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Sample records for artemia salina experiments

  1. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graul, E.H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions

  2. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth, developmental stages and survival rates of Sparus aurata larvae fed with Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii enriched by microalga Tetraselmis chuii were studied. Two experiments were carried out; the first concerning with culturing the microalga (T. chuii) in four different media, then using these ...

  3. Larvicidal activity of some marine macrophytes against Artemia salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    and Microdictyon pseudohapteron, seagrasses (Halophila ovalis and Syringodium isoetifolium and lichens (Umbilicaria arpina) were tested for larvicidal activity using Artemia salina nauplii. The LC50 values for the PE-fraction of M. pseudohapteron and A. muscoides...

  4. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  5. Morphological changes about Artemia Salina by the effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V; Kratochvil, B.; Salplachta, J.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Direction Council of Europe require restriction of laboratory vertebrae in biological experiments. Once by possibilities is using biological test II. generation among which belongs to and test for Artemia salina. Still this time published test however value only lethality in dependence on dose, exposition and time survival. This work document possibility watch of expressive morphological changes, which consist in retardation development brine shrimps stage in dependence on dose gamma radiation 60 Co. (authors)

  6. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Eleanor; Baas-Becking, L. G. M.

    1931-01-01

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism. PMID:19872620

  7. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  8. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

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    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsicum and their functional response were similar to those observed for other organisms like copepod fed on different food concentrations. Mortality rates oscillated from 2.5% to 100% when A. salina was fed on R. baltica or G. corsicum, respectively. Highest mortality rates observed for organisms fed on G. corsicum indicated that this dinoflagellate presented a hazard effect on A. salina that was not possible to confirm if it was related to toxin production or to nutritive inadequacy of this dinoflagellate as food for organisms of this species.Experimentos foram desenvolvidos para estudar as taxas de alimentação e de sobrevivência de Artemia salina alimentada com cepas não tóxicas do dinoflagelado Gyrodinium corsicum e da Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. As taxas de filtração sobre R. baltica e G. corsicum variaram entre 3,35 e 7,14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 e 2,97 e 15,86 ml.artemia-1.h-, respectivamente. As taxas de ingestão observadas para A. salina não indicaram disfunção digestiva ou prejuízo fisiológico nos organismos alimentados com G. corsicum, sendo a resposta funcional destes organismos similar a observada em copépodos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de alimento. As taxas de mortalidade de A. salina oscilaram entre 2,5 e 100% quando alimentada com R. baltica e G. corsicum, respectivamente. As maiores taxas de mortalidade observadas para os organismos alimentados com G. corsicum indicam que este dinoflagelado apresenta algum efeito

  9. Toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatchability and early stage development of Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    ALYÜRÜK, Hakan; ÇAVAŞ, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Booster biocides are widely used in antifouling paints as bioactive agents against fouling organisms. In previously published reports, acute toxicity tests on Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) were only focused on a part of the life cycle of the organism. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicities of diuron and irgarol on the hatching stage of A. salina. According to the results, diuron significantly decreased the hatching percentage of A. salina cysts and prevented the hatching of...

  10. Acclimation and tolerance of Artemia salina to copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, L.J.; Krzyz, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia salina L. was acclimated in sea water with cupric chloride, acetate, carbonate, and sulfate, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 ppM Cu/sup + +/, together with sea water controls. Growth inhibition was observed in all four compounds, generally in direct relationship to the concentration. It was least in sulfate, and increased progressively in chloride, acetate and carbonate in that order. In toxicity tests, 2-week old larvae from each solution were exposed to concentrations of 10, 7.5, 5, 2.5 and 1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ of the same compounds, together with unacclimated larvae of the same age. Similar tests were held with 6-week old adults. Toxicity to unacclimated larvae and adults differed with the compounds, carbonate being the least toxic, followed by sulfate, chloride and acetate in increasing order. Larvae acclimated in chloride and sulfate showed an increased tolerance to 1 and 2.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to untreated controls. Tolerance was not enhanced from 5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ upwards. In both compounds, adults acclimated in 0.1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ showed an increased tolerance to concentrations between 1 and 7.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to controls. Considerable precipitation occurred with the high levels of this compound, thus effecting the ''final'' concentrations. No acclimation effect was observed in acetate for either larvae or adults. It is suggested that in A. salina, copper toxicity depends on the particular form of the metal, and that this difference is also evident in growth inhibition and in the potential acquisition of increased tolerance through exposure to low concentrations.

  11. Effect of concentrations of Artemia salina on zootechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best performances of survival, growth and metamorphosis were produced by 3 AN/ml concentrations of Artemia. The cost of food has increased with the concentration level of Artemia. Then, the production of viable shrimp post larvae and cheaper may be done at 3 AN/ml optimal concentrations of Artemia. Keywords: ...

  12. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  13. [Immunocytochemical studies on the phase of differentiation of hatching gland cells in brine shrimp, Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Fan, Ting Jun; Wang, Xiao Feng; Cong, Ri Shan; Yu, Qiu Tao; Zhong, Qi Wang

    2004-04-01

    Hatching enzyme (HE), synthesized in hatching gland cells (HGCs), plays vital roles in animal hatching. Immunocytochemical techniques employing anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum, prepared from Xenopus HE and with specificity to brine shrimp HE, were first used to investigate the differentiation and variability of hatching gland cells (HGCs) in the hatching process of embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina, in this study. HGCs with immunoreactivity to anti-GST-UVS.2 antiserum were identified, for the first time, in brine shrimp embryos during hatching process. Immunocytochemical staining results showed that, (1) HE-positive immunoreactivity is really specific to Artemia HE, and its appearance and disappearance are closely correlated with the hatching process of Artemia salina. (2) Artemia HGCs, first appeared in embryos 5 hours before hatching and disappeared 4 hours after hatching, were also a transient type of cells, with an existence period of 9 hours. (3) The head portion of Artemia embryo is probably the initial position of HE secretion, and likely to be the main position of HE secretion as well. The detailed process and mechanism need to be studied. (4) The appearance of HGCs is in a synchronous mode from places all over the embryos, and their disappearance is also in a synchronous mode. (5) The number of HGCs increased gradually along with embryo development process and reached a maximum number at hatching. Contrarily, the number of HGCs decreased gradually after hatching, and HGCs disappeared 5 hours after hatching. However, the intensity of HE-positive reaction was almost at the same level at the period of HGCs'presence. (6) Artemia HGCs were distributed throughout the body of embryos at all time during their presence. Therefore, it can concluded that Artemia HGCs, as a transient type of cells, first appeared in embryos 4 hours before hatching and disappeared in embryos 5 hours after hatching, and with distinguished patterns of appearance, disappearance and

