin; ZHAO Yan-ling; SHAN Li-mei; HUANG Feng-jiao; XIAO Xiao-he

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the activities of Composite Artemisia Capillaris Tablet (复方茵陈片,CACT) against hepatitis B virus replication in vitro. Methods: By means of radioimmunoassay (RIA), Dot blot and Southern blot, the surface and e antigen production of 2.2.15 cells, HBV DNA in 2.2.15 cell culture medium and that in 2.2.15 cells were examined respectively. Results: HBsAg, HBeAg values of 2.2.15 cells treated by CACT were lower than those of the control, the HBV DNA quantities in culture medium and in 2.2.15 cells decreased as compared with those cells with no treatment by CACT given to them. Conclusion:CACT could inhibit HBV DNA replication, showing its potential antiviral activity in hepatitis B treatment.

  13. Progress of the Study about Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L%青蒿精油研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康振国

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the worldwide research progress of Essential Oil of the Artemisia annua L both on phytochemi-cal and pharmacology work in the past fifteen years. The main constitutes of this Essential Oil are proved to be tepenoids. Pharmaco-logical investigations revealed that the oil possess significant bioactivities on antitumor, antibacterial, antivirus, antioxidant activities, insecticidal activity, poison activity to mosquito and a strong depressant activity on the CNS. This review afforded the comprehensive description of the active components as to provide useful references to elucidate their historical clinical application on anticonvulsant drugs, heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammation and heat-stroke-lifting. At the same time, this paper also provided references for the further studied about Artemisia annua L oil.%本文对近十五年来国内外关于蒿属药用植物青蒿中精油的研究现状进行了综述。青蒿精油的主要成分是萜类化合物;药理试验表明其具有抗癌,抗菌,抗病毒,抗氧化,杀虫,驱蚊和对中枢神经系统的镇静作用等多种生物活性。本文有助于阐明青蒿精油作为抗惊厥,清热,解毒,抗炎,消暑等临床应用的物质基础,对青蒿精油的深度研发也具有一定的参考价值。

  14. Effects ofArtemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests:Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Trogoderma granarium (Everst) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Slimane Badreddine; Mariem Baouindi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the chemical components and toxicity ofArtemisia herba-alba (A. herba-alba) essential oil against two major stored cereal pests,Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum) andTrogoderma granarium(T. granarium). Methods:Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect ofA. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil containedβ-thujone (12.50%),α-thujone (8.78%), sabinyl acetate (8.56%), terpinene-4-ol (8.51%),α-terpineol (3.35%), 1,8-cineol (5.45%),γ-terpene (4.82%), camphor (4.52%), dimethyl-ethylbenzene (3.93%) andα-terpinene (3.35%) as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed thatA. herba-alba oil was more toxic thanT. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL) andT. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL). Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity ofA. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum andT. granarium). TheArtemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects.

  15. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments induce physiological changes and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L. - an antimalarial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rashmi; Meena, Ram Prasad; Smita, Shachi Shuchi; Shukla, Aparna; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2011-12-02

    Present study was undertaken to investigate if short-term UV-B (4.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and UV-C (5.7 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), pre-treatments can induce artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Twenty-one day old Artemisia seedlings were subjected to short-term (14 days) UV pre-treatment in an environmentally controlled growth chamber and then transplanted to the field under natural conditions. Treatment of A. annua with artificial UV-B and UV-C radiation not only altered the growth responses, biomass, pigment content and antioxidant enzyme activity but enhanced the secondary metabolites (artemisinin and flavonoid) content at all developmental stages as compared to non-irradiated plants. The extent of oxidative damage was measured in terms of the activities of enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Reinforcement in the antioxidative defense system seems to be a positive response of plants in ameliorating the negative effects of UV-B and UV-C radiations. While the carotenoid content was elevated, the chlorophyll content decreased under UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments. The reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes associated in artemisinin/isoprenoid biosynthesis like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) genes at different growth stages revealed UV induced significant over-expression of the above protein genes. UV-B and UV-C pre-treatments, led to an increase in the concentrations of artemisinin at full bloom stage by 10.5% and 15.7% than that of the control respectively. Thus, the result of our study suggests that short term UV-B pre-treatment of seedlings in greenhouse prior to transplantation into the field enhances artemisinin production with lesser yield related damages as compared to UV-C radiation in A. annua.

  16. Hydrated mucilage reduces post-dispersal seed removal of a sand desert shrub by ants in a semiarid ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Li, Leilei; He, Hongju; Huang, Zhenying

    2013-12-01

    Post-dispersal seed removal by animals can lead to extensive seed loss and thus is an important factor in structuring plant communities. However, we know much less about post-dispersal seed predation than about other forms of herbivory. Mucilage plays many ecological roles in adaptation of plants to diverse environments; nevertheless, until now the role of mucilage in ant-mediated seed movement remains largely hypothetical. We studied the role of mucilage in seed removal of Artemisia sphaerocephala by ants in Mu Us Sandland in Inner Mongolia, China. Messor aciculatus was the most active seed predator of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Time to first ant collecting (T 1st) of wet intact seeds was longest and significantly different from that for dry intact seeds, wet demucilaged seeds, and dry demucilaged seeds; number of seeds removed to ant nests was lowest for wet intact seeds. After they were collected by ants, 5 % of wet intact seeds were dropped during transport. Our results indicate that seed mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala may play a significant role in post-dispersal seed removal by (1) making seeds less attractive to ants, thus resulting in a delay of collection time; (2) forming a strong bond to soil particles, making it difficult for ants to remove seeds; and (3) making seeds more likely to be dropped during transport, thereby allowing them to escape from predation even after collection by ants. This study demonstrates the importance of mucilage in reducing seed removal by ants and thus in anchoring seeds of desert plants in the vicinity of mother plants.

  17. Research on the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth condition of artemisia annua l%菌根真菌对青蒿生长状况影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦艺; 赵君; 韩颂; 赵敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:青蒿又名黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L),是一年生菊科草本植物。从中提取的有效成分青蒿素,对抗氯喹的恶性疟及脑内虐有特效,其作用机理与传统的奎宁类抗疟药物不同。菌根是自然界中一种普遍存在的植物共生现象。它是土壤中的菌根真菌与高等植物营养根系形成的一种互惠共生体。作为自然界中的一种普遍现象,菌根真菌的存在对青蒿的生长状况必然有一定的影响。%Objective:Artemisia annua L is a kind of herbaceous compositae which grows in one year. Artemisinin ,the effective constituent extract from the Artemisia annua L , have an special effect to fight against the chloroquine of malignant malaria and the malaria in the cerebrum .Its mechanism of action is different from the traditional of the quinine medicine.Mycorrhiza is a kind of widespread phenomenon of plants mutualism.It is a kind of To be a widespread phenomenon in the nature, The existence of mycorrhizal fungi have a significant effection on the grown condition of the Artemisia annua L.

  18. 牛尾蒿水浸液对几种植物种子萌发的化感作用%Allelopathy of Artemisia roxburghiana extract to plant seeds germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦刚; 陈静; 张付斗

    2012-01-01

      Allelopathy is common in higher plants. Appling allelopathy to control farmland weeds is a new research trend. Artemisia species has been commonly used as medicinal plants in traditional Chinese medicine in China for a long time. To explore the application of Artemisia plants in weed control, the water extract of Artemisia roxburghiana Bess. was used to study the allelopathic effects on the germination of lettuce, amaranth, radish, ryegrass, and wild oat seed. The results show that it obviously inhibited the germination of seeds. Allelopathy of Artemisia roxburghiana Bess. has a significant different effects on dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants.%  植物化感作用在高等植物中普遍存在,而应用植物化感作用防除农田杂草是目前较为新颖的研究方向。蒿属植物早就是我国中医中常用的药用植物,为探究蒿属植物在农田生态除草方面的应用,选择资源较为丰富的牛尾蒿为研究对象,通过用牛尾蒿水浸提液对莴笋、小米菜、萝卜、黑麦草、野燕麦等植物种子发芽率的试验,表明牛尾蒿对这几种植物有明显的化感作用,并且对双子叶植物和单子叶植物的化感作用有明显的差异

  19. Preliminary Observation on Developmental Characteristics of Adventitious Buds of Artemisia frigida Willd.%冷蒿不定芽发育特性的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姗姗; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东; 韩轩

    2013-01-01

    对冷蒿不定芽的分布、着生特点、萌生数量及形态结构特征等发育特性的初步观察表明:冷蒿不定芽主要着生于根颈、地表枝条上,其大小、数量以及分布情况各异;不定芽主要产生于返青期到结实期,冷蒿现蕾期和开花期是不定芽萌生的旺盛时期,在根颈处分别有19个和25个,地表枝条上有66个和75个.光镜和扫描电镜观察表明,不定芽具有芽鳞片,包裹着幼叶、叶原基和叶生长点,芽和叶片的表皮被有大量的白色绢毛,发育中的芽体由灰白色转变为绿色,最终发育成叶片和枝条.%The developmental characteristics of adventitious buds of Artemisia frigida Willd. were observed. The results show that the adventitious buds of Artemisia frigida Willd. mainly grow on the rhizome and ground branches,whose size, amount and distribution were different; adventitious buds occurred in May to November, budding stage and flowering stage were period of adventitious buds occurring, there were 19 and 25 adventitious buds on the rhizome and 66 and 75 adventitious buds on the ground branches; by the optical stereoscope and canning electron microscope, the adventitious buds had bud scale, young leaves, leaf primordium and growing tip wrapped in it, the surface of buds and leaves had plenty of white silk wool, the buds turned off-white to green during development, finally formed leaf and branch.

  20. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

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    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  1. Galanthamine, an anti-cholinesterase drug, effects plant growth and development in Artemisia tridentata Nutt. via modulation of auxin and neurotransmitter signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Axwik, Katarina E; Smith, Anderson; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K; Murch, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor that has been well established as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, but the role of the compound in plant metabolism is not known. The current study was designed to investigate whether galanthamine could redirect morphogenesis of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. cultures by altering concentration of endogenous neurosignaling molecules acetylcholine (Ach), auxin (IAA), melatonin (Mel), and serotonin (5HT). Exposure of axenic A. tridentata cultures to 10 µM galanthamine decreased the concentration of endogenous Ach, IAA, MEL, and AchE, and altered plant growth in a manner reminiscent of 2-4D toxicity. Galanthamine itself demonstrated IAA activity in an oat coleoptile elongation bioassay, 20 µM galanthamine showed no significant difference compared with 5 μM IAA or 5 μM 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Metabolomic analysis detected between 20,921 to 27,891 compounds in A. tridentata plantlets and showed greater commonality between control and 5 µM treatments. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis putatively identified coumarins scopoletin/isoscopoletin, and scopolin in A. tridentata leaf extracts and these metabolites linearly increased in response to galanthamine treatments. Overall, these data indicate that galanthamine is an allelopathic phytochemical and support the hypothesis that neurologically active compounds in plants help ensure plant survival and adaptation to environmental challenges.

  2. LC-ESI-TOF-MS and GC-MS profiling of Artemisia herba-alba and evaluation of its bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Bettaieb Rebey, Iness; Mkadmini, Khawla; Isoda, Hiroko; Ksouri, Riadh; Ksouri, Wided Megdiche

    2017-09-01

    In this work, LC-ESI-TOF-MS and GC-EI-MS were used to assess the potential of Artemisia herba alba as a source of health-promoting constituents. Besides, the antioxidant, the antimicrobial and the cytotoxic potentials were evaluated. A total of 86 metabolites, including C-glycosylated and methylated flavones, quinic acid derivatives, coumarins, sesquiterpenes lactones, terpenoids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and alkaloids were identified, sixty five of them were reported for the first time in A. herba alba. The main compounds were di-O-caffeoylquinic acids, artemisinic acid, menthol, α-ketoglutaric acid, scopolin, isoschaftoside and sucrose. Furthermore, results showed that A. herba alba possess high total antioxidant activity (Total antioxidant activity=423mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight), strong potential anticancer capacity against MCF-7 breast cancer and HeLa human cervical cell lines (IC50 of 15 and 70μg/ml, respectively), and moderate antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. thurigiensis and A. hydrophila. These results support the use of this plant as alternative bioactive ingredient for functional foods, dietary supplements or nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various chromatography methods. The structures of four DHAA metabolites, namely, dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, arteannuin I, arteannuin K, and 3-β-hydroxy-dihydro-epi-deoxyarteannuin B, were elucidated by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. The correlation between gene expression and ART content was investigated. The results of RT-PCR showed that DHAA could up-regulate expression of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS, amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase gene (CYP71AV1, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene (FPS (3.19-, 7.21-, and 2.04-fold higher than those of control group, resp., which indicated that biosynthesis processes from DHAA to ART were enzyme-mediated.

  4. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  5. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway.

  6. Genome size, chromosome number, and rDNA organisation in Algerian populations of Artemisia herba-alba (Asteraceae, a basic plant for animal feeding facing overgrazing erosion

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    Youcef Bougoutaia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia herba-alba is a largely-distributed and often landscape-dominating taxon in arid areas of the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions. In Algeria, in 2010 its communities covered 10% of the steppe territory, but its populations have been subjected to overgrazing. A karyological study based on 22 populations together with a cytogenetic characterisation of this species has been performed for the first time in Algerian materials, through genome size and chromosome number determination. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH was also used to assess the rDNA loci number and distribution in the two ploidy levels detected. The studied accessions are diploid (2n = 2x = 18 chromosomes, 6 populations or tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36 chromosomes, 15 populations. One population, occupying a more or less central geographic position among the studied area, presented both cytotypes. Genome size reflects well the two ploidy levels, with no evidence of downsizing with polyploidy. The karyotypes are rather symmetric (2A Stebbins’ class. FISH analyses detected four signals (2 loci in diploid and eight signals (4 loci in tetraploid cytotypes for both ribosomal DNA genes, which present an L-type (linked organisation, i.e. with loci from both rDNA genes colocalised. The presence of two ploidy levels suggest a genomic dynamism and even a possible differentiation underlying the morphological uniformity and despite the dramatic decrease experienced by this plant in Algeria in terms of surface coverage.