  14. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO 2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO 2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO 2 NPs (48h LC 50 of 4.21mgL -1 ) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC 50 of 11.35mgL -1 ). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  16. Fine structure and function of the alimentary epithelium in Artemia salina nauplii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, S R; Conte, F P

    1974-01-01

    The fine structure of the alimentary tract in the second instar nauplius of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been described. The foregut and hindgut of the larva are composed of cuboidal epithelium which is cuticularized. The epithelium of the midgut and gastric caeca is columnar and is characterized by apical microvilli, basal membrane infolds, and abundant mitochondria. The structural characteristics of the midgut cells correlate with previous physiological and biochemical evidence on both adult and larval brine shrimp which indicates that the midgut plays an important role in absorption and osmoregulation in these animals.

  17. Evaluation of the photodynamic activity of Xanthene Dyes on Artemia salina described by chemometric approaches

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    Diogo S. Pellosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of drugs for photodynamic therapy (PDT is an important area of research due to their growing use in medical applications. Therefore, it is important to develop new bioassay methods for PDT photosensitizers that are inexpensive, easy to handle and highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Xanthene dyes (fluorescein, rose bengal B, erythrosine B and eosin Y with LED light sources were investigated using Artemia salina as a bioindicator of photodynamic activity. In this study, three factors were investigated: (i photosensitizers concentration, (ii the LED irradiation time and (iii the waiting time between the addition of the photosensitizers and the beginning of the irradiation. To analyze the photo-killing of A. salina, it was employed a 23 full factorial design. The death of A. salina was related to dye structure and the interaction between the irradiation time and the photosensitizers concentration. About 60% of crustaceans death was obtained using rose bengal B, which presentes the highest quantum yield of singlet oxygen due to the number of iodide substituents in the xanthenes ring. The proposed bioassay using A. salina, xanthene dyes and LED irradiation was found suitable for quantitative PDT drug evaluation.

  18. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

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    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  19. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica Prof. Delby Fernandes de Medeiros; Silva, Davi Antas e [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides {beta}-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-{beta}-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  20. First secondary metabolites from Herissantia crispa L (Brizicky) and the toxicity activity against Artemia salina Leach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Danielly Albuquerque da; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Xavier, Aline Lira; Costa, Vivian Bruna Machado; Diniz, Margareth de Fatima Formiga Melo; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Batista, Leonia Maria; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Silva, Davi Antas e

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Herissantia crispa led to the isolation of seven compounds, identified as: sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), unpublished in the genus Herissantia, besides β-sitosterol, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) (tiliroside) glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (lespedin), described for the first time in the species. The structural determination of the compounds was made by means of spectroscopy methods such as Infrared Spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, with the aid of two dimensional techniques, and by comparison with literature data. The toxicity activity of the MeOH extract and lespedin on Artemia salina Leach. was also carried out. (author)

  1. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  2. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  3. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

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    Sahgal Geethaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT] to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC 50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO, 6.4% (methanol, 3.4% (ethanol and 2.5% (Tween 20. The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT.

  4. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

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    J.M. Lima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qualificados no extrato aquoso, com exceção de cumarinas. Em diclorometano, verificou se a presença de saponinas, derivados triterpênicos e esteróides. No teste de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina, os dados convergiram para frações de extrato aquoso de 5.117,2 ppm, indicando ser um extrato de baixa toxicidade.Sonchus oleraceus is a common weed in Brazil, also used as a medicinal plant. Phytochemical prospecting of this species was carried out in this work using extracts obtained in ethanol, water and dichloromethane. A toxicity study of the aqueous extract was also conducted, using the micro crustaceous Artemia salina. The aqueous extract presented sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins in its composition. The compounds found in the aqueous extract were also detected in the ethanol extract, except for the coumarins. Saponin, triterpenes and steroids were identified in the dichloromethane extract. The toxicity test on Artemia salina pointed to aqueous extract fractions of 5,117.2 ppm, indicative of low toxicity.

  5. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Artemia Salina Leach

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    Andi Nur Fitriani Abubakar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Avocado seed (Persea americana is recognized as one of medicinal plants. It contains several secondary metabolites, which have toxic activity. However, efforts to identify active compounds from avocado seeds (Persea americana are still relatively rare. Therefore, isolation and toxicity assay have been conducted foward the active compound of avocado seed. Maceration one kilogram of seed dried powder by ethanol obtained 49,7464 gram extract. Separation of etanol extract by column chromatography generated 0,0698 grams of pure white needle crytal, which is positively triterpenoid based on Lieberman-Buchard test. In addition, infrared spectrum showed the existence of OH, C=C, C-C, C=O, -C-H, -CH3,-CH2 and C-O stretch, which support the presumed compound. The result of toxicity test on Artemia salina Leach showed that the extract, fraction and pure isolates of the etanol extract are toxic with LC50 values 13,274 g/mL; 9,528 g/mL and 8,128 g/mL, respectively.

  7. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  8. Analysis of toxicity of Anacardium occidentale L. extract submitted to ionizing radiation on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Sa, Jose L.F.; Lima, Claudia S.A.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: hiannaamfs@gmail.com, E-mail: luismuma6@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: amancioff@bol.com.br, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Ribeiro, Luanna R.S.; Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B., E-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com, E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia

    2013-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation as a sterilization method for herbs, herbal medicines and foods, shows positive results regarding the retention of such products, economy and safety of the method. However, it is known that this method of processing plant material can cause chemical changes in these products related to the type of material, its components and the dose received. Evaluated, in the present study, the action of gamma radiation as a modifier of toxicity extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. To evaluate the toxicity of the extract irradiated at doses of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy and concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L was used bioassays with Artemia salina and Biomphalaria glabrata. For the test to A. salina, 520 specimens were used divided into groups of 10 larvae. For the bioassay with B. glabrata, 3900 specimens were used divided into groups of, approximately, 100 embryos. Larvae of A. salina and embryos were subjected to extracts irradiated and unirradiated for 24 hours. The bioassay with A. salina, showed a decrease, compared to extract unirradiated and irradiated at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 kGy, of extract irradiated with 10 kGy, where the mortality did not differ from the control group. In tests with embryos was observed an increase in the toxicity of the extract at a dose of 7.5 kGy and a decrease in the dose of 10.0 kGy. The radiation promoted changes in the toxicity of leaves extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn. on embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata and Artemia salina. (author)

  9. Prospecção fitoquímica de Sonchus oleraceus e sua toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina Phytochemical prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Lima; C.A. Silva; M.B. Rosa; J.B. Santos; T.G. Oliveira; M.B. Silva

    2009-01-01

    A espécie vegetal Sonchus oleraceus é uma planta daninha presente em diversas culturas no Brasil e de utilização na medicina popular. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a prospecção fitoquímica dessa espécie com extratos em etanol, água e diclorometano, bem como testes de toxicidade sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina. O extrato aquoso apresentou em sua composição açúcares redutores, compostos fenólicos, taninos, flavonóides e cumarinas. No extrato etanólico, observaram-se os mesmos compostos qual...

  10. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L. model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Меntor R. Hamidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products could serve as the starting point in the development of modern medicines because of their numerous biological and pharmacological activities. However, some of them are known to carry toxicological properties as well. In order to achieve a safe treatment with plant products, numerous research studies have recently been focused on both pharmacology and toxicity of medicinal plants. Moreover, these studies employed efforts for alternative biological assays. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is the most convenient system for monitoring biological activities of various plant species. This method is very useful for preliminary assessment of toxicity of the plant extracts. Rapidness, simplicity and low requirements are several advantages of this assay. However, several conditions need to be completed, especially in the means of standardized experimental conditions (temperature, pH of the medium, salinity, aeration and light. The toxicity of herbal extracts using this assay has been determined in a concentration range of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml of the examined herbal extract. Most toxicity studies which use the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay determine the toxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the tested sample. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of the test samples is obtained by a plot of percentage of the dead shrimps against the logarithm of the sample concentration. LC50 values are estimated using a probit regression analysis and compared with either Meyer’s or Clarkson’s toxicity criteria. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Meyer’s toxicity scale for Artemia salina and Gosselin, Smith and Hodge’s toxicity scale for higher animal models confirmed that the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay is an excellent predictive tool for the toxic potential of plant extracts in humans.

  11. Coculture induced improved production of biosurfactant by Staphylococcus lentus SZ2: Role in protecting Artemia salina against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Faseela; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2018-07-01

    Coculturing microorganisms can lead to enhanced production of bioactive compounds as a result of cross-species or cross-genera interactions. In this study, we demonstrate improved production of the biosurfactant (BS-SLSZ2 with antibiofilm properties) by the marine epibiotic bacterium Staphylococcus lentus SZ2 after cross-genera interactions with an aquaculture pathogen Vibrio harveyi. In cocultures, growth of V. harveyi was completely inhibited and resultant biofilms were exclusively composed of S. lentus. The cell free supernatant (CFS) derived from cocultures displayed improved antibiofilm activity with enhanced contents of BS-SLSZ2 compared to monocultured S. lentus. During coculture experiments, after short periods of incubation (6 and 12 h), 2.3 fold increased production of BS-SLSZ2 was observed. Planktonic growth of V. harveyi was also inhibited after coculturing with S. lentus as evidenced from plate culture-based studies and microscopic observations. The CFS derived from monocultures and cocultures did not display bactericidal activity and the observed inhibition of V. harveyi could be of competitive nature. During in vivo challenge experiments, S. lentus protected the model aquaculture system Artemia salina from V. harveyi infections. Seven days post infection, survival of the group of larvae infected with V. harveyi was 5 ± 4.47%. Better survival rates (73.33 ± 5.16%, comparable with the unexposed group) were observed in the group of larvae incubated with S. lentus and V. harveyi. This study highlights increased biosurfactant production by cocultured S. lentus and the application of this bacterium as a protective probiotic strain for inclusion in aquaculture practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifikasi Metabolit Sekunder Ekstrak Etil Asetat Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill. dan Uji Toksisitas Terhadap Larva Udang Artemia salina Leach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdia Asdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of metabolite compound in acetone Extract from Fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach. Aim of this research is to identify the secondary metabolite compound in aceton extract from fruits Avocado seed (Percea americana Mill and to determine the potential of secondary metabolites from an avocado extract as anticancer. The compound was obtained from Identification process in several stages, namely extraction, fractination, purification and identification. The identification process was color test, TLC, spectroscopy IR. The toxicity test by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT to Artemia salina Leach. The compound obtained from this research was yellow-white crystalline needle-shaped, the purity test with TLC analysis showed a stain in three eluen system on the stain test on three eluent systems with Rf proportions as follows; 0,15 from chloroform:ethyl acetat (6:4, 0,33 from methanol:chloroform (1:9, 0,75 for acetone:ethyl acetat, and positively to the reagent Wagner and gave brown precipitate for indicate as alcaloid group. This result is supported by spectroscopy from compound.While toxicity tests showed condensed acetone extracts  and pure compounds are toxic with LC50 value of each is 20.61 mg/mL and 39,81 mg/mL.