  7. Artemisia asiatica Nakai Attenuates the Expression of Proinflammatory Mediators in Stimulated Macrophages Through Modulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Tang, Yujiao; Cha, Kwang-Suk; Choi, Heeri; Lee, Chun Bok; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kim, Jong Moon; Han, Weon Cheol; Choi, Suck-Jun; Lee, Sangmin; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects and potential mechanism of action of Artemisia asiatica Nakai (A. asiatica Nakai) extract in activated murine macrophages. A. asiatica Nakai extract showed dose-dependent suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. It also showed dose-dependent inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and as an inhibitor of NF-κB-alpha phosphorylation. The extract's inhibitory effects were found to be mediated through NF-κB inhibition and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of A. asiatica Nakai. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. asiatica Nakai on J774A.1 murine macrophages; these results may help develop functional foods possessing an anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.

  9. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  10. Viper venom induced inflammation with Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849) and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Erel, Sura Baykan; Köksal, Cinel; Göçmen, Bayram; Yıldız, Mehmet Zülfü; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, Nefise Ülkü

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the characterization of Montivipera xanthina crude venom partially by in vitro and in vivo and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in comparison with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in rats. The LD50 value was estimated as 8.78 mg/kg within 24 h by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. The IC50 value was 0.43 ± 0.18 μg/ml after 48 h treatment while the calculated value was 0.73 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the culture media totally refreshed after 2 h treatment with venom. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with A. absinthium extract, 30 min before venom or carrageenan was injected subplantarly into the left hind paw. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg extract was inhibited venom induced paw swelling at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h (p in vivo toxicity and inflammatory actions and in vitro cytotoxic actions of crude M. xanthina venom were performed as a first report and inhibition of venom-induced inflammation by methanolic extract of A. absinthium was described.

  11. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  12. A Method of Hepatocyte Extraction Conjugated with HPLC is Established for Screening Potential Active Components in Chinese Medicines—Probing Herba Artemisiae Scopariae as an Exemplifying Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Fan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an effective and quick method for screening potential bioactive compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs, hepatocytes were employed for extracting either bifendate, a clinical medicine for liver diseases, or chemicals in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (A. Scopariae, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for remedying liver diseases such as hepatitis induced by viruses, chemicals or alcohol. After hepatocyte extraction the compounds were analyzed by HPLC, therefore this method was referrred to as hepatocyte extraction conjugated with HPLC (HE-HPLC. In the first part of this study, HE-HPLC showed that bifendate was extracted by hepatocytes and detected by HPLC-DAD which indicated the feasibility of this method. Then in the second part of the study, the potential active components in the A. scopariae extract were studied using HE-HPLC. Six chemicals in the A. scopariae extract, which could bind to hepatocytes in vitro, were detected by HPLC-DAD and three were identified as 7-hydroxy-coumarin (7-OH-C, capillartemisin A and 7-methoxy-coumarin, respectively. In vitro assays showed that 7-OH-C protected HL-7702 hepatocytes from H2O2 injury. The results indicated that these compounds could be extracted by hepatocytes, could be detected by HPLC and more importantly were bioactive. It is suggested that HE-HPLC is a useful method for screening potent active components in Chinese medicines used to treat liver diseases.

  13. Isolation and identification of novel genes involved in artemisinin production from flowers of Artemisia annua using suppression subtractive hybridization and metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuoqian; Tian, Na; Li, Juan; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2009-11-01

    Malaria is a global health problem that threatens 300-500 million people and kills more than one million people annually. Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and it has been widely used as part of the artemisinin-based combination therapies against malaria. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin and to clone related genes in Artemisia annua, differentially expressed genes between blooming flowers and flower buds were isolated and characterized by a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and metabolite analysis. A total of 350 cDNA clones from a subtractive cDNA library were randomly picked, sequenced and analyzed and 253 high-quality sequences were obtained. BLASTX comparisons indicated that about 9.9 % of the clones encoded enzymes involved in isoprenoid (including artemisinin) biosynthesis. The expression of 4 gene transcripts involved in artemisinin biosynthesis was examined by RT-PCR and the results confirmed the higher expression of these transcripts in blooming flowers than in flower buds. In addition, 2 putative transcript factors transparenta testa glabra 1 (TTG1) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (GL3), which promote trichome initiation, were presented in the library. Finally, this study demonstrated that the increase of expression level of the putative TTG1 gene correlated with the improvement of glandular trichome density and artemisinin production in A. annua leaves. The subtractive cDNA library described in the present study provides important candidate genes for future research in order to increase the artemisinin content in A. annua.

  14. Effectiveness of Stimulation of Acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (Moxa) for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials has been performed to assess the effectiveness of stimulation of acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (the Japanese name is moxa) to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. Methods and Findings. Articles published from 1980 to August 2013 in databases of CENTRAL, Pubmed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched. Studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs); moxibustion-type intervention on KI 1 compared with antihypertensive drugs; meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion plus antihypertensive drugs on systolic blood pressure (WMD: -4.91 [-7.54, -2.28]; P = 0.0003) but no superior effects on diastolic blood pressure (WMD: -6.38 [-17.17, 4.41]; P = 0.25). Conclusions. Our systematic review of the current literature shows a beneficial effect of using moxibustion interventions on KI 1 to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. However, the results are influenced by the existing differences in design of the current trials.

  15. Effectiveness of Stimulation of Acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (Moxa for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials has been performed to assess the effectiveness of stimulation of acupoint KI 1 by Artemisia vulgaris (the Japanese name is moxa to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. Methods and Findings. Articles published from 1980 to August 2013 in databases of CENTRAL, Pubmed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched. Studies included were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; moxibustion-type intervention on KI 1 compared with antihypertensive drugs; meta-analysis showed superior effects of moxibustion plus antihypertensive drugs on systolic blood pressure (WMD: −4.91 [−7.54, −2.28]; P=0.0003 but no superior effects on diastolic blood pressure (WMD: −6.38 [−17.17, 4.41]; P=0.25. Conclusions. Our systematic review of the current literature shows a beneficial effect of using moxibustion interventions on KI 1 to lower blood pressure compared to antihypertensive drugs. However, the results are influenced by the existing differences in design of the current trials.

  16. Ethanol extract of Artemisia sieversiana exhibits anticancer effects and induces apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway involving DNA damage in COLO-205 colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to see the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ethanolic herbal extract of Artemisia sieversiana against three human colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-15 and COLO-205 cells. The cytotoxicity of the extract on these cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay. Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/ETBR staining was employed to investigate morphological alterations in COLO-205 cells by the herbal extract. Flow cytometry instrument measured the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential loss while as gel electrophoresis measured DNA damage in these cells. The extract at increasing doses exhibited a strong cytotoxic effect in a dose-dependent manner against all the three colon cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of the extract against HT-29, HCT-15 and COLO-205 cancer cells were found to be 52.1, 43.2 and 38.6 µg/mL respectively. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm and DNA fragmentation events were also observed following extract treatment at increasing doses.

  17. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Carbon Metabolism Favor Arsenic Tolerance in Artemisia annua, a Medicinal Plant as Revealed by Homology-Based Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first proteomic evidence of arsenic (As tolerance and interactive regulatory network between primary and secondary metabolism in the medicinal plant, Artemisia annua. While chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic rate depicted mild inhibition, there was a significant enhancement in PSI activity, whole chain, ATP, and NADPH contents in 100 μM As treatments compared to the control plants. However, a decrease in the above variables was recorded under 150 μM treatments. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of A. annua under As stress using 2-DE followed by MALDI-MS/MS revealed a total of 46 differentially expressed protein spots. In contrast to other plants where As inhibits photosynthesis, A. annua showed appreciable photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and allocation of carbon resources at 100 μM As concentration. While an increased accumulation of ATP synthase, ferredoxin-NADP(H oxidoreductase, and FeS-rieske proteins supported the operation of cyclic electron transport, mdr ABC transporter protein and pcs gene might be involved in As detoxification. The most interesting observation was an increased accumulation of LEAFY like novel protein conceivably responsible for an early onset of flowering in A. annua under As stress. This study not only affirmed the role of energy metabolism proteins but also identified potential candidates responsible for As tolerance in plants.

  18. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  19. Challenges of establishing big sgebrush (Artemisia tridentata) in rangeland restoration: effects of herbicide, mowing, whole-community seeding, and sagebrush seed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Martha M.; Germino, Matthew J.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Pilliod, David S.; McIlroy, Susan K.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) on sites disturbed by fire has motivated restoration seeding and planting efforts. However, the resulting sagebrush establishment is often lower than desired, especially in dry areas. Sagebrush establishment may be increased by addressing factors such as seed source and condition or management of the plant community. We assessed initial establishment of seeded sagebrush and four populations of small outplants (from different geographies, climates, and cytotypes) and small sagebrush outplants in an early seral community where mowing, herbicide, and seeding of other native plants had been experimentally applied. No emergence of seeded sagebrush was detected. Mowing the site before planting seedlings led to greater initial survival probabilities for sagebrush outplants, except where seeding also occurred, and these effects were related to corresponding changes in bare soil exposure. Initial survival probabilities were > 30% greater for the local population of big sagebrush relative to populations imported to the site from typical seed transfer distances of ~320–800 km. Overcoming the high first-year mortality of outplanted or seeded sagebrush is one of the most challenging aspects of postfire restoration and rehabilitation, and further evaluation of the impacts of herb treatments and sagebrush seed sources across different site types and years is needed.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. Pelargonium graveolens L'Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhysopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Krichen, Lamia

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Pelargonium graveolens essential oil allowed the identification of 15 compounds (93.86% of the total essential oil). The major fractions were citronellol (35%) and geraniol (28.8%). The chemical composition of the Artemisia arborescens essential oil revealed twenty-one compounds representing 93.57% of the total essential oil. The main compounds were chamazulene (31.9%) and camphor (25.8%). The insecticidal effects were tested towards the insect Rhysopertha dominica. Results revealed that these two essential oils were highly effective against R. dominica at the dose of 50 µL on Petri dish of 8.5 cm of diameter. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Rhizoctonia solani and results showed that both of the essential oils were highly active at a dose of 12.5 µL/20 mL of PDA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of P. graveolens essential oil was evidenced as stronger than that of the A. arborescens oil for all the tested doses.

  2. Essential Oils Extracted Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Aerial Parts of Eleven Artemisia Species: Chemical Compositions and Diversities in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs extracted through microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of 11 Artemisia species growing wild in different regions in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central parts of Iran. The EOs were subsequently analyzed via GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the EOs varied over the range of 0.21-0.50 (w/w%. On the basis of these characterizations and spectral assignments, natural compounds including camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, and sabinene were the most abundant and frequent constituents among all studied chemical profiles. Accordingly, oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and non-terpene hydrocarbons were the dominant groups of natural compounds in the chemical profiles of 13, 4, and 2 samples, respectively. Moreover, five chemotypes were identified using statistical analyses: camphene, α-pinene and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; camphore and 1,8-cineole; camphore and camphore and β-thujone.

  3. Overexpression and Suppression of Artemisia annua 4-Hydroxy-3-Methylbut-2-enyl Diphosphate Reductase 1 Gene (AaHDR1) Differentially Regulate Artemisinin and Terpenoid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongming; Li, Gui; Zhu, Yue; Xie, De-Yu

    2017-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels. Green florescence protein fusion and confocal microscope analyses showed that AaHDR1 was localized in chloroplasts. The overexpression of AaHDR1 increased contents of artemisinin, arteannuin B and other sesquiterpenes, and multiple monoterpenes. By contrast, the suppression of AaHDR1 by anti-sense led to opposite results. In addition, an untargeted metabolic profiling showed that the overexpression and suppression altered non-polar metabolite profiles. In conclusion, the overexpression and suppression of AaHDR1 protein level in plastids differentially affect artemisinin and other terpenoid biosynthesis, and alter non-polar metabolite profiles of A. annua. Particularly, its overexpression leading to the increase of artemisinin production is informative to future metabolic engineering of this antimalarial medicine. PMID:28197158

  4. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  5. Determination of Chemicals Contents in Artemisia selengensis Turcz.%蒌蒿中化学物质含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水清; 刘红英; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    [目的]测定蒌蒿(Artemisia selengensis Turcz.)中化学物质含量,为其综合开发利用提供参考.[方法]用分光光度法测定了蒌蒿茎、嫩叶和老叶中可溶性糖、粗多糖、单宁及类黄酮含量.[结果]蒌蒿茎中可溶性糖、粗多糖、单宁含量最高,老叶中3种成分的含量最低,而叶中的类黄酮含量高于茎.[结论]萎蒿营养丰富,具有很好的保健、抗肿瘤及免疫调节作用和抑菌活性.%[Objective]To study the breeding process, combinations' performance and its use in production of Feng 39S.[Method]Feng 39S was a dual-purpose genie male sterile line that derived from Guangzhan 63S treated with ion beam mutation after 5 years of 7 generations of breeding and selection. Its morphological characteristics, fertility conversion rule, combinations performance and seed reproduction techniques were studied.[Result]Feng 39S shows the characteristics of low sterility-inducing temperature, desirable agronomic characters, good grain quality, wide compatibility, high out-crossing rate, strong combining ability and so on. In 2006, it was certified by Anhui Provincial Crop Va riety Appraisal Committee. It has been matching a series of high yield and high quality hybrid rice combinations, some of them had been certi fied by national or provincial standards.[Conclusion]Feng 39S is an excellent dual-purpose genie male sterile line with better group perform ance, and has great application prospects.

  6. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Hu, Dong-Hui; Feng, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation therapy using essential oils has been used to treat acute and chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia capillaris, and evaluate the antibacterial effects of the essential oil and its main components, against common clinically relevant respiratory bacterial pathogens. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography‑mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 25 chemical constituents, the main constituents being: α‑pinene, β‑pinene, limonene, 1,8‑cineole, piperitone, β‑caryophyllene and capillin. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil, and its major constituents, were evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MRSA (clinical strain), methicillin‑gentamicin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MGRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against the various strains. The essential oil was observed to be much more potent, as compared with any of its major chemical constituents, exhibiting low minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentration values against all of the bacterial strains. The essential oil was most active against S. pyogenes, MRSA (clinical strain), S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and E. coli. Piperitone and capillin were the most potent growth inhibitors, among the major chemical constituents. Furthermore, the essential oil of A. capillaris induced significant and dose‑dependent morphological changes in the S. aureus bacterial strain, killing >90% of the bacteria when administered at a higher dose; as determined by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the essential oil induced a significant leakage of potassium and phosphate ions from the S. aureus bacterial cultures. These results indicate that

  7. Extraction mechanism of ultrasound assisted extraction and its effect on higher yielding and purity of artemisinin crystals from Artemisia annua L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Smain; Aissa, Abdallah; Boumechhour, Abdenour; Arous, Omar; Ait-Amar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C. Kinetic study suggests that the extraction pattern can be assimilated, during the first ten minutes, to a first order steady state, from which activation energy calculations revealed that each gram of artemisinin required 7.38kJ in ultrasound versus 10.3kJ in the conventional system. Modeling results indicate the presence of two extraction stages, a faster stage with a diffusion coefficient of 19×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1) for ultrasound technique at 40°C, seven times higher than the conventional one; and a second deceleration stage similar for both techniques with diffusion coefficient ranging from 1.7 to 3.1×10(-5)cm(2)min(-1). It is noted that the efficient ultrasound extraction potential implies extraction of higher amount of co-metabolites so low artemisinin crystal purity is engendered but a combination with a purification step using activated charcoal and celite adsorbents produced crystals with comparable purity for conventional and ultrasound samples.

  8. Effect of Development Stage on the Artemisinin Content and the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker of High-Artemisinin Yielding Strains of Artemisia annua L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    The effects of development states on the artemisinin content of clone S1 of Artemisia anuua L. grown in a greenhouse were investigated in the present study. The artemisinin content increased gradually during the phase of vegetative growth and reached its highest level at 8-9 mg/g dry weight (DW) when the S1 was 6 months old on a long day (LD) photoperiod. Treatment with 9-18 d of short day (SD) photoperiod resulted in the artemisinin content reaching and being maintained at a higher level (2.059-2.289 mg/g DW), twofold that of control plants and plants of S1 presented at the pro-flower budding and flower-budding stages. The artemisinin content varied in different parts of the plant. The artemisinin content of leaves was higher than that of florets and branches. The artemisinin content in middle leaves was higher than that of bottom leaves, and then top leaves. Different densities of capitate glands (the storage organ of artemisinin) located on the surface of leaves, florets, and branches explained the variations in artemisinin content in these parts of the plant. The correlation coefficient between artemisinin content and density of capitate glands on the surface of different organs was 0.987. The genetic marker for artemisinin content was screened using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) techniques.The random primer OPA15 (5'-TTCCGAACCC-3') could amplify a specific band of approximately 1 000 bp that was present in all high-artemisinin yielding strains, but absent in all low-yielding strains in three independent replications. This specific band was cloned and its sequence was analyzed. This RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR marker to obtain a more stable marker.

  9. Cloning and characterization of trichome-specific promoter of cpr71av1 gene involved in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueyue; Yang, Ke; Jing, Fuyuan; Li, Meiya; Deng, Ting; Huang, Runze; Wang, Boshi; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Ke-Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae), is the most effective antimalarial drug. We used two methods: genome walking and thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction, to isolate the unknown 5'-flanking sequence of the cyp71av1 gene. The subsequent sequence analysis using bioinformatics software revealed that there are several cis-acting elements inside the cyp71av1 promoter. The 5'-rapid amplification of the cDNA ends method was used to determine the transcription start site of the cyp71av1 gene. We then mapped it at the 18 base upstream of the ATG initiation codon. For simple functional characterization, we built fusion vectors between the 5'-deletion promoter and the gas reporter gene. The expression levels of the transferred vectors into A. annua L. were analyzed by the transient expression way. The beta-glucuronidase assay results indicated that deletion of the region to -1551 bp did not lead to much damage in the GUS activity, whereas further deletion, to -1155 bp, resulted in a 5.5-fold reduction of GUS activity. In stabilized transgenic A. annua L. seedlings we observed that GUS expression was restricted to trichomes, which means that the promoter of the cyp71av1 gene is trichome-specific. Compared with the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, which can express genes throughout the plant, influence on the trichome system through the trichome-specific expression promoter merely imperils plant growth. In addition, the promoter of the cyp71av1 gene contains several binding sites for transcription factors, which implies that the cyp71av1 promoter responds to more than one form of stimulation.

  10. Dual Bioactivities of Essential Oil Extracted from the Leaves of Artemisia argyi as an Antimelanogenic versus Antioxidant Agent and Chemical Composition Analysis by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Zen Chang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 19.16 mg/mL, down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%, alcohols (16.72%, sesquiterpenes (15.21%, esters (11.78%, monoterpenes (11.63%, ketones (6.09%, aromatic compounds (5.01%, and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  11. Dual bioactivities of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi as an antimelanogenic versus antioxidant agent and chemical composition analysis by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Chang, Long-Zen; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-11-12

    The study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of essential oil when extracted from the leaves of Artemisia argyi, then analyzing the chemical composition of the essential oil. The inhibitory effect of the essential oil on melanogenesis was evaluated by a mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and B16F10 melanoma cell model. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was assayed by spectrophotometric analysis, and the volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that the essential oil significantly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 19.16 mg/mL), down-regulates B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radicals, showed an apparent reduction power as compared with metal-ion chelating activities. The chemicals constituents in the essential oil are ether (23.66%), alcohols (16.72%), sesquiterpenes (15.21%), esters (11.78%), monoterpenes (11.63%), ketones (6.09%), aromatic compounds (5.01%), and account for a 90.10% analysis of its chemical composition. It is predicted that eucalyptol and the other constituents, except for alcohols, in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from A. argyi leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 cells and showed potent antioxidant activity. The essential oil can thereby be applied as an inhibitor of melanogenesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant in skin care products.

  12. Evaluation of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. on growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X L; Song, Z H; Niu, Y; Cheng, K; Zhang, J F; Ahmad, H; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of including enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) in broiler diets on growth performance, meat quality, and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles. A total of 256 one-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the four groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kg EA during the 42-d experiment, respectively. The ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 42 d of age. Breast and thigh muscle samples from eight birds per treatment were obtained at 42 d to determine meat quality, free radical scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation. All treatment groups had similar ADG, ADFI, and F:G during the 42 d experiment (P > 0.05). Drip loss at 24 h and shearing force of breast muscle were linearly (P muscle followed the same fashion. The supplementation of EA quadratically increased 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (P = 0.004) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (P = 0.035) free radical scavenging activities in breast muscle, and linearly (P muscle. Increasing levels of EA linearly (P muscle samples during 15 d of storage at 4°C. The results indicated that EA supplementation improved meat quality and oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles in broilers. The inclusion level of 1.0 g/kg EA in broiler diet was recommended. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  14. Influences of soil salinity and pre-hydration on seed dispersal and germination of Artemisia monosperma(Asteraceae)%土壤盐分、预湿处理对Artemisia monosperma(菊科)种子传播和萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振英; Yitzchak; GUTTERMAN; 等

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia monosperma是分布于西奈半岛以及以色列地中海沿岸许多活动沙丘及固定沙丘上的建群种植物。在固定沙丘上,雨后的蓝细菌结皮上能产生径流水, A.monosperma的种子在径流水上漂浮并被传播到低洼处或土壤缝隙中。实验表明,有一半的种子在蒸馏水上漂浮3d,而在各种浓度的盐溶液上则能漂浮更长时间。低浓度的盐溶液对种子的萌发无影响而高浓度的盐分抑制种子的萌发。NO--3可能是影响种子在沙质蓝细菌结皮上萌发的因素,低浓度的NO--3促进种子萌发而高浓度则抑制。预湿处理的实验表明,在自然生境中,暴露在地表或埋在浅表层的种子经受每晚的露水以及小量雨水的反复湿润,其萌发力有可能通过强化作用而提高。%Artemisia monosperma is a dominant desert small shrub occurring in active sand dunes and stabilized sand fields. A cyanobacterial crust develops on stabilized sand and, as a result, runoff water may occur after rains. The mucilaginous seeds may float on the runoff water and disperse into depressions or cracks. In these experiments, almost half of the seeds remained afloat on distilled water for 3 days and on different concentrations of salt solutions, more seeds remained afloat for longer. Lower concentrations of salt do not influence seed germination while high concentrations have the inhibition effect. NO--3 may influence seed germination on cyanobacterial sand crust, low concentrations of NO--3 accelerate while high concentrations inhibit germination. It was indicated from the pre-hydration experiment that in natural habitats seeds located on or near the sand surface may be exposed to repeated wetting by dew or amounts of water smaller than cause germination.The germinabilty of such seeds may be raised by the priming effect.

  15. 青蒿种子萌发过程中生理生化变化的研究%Study on the Change of Physiology and Biochemistry During Process of Artemisia annua Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 李隆云; 孙年喜

    2011-01-01

    Studied the dynamic changes of physiological index of Artemisia annua seed during germination. The result showed that in the seed budding of Artemisia annua,the content of soluble sugar increased rapidly at the beginning, forty hours later, it decreased step by step. The content of starch fell down at first, then rose, interrelated with the change of soluble sugar. The content of MDA rose at first, then fell down. The content of soluble protein, dissociated amino acid, SOD, POD and CAT all increased.%以青蒿种子为材料,研究了青蒿种子萌发过程中营养物质的动态变化.结果表明:种子萌发期间,可溶性糖含量从第24小时开始迅速升高,第72小时达到最高值,此后缓慢降低;淀粉含量先降低后升高,与可溶性糖含量变化相对应;可溶性蛋白质、游离氨基酸总量呈上升趋势;MDA含量开始小幅上升后逐渐降低;SOD、POD、CAT均呈上升趋势.

  16. Increased susceptibility of ethanol-treated gastric mucosa to naproxen and its inhibition by DA-9601, an Artemisia asiatica extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Young Oh; Gook Jun Ahn; Seul Min Choi; Byoung Ok Ahn; Won Bae Kim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of DA-9601, a new gastroprotective agent, on the vulnerability of ethanoltreated rat's stomach to naproxen (NAP).METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 1 mL of 50% ethanol twice a day for 5 d and then NAP (50 mg/kg) was administered. DA-9601 was administered 1 h before NAP. Four hours after NAP, the rats were killed to examine gross injury index (mm2), histologic change and to determine mucosal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO).RESULTS: Pretreatment of ethanol significantly increased NAP-induced gastric lesions, as well as an increase in MDA and MPO. On the contrary, mucosal PGE2 and GSH contents were decreased dramatically by ethanol pretreatment, which were aggravated by NAP. DA-9601 significantly reduced NAP-induced gastric injury grossly and microscopically, regardless of pretreatment with ethanol. DA-9601 preserved, or rather, increased mucosal PGE2 and GSH in NAP-treated rats (P<0.05),with reduction in mucosal MDA and MPO levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that repeated alcohol consumption renders gastric mucosa more susceptible to NSAIDs though, at least in part, reduction of endogenous cytoprotectants including PGE2 and GSH, and increase in MPO activation, and that DA-9601, a new gastroprotectant, can reduce the increased vulnerability of ethanol consumers to NSAIDs-induced gastric damage via the mechanism in which PGE2 and GSH are involved.

  17. Dietary supplementation of Artemisia annua to free range broilers and its effects on gastro-intestinal parasite infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2012-01-01

    of the 12 groups (n=120) were monitored twice a week for excretion of coccidia oocysts (OPG) and gastrointestinal nematode eggs (EPG). At the end of the trial, when broilers were 74 days of age, 5 broilers per plot (n=60) were necropsied and their intestines opened for coccidia speciation and to account...... for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. In general, broilers from both genotypes coped well with coccidia infections as no deaths were reported. Broilers supplemented with A. annua showed a reduced number of excreted oocysts (67% less; p... of oocysts than males (45% more; pgastrointestinal nematodes were observed during routine EPG. However, during necropsy, juvenile larvae of Ascaridia galli were found in 73% of the broilers with no differences in respect...

  18. Validation, transfer and measurement uncertainty estimation of an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of artemisinin in hydro alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, Hermine Zime; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Evrard, Brigitte; Leclercq, Joëlle Quetin; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Debrus, Benjamin; Hubert, Philippe; Rozet, Eric

    2011-08-25

    Malaria is the world's most important parasitic infection with 500 millions cases annually and almost 2 millions death per year. This disease is more present in Sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the infections are found. Artemisinin and its semi synthetic derivatives (artemether, artesunate) have actually the most powerful activity on malaria, even in its complicated forms and resistance cases. Various methods have been proposed for detection and quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. by HPLC-UV, but the plant extracts used for this quantification were extracts obtained with organic solvents (toluene, petroleum ether, hexane). To be able to use crude A. annua extracts prepared at low cost to formulate antipaludic drugs, we chose the use of a mixture of water and ethanol as solvent of extraction, but no adequate analytical method for this kind of extracts is published. The main objectives of this work were first to develop an analytical method for artemisinin quantification in hydro alcoholic extracts of A. annua. Second, this method had to be thoroughly validated by the research and development laboratory and, third, the transfer of this method to the routine laboratory had to be demonstrated. The final aim was to compare the estimation of measurement uncertainty obtained during the method validation with validation standards to measurement uncertainty estimates obtained during the method transfer study with real samples. The method was validated following the accuracy profile methodology and was found to be accurate in the concentration range of 10.0-54.0 μg/ml with CVmeasurement uncertainty of the method was estimated from the validation experiments as well as from the transfer study with authentic unspiked samples of A. annua. The comparison of these measurement uncertainty estimations showed that they were coherent. It confirmed thus that the estimation of measurement uncertainty from validation experiments predicts well the measurement uncertainty

  19. Si-Accumulation In Artemisia annua Glandular Trichomes Increases Artemisinin Concentration, but Does Not Interfere In the Impairment of Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostkowska, Cristina; Mota, Caroline M.; Oliveira, Taísa C.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Oliveira, Lilian A.; Korndörfer, Gaspar H.; Lana, Regina M. Q.; Rossi, Monica L.; Nogueira, Neusa L.; Simonnet, Xavier; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Silva, Deise A.O.; Mineo, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A. annua trichome artemisinin concentration, and whether leaf infusion from Si-treated A. annua plants is able to control Toxoplasma gondii growth. T. gondii is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic parasitic disease whose traditional treatment shows significant side effects. The experimental design consisted of A. annua seedlings randomly planted in soil treated with different doses of calcium/magnesium silicate (0, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 kg ha-1). Analysis of foliar macronutrients showed significant increases of nitrogen content only at the highest dose of silicate. Foliar micronutrients, Si concentrations, and plant height were not affected by any of the silicate doses. However, the dose of 400 kg ha-1 of silicate increased the trichome size, which in turn raised artemisinin concentration in leaves and the infusion. In contrast, the 800 and 1600 kg ha-1 doses dramatically decreased artemisinin concentration. HeLa cell treatment with the infusion of A. annua grown in soil treated with 400 kg ha-1 of silicate decreased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner when the treatment was carried out after or along with T. gondii infection. However, this effect was similar to A. annua grown in soil without silicate treatment. Thus, it can be concluded that, even though Si applied to the soil at 400 kg ha-1 has a positive effect on the A. annua glandular trichome size and the artemisinin concentration