  13. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.A., E-mail: abduladem1@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Fortuna, L., E-mail: lfortuna@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Frasca, M., E-mail: mfrasca@diees.unict.i [DIEEI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Rashid, M.T., E-mail: mofid76@yahoo.co [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Basrah (Iraq); Xibilia, M.G., E-mail: mxibilia@ingegneria.unime.i [DiSIA, Faculty of Engineering, University of Messina (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  14. Complexity in a population of Artemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.A.; Fortuna, L.; Frasca, M.; Rashid, M.T.; Xibilia, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experiments on collective motion of populations of animals (Artemia salina). → Design of low-cost experimental setup for complex systems. → Control of collective motion of populations of Artemia. → Models of collective motion of populations of Artemia. - Abstract: Artemia salina belongs to a genus of very primordial crustaceans, whose behavior is not widely investigated in literature. Their collective behavior is studied in this paper both experimentally and theoretically. Different experiments have been designed to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population by exploiting their sensitivity to light and to measure the response of the population to light at different wavelengths. Mathematical models have been also derived, explaining the mechanisms underlying Artemia flocking formation when a light spot is applied to the system. The results obtained allow to develop new strategies for distributed control of agents and to test them in a simple and low cost experimental setup.

  15. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  16. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  17. Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 in milk on the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Duraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-dose relationships with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 were studied using the brine shrimp Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator in the temperature range from 20 °C to 40 °C. Increase in the incubation temperature resulted in sensitivity increase by the brine shrimp to AFM1. Optimum sensitivity occured at 30 °C. Positive results were obtained at 0.18 μg AFM1 x L-1 of whole pasteurized milk with a mortality of over 15%. Greater than 90 % mortality occurred at dose levels of 0.9 μg AFM1 x L-1 and above. The test can be conducted during 30-60 hours.

  18. Efeito alelopático e toxicidade frente à Artemia salina Leach dos extatos do fruto de Euterpe edulis Martius Allelopathic effects and toxicity against Artemia salina Leach of extracts of the fruit of Euterpe edulis Martius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peitz de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é um processo envolvendo metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas que infl uenciam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas. Devido à toxicidade dos herbicidas sintéticos para o meio ambiente e para a saúde humana tem-se aumentado o interesse na exploração da alelopatia como uma alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. O presente trabalho avaliou efeito dos extratos dos frutos de Euterpe edulis Martius sobre o desenvolvimento de cipselas e plântulas de Lactuca sativa Linné, foram determinados o índice de velocidade de germinação, o crescimento da radícula e do hipocótilo. Para a avaliação da toxicidade dos extratos foi realizado o ensaio de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach determinando-se a CL50 e percentual de mortalidade. A fração remanescente demonstrou efeito alelopático, pois todas as concentrações alteraram os valores do índice de velocidade de germinação e as concentrações de 0,2 e 0,4 mg inibiram tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto o crescimento do hipocótilo. No ensaio de toxicidade todos os extratos apresentaram CL50 superior a 1000 ppm e 0% de mortalidade das artemias, indicando a não toxicidade dos extratos.Allelopathy is a process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants that influence growth and development of agricultural systems. Because of the toxicity of synthetic herbicides to the environment and human health, there has been increased interest in exploiting allelopathy as an alternative for weed control. This study evaluated the eff ect of extracts of Euterpe edulis Martius fruits on the development of cypselae and seedlings of Lactuca sativa Linné; the germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl growth were determined. To evaluate the toxicity of the extracts the toxicity test against Artemia salina Leach was used, where the LC50 and mortality rate were determined. Th e remaining fraction showed allelopathic effect

  19. Aplicación del bioensayo de Artemia salina en el análisis general de plantas medicinales brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Montanher, Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa

    2002-01-01

    Extractos de once especies de la flora brasileña fueron estudiados para evaluar la actividad citotóxica por el test de Artemia salina. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Baccharis pseudotenuifolia, Baccharis ligustrina, Baccharis platypoda, Baccharis coridifolia, Polygala paniculata, Polygala sabulosa, Croton celtidifolius, Cyathea phalerata, Trichilia catigua, Eugenia uniflora y Schinus molle. Los resultados obtenidos para los extractos crudos de B. pseudotenuifolia, B. ligustrina, B. c...

  20. Transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from phytoplankton (Dunaliella bioculata) to zooplankton (Artemia salina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro; Takase, Akira

    1982-01-01

    106 Ru is one of the most abundant radionuclides to be released from the unclear-spent fuel reprocessing plant to oceans. This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of the radionuclide from phytoplankton (Dunaliella) to zooplankton (Artemia) in the graizing food chain of marine organisms. Each plankton was reared in the radioactive sea water A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, and the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, and the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Then, accumulations of 106 Ru in Artemia by the ingestion of each diet (Dunaliella) contaminated with 106 Ru in each water, were investigated and compared with those from each water. Concentration factors of 106 Ru for the planktons reared in the radioactive sea waters were different among these waters. The difference can be attributable to that of physicochemical states of 106 Ru in the waters. It was found that 106 Ru would be accumulated by Artemia from the water A about 10 times higher than from the contaminated diet (Dunaliella) in this water, however from the contaminated diet (Dunaliella) in the water B about 2.2 times higher than from the last water. (author)

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CYTOTOXICITYTY ACTIVITY IN Artemia salina LEACH, AERIAL PARTS OF Petiveria alliacea L. PHYTOLACCACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darllen Suzanny Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Petiveria alliacea L. (young branches and leaves, cytotoxicity evaluation (LC50 of leaves in relation to Artemia salina L. and antimicrobial activity, which were used strains of gram-positive bacterium: Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, these submitted to the methanol crude extract (MCE of leaves, at the following concentrations: 25.50 and 100mg/mL. It was possible to identify in the young branches of P. alliacea L. the presence of organic acids, phenols and tannins in the alkaloids leaves, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins, where the activities of these metabolites match with some information alleged by the population. The leaves’ Methanol Crude Extract showed LC50=1709.77μg/mL, being nontoxic at the tested concentrations, whereas for plant extract in relation to A.salina are considered nontoxic when LC50>1000μg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the Methanol Crude Extract of the leaves showed inhibition only for the bacteria Escherichia coli at 100mg/mL concentration, and this activity may be related to the presence of phenols and tannins in the extract. The obtained results turn the species promising in search of secondary metabolites, but there is the need of further studies to identify its main active ingredients. Palavras-chave: Mucuracaa, Phytochemical Screening, Class of Compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p76-82

  2. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific.