  20. Effect of Rol Genes on Polyphenols Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and Their Effect on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential of the Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilshad, Erum; Zafar, Sara; Ismail, Hammad; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Cusido, Rosa Maria; Palazon, Javier; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids are famous for their antioxidant capacity and redox potential. They can combat with cell aging, lipid peroxidation, and cancer. In the present study, Artemisia annua hybrid (Hyb8001r) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids through HPLC. Rol genes transgenics of A. annua were also evaluated for an increase in their flavonoid content along with an increase in antioxidant and cytotoxic potential. This was also correlated with the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes as determined by real-time qPCR. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase genes were found to be significantly more highly expressed in rol B (four to sixfold) and rol C transgenics (3.8-5.5-fold) than the wild-type plant. Flavonoids detected in the wild-type A. annua through HPLC include rutin (0.31 mg/g DW), quercetin (0.01 mg/g DW), isoquercetin (0.107 mg/g DW) and caffeic acid (0.03 mg/g DW). Transgenics of the rol B gene showed up to threefold increase in rutin and caffeic acid, sixfold increase in isoquercetin, and fourfold increase in quercetin. Whereas, in the case of transgenics of rol C gene, threefold increase in rutin and quercetin, 5 fold increase in isoquercetin, and 2.6-fold increase in caffeic acid was followed. Total phenolics and flavonoids content was also found to be increased in rol B (1.5-fold) and rol C (1.4-fold) transgenics as compared to the wild-type plant along with increased free radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the cytotoxic potential of rol gene transgenics against MCF7, HeLA, and HePG2 cancer cell lines was found to be significantly enhanced than the wild-type plant of A. annua. Current findings support the fact that rol genes can alter the secondary metabolism and phytochemical level of the plant. They increased the flavonoids content of A. annua by altering the expression level of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway genes. Increased flavonoid content also enhanced the antioxidant and cytotoxic

  1. GCMS Analysis and Anti-microbial Activity of Essential Oil of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. from Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert Region of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil analysis of Artemisia minor Jacq. ex Bess. has been done for the first time from Trilokinath (3020m of Lahaul & Spiti (Cold Desert region of North Indian higher altitude Himalayas in the month of July, 2007. Essential oil was isolated by hydro distillation from the aerial parts of the plants collected from the wild sources. The extraction yield for the essential oil of A. minor Jacq. ex Bess. was 0.40%. The oil was analyzed by GCMS; the components of the essential oil were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-computer library and also from the published literatures. The essential oil analysis led to the identification of 18 out of 22 constituents representing 65.37% of the composition of oil. The major constituents of the oil were: 1, 8- cineole (22.30%, camphor (12.64%, davanone (12.33%, ascaridole (11.11% and á-phellandrene (5.23%. The presence of artedouglasia oxide-C in A. minor has not been reported earlier in the same species and therefore acts as a new chemotype from this study area. The present study describes the phytochemical profile and anti-microbial activity of essential oil of A. minor. Furthermore, anti-microbial activity of oil was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. The anti-microbial test results showed that the oil had a potential anti-microbial activity against all seven Gram+ve and Gram-ve bacterial strains such as: Pseudomonas fluorescence, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acenetobactor calcoaceticus. Essential oil showed maximum zone of inhibition and minimal inhibition concentration against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-2451 and Pseudomonas fluorescence (MTCC-664 bacterial strains. These results permitted the conclusion to be made that, it is the first report of the GCMS analysis and anti-microbial activity on a new chemotype of A. minor Jacq

  2. Analysis of Flavonoids from Aerial Parts of Artemisia lavandulaefolia%野艾蒿中黄酮类成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马麟; 周海玲; 龚又明; 胡黎; 段启

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究野艾蒿的化学成分.方法 采用色谱方法进行分离、纯化,通过波谱技术对化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 从野艾蒿中分离得到11个黄酮类化合物,其结构鉴定分别为山柰酚( kaempferol,1)、芒柄花素(formononetin,2)、异鼠李素(isorhamnetin,3)、洋芹素(apigenin,4)、苜蓿素(tricin,5)、槲皮素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(7),槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(8),山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(9),芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(10),山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(11).结论 化合物1~11均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To investigate the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC. Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified hy chromatographic methods and structurally elucidated hy spectral analysis. Results Eleven flavonoids were isolated from A. lavandulaefolia, and their structures were identified as kaempferol ( 1 ), formononetin (2 ), isorhamnetin(3 ), apigenin(4), tricin(5), quercetin-7-O- β -D-glucopyranoside ) ( 6 ) , quercetin-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside ( 7 ) , quercetin- 3-0- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 8 ) , kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin-7-0- β -D-glucopyranoside ( 10), kaempferol- 3-0-β-D-rutinoside ( 11 ), respectively. Conclusion Compounds 1 - 11 have heen isolated from A. lavandulaefolia for the first time.

  3. Extraction of Artemisinin, an Active Antimalarial Phytopharmaceutical from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L., Using Microwaves and a Validated HPTLC-Visible Method for Its Quantitative Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method coupled with visible densitometric detection of artemisinin is developed and validated. Samples of the dried Artemisia annua leaves were extracted via microwaves using different solvents. This method shows the advantage of shorter extraction time of artemisinin from leaves under the influence of electromagnetic radiations. Results obtained from microwave-assisted extraction (MAE were compared with hot soxhlet extraction. Chromatographic separation of artemisinin from plant extract was performed over silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate as mobile phase in the ratio of 75 : 25, v/v. The plate was developed at room temperature 25 ± 2.0°C. Artemisinin separation over thin-layer plate was visualized after postchromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. HPTLC plate was scanned in a CAMAG’s TLC scanner 3 at 540 nm. Artemisinin responses were found to be linear over a range of 400–2800 ng spot−1 with a correlation coefficient 0.99754. Limits of detection and quantification were 40 and 80 ng spot−1, respectively. The HPTLC method was validated in terms of system suitability, precision, accuracy, sensitivity (LOD and LOQ, and robustness. Additionally, calculation of plate efficiency and flow constant were included as components of validation. Extracts prepared from different parts of the plant (leaves, branches, main stem, and roots were analyzed for artemisinin content, in which, artemisinin content was found higher in the leaf extract with respect to branches and main stem extracts; however, no artemisinin was detected in root extract. The developed HPTLC-visible method of artemisinin determination will be very useful for pharmaceutical industries, which are involved in monitoring of artemisinin content during different growth stages (in vitro and in vivo of A. annua for qualitative

  4. 鲜艾叶与干艾叶挥发性成分的HS-SPME-GC-MS分析%HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 赵先恩; 王晓; 耿岩玲; 刘建华; 刘伟

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)技术分析比较鲜艾叶与干艾叶的挥发性成分。考察了不同萃取头和萃取温度对艾叶挥发性成分的萃取效果,以选用65μm PDMS/DVB SPME萃取头和60℃水浴加热时萃取效果最好;采用峰面积归一化法测定各成分的质量分数,共鉴定出58种挥发性成分,主要为烯烃类、芳香类和醇类物质,占总峰面积90%以上。鲜艾叶与干艾叶均含有莰烯、1-辛烯-3-醇、α-水芹烯、邻聚伞花素、桉油精、石竹烯等,此外又各自具有特有成分,表明艾叶在干制后其挥发性成分发生变化。%We analyzed volatile components in fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant.with headspace solid phase microextraction(SPME) and GC-MS.We also investigated the impacts of different SPME fibers and extraction temperature on the extracts.Results demonstrate that 65 μm PDMS/DVB fibre and temperature of 60 ℃ exhibit good extraction effect.We employed peak area normalization method to determine the volatile components.Fifty-eight compounds are identified in the fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi,which include alkanes,alkenes and alcohols,and whose area exceeds 90% of the total peak area.Results also show that fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia argyi not only contain identical volatile compounds such as Camphene,1-Octen-3-ol,alpha-Phellandrene,Benzene,1-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-Eucalyptol and Caryophyllene,but also contain their own unique volatile compounds.This shows that their volatile components change after dryness.

  5. 麦蒲螨对黑沙蒿主要害虫寄主选择行为研究%Studies on host selection behavior of Pyemotes tritici of Artemisia ordosica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 骆有庆; 俞琳锋; 王锦林; 宋东冰; 宗世祥

    2015-01-01

    麦蒲螨[P yemotes tritici (LaGreze-Fossat et Montagne)]是黑沙蒿主要钻蛀性害虫沙蒿大粒象(Adosomus sp.)和沙蒿尖翅吉丁(Sphenoptera sp.)的重要寄生性天敌。为明确麦蒲螨的寄主选择行为,本文分别研究了麦蒲螨对黑沙蒿4种钻蛀性害虫、同一寄主不同发育阶段、受害黑沙蒿根部以及害虫虫粪的选择行为。结果表明:麦蒲螨对4种害虫以及同种害虫不同龄期幼虫有明显的选择现象,其中,对沙蒿尖翅吉丁的趋向性相对最高,沙蒿蛀茎蛾次之,沙蒿大粒象相对较小;相对于寄主的初孵幼虫,麦蒲螨对其老熟幼虫和蛹的趋向性更为强烈;不同种类害虫幼虫对麦蒲螨的寄主定位起到重要作用,而不同种害虫的虫粪对麦蒲螨的寄主选择行为也有一定的作用。相比受害黑沙蒿而言,健康黑沙蒿对麦蒲螨有明显的驱避现象。研究结果为揭示麦蒲螨对黑沙蒿不同钻蛀性害虫的寄主偏好性,利用麦蒲螨进行黑沙蒿主要害虫的生物防治提供了理论依据。%Pyemotes tritici (Newport)is one of the important parasitoids of the woodborers such as Adosopius sp. and Sphenoptera sp.associated with Artemisia ordosica Krasch.The host selection behavior of P .tritici to 4 spe-cies of Artemisia ordosica woodborers,different larval stages,the roots of damaged A .ordosica and frass of Arte-misia ordosica woodborers was studied.The results showed that there was an obvious selection behavior of P .triti-ci to different types and ages of pest larvae.P .tritici preferred to parasitize Sphenoptera sp.,and it had a stron-ger tendency to parasitize mature larvae and pupae than newly hatched larvae.The types of pest larvae played an important role in the host location behavior of P .tritici ,and frass of different species of woodborers also had a role on the host selection of P .tritici .Compared with the victims of A .ordosica ,P .tritici obviously avoided the healthy

  6. Melhoramento de Artemisia annua L.: indução de poliploidia expressão gênica e seleção de genótipos de alto rendimento

    OpenAIRE

    Zanmaria, Silvia Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. é uma espécie vegetal herbácea nativa da Ásia que possui folhas aromáticas que contém artemisinina, uma lactona sesquiterpênica que tem demonstrado eficácia contra doenças como câncer e malária. Para atender a demanda pela molécula, técnicas de manejo e melhoramento genético podem ser utilizadas para obtenção de genótipos superiores. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: obter genótipos de A. annua de alto rendimento de artemisinina e biomassa por meio da indução de poliploidia ...

  7. Evaluación del efecto de las artemisininas provenientes del extracto etanólico de Artemisia cina sobre L3 de Haemonchus contortus en una técnica de explantes abomasales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo enfoque de control integrado de parásitos obliga a buscar alternativas que consideren el medioambiente, es decir, sostenibles y sustentables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fraccionar el extracto etanólico de la planta Artemisia cina, obtener artemisininas y conocer el efecto de estas sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de Haemonchus contortus en explantes abomasales. El extracto etanólico se fraccionó por medio de la metodología establecida para Artemisia japónica, y se identificaron las artemisininas por medio de cromatografía en capa fina, teniendo como referencia artemisininas comerciales. Las artemisininas se utilizaron sobre L3 desenvainada, se realizó la técnica de explantes abomasales por triplicado y se compararon así: levamisol (7.5 mg/ml, artemisinina comercial (1 mg/ml, agua y seis diferentes fracciones de A. cina a dosis de 1 mg/ml: Ac3k, Ac3b, Ac3a, Ac3h, Ac3i, Ac4b. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre las fracciones de A. cina y artemisinina comercial (p>0.05. Se concluye que no existió efecto de las artemisininas obtenidas del extracto etanólico de A. cina sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de H. contortus al tejido abomasal. Es importante continuar con más estudios de la artemisinina para determinar sobre qué fase del parásito afecta su viabilidad.