  3. Topography and stoichiometry of acidic proteins in large ribosomal subunits from Artemia salina as determined by crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiumi, T.; Wahba, A.J.; Traut, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 60S subunits isolated from Artemia salina ribosomes were treated with the crosslinking reagent 2-iminothiolane under mild conditions. Proteins were extracted and fractions containing crosslinked acidic proteins were obtained by stepwise elution from CM-cellulose. Each fraction was analyzed by diagonal (two-dimensional nonreducing-reducing) NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked proteins below the diagonal were radioiodinated and identified by two-dimensional acidic urea-NaDodSO 4 gel electrophoresis. Each of the acidic proteins P1 and P2 was crosslinked individually to the same third protein, PO. The fractions containing acidic proteins were also analyzed by two-dimensional nonequilibrium isoelectric focusing-NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two crosslinked complexes were observed that coincide in isoelectric positions with monomeric P1 and P2, respectively. Both P1 and P2 appear to form crosslinked homodimers. These results suggest the presence in the 60S subunit of (P1) 2 and (P2) 2 dimers, each of which is anchored to PO. Protein PO appears to play the same role as L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes and may form a pentameric complex with the two dimers in the 60S subunits

  4. Evaluation of toxic effects with transition metal ions, EDTA, SBTI and acrylic polymers on Aedes aegypti (L., 1762 (Culicidae and Artemia salina (Artemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Arruda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II].

  5. Comparative radiobiological studies on the effect of cosmic and technically created heavy ion radiation on the eggs of Carausius morosus and Artemia salina as a contribution to the evaluation of the radiation risk in space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data have been obtained by measurements at the UNILAC accelerator of GSI and by the Spacelab-1 and D-1 missions. The eggs of Artemia salina used were in the primarily dehydrated long-term form of a mosaic egg with inactive gastrula, without cell proliferation and without detectable metabolism, whereas the eggs from Carausius morosus were used in various stages of the developing regulation egg. The ground experiments using relatively low energy ions showed a very highly specific radiosensitivity of the Artemia eggs and a varying sensitivity of the individual development stages of the Carausius eggs with the greatest sensitivity being at the time of organogenesis. If one compares both objects on the basis of hits per egg, then the Artemia eggs needed only a few hits to cause a strong anomaly or even lethal damage, whereas the Carausius eggs in similar stages needed 50,000 to 100,000 hits per egg. In the space experiments the hatching rates of all Artemia eggs as well as the Carausius eggs which were in the earliest development stages were less in comparison to the ground controls and were also less in eggs hit by HZE (high nuclear load with high energy emission) particles compared to eggs in space not hit. The most important result was the fact, that the reduced hatching rates and high anomaly frequency found by the Carausius eggs in space were not present in eggs which during the flight were under an artificial earth gravity produced by a 1-G reference centrifuge. (orig./MG) [de

  6. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  7. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  8. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti-Artemia

  9. Avaliação da bioatividade dos extratos de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. M. da Silva Filho

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma é o rizoma limpo, em boas condições, seco e moído da Curcuma longa L., uma planta herbácea da família Zingiberaceae. Visando novas alternativas para o controle da esquistossomose, os extratos de Curcuma longa L. foram testados para a avaliação da atividade moluscicida contra caramujos adultos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. A oleoresina e o óleo essencial de cúrcuma foram ativos contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 80,43 e CL50 = 319,82 μg/mL, respectivamente e também ativos contra os indivíduos adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 58,3 e CL50 = 46,73 μg/mL, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde ser concluído que ambos os extratos podem constituir uma alternativa no controle da população desses caramujos e na redução da esquistossomose.

  10. Comparative study on toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles on Artemia salina: effect of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Sagar, Bhawana; Doshi, Siddharth; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity potential of ZnO and TiO 2 nanoparticles under pre-UV-A irradiation and visible light condition on Artemia salina. The nanoparticle suspension was prepared in seawater medium and exposed under pre-UV-A (0.23 mW/cm 2 ) and visible light (0.18 mW/cm 2 ) conditions. The aggregation profiles of both nanoparticles (NPs) and dissolution of ZnO NPs under both irradiation conditions at various kinetic intervals (1, 24, 48 h) were studied. The 48-h LC 50 values were found to be 27.62 and 71.63 mg/L for ZnO NPs and 117 and 120.9 mg/L for TiO 2 NPs under pre-UV-A and visible light conditions. ZnO NPs were found to be more toxic to A. salina as compared to TiO 2 NPs. The enhanced toxicity was observed under pre-UV-A-irradiated ZnO NPs, signifying its phototoxicity. Accumulation of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs into A. salina depends on the concentration of particles and type irradiations. Elimination of accumulated nanoparticles was also evident under both irradiation conditions. Other than ZnO NPs, the dissolved Zn 2+ also had a significant effect on toxicity and accumulation in A. salina. Increased catalase (CAT) activity in A. salina indicates the generation of oxidative stress due to NP interaction. Thus, this study provides an understanding of the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as related to the effects of pre-UV-A and visible light irradiation.

  11. Developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Artemia salina cysts and larvae: Uptake, accumulation, excretion and toxic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song; Luo, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Chen, Wei-Chao; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-10-01

    Using Artemia salina (A. salina) cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae [instar I (0-24 h), II (24-48 h) and III (48-72 h)] as experimental models, developmental toxicity of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was evaluated. Results revealed that hatchability of capsulated and decapsulated cysts was significantly decreased (p larvae in 600 mg/L. The EC 50 values for swimming inhibition of instar I, II and III were 535, 385 and 472 mg/L, respectively. Instar II showed the greatest sensitivity to O-MWCNTs, and followed by instar III, instar I, decapsulated cysts and capsulated cysts. Effects on hatchability, mortality and swimming were accounted for O-MWCNTs rather than metal catalyst impurities. Body length was decreased with the concentrations increased from 0 to 600 mg/L. O-MWCNTs attached onto the cysts, gill and body surface, resulting in irreversible damages. Reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) activities were increased following exposure, indicating that the effects were related to oxidative stress. O-MWCNTs were ingested and distributed in phagocyte, lipid vesicle and intestine. Most of the accumulated O-MWCNTs were excreted by A. salina at 72 h, but some still remained in the organism. Data of uptake kinetics showed that O-MWCNTs contents in A. salina were gradually increased from 1 to 48 h and followed by rapidly decreased from 48 to 72 h with a range from 5.5 to 28.1 mg/g. These results so far indicate that O-MWCNTs have the potential to affect aquatic organisms when released into the marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of temperature and viscosity on swimming velocity of the copepod Acartia tonsa, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Madsen, C.V.; Riisgard, H.U.

    2008-01-01

    Beating cilia are important organelles for swimming in many zooplanktonic aquatic organisms, including many invertebrate larvae, rotifers and ciliates, but other planktonic organisms, such as copepods and brine shrimps, use muscle-powered swimming appendages. In recent studies we found...... of swimming velocity for a 10 degrees C temperature reduction) that is found to be largest for the brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplius (37 %) and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (26%), but negligible for the copepod Acartia tonsa (4%). We suggest that experimental data on change in swimming velocity (V......) due to change in kinematic viscosity (v) be correlated in terms of a power law, V proportional to v(-m). The present data on swimming velocity of copepods, brine shrimps and rotifers show values of exponent m approximate to 1.5 to 3, with a trend of decreasing values for increasing size of species...

  13. The Cytotoxicity Study of Carboxymethyl Starch (CMS) of Sago Starch (Metro xylon sago) by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (Artemia salina nauplii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Zainon Othman

    2014-01-01

    CMS can be produced by substitution of the hydroxyl groups with sodium monochloroacetate in the presence of strong alkali. Carboxy methylation can be performed in water as a solvent or in a water-miscible organic solvent containing a small amount of water such as ethanol, isopropanol, methanol or toluene. The use of organic solvent will preserve the final product in the granular form and the side product can be washed out easily but some of them may be having potential toxicity and carcinogenic effect. In this study, CMS was investigated the level of toxicity by using brine shrimp lethality (BSLT). Brine shrimp test method was used to screen CMS for their biological activity. The screening results showed that the LC50, of CMS is more than 100 mg/ ml dose concentration. In conclusion, CMS is not cytotoxicity to Artemia salina nauplii and BSLT method is simple, inexpensive and convenient assay for the detection of cytotoxic compound. (author)

  14. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to be due to the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50∼ 100 mg L(-1)) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 > 100 mg L(-1)). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn(2+) levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L(-1)) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L(-1)). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher toxicity than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p < 0.05), indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress.

  15. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful Replacement of Artemia salina nauplii with Marine Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in the Diet of Preadult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; James, Althea; Mobley, Scottie

    2015-10-01

    Previously established rearing protocols for zebrafish begin feeding with marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), followed by Artemia nauplii until the fish reach subadult stage, the developmental time point at which they can be most easily transitioned onto a processed diet. However, the inclusion of Artemia is less than ideal, given its fluctuating availability and high costs. We tested whether or not we could replace Artemia with rotifers during our normal rearing sequence and still meet published performance standards for (i) weaning fish onto a processed diet by 25 days postfertilization (dpf) and (ii) successful breeding by 60 dpf. Here, we present the results of trials where wild-type and casper zebrafish were fed exclusively with rotifers (R) or rotifers followed by Artemia (RA) for the first 25 dpf after which point all fish were transitioned to a processed diet (Gemma Micro 300). We measured growth and survival at days 25 and 60, and tested for reproductive capability at 60 dpf. While growth performance was significantly better in the RA groups, we were still able to meet goals for both weaning and generation time in the R groups without compromising survival or sex ratios.

  17. Bioatividade de três espécies vegetais nativas da Floresta Atlântica brasileira frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M Pompilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae, Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae, e Bathysa australis (St Hill Hooz (Rubiaceae, bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos, Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.

  18. Estudo fitoquímico preliminar e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de extrato obtido de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hill (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade preliminar frente a larvas de Artemia salina do extrato etanólico de frutos de Solanum lycocarpum. O extrato foi submetido à analise fitoquímica preliminar para identificação das principais classes de metabolitos secundários presentes e testado frente a larvas de A. salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50%. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de fenóis, taninos, saponinas, alcalóides e esteróides e triterpenos livres. O extrato foi fracionado em diferentes solventes para a avaliação da toxicidade frente à A. salina, apresentando considerável citotoxicidade encontrada na fração hidroalcoólica (CL50% = 285,546 µg/mL. Palavras-chave: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, triagem fitoquímica preliminar. ABSTRACT The phytochemical profile of ethanolic extract of Solanum lycocarpum fruits was analyzed and preliminary toxicity tests were performed against brine shrimp larvae. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to identify the main classes of secondary metabolites and tested against the larvae of A. salina to obtain the median lethal concentrations (LC50%. The phytochemical tests showed the presence of phenols, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and free steroids. The extract was fractionated with various solvents for toxicity testing against the larvae and the hydroalcoholic fraction showed considerable cytotoxicity (CL50% = 285.546 g/mL. Keywords: Solanum lycocarpum, Artemia salina, phytochemical screening

  19. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Lhullier

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.