  8. Cloning and function analyses of HDS gene from Artemisia annua%黄花蒿HDS基因的克隆与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖荣; 廖志华; 彭梅芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆获得黄花蒿MEP途径中必需关键酶——羟甲基丁烯基-4-磷酸合成酶基因(HDS),并进行生物信息学分析和功能互补分析研究.方法 对已知的其他种子植物HDS基因的核苷酸序列进行多重序列比对,选取保守区域设计简并引物,利用同源扩增和cDNA末端快速扩增技术从黄花蒿中获得目的基因;利用BLAST进行序列比对,ORF Finder寻找开放阅读框,并用MEGA3.0中的临位相联法构建进化树.结果 得到1条长2324 bp的HDS cDNA序列,其ORF 框长1854 bp,编码617个氨基酸残基的蛋白;生物信息学分析显示,黄花蒿HDS基因AaHDS与其他种子植物来源的HDS高度同源;功能互补分析表明,AaHDS能互补突变菌株Escherichia coli MG1655 ara<> HDS中缺失的HDS功能,使突变菌株恢复生长,证明AaHDS具有典型的HDS基因功能.结论 首次克隆获得黄花蒿HDS基因,为青蒿素的代谢工程研究提供相应的基础.%Objective To obtain the indispensable key enzyme-hydroxide methyl enylamino 4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (HDS) gene involved in the MEP pathway cloned from Artemisia annua and conduct bioinformatic and functional complementation analysis. Methods To perform multiple sequence alignment for the nucleotide acid sequence of the other reported seed plants' HDS gene, to select conservative areas for designing degenerate primers, and to gain the aim gene from A. Annua through homologous expanding and cDNA bottom speedily expanding technique. To perform sequence alignment using BLAST, to identify open reading frame (ORF) using ORF Finder, and to construct phylogenetic tree using neighbor joining (NJ) ways in MEGA3.0. Results The obtained HDS cDNA sequence was 2 324 bp containing a 1 854 bp ORF and encoding a 617-amino acid protein. Bioinformatic analysis showed that AaHDS was homologous with HDS derived from other seed plant species. Functional complementation analysis indicated that AaHDS could make up the short HDS

  9. 土壤微生物对黄花蒿凋落物或青蒿素的响应%Responses of soil microorganisms to Artemisia annua leaf litter or artemisinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 袁玲; 杨水平; 黄建国

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua releases many kinds of allelochemicals into soils via dead plant residues,either by rain leaching or root exudation.Dead leaves of A.annua contribute more than 80% of the total artemisinin that enters soils during the growth period of A.annua.Allelochemicals released by the dead leaves reduce the growth and yields of succeeding and adjacent crops.Soil microbes play roles in nutrient transformation,organic matter recycling,toxicant decomposition,and hormone efflux,and thus,are important for plant growth and development.However,little is known about the effects of these allelochemicals on soil microorganisms.In these experiments,artemisinin and A.annua leaf litter were each added to soil and changes in microbial bio-mass and community structure were evaluated.The growth and reproduction of culturable microorganisms in soils showed wide variations in response to A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.For example,the number of fungi increased but the numbers of actinomycetes,azotobacteria,nitrobacteria,and nitrite bacteria significantly decreased in soils containing A.annua leaf litter or artemisinin.The results suggested that both leaf litter or artemisinin inhibited organic matter mineralization,nitrogen bio-fixation,mobilization of phosphorus and po-tassium,and nitrification.The soil microbial quotient decreased,while the metabolic quotient increased,after A.annua and artemisinin were added to soils.This result indicated that artemisinin and other allelochemicals in the leaf litter interfered with the metabolism of soil microorganisms.The types and total contents of signa-ture phospholipid fatty acids of microbes such as actinomycetes and protozoa decreased in soils containing leaf litter or artemisinin.The diversity and evenness indices of the microbial community also decreased,suggesting that the soil microbial ecosystem deteriorated as the densities of various microbial groups decreased.Therefore, artemisinin and allelopathic chemicals released from A

  10. 黄花蒿提取物生产工艺条件及其对乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)生成的调控作用%Processing Condition of Artemisia annua L. Extracts and Its Regulative Effect on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚一萍

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. contains many kinds of nutritional and biologically active components, including terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, aromatics, fatty acids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc. Supplementation of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. in ruminant diet is able to increase the CLA content in their milk. Here, we reviewed the nutritional and biologically active components, extraction conditions, detection methods and proper supplementation level in animal diet of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L, so as to provide references for the large scale production of CLA-enriched milk.%黄花蒿乙醇提取物含有多种营养活性物质,主要包括萜类、倍半萜类、芳香族类、脂肪酸类、甾体类、黄酮类、生物碱类等化合物。反刍动物日粮中添加黄花蒿乙醇提取物能够增加其乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量。综述了黄花蒿乙醇提取物的主要营养活性物质、提取工艺条件、营养活性物质的检测方法及黄花蒿提取物在动物日粮中的适宜添加量,旨在为生产CLA乳提供参考。

  11. Eupatilin exerts neuroprotective effects in mice with transient focal cerebral ischemia by reducing microglial activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Jeon, Se Jin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Sun Yeou; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong

    2017-01-01

    Microglial activation and its-driven neuroinflammation are characteristic pathogenetic features of neurodiseases, including focal cerebral ischemia. The Artemisia asiatica (Asteraceae) extract and its active component, eupatilin, are well-known to reduce inflammatory responses. But the therapeutic potential of eupatilin against focal cerebral ischemia is not known, along with its anti-inflammatory activities on activated microglia. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of eupatilin on focal cerebral ischemia through its anti-inflammation, particularly on activated microglia, employing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (tMCAO), combined with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia. Eupatilin exerted anti-inflammatory responses in activated BV2 microglia, in which it reduced secretion of well-known inflammatory markers, including nitrite, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2, in a concentration-dependent manner. These observed in vitro effects of eupatilin led to in vivo neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia. Oral administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) in a therapeutic paradigm significantly reduced brain infarction and improved neurological functions in tMCAO-challenged mice. The same benefit was also observed when eupatilin was given even within 5 hours after MCAO induction. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of a single administration of eupatilin (10 mg/kg) immediately after tMCAO challenge persisted up to 3 days after tMCAO. Eupatilin administration reduced the number of Iba1-immunopositive cells across ischemic brain and induced their morphological changes from amoeboid into ramified in the ischemic core, which was accompanied with reduced microglial proliferation in ischemic brain. Eupatilin suppressed NF-κB signaling activities in ischemic brain by reducing IKKα/β phosphorylation, IκBα phosphorylation, and IκBα degradation. Overall, these data indicate that eupatilin is a neuroprotective agent against

  12. 内蒙古农牧交错区沙蒿根围AM真菌物种多样性%Species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Artemisia sphaerocephala in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺学礼; 郭辉娟; 王银银; 赵丽莉

    2012-01-01

    To study AM fungal species diversity and its spatio-temporal distribution, soil samples were collected in the rhizosphere of Artemisia sphaerocephala from three sites of Inner Mongolia in April, July and October 2009, and morphological and micro-morphological characteristics separation-identification methods were used. The results showed that 20 AM fungal species in three genera were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere of A. Sphaerocephala in Inner Mongolia, 2 species belong to Scutellospora, 4 to Acaulospora and 14 to Glomus. G. Melanosporum and G. Reticulatum were the dominant species in three sites. AM fungal species richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness displayed April,JuIyArtemisia sphaerocephala)根围土壤样品,利用形态学和微形态学特征分离鉴定沙蒿根围AM真菌种类,研究了AM真菌物种多样性.共分离鉴定出AM真菌3属20种,其中盾巨孢囊霉属(Scutellospora)2种,无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)4种,球囊霉属(Glomus) 14种.3属AM真菌在3个样地均有分布.3个样地共同优势种是黑球囊霉(G.melanosporum)和网状球囊霉(G.reticulatum).AM真菌物种丰度、香浓-威纳指数和均匀度在时间上表现为4月<7月<10月,空间上表现为元上都<黑城子<大河乡.扫描电镜下不同属种孢子表面纹饰特征差异明显,可作为AM真菌分类的参考依据.

  13. The Research of the Extra - corporeal Bacteriostasis of the Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma Atractylodis & Folium Artemisiae Argyi%苍艾香熏油体外抑菌作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明溪; 何晓山; 陈柏君; 熊磊

    2011-01-01

    objective : To further research the incense - fumigating oil of R&F, based on the clinical experienced prescription of professor XiongLei and modem pharmacology research.The extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of the incense - fumigating oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium artemisiae argyi, and compare the extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of mixed Volatile Oil and single unmixed Volatile Oil.Methods : to detect the extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of the Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium anemisia argyi and single unmixed volatile oil to different experimentaJ bacteria by the methods of punching, and to figure out its dose - effect relationship of extra - corporeal hacteriostasis respectively by using Levofloxacin Hydrochloride and Fluconazole as positive control.Results : The Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium artemisiae argyi has extra - corporeal bacteriostasis on such bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, beta streptococcus, candida albicans.Furthermore, its effect, within a cenain degree of dose, can boost up with the increasing of dose.However, there is no avail on pseudomonas aeruginosa.Staphylococcus aureus, beta streptococcus, candida albicans are sensitive to single unmixed Volatile oil which in the experiment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa just sensitive to the Volatile oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.%目的:进一步研究将熊磊教授临床经验方用现代制剂工艺制成的苍艾香薰油的体外抑菌作用,比较复方挥发油与各组方中单药挥发油的抑菌效果.方法:采用打孔法检测苍艾香熏油及各单药挥发油对各实验菌的体外抑菌作用,并用左氧氟沙星及酮康唑制剂为阳性对照,分别初步求出其抑菌作用的量效关系.结果:苍艾香熏油对金黄色葡萄球菌、乙型链球菌,白色念珠球菌均有体外抑菌作用,并在一定剂量范围内呈量效关系.但对铜绿假单胞菌不敏感.金黄色葡萄球菌、乙型链球菌、白色

  14. 白沙蒿种子萌发特性的研究 I. 粘液瘦果的结构和功能%SEED GERMINATION IN ARTEMISIA SPHAEROCEPHALA I. THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MUCILAGINOUS ACHENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. is a dominant shrub in large areas of active and stabilized sandy desert of northwest China. Achenes of A. sphaerocephala are very small and light. The morphology and structure of this achene was observed under a dissecting microscope and S.E.M. The seed coat and pericarp are concrescent while the outmost layers of the pericarp are covered by a layer which becomes mucilaginous when wetted and increases in weight 589 times by absorbing water. In the natural habitat, the mucilaginous layer holds sand particles to the achene thereby increasing the achene weight even further. These achenes can float on water for a long time, and the mucilage mass facilitates the seed germination and seedling development. A. sphaerocephala produces achenes in three colors that germinate at different rates but reach the same final germination percentages. We conclude that the mucilage layer of A. sphaerocephala achenes plays an important ecological function in seed dispersal and germination.%白沙蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch.)是中国西北部沙漠的流动及固定沙丘上广泛分布的优势种灌木。瘦果小而轻,借助显微镜和扫描电镜对瘦果的形态结构进行了观察,其种子的种皮与果皮愈合,果皮外层为很厚的粘液层,其粘液层在遇湿后迅速吸水膨胀,其重量增至原来的589倍。在自然生境中,粘液物质将沙粒粘附于瘦果的周围,使瘦果的重量发生变化。瘦果能长时间在水上漂浮,粘液物质有助于种子的萌发和苗的发育。白沙蒿产生三种不同颜色的瘦果,其种子具有不同的萌发速率但最终达到相同的萌发率。研究表明:瘦果的粘液物质对白沙蒿种子的传播与萌发具有重要的生态意义。

  15. Molecular Cloning, Escherichia coli Expression and Genomic Organization of Squalene Synthase Gene from Artemisia annua%青蒿鲨烯合酶基因的克隆、结构分析与大肠杆菌表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 叶和春; 王红; 李国凤

    2003-01-01

    A 1 539 bp squalene synthase (AaSQS) cDNA was cloned from a high-yield Artemisia annua L. strain 001 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amino acid sequence of AaSQS is 70%, 77%, 44% and 39% identical to that of squalene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, human and yeast, respectively. The AaSQS genomic DNA has a complex organization containing 14 exons and 13 introns. Full-length or C-terminal truncated cDNA was subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a and the constructed plasmid was introduced to Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) for induced overexpression. No squalene synthase protein with expected molecular mass was observed in E.coli containing the putative full-length squalene synthase cDNA, however, overexpression in E.coli was achieved by truncating 30 amino acids of hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus.%用RT-PCR方法从青蒿(Artemisia annua L.)中克隆了一个1 539 bp全长鲨烯合酶cDNA.青蒿鲨烯合酶氨基酸序列与拟南芥、烟草、人类、酵母鲨烯合酶的一致性分别为70%、77%、44%和39%.青蒿鲨烯合酶基因组DNA结构很复杂,包括14个外显子和13个内含子.全长的或C末端截短的鲨烯合酶cDNA被克隆进原核表达载体pET30a并在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli) BL21(DE3)中诱导表达.但在含有全长的鲨烯合酶cDNA的大肠杆菌中并没有观察到预期大小的鲨烯合酶表达,而C末端截短疏水区30个氨基酸的鲨烯合酶可在大肠杆菌中过量表达.

  16. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...

  17. Effect of temperature on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua%温度对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨; 刘春朝; 叶和春; 李国风

    2004-01-01

    本实验研究了不同温度(15℃~ 35°C)对青蒿毛状根生长和青蒿素生物合成的影响,发现25°C有利于毛状根生长,30°C促进了青蒿素生物合成.通过温度改变的二步培养技术(培养前20 d温度控制在25°C,后10 d温度提高到30°C),青蒿素的产量得到明显提高,高于在恒温培养时(25°C或30°C)的结果.%Temperature effect on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in the cultured Artemisia annua L. hairy roots was investigated at a range of 15°C ~ 35°C. Maximum hairy root growth was found at 25°C, however, the highest artemisinin content in the root cultures was observed at 30°C. Based on these results, a step-wise temperature shift strategy was developed in which 25°C was used for cultivation for the first 20 days and 30°C for the remainder of the cultivation period. The artemisinin production obtained by the strategy was higher than those in single temperature-control experiments.