  20. Composição química e toxicidade frente Aedes aegypti L. e Artemia salina Leach do óleo essencial das folhas de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. ROSA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A dengue está entre as doenças virais de propagação vetorial mais importante no mundo, causando sérios impactos de morbidade e mortalidade. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a composição química e a toxicidade do óleo essencial de Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey D.C. frente Aedes aegypti e Artemia salina. Folhas de M. sylvatica foram coletadas no Parque Nacional da Chapada das Mesas, no município de Carolina (MA no mês de fevereiro de 2012. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação e sua composição química foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG/EM. O bioensaio frente Artemia salina e às larvas de 3° estádio de Aedes aegypti foram realizados em diferentes concentrações. Os dados de mortalidade foram avaliados por regressão linear para determinar os valores de CL50. Obteve-se 0,5% de rendimento, sendo o (E-cariofileno o constituinte majoritário. O óleo essencial apresentou uma CL50 = 79,44 µg/mL frente A. salina, sendo considerado altamente tóxico. No entanto, este óleo não demonstrou efeito sobre as larvas de A. aegypti. Considerando que o teste de Artemia salina tem correlação com atividades biológicas de grande interesse terapêutico como antitumoral, o óleo essencial das folhas de M. sylvatica demonstrou potencial para desenvolvimento de produtos farmacêuticos.

  1. [Concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, polyphenols and saponins in selected medicinal plants from Ecuador and their relationship with acute toxicity against Artemia salina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Jaramillo, Carmita; Jaramillo Espinoza, Anyi; D'Armas, Haydelba; Troccoli, Luis; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (pplants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (pplant extracts

  2. Bioensayo General de Letalidad en Artemia Salina, a Las Fracciones del Extracto Etanólico De Psidium Guajava. L y Psidium Guineense. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Sánchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se centró en la evaluación y verificación de la letalidad de las fracciones acetato de etilo, obtenida de los extractos etanólicos de los frutos en estado de madurez, verde y pintón, utilizando la cáscara y pulpa de las especies guayaba (Psidium guajava L y Choba (Psidium guineense Sw. La valoración se llevó a cabo mediante el bioensayo en Artemia salina, a través del cual, se evidencia el siguiente proceso: determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 utilizando el medio artificial a Ph 7-8, burbujear con el fin de saturar de oxígeno la solución, controlar la eclosión de los huevos a 25 °C despuésde 48 horas, preparar la solución madre y las de trabajo a concentraciones de 1500, 1000, 500,100, 10 g/ml, control positivo estricnina a 80, 70, 60, 50 g/ml, blanco solvente etanol a 80 g/ml. El ensayo biológico se realizó siguiendo las metodologías propuestas por Gualdrón, R (1994; Cyted (1995;Martínez, C (1999 y McLaughlin, J (1997. Comprobada la letalidad de las fracciones acetato del extracto etanólico de Psidium guajava. L y Psidium guineense. Sw mostró CL50 de 181.4 y 221.30g/ml respectivamente, los resultados se evaluaron según Gautret (2000.

  3. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  5. Tolerance of Artemia to static and shock pressure loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Painter, J. D.; Ono, F.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazael, R.; Meersman, F.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure loading has been applied to unicellular organisms for a number of years due to interest from food technology and extremophile communities. There is also an emerging interest in the response of multicellular organisms to high pressure conditions. Artemia salina is one such organism. Previous experiments have shown a marked difference in the hatching rate of these organisms after exposure to different magnitudes of pressure, with hydrostatic tests showing hatching rates at pressures up to several GPa, compared to dynamic loading that resulted in comparatively low survival rates at lower pressure magnitudes. In order to begin to investigate the origin of this difference, the work presented here has focussed on the response of Artemia salina to (quasi) one-dimensional shock loading. Such experiments were carried out using the plate-impact technique in order to create a planar shock front. Artemia cysts were investigated in this manner along with freshly hatched larvae (nauplii). The nauplii and cysts were observed post-shock using optical microscopy to detect motility or hatching, respectively. Hatching rates of 18% were recorded at pressures reaching 1.5 GPa, as determined with the aid of numerical models. Subjecting Artemia to quasi-one-dimensional shock loading offers a way to more thoroughly explore the shock pressure ranges these organisms can survive.

  6. Estudo fitoquímico e bioensaio toxicológico frente a larvas de Artemia salina Leach. de três espécies medicinais do gênero Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico e a toxicidade de três espécies do gênero Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. amarus e P. tenellus, coletadas em diferentes localidades do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Os extratos brutos das três espécies foram submetidos a testes convencionais por cromatografia em camada delgada analítica para verificação das classes de metabólitos presentes, e testados frente a larvas de Artemia salina para obtenção das concentrações letais médias (CL50. Os testes fitoquímicos demonstraram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos, naftoquinonas, alcalóides, antraquinonas, lignanas e taninos. As três espécies de Phyllanthus apresentaram variações na composição fitoquímica e na toxicidade frente a A. salina. Dependendo do local de coleta, os valores de CL50 variaram de 404,43 ± 49,64 µg/mL a 770,84 ± 51,78 µg/mL para P. niruri, 837,65 ± 61,45 µg/mL a 1075,89 ± 70,72 µg/mL para P. amarus e 534,60 ± 46,83 µg/mL a 1003,62 ± 65,15 µg/mL para P. tenellus. Palavras-chave: Phyllanthus niruri; Phyllanthus amarus,/i>; Phyllanthus tenellus; análise fitoquímica preliminar; bioensaio toxicológico; CL50

  7. Effects of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants on the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta and cysts, larvae and adults of the brine shrimp Artemia salina: a prospective treatment to eradicate invasive organisms from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavand, Meghana R; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Peters, Robert W; Angus, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Uptake and release of ship-borne ballast water is a major factor contributing to introductions of aquatic phytoplankton and invasive macroinvertebrates. Some invasive unicellular algae can cause harmful algal blooms and produce toxins that build up in food chains. Moreover, to date, few studies have compared the efficacy of ballast water treatments against different life history phases of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In the present study, the unicellular green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta, and three discrete life history phases of the brine shrimp Artemia salina, were independently used as model organisms to study the efficacy of sonication as well as the advanced oxidants, hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as potential ballast water treatments. Algal cells and brine shrimp cysts, nauplii, and adults were subjected to individual and combined treatments of sonication and advanced oxidants. Combined rather than individual treatments consistently yielded the highest levels of mortality in algal cells (100% over a 2 min exposure) and in brine shrimp (100% and 95% for larvae and adults, respectively, over a 2 min exposure). In contrast, mortality levels in brine shrimp cysts (66% over 2 min; increased to 92% over a 20 min exposure) were moderately high but consistently lower than that detected for larval or adult shrimp. Our results indicate that a combination of sonication and advanced chemical oxidants may be a promising method to eradicate aquatic unicellular algae and macroinvertebrates in ballast water.