  18. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids with three templates for the rapid simultaneous purification of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Ahn, Wha Seung; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and ionic liquids based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with the monomer γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-methacrylic and three templates (rutin, scoparone, and quercetin). The materials were adopted as solid-phase extraction packing agents, and were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents had high recoveries and a strong recognition of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae than those modified by ionic liquids. In the procedure of solid-phase extraction, deep eutectic solvents-2-hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were obtained with the best recoveries with rutin (92.27%), scoparone (87.51%), and quercetin (80.02%), and the actual extraction yields of rutin (5.6 mg/g), scoparone (2.3 mg/g), and quercetin (3.4 mg/g). Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers might offer a novel method for the purification of complex samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 不同提取方法对艾叶挥发油成分的影响%Effect of Different Extraction Methods on the Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from FOLIUM ARTEMISIAE ARGYI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琳; 阳元娥; 姚勇芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effect of different extraction methods on the chemical constituents of essential oils from FOLIUM ARTEMISI-AE ARGYI. [Method] The essential oils were first extracted from FOLIUM ARTEMISIAE ARGYI by steam distillation and SFE-CO2, and then qualitatively identified by GC-MS. Next, the relative content of each component was calculated by normalization method. [ Result ] There were significant differences in the chemical constituents of essential oils that were extracted from FOLIUM ARTEMISIAE ARGYI by different methods like steam distillation and SFE-CO2. The essential oils extracted by SFE-CO2 mainly contained 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-2-ethylhexyl mono ester (17.81%) and l,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydro-7-methyl-4-methylene-l-(l-methylethyl)-( la. Alpha. ,4a. Alpha. ,8a. Alpha. )-naphthalene (11.13%), while that extracted by steam distillation mainly contained 4,6,6-trimethyl-[ lS-( la,2β,5a) ]-bicyclo [3. 1. 1 ] hept-3-en-2-ol (22.05%), 4-methyl-l-(l-methylethyl)-[lS-(l. Alpha. , 4. Beta. ,5. Alpha. ) ]-bicyclo[3. 1.0]hexan-3-one (10.69%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.62% ). [Conclusion] The essential oils extracted from FOLIUM ARTEMISIAE ARGYI by SFE-CO2 contained more chemical constituents, especially low-polarity substance. However, the chemical constituents of essential oils extracted by steam distillation focused on higher-polarity alcohols. It was difficult to extract low-polarity volatile components by steam distillation.%[目的]研究不同提取方法对艾叶挥发油成分的影响.[方法]采用水蒸气蒸馏法和CO2超临界萃取法提取艾叶中的挥发油,然后用气相色谱-质谱联用法对挥发油的化学成分进行鉴定,用归一法计算各组分的相对百分含量.[结果]采用水蒸气蒸馏法和CO2超临界萃取法提取的艾叶挥发油化学成分存在较大差异;超临界萃取得到艾叶挥发油的主要成分为1,2-苯二羧酸-2-乙基己基酯(17.81%)、1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-八氢-7-

  20. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  2. Reduce HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  3. GC-MS和平滑预处理及SFA法用于茵陈挥发性成分的分析%Analysis of the volatile constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb.by GC-MS, smoothing and SFA methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉林; 朱丹晖; 冯晓亮; 贺云彪; 黄兰芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究茵陈的挥发性成分.方法:利用水蒸气蒸馏法提取茵陈挥发油,用GC-MS检测.重叠色谱峰用粗糙惩罚平滑法处理后,用子窗口因子分析法(SFA)分辨,从而获得每一组分的纯色谱和质谱,依靠每一组分纯质谱在NIST质谱库进行相似性检索而定性分析,用总体积积分法定量分析.结果:共分辨出67个色谱峰,鉴定出48个化学成分,占总含量的89.03%.主要组分为n-十六烷酸、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸、镰叶芹醇、反式-Z-α-环氧红没药烯和大(拢)牛儿烯D.结论:本法不仅可使鉴定的化合物数目增加,而且也提高了定性准确度,该法能用于茵陈的进一步开发和质量控制.%Objective: To study the volatile chemical constituents in the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Methods: The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. The chemical compositions were detected by GC -MS. After the overlapping of chromatographic peaks, which were first treated with roughness penalty smoothing method , were resolved into pure chromatograms and spectra with subwindow factor analysis method (SFA) , qualitative a-nalysis was performed by similarity search in NIST library with the obtained pure mass spectrum of each component and the quantitative results were obtained by overall volume integration. Results: A total of 67 chromatographic peaks were separated, and 48 chemical components in the essential oil of the dried shoots of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. were identified, which accounted for 89. 03% of the total content. The main components were n - hexade-canoic acid,9,12,15 - octadecatrienoic acid,Artemisia capillaris falcarinol,trans - Z - alpha - bisabolene epoxide and germacrene D. Conclusions: Not only more components were identified by the established method,but also the accuracy of the qualitative analysis of components was improved. The established method can be used for further development and quality control of Artemisia

  4. Avaliação da eficácia dos tratamentos com a associação de Sulfadiazina, Pirimetamina e Ácido folínico (SPAF), Azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua L. e Espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Idessania Nazareth da

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficácia dos tratamentos com sulfadiazina, pirimetamina e ácido folínico (SPAF) associados, azitromicina, infusão de Artemisia annua e espiramicina na prevenção da transmissão vertical da toxoplasmose em Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae). Fêmeas de C. callosus foram oralmente infectadas com 20 cistos de Toxoplasma gondii (cepa ME-49) no dia de detecção da rolha vaginal (primeiro dia de gestação). O tratamento com azitromicina, inf...

  5. 白沙蒿种子萌发特性的研究II.环境因素的影响%SEED GERMINATION IN ARTEMISIA SPHAEROCEPHALA II. THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    白沙蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephalaKrasch.)是中国西北部沙漠的流动及固定沙丘上广泛分布的优势种灌木。白沙蒿种子为需光种子,种子在光下萌发而在黑暗中受到抑制。种子萌发的适宜温度为25℃,在10℃和30℃萌发速率和萌发率都很低,萌发在5℃受到抑制。种子在沙中被埋越深,其萌发速率和萌发率就越低。在沙平面下2cm或更深层沙土下出苗率为零。但是,当将种子上层沙土移走,只保留0.5cm沙土覆盖种子,这些种子的萌发率达到原先就位于沙土下0.5cm的种子的萌发率,但是后者的萌发速率较高。土壤水分含量越高,从1.7%到14.7%,其萌发就越快。土壤水分含量从19.4%起,种子的萌发受到了延迟,苗的发育受到了抑制。%Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch. is a dominant shrub in largeareas of activ e and stabilized sandy deserts of northwest China. The seeds of A. sphaerocep hala are light sensitive, germinating in light but poorly in dark. The optimal temperature for germination is 25 ℃. At 10 ℃ and 30 ℃ germination velocity was slow and reached low total percentages, at 5 ℃ germination was inhibited. T he deeper the seeds were placed in sand, the lower and slower was their germina tion. No seedlings emerged from achenes located at 2 cm or more cm. However, whe n t he upper layer of sand was removed leaving deep buried seeds at under just 0.5 cm of sand, their germination reached the same percentages as the seeds located 0.5 cm deep from the beginning of wetting, but at a faster rate. With higher san d moisture content, from 1.7% to 14.7% water content, germination was earlier. F rom 19.4% soil moisture germination was delayed and seedlings remained undeveloped.

  6. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  7. Sesquiterpene dimer (DSF-52) from Artemisia argyi inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via suppression of NF-κB, JNK/p38 MAPKs and Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Wang, Shu; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-02-15

    Microglia-involved neuroinflammation is thought to promote brain damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, novel therapeutics suppressing microglia over-activation could prove useful for neuroprotection in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. DSF-52 is a novel sesquiterpene dimer compound isolated from medical plant Artemisia argyi by our group. In this study, we investigated whether DSF-52 inhibited the neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Our findings showed that DSF-52 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, DSF-52 markedly up-regulated mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Mechanism study indicated that DSF-52 suppressed Akt/IκB/NF-κB inflammation pathway against LPS treatment. Also, DSF-52 down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of JNK and p38 MAPKs, but not ERK. Furthermore, DSF-52 blocked Jak2/Stat3 dependent inflammation pathway through inhibiting Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, as well as Stat3 nuclear translocation. We concluded that the inhibitory ability of DSF-52 on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may offer a novel neuroprotective modality and could be potentially useful in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and identification of the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch%基于液质联用技术的蒙药扑勒蒙化学成分分析与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰; 李艳; 张希玉; 辛艳; 黄胜阳

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly separate and identify the chemical constituents in Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch.,the ethanol extracts were investigated by using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique.Eleven compounds were separated and identified.Their structures are characterized as caffeic acid,5,7,2’,4’-tetrahydroxy-6,5’-dimethoxyflavone,quercetagetin,4’-hydroxywogonin,quercetaget-in-4’-methyl ether, 5,6,3 ’-trihydroxy-7,4 ’-dimethoxyflavanone, eriodictyol-7-methyl ether, quercetin-7- methyl ether, sakuranetin,isosakuranetin,3,5-dihydroxy-7,4’-dimethoxy-flavanone.%针对蒙药扑勒蒙化学成分的快速分离与鉴定,采用液质联用技术对其乙醇提取物进行了研究,从中分离鉴定了11个化合物,其化学结构分别为咖啡酸、5,7,2’,4’-四羟基-6,5’-二甲氧基黄酮、槲皮万寿菊素、4’-羟基汉黄芩素、槲皮万寿菊素-4’-甲醚、5,6,3’-三羟基-7,4’-二甲氧基黄烷酮、圣草酚-7-甲醚、槲皮素-7-甲醚、樱花素、异樱花素和3,5-二羟基-7,4’-二甲氧基黄烷酮。

  9. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  10. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  11. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  12. Nitrogen limitation, 15N tracer retention, and growth response in intact and Bromus tectorum-invaded Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Annual grass invasion into shrub-dominated ecosystems is associated with changes in nutrient cycling that may alter nitrogen (N) limitation and retention. Carbon (C) applications that reduce plant-available N have been suggested to give native perennial vegetation a competitive advantage over exotic annual grasses, but plant community and N retention responses to C addition remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the degree of N limitation of plant biomass in intact versus B. tectorum-invaded sagebrush communities, (2) determine if plant N limitation patterns are reflected in the strength of tracer 15N retention over two growing seasons, and (3) assess if the strength of plant N limitation predicts the efficacy of carbon additions intended to reduce soil N availability and plant growth. Labile C additions reduced biomass of exotic annual species; however, growth of native A. tridentata shrubs also declined. Exotic annual and native perennial plant communities had divergent responses to added N, with B. tectorum displaying greater ability to use added N to rapidly increase aboveground biomass, and native perennials increasing their tissue N concentration but showing little growth response. Few differences in N pools between the annual and native communities were detected. In contrast to expectations, however, more 15N was retained over two growing seasons in the invaded annual grass than in the native shrub community. Our data suggest that N cycling in converted exotic annual grasslands of the northern Intermountain West, USA, may retain N more strongly than previously thought.

  13. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  14. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  15. Reduced journal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) offers reduced rates for subscriptions to its journals to individual members of affiliated societies, including AGU. The offer is limited to one subscription per person to each journal.Rates for 1985 for AGU members are listed below

  16. Study on formula of a new type of air disinfectant made from essential oil of Artemisia anethoides Mattf.%一种新型白蒿精油空气清新剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延芳; 梁宗锁; 刘新桐; 陈尧杰

    2011-01-01

    研制一种新型白蒿精油杀菌空气清新剂.传统水蒸气蒸馏法提取白蒿精油,微孔稀释法考察其抑菌活性.为了提高精油的利用率,采用β-环糊精(β-CD)微胶囊技术对其进行包合,从而研制成新型喷雾空气清新剂,并在流通的病房考察空气清新剂的消毒效果.结果表明,白蒿精油具有广谱抗菌效果,对实验所用的致病菌有较强的抑制和灭活作用.对大肠埃希氏菌和白假丝酵母菌的MIC可达7.8μL/mL,MBC值范围为7.80~60.50μL/mL.白蒿精油空气清新剂消毒效果显著的高于对照,其杀菌率为85.63%.白蒿精油空气清新剂具有较强的空间灭菌作用,是一种有效的新型空气消毒剂.%The formula of a new type of air disinfectant made from essential oil (EO) of Artemisia aneth-oides Mattf. Was studied. The essential oil was extracted by traditional steam distillation method and mi-croplate bioassay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oil. In order to improve the utilization of essential oil, the inclusion complex between /3-CD-EO was prepared by blending method and a new spray air pure and fresh agent was abtained, and the air sanitized effect of the air refreshing agents was observed in open ward. In the case of antimicrobial activity, the results possessed broad and remarkable antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested containing 10 bacteria,the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for bacteria was 7. 8 (jiL/mL and the minimal bactericidal concentration ( MBC) was from 7.80 ~ 60.50 (xL/mL. The pencentage of air-disinfectant effects of air refreshing agents was 85.63% , significantly higher than the control (84 disinfection). The air refreshing agents has a strong spacious sterilizing effect and is an effective and new type vaporizer for air sterilizing.

  17. Research on the Preparation of Anti-mosquito Microcapsule with Artemisia Argyi Extraction by Composite Phases Emulsion Method%艾叶提取物驱蚊微胶囊的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小会; 王进美; 吴铁城

    2012-01-01

    以天然驱蚊植物——艾叶提取物为芯材,采用复相乳液法制备驱蚊微胶囊.讨论了初乳中乳化剂用量、芯材与二氯甲烷体积比、壁材用量、保护性胶体浓度等对微胶囊粒径的影响,获得了最佳制备工艺.将粒径最小的微胶囊与黏合剂以一定比例混合后整理到涤纶织物上,并对驱蚊效果进行测试和分析.结果表明:最佳制备工艺为初乳中乳化剂体积分数为6%,芯材与二氯甲烷体积比为1∶6,壁材质量分数为4%,保护性胶体质量分数为2%;制得的微胶囊最小平均粒径为2.78μm;整理到涤纶织物上的驱蚊效果显著,蚊虫驱避率达到70%.%With the extraction of natural and-mosquito folium artemisia argyi for core material, it can prepare anti-mosquito microcapsule by adopting composite phases emulsion method. Through discussing the influence of emulsifter dosage, internal aqueous phase to dichloromethane, dosage of wall material and concentration of protective colloid on particle size, the optimum preparation process is received. The polyester fabric is finished by capsules and adhesive with a certain proportion for anti-mosquito testing. The results show that emulsifier dosage is 6 %, internal aqueous phase to dichloromethane is 1:6, dosage of wall material is 4 %, concentration of protective colloid is 2 %, the minimum particle size of capsule is 2.78 μm, and the repellent rate reaches 70 %. This shows remarkable anti-mosquito effect.

  18. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  19. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  20. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  1. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  2. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  3. Reducing medication errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nute, Christine

    2014-11-25

    Most nurses are involved in medicines management, which is integral to promoting patient safety. Medicines management is prone to errors, which depending on the error can cause patient injury, increased hospital stay and significant legal expenses. This article describes a new approach to help minimise drug errors within healthcare settings where medications are prescribed, dispensed or administered. The acronym DRAINS, which considers all aspects of medicines management before administration, was devised to reduce medication errors on a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

  4. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  5. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  6. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  7. Clinical Observation of the Leonurus artemisia Cream versus Dan’e Fukang Cream in the Treatment of Pri-mary Dysmenorrhea%益母草膏对比丹莪妇康煎膏治疗原发性痛经的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明慧; 芦小娟; 张亚凤; 刘天舒

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and safety of Leonurus artemisia cream and Dan’e fukang cream in the treat-ment of primary dysmenorrhea. METHODS:80 patients with primary dysmenorrheal were randomly divided into L. artemisia cream group (40 cases) and Dan’e fukang cream group (40 cases). L. artemisia cream group received L. artemisia cream 10 g, orally,twice a day. Dan’e fukang cream group received Dan’e fukang cream 10 g,orally,twice a day. The treatment was stated before 10 days of menstruation. 10 days was regarded as 1 treatment course,and it lasted for 6 courses. Cold drink and food were forbid during medication,washing face and feet with warm water,soaking feet with hot water if they can,paying attention to keep the lower abdomen and legs warm. If patients felt unbearable pain in menstruation,0.3 g Ibuprofen sustained release capsule was given,orally twice a day. Clinical efficacy,symptom score(dysmenorrhea degree,abdominal pain,lumbosacral pain)before and af-ter treatment,dysmenorrhea duration,frequency of taking painkillers and the incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were ob-served. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in the total effective rate and the incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups (P>0.05). Before treatment,there were no significant differences in dysmenorrhea degree,abdominal pain,lumbosacral pain score,dysmenorrheal duration and frequency of taking painkillers in 2 groups (P>0.05). After treatment,the dysmenorrhea degree,abdominal pain,lumbosacral pain score in 2 groups were significantly lower than before,and Dan’e fukang cream group was lower than L. artemisia cream group with statistical sighificance(P0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Both L. artemisia cream and Dan’e fukang cream have good efficacy and safety in the treat-ment of primary dysmenorrhea,while Dan’e fukang cream is superior to L. artemisia cream in terms of improving clinical symp-toms.%目的:比较益母草膏与丹莪妇康煎膏治疗原发性痛经

  8. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  9. Modelling reduced sparse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of fitting to an ordered collection of points in arbitary Euclidean space called reduced data. We are not given here the corresponding interpolation knots. Instead, these are estimated by new knots upon minimizing a relevant highly nonlinear optimization scheme based on natural spline interpolation. The existence of a global minimizer (i.e. the collection of interpolation knots in ascending order) is also addressed in this paper. Finally, Leap-Frog optimization tool is used to compute these knots approximating the unknown interpolation knots. This numerical scheme is subsequently compared with the Secant Method. Two illustrative examples are given.

  10. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  11. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  12. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  13. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  14. Reducing GWAS Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  15. 蒿属、葎草花粉空气浓度与夏秋季花粉症患者哮喘症状严重程度的相关性%Correlation of the Artemisia and Humulus Scandens Pollen Count in the Air and the Severity of Asthma Symptoms in Patients with Autumnal Pollinosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志华; 尹佳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between Artemisia and humulus scandens pollen count in the air and the severity of asthma symptoms in patients with autumnal pollinosis. Methods 106 patients with autumnal pollinosis were diagnosed by typical history, symptoms, intradermal skin test, specific IgE to Artimisia pollens and humulus scandens pollen, and pulmonary ventilation function. The asthma symptom scores and the peak expiratory flow( PEF ) were detected and recorded daily from July 1, 2006 to October 30, 2008 continuously, and were compared with Artemisia and humulus scandens pollen count in the air simultaneously. Results There was significant correlation between Artemisia pollen count and the scores of night and daytime asthma symptoms, PEF, and diurnal variations in PEF ( rs =0. 762, rs = 0. 682, rs = -0.649, rs = -0. 596, rs = 0. 549, P < 0. 001 ). There was also a significant correlation between humulus scandens pollen counts and the scores of night and daytime asthma symptoms, PEF, and diurnalvariations in PEF( rs = 0. 817, rs = 0. 783 , rs = - 0. 833 , rs = - 0. 785 , rs = 0. 454, P < 0. 001 ). Scores of asthma symptoms and diurnal variations in PEF increased significantly when the pollen count was high, while PEF decreased significantly. Conclusion Artemisia and humulus scandens pollen can trigger autumnal asthma in northern China.%目的 评价空气中蒿属花粉、葎草花粉浓度与夏秋季花粉症患者哮喘症状严重程度及肺通气功能的相关性.方法 通过典型病史和体征、过敏原皮肤试验、血清特异性IgE检测、肺通气功能试验筛选出106例夏秋季花粉症患者,男性49例、女性57例,年龄10~73岁;从2006年7月1日~2008年10月31日,连续记录患者每日呼气峰值流速(PEF)及哮喘症状积分,并与同期空气中花粉浓度进行比较.结果 蒿属花粉过敏性哮喘患者的日哮喘症状积分、夜哮喘症状积分、日PEF%、夜PEF%、PEF日内变异率与空气中蒿

  16. Effects of pepper artemisia on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune orchitis mice%椒蒿对自身免疫性睾丸炎小鼠CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仵燕; 斯依提尼沙汗·吾满尔; 吴小川; 骆靖华; 玛衣拉·阿不拉克

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of volatile oil from pepper artemisia leaves on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in murine autoimmune orchitis mice. Methods Totally 80 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (normal saline group, model group, olive oil group, and pepper artemisia group). After model making, each group received gavage three days before the surgery, and for 24 days after the surgery (saline group received only the gavage, but no operation). CD4+CD25 + regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry 3 and 9 weeks after the surgery. Results Three weeks after the surgery, the percentage of peripheral blood CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in model group, olive oil group and pepper artemisia group was significantly lower than that in saline group (P0.05). Nine weeks after the operation, the percentage of peripheral blood CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells was significantly lower in model group and olive oil group than in saline group (P0.05). Conclusion Pepper artemisia can increase the percentage of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, which exert immunity-regulatory effects on autoimmune orchitis mice.%目的 研究椒蒿挥发油对自身免疫性睾丸炎小鼠CD4+ CD25+调节性T细胞的影响.方法 雄性BALB/c小鼠80只,随机分为4组(生理盐水组、模型组、橄榄油组、椒蒿组),采用睾丸内注射冰醋酸的方法造模,各组都在手术前3天开始灌胃,手术后继续灌胃,共连续灌胃24 d(盐水组只灌胃,不手术).分别于术后3周、9周取外周血,通过流式细胞仪对CD4+ CD25+调节性T细胞进行检测.结果 术后3周,模型组、橄榄油组、椒蒿组小鼠外周血CD4+ CD25+调节性T细胞百分比均低于生理盐水组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而此3组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).术后9周模型组与橄榄油组小鼠外周血CD4+ CD25+调节性T细胞百分比低于生理盐水组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.0S),椒蒿组与生理盐水组比

  17. Protective effect of capillary artemisia polysaccharide for liver oxidative damage rats with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy%茵陈多糖对妊娠胆汁淤积大鼠肝脏氧化损伤的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽梅; 徐立堃; 张兰; 胡春玲; 林常青; 李莉群

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨茵陈多糖对妊娠胆汁淤积大鼠肝脏氧化损伤的保护作用.方法 采用随机数字表法将32只妊娠SD大鼠分为对照组、模型组、低剂量组及高剂量组,妊娠16周除对照组外均采用苯甲酸雌二醇注射法建立妊娠胆汁淤积大鼠模型,造模成功后低剂量组[50 mg/(kg·d)]及高剂量组[100mg/(kg·d)]分别给予茵陈多糖干预,1周后检测各组大鼠肝脏生化指标[血清谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST)、碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、直接胆红素(direct bilirubin,DBIL)及间接胆红素(indirect bilirubin,IBLI)]及氧化还原酶[超氧化物歧化酶(erythrocuprein,SOD)、丙二醛(malonaldehyde,MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GPx)、过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)]活力变化.结果茵陈多糖干预1周后,低剂量组及高剂量组血清ALT、AST、ALP、DBIL及IBLI水平明显低于模型组(P < 0.05),低剂量组及高剂量组间差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).低剂量组及高剂量组肝组织匀浆MDA水平低于模型组(P < 0.05),SOD、GPx,、CAT平高于模型组(P < 0.05),低剂量组同高剂量组间差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 茵陈多糖能够减轻妊娠胆汁淤积大鼠肝脏氧化损伤,发挥对肝功能的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the protective effects of capillary artemisia polysaccharide on liver oxidative damage rats with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods 32 SD rats were divided into the control group (CG), model group (MG), high-dose group (HG) and low-dose group (LG) with random digits table. Animal model of ICP were made with injecting estradiol benzoate in rats with 16 weeks of pregnancy except CG. Rats in HG [100 mg/ (kg·d)] and LG [(50 mg/(kg·d)) were interfered with artemisia capillaries polysaccharides. Biochemical indicators in rats liver (serum ALT, AST, ALP, DBIL and IBLI) and oxidordeuctase

  18. Reducing client waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This first issues of Family Planning (FP) Manager focuses on how to analyze client waiting time and reduce long waits easily and inexpensively. Client flow analysis can be used by managers and staff to identify organizational factors affecting waiting time. Symptoms of long waiting times are overcrowded waiting rooms, clients not returning for services, staff complaints about rushing and waiting, and hurried counseling sessions. Client satisfaction is very important in order to retain FP users. Simple procedures such as routing return visits differently can make a difference in program effectiveness. Assessment of the number of first visits, the number of revisits, and types of methods and services that the clinic provides is a first step. Client flow analysis involves assigning a number to each client on registration, attaching the client flow form to the medical chart, entering the FP method and type of visit, asking staff to note the time at each station, and summarizing data in a master chart. The staff should be involved in plotting data for each client to show waiting versus staff contact time through the use of color coding for each type of staff contact. Bottlenecks become very visible when charted. The amount of time spent at each station can be measured, and gaps in client's contact with staff can be identified. An accurate measure of total waiting time can be obtained. A quick assessment can be made by recording arrival and departure times for each client in one morning or afternoon of a peak day. The procedure is to count the number of clients waiting at 15-minute intervals. The process should be repeated every 3-6 months to observe changes. If waiting times appear long, a more thorough assessment is needed on both a peak and a typical day. An example is given of a completed chart and graph of results with sample data. Managers need to set goals for client flow, streamline client routes, and utilize waiting time wisely by providing educational talks

  19. Regularized Reduced Order Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, David; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts forth a regularization approach for the stabilization of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced order models (ROMs) for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. Two regularized ROMs (Reg-ROMs) are proposed: the Leray ROM (L-ROM) and the evolve-then-filter ROM (EF-ROM). These new Reg-ROMs use spatial filtering to smooth (regularize) various terms in the ROMs. Two spatial filters are used: a POD projection onto a POD subspace (Proj) and a new POD differential filter (DF). The four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient and the three-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Overall, the most accurate Reg-ROM/filter combination is EF-ROM-DF. Furthermore, the DF generally yields better results than Proj. Finally, the four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are computationally efficient and generally more accurate than the standard Galerkin ROM.

  20. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  1. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  2. 黄花篙发根的生长及部分代谢成分的特征研究%Characterization on Growth and Some Secondary Metabolites of Artemisia annua Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹婷; 张犇; 陈晶磊; 陈韶华; 王剑文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The characterization on growth and some secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua hairy roots were investigated. Method: We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators such as NAA and GA3 on the hairy roots and untransformed roots. The main components of some secondary metabolites were tested in the hairy roots. Result: NAA at lower concentration (0.01 -0.05 mg·L-1) could promote formation of lateral and branch roots and had no effect on untransformed roots. High concentrated NAA (0. 1 mg·L-1) inhibited the growth of hairy roots but stimulated the growth of untransformed roots. Artemisinin was not detected in untransformed roots,but at 0. 64 mg· g-1 in hairy roots. To the flavonoids in A. annua, chrysoplenetin was found in both roots, but there was a higher content of arteannuin (0. 76 mg · g-1 ) in hairy roots, 3.5 folds of that in untransformed roots.Conclusion: A. annua hairy roots have a unique characterization on growth and secondary metabolites.%目的:研究黄花篙发根的生长形态和部分次生代谢物特征.方法:比较发根和未转化根的形态差异,测定生长调节剂如萘乙酸(NAA)和赤霉素(GA3)对根生长的影响,分析了发根和未转化根的部分次生代谢物的含量特征.结果:低浓度NAA (0.01~0.05 mg·L-1)能明显促进发根侧根和次侧根的形成,对未转化根则无显著作用,高浓度NAA(0.1 mg·L-1)抑制发根的生长,而对未转化根的生长起促进作用.未转化根中不含有青篙素,而在发根中检测到较高含量的青蒿素(0.64 mg·g-1),未转化根中青蒿乙素含量较高(1.24 mg·g-1 ).在未转化根和发根中,青篙黄酮chrysopleneti.含量相当,而发根中另一种黄酮化合物artemitin含量(0.76 mg·g-1)是未转化根的3.5倍.结论:黄花蒿发根具有较独特的生长和次生代谢特征.

  3. 荒漠沙蒿根围AM真菌和DSE的空间分布%Spatial distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in the rhizosphere of Artemisia sphaerocephala from Inner Mongolia desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺学礼; 王银银; 赵丽莉; 钱伟华

    2011-01-01

    2009年7月在内蒙古黑城子北、多伦县城东和正蓝旗元上都遗址3个样地分别从0-10 cm、10-20 cm、20-30cm、30-40 cm和40-50 cm 5个土层采集沙蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephala)根围土壤和根样,系统研究了沙蒿根围AM真菌和DSE(Dark septate endophytes)的空间分布及与土壤因子的相关性.结果表明,沙蒿根系能被AM真菌高度侵染形成典型的I-型(Intermediate type)丛枝菌根,并发育形成泡囊和丛枝结构,并与DSE形成良好的共生关系,样地生态条件和采样深度对AM真菌分布和活动有显著影响.黑城子样地孢子密度最高,元上都样地泡囊定殖率最高,不同样地间丛枝、菌丝、总定殖率和DSE定殖率无显著差异.孢子密度峰值出现在0-10cm表层土,并随土壤剖面深度增加而降低;泡囊定殖率峰值出现在10-20cm土层;AM真菌其他结构定殖率及DSE定殖率在各土层间差异不显著或变化无规律.孢子密度与AM真菌不同结构定殖率无显著相关性,与各土壤因子极显著正相关.泡囊定殖率与脲酶和碱性磷酸酶极显著负相关,与酸性磷酸酶显著负相关.菌丝定殖率、总定殖率及DSE定殖率与各土壤因子均无显著相关性.土壤碱解N和有机C与脲酶、酸性磷酸酶和碱性磷酸酶极显著正相关;土壤速效P与碱性磷酸酶极显著正相关,与脲酶显著正相关.对沙蒿根系AM真菌和DSE真菌分布和定殖规律的研究,可进一步明确AM真菌和DSE的生态功能,为利用菌根生物技术促进荒漠植被恢复和生态重建提供依据.

  4. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  5. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ARTEMISIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    E-mail: nigasfaw@gmail.com ; nigistasfaw@hotmail.com. ESSENTIAL OIL ... strongly aromatic annual to perennial herb endemic to Ethiopia. .... The area percentage was obtained electronically from the GC-FID response without the use.

  6. Phylogeny of Artemisia L.: Recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... The subgenus is spread across Eastern Europe and. Asia, where the .... heterogeneous disciform capitula (disc florets usually bisexual and ..... genus Tridentatae) using morphological, chemical, seed set, and. DNA data.

  7. MICRO PROPAGATION OF WORMWOOD ( Artemisia annua L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapies (ACT) for treating malaria fever. Ferreira et al., ... morphological and physiological processes, including cell division ... resistance is artemisinin based combination therapy. (ACT). .... B=Sub cultured plantlet with stem emerging. . B.

  8. The spatial distribution of nutrients in Medicago sativa-Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb community along an abandoned slope in the cropping-pastoral ecotone of the Loess Plateau%黄土高原农牧交错带退耕坡地苜蓿-铁杆蒿群落养分分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕江; 邱莉萍; 张兴昌; 程积民

    2015-01-01

    植物群落养分的空间分布反映了生态系统物质循环特征,可以为揭示生态系统资源的有效性及生态系统中植物群落的演替过程提供依据。本研究以黄土高原农牧交错带退耕坡地苜蓿-铁杆蒿群落为对象,分析其生物量和养分含量的空间分布特征。结果表明:退耕地苜蓿-铁杆蒿群落坡上部以苜蓿为主导物种,坡下部以铁杆蒿为主导物种,坡中部由二者共同主导。同一植物的生物量和N含量具有相似的空间结构,并且与植物种类有关;苜蓿和铁杆蒿P含量均以球状模型最佳,K含量的空间分布均以高斯模型最佳。苜蓿-铁杆蒿群落生物量和养分含量具有较强的空间依赖性,其空间变异主要由结构性因素决定。苜蓿和铁杆蒿生物量和养分含量的自相关性随距离变化表现出相似的趋势,但随生物量和养分种类的不同而异,且铁杆蒿生物量和养分含量的自相关性大于苜蓿。随着人工草地向天然草地的演替,群落生物量和养分含量的空间自相关性和空间依赖性逐渐增强。%The distribution of nutrients in plant community could reflect the cycling of nutrients in ecosystems ,and thus provide evidence for the availability of soil resources for the ecosystems as well as for the understanding of the evolu-tion of plant community in the ecosystems .In this study ,we analyzed the spatial distribution of biomass and nutrients in Medicago sativa-Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb community along an abandoned slope in the cropping-pastoral ecotone of the Loess Plateau .The objectives were to understand how nutrients were distributed along abandoned grass slope and to es-tablish the relationships between nutrients distribution and community succession .The results showed that the grass com-munities were dominated by Medicago sativa in the upper slope ,by Artemisia sacrorum Ledeb in the lower slope ,and by both of them in the

  9. Efeito alelopático de Artemisia annua L. na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. Allelopathic effect of Artemisia annua L. on the germination and initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Magiero

    2009-01-01

    . annua on seed germination and seedling development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. Crude aqueous extract was prepared from 250 g fresh leaves extracted in 1 L distilled water. This first extract was filtered and centrifuged and the supernatant was used. The following concentrations were employed of 100% (filtered and centrifuged extract, 75%, 50%, 25% (dilutions of the 100% extract and 0% (distilled water. Seeds of the tested species were distributed in Petri dishes and placed into germination chambers. The analyzed variables were: germinability (G, germination mean velocity (V, germination mean time (t, radicle length (RL and seedling dry matter. The increase in the concentration of A. annua aqueous extract reduced lettuce germinability and, from 50% concentration, germination was completely inhibited. For wild poinsettia, germination was completely inhibited from 75% concentration. There was a significant reduction in lettuce germination mean velocity with increasing extract concentrations, which was not observed for wild poinsettia. Radicle length in wild poinsettia significantly reduced at the concentrations 25 and 50% and was totally inhibited at 75 and 100%. As regards lettuce, 25% concentration significantly reduced radicle length, and the concentrations 50, 75 and 100% completely inhibited root formation, indicating this species is more sensitive than wild poinsettia. A. annua aqueous extracts presented inhibitory allelopathic action on seed germination and seedling development in lettuce and wild poinsettia.

  10. Allelopathic effects of Artemisia sacrorum population in typical steppe based on niche theory%基于生态位理论的典型草原铁杆蒿种群化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 谢永生; 程积民; 摄晓燕

    2012-01-01

    By using modified Levins niche width index and Pianka niche overlap index, this paper analyzed the ecological competition between constructive and dominant species in a typical steppe. The stem- and leaf extracts from the constructive species (Artemisia sacrorum) were utilized to study their allelopathic potential on the seed germination and plant growth of the dominant species ( Stipa bungeana, Thymus mongolicus, S. grandis, and Leymus secalinus), and the ecological position of A. sacrorum in the steppe succession. In the steppe, S. bungeana had the widest niche width (0. 99) , followed by T. mongolicus (0. 94) , A. sacrorum (0. 82) , S. grandis (0. 76) , and L. secalinus (0. 73). The niche overlap value between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, S. bungeana and T. mongolicus, T. mongolicus and S. grandis, and A. sacrorum and T. mongolicus was 0.90, 0. 95, 0. 94, and 0. 86, respectively. The allelopathic effects of A. sacrorum extracts varied with their concentration. For the seed germination, root growth, and shoot growth of the dominant species, A. sacrorum extracts showed a trend of promoting at low concentrations and inhibiting at high concentrations. The extracts of A. sacrorum had a stronger promotion effect on the root growth of S. bungeana than on that of T. mongolicus, but a stronger inhibition effect on the shoot growth of T. mongolicus than on that of S. bungeana. Methanol extracts had stronger allelopathic effects than aqueous extracts. The high niche overlap between A. sacrorum and S. bungeana, and T. mongolicus and S. grandis indicated that the steppe community would continue succession to S. bungeana, while A. sacrorum population was only an important transitional stage during the succession. The al-lelopathic effect of A. sacrorum played a driving role in the succession process.%运用改进的Levins生态位宽度指数和Pianka生态位重叠指数,研究了典型草原草地建群种与优势种之间的生态竞争关系;并利用建群种(铁杆

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Oil of Artemisia annua%不同方法提取青蒿挥发油成分分析及抗菌活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽勇; 林秀梅; 战月; 崔云虹; 郭子琦; 刘玲绯; 侯春妹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the optimum condition for the extract of essential oil from Artemisia annua by different extract methods and analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil by GC-MS and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil. Method: The fresh aerial part of A. Annua was extracted by Soxhlet extraction and direct distillation to yield two essential oil samples designated as oil-1 and oil-2, respectively, which were both subjected to antimicrobial activity screening and GC-MS analysis. Result: The optimum condition for Soxhlet extraction was at a solid-liquid ratiol :7. 8 and extraction time of 3 h, while for direct distillation at a solid-liquid ratiol: 7.4 and extraction time of 5 h. Oil-1 displayed inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger, Mycocentrospora sp. , Penicillium sp. , and Penicillium marneffei with MIC values of 1. 25, 1. 25, 5.0, and 1. 25 mg · L-1 , respectively, while oil-2 showed antibacterial activity toward Corynebacterium pekinense, Bacillus subtilis, tetracoccus, and Proteus vulgaris with MIC values of 0.023 5, 0.023 5, 0.005 9,3.75 mg-L-1, respectively. According to the results from GC-MS analysis, 48 components from 55 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-1 and 39 components from 48 peaks in the gas chromatogram of oil-2 were identified. Conclusion: Comparatively, fungi were more sensitive to oil-1 in the antimicrobial test, which may be attributed to the antifungal components comprising 8. 25% of the oil-1, including ketones, ethers, and oganic acids. However, oil-2 showed stronger antibacterial activity than oil-1 due to the higher content of alkenes in oil-2 (65. 42%) than that of in oil-1 (26. 49% ), since alkenes were the major antibacterial components of the essential oil.%目的:采用不同方法对青蒿挥发油进行提取,研究提取过程的优化条件,并对所得青蒿挥发油分别进行抗菌活性研究及GC-MS分析,用于指导制药.方法:采用索氏提取法和直接蒸

  12. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Model Reduction via Reducibility Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdalla; Othman Alsmadi

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a new model reduction technique is introduced. The proposed technique is derived using the matrix reducibility concept. The eigenvalues of the reduced model are preserved; that is, the reduced model eigenvalues are a subset of the full order model eigenvalues. This preservation of the eigenvalues makes the mathematical model closer to the physical model. Finally, the outcomes of this method are fully illustrated using simulations of two numeric examples.

  14. Elicitation on Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots by the Oligosaccharide Extract from the Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501%内生真菌Colletotrichum sp. B501的寡糖提取物对黄花蒿发根中青蒿素生物合成的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑文; 夏仲豪; 谭仁祥

    2002-01-01

    The oligosaccharide elicitor from the mycelial wall of an endophytic Colletotrichum sp. B501 promoted the production of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. hairy root culture. When hairy roots of 22-day-old cultures (later growth phase) were exposed to the elicitor (20 mg/L) for 4 d, the maximum content of artemisinin reached 1.15 mg/g, a 64.29% increment over the control. The electron X-ray microanalysis disclosed the rapid accumulation of Ca2+ in the elicited cortical cells of hairy root. The electronic microscope observation revealed the high electron density area in vacuole of elicited cells. During the first day of elicitation the peroxidase activity of hairy roots was improved sharply. Some cellular morphological changes including cell shrinkage, condensation of cytoplasm and nuclear fragmentation, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, were observed after the third day of elicitation. It was suggested that the oligosaccharide elicitor triggered the programmed cell death, which may provide the substance or chemical signal for artemisinin biosynthesis.%在黄花蒿(Artemisia annua L.)发根液体培养中,黄花蒿内生炭疽菌(Colletotrichum sp. B501)细胞壁寡糖提取物可促进发根青蒿素的合成.经寡糖诱导子(20 mg/L)处理4 d后,发根青蒿素含量达1.15 mg/g, 比对照高出64.29%.诱导作用与诱导子浓度、作用时间相关.诱导处理1 d后,X射线能谱分析表明黄花蒿发根细胞中Ca2+积累量显著增高,电镜观察发现液泡内出现高电子致密物,具活性氧清除作用的过氧化物酶表现出高活性(6.5 unit*min-1*g-1 FW).诱导处理第三天,细胞核DNA呈梯度条带降解,部分细胞出现程序化死亡.内生菌细胞壁寡糖提取物引起的生理反应有利于细胞中青蒿素的生物合成.

  15. D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学研究%ADSORPTION THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA FLAVONOIDS ADSORBED ON MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT RESINS D101

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利芝; 李佳焱; 王家坚; 欧阳文; 朱杰英

    2014-01-01

    通过静态吸附实验,研究了D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附热力学和动力学过程.结果表明,当温度在298~318K和在实验研究浓度范围内,D-101大孔吸附树脂对黄花蒿黄酮的吸附符合Freundlich等温吸附方程;ΔG<0,吸附过程能自发进行;ΔH<0,为放热过程;ΔS<0,D-101大孔吸附树脂吸附黄花蒿黄酮的作用大于水的解吸过程,导致熵减.分别采用准一级动力学方程、准二级动力学方程和粒内扩散动力学模型探讨其吸附特性,研究结果表明,吸附过程符合准二级动力学方程,粒内扩散与膜扩散交互控制黄花蒿黄酮在D-101大孔吸附树脂上的吸附.%The adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of artemisia annua flavonoids absorbed on macroporous adsorbent resins D101 were studied by static adsorption experiments.The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were agreed with Freundlich adsorption isotherm well in the temperature range of 298~318K and concentration range in the experiment.Thermodynamic analysis suggested ΔG<0,ΔH<0 and ΔS<0,which indicated the adsorption procedure was a spontaneously exothermic reaction with entropy decrease.The adsorption of artemisia annua flavonoids on the macroporous adsorbent resins D101 could be described well by Pseudo-second-order rate equation,and the rate-determining step of the adsorption was the combined action of film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion.

  16. 薄层色谱-生物自显影技术测定绵茵陈提取液中绿原酸的含量并评价其抗氧化活性%Determination of Chlorogenic Acid of Herba Artemisiae sopariae Extracts and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity Using TLC-Bioautography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童珊珊; 余江南; 徐希明; 刘小燕; 金花; 徐亚萍

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a method to determine the contents of chlorogenic acid in Herba Artemisiae scopariae extracts and evaluate its antioxidant capacity by TLC-bioautography.METHODS Single wavelength TLC-scanning method was used to determinate the concertration of chlorogenic acid.Then,the chromatograms were obtained after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals(DPPH)solution and the peak areas of the spots on TLC were calculated to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of Herba Anemisiae scopariae extracts.RESULTS The contents of cblorogenic acid determined by TLC-bioautography is consistent with routine method,and the total integral value measured by bioautography is significantly higher than the single peak area of chlorogenic acid.The results indicated Hcrba Artemisiae scopariae had many antioxidant active ingredients besides chlorogenic acid.CONCLUSION With DPPH as color developing reagent and dual wavelength scanning.TLC-bioautography can be used for fast selecting and evaluating the antioxidant capacity of traditional Chinese medicines%目的 建立绵茵陈中绿原酸的含量测定方法 并采用薄层色谱-生物自显影法研究绵茵陈提取液的抗氧化活性.方法 薄层扫描法测定绵茵陈提取液中绿原酸的含量,随后用二苯代苦味肼基自由基溶液显色,双波长扫描,获得其抗氧化成分的峰面积.结果 常规薄层扫描与生物自显影扫描测定得到的绿原酸含量具有一致性,由生物自显影扫描法测得色谱峰总积分值明显大于绿原酸单峰面积,表明绵茵陈中除了绿原酸外,还存在其它抗氧化能力较强的活性成分.结论 以DPPH作显色剂,双波长扫描,可利用TLC-生物自显影技术对天然提取物中具有自由基清除及抗氧化活性的活性成分进行快速筛选与评价.

  17. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues the

  18. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just;

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is sti...

  19. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  20. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  1. BSP vs MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Matthew Felice

    2012-01-01

    The MapReduce framework has been generating a lot of interest in a wide range of areas. It has been widely adopted in industry and has been used to solve a number of non-trivial problems in academia. Putting MapReduce on strong theoretical foundations is crucial in understanding its capabilities. This work links MapReduce to the BSP model of computation, underlining the relevance of BSP to modern parallel algorithm design and defining a subclass of BSP algorithms that can be efficiently imple...