  8. Determination of 54 pesticides in waters of the Iberian Douro River estuary and risk assessment of environmentally relevant mixtures using theoretical approaches and Artemia salina and Daphnia magna bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Amaral, Sofia; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2017-11-01

    As a case study, the estuary of the international Douro River (Iberian Peninsula) was sampled over a year (2010) at six sampling sites to determine the presence of 56 pesticides of different categories (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides). 96% of measured pesticides were detected in 79% of the quantified samples. Individual average pesticide concentrations ranged from 39 to 1 265ng/L, indicating a ubiquitous presence of the selected compounds; moreover, twelve pesticides were above the 2013/39/EU Directive limits. Due to its highly impacted profile, a theoretical hazard assessment was done considering the average and maximum environmental mixtures of all measured pesticides to identify the most sensitive trophic level. For both environmental mixtures, the theoretical approach suggested that invertebrates were the most sensitive group. Therefore, short-time exposure assays using both invertebrates Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, were done using the referred mixtures. Data demonstrated significant toxic effects ─ high mortality rate and abnormal swimming behaviour ─ of the exposed animals. Both approaches (theoretical and experimental) support the analytical results, alerting for an intervention on this estuarine environment and of other comparable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing Artemia populations in Antillean salines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, Ingvar; Hulscher-Emeis, T. Marian

    1972-01-01

    In the Netherlands Antilles two extreme “forms” of Artemia salina, f. arietina and f. milhauseni, show all intermediate gradations. They hybridize constantly. When forma arietina is moved from lower concentrations into highly concentrated brine it will produce offspring that exhibit characteristics

  10. Brine shrimp bioassay: importance of correct taxonomic identification of Artemia (Anostraca) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebhart, David R; Cock, Ian E; Shaw, Glen R

    2008-08-01

    Despite the common use of the brine shrimp bioassay in toxicology, there is confusion in the literature regarding citation of the correct taxonomic identity of the Artemia species used. The genus Artemia, once thought to be represented by a single species Artemia salina, is now known to be composed of several bisexual species as well as parthenogenetic populations. Artemia franciscana is the best studied of the Artemia species and is considered to represent the vast majority of studies in which Artemia is used as an experimental test organism. We found that in studies referring to the use of A. salina, the zoogeography of the cyst harvest site indicated that the species used was actually A. franciscana. Those performing bioassays with Artemia need to exercise diligence in assigning correct species identification, as the identity of the test organism is an important parameter in assuring the validity of the results of the assay.

  11. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references

  12. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds: results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubin, Y; Pianezzi, B; Gasset, G; Planel, H [Laboratoire de Biologie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine, Toulouse (France); Delpoux, M [Laboratoire de Biogeographie, Faculte des Sciences, Toulouse (France); Heilmann, C [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments. (author).

  13. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  14. Adult Artemia as food for juvenile prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments on three commercially important shrimps Penaues indicus, Metapenaeus dobsoni and M. monoceros were carried out using adult Artemia as feed. Good growth and food conversion efficiencies were recorded at 15% feeding level in all...

  15. Conservation of RNA sequence and cross-linking ability in ribosomes from a higher eukaryote: photochemical cross-linking of the anticodon of P site bound tRNA to the penultimate cytidine of the UACACACG sequence in Artemia salina 18S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesiolka, J.; Nurse, K.; Klein, J.; Ofengand, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complex of Artemia salina ribosomes and Escherichia coli acetylvalyl-tRNA could be cross-linked by irradiation with near-UV light. Cross-linking required the presence of the codon GUU, GUA being ineffective. The acetylvalyl group could be released from the cross-linked tRNA by treatment with puromycin, demonstrating that cross-linking had occurred at the P site. This was true both for pGUU- and also for poly(U2,G)-dependent cross-linking. All of the cross-linking was to the 18S rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit. Photolysis of the cross-link at 254 nm occurred with the same kinetics as that for the known cyclobutane dimer between this tRNA and Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. T1 RNase digestion of the cross-linked tRNA yielded an oligonucleotide larger in molecular weight than any from un-cross-linked rRNA or tRNA or from a prephotolyzed complex. Extended electrophoresis showed this material to consist of two oligomers of similar mobility, a faster one-third component and a slower two-thirds component. Each oligomer yielded two components on 254-nm photolysis. The slower band from each was the tRNA T1 oligomer CACCUCCCUVACAAGp, which includes the anticodon. The faster band was the rRNA 9-mer UACACACCGp and its derivative UACACACUG. Unexpectedly, the dephosphorylated and slower moving 9-mer was derived from the faster moving dimer. Deamination of the penultimate C to U is probably due to cyclobutane dimer formation and was evidence for that nucleotide being the site of cross-linking. Direct confirmation of the cross-linking site was obtained by Z-gel analysis

  16. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  17. Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... medium, especially the short chain fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0 and ... constituted 22.3% of the total fatty acids, due to the presence of DHA ...... to influence tissue fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr.

  18. Salinas : theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  19. Laboratory scale photobioreactor for high production of microalgae Rhodomonas salina used as food for intensive copepod cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Hansen, Benni Winding

    Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems (photobio......Introduction Microalgae are essential feeds for many cultured molluscs, larvae of marine fishes, crustaceans as well as other important live feeds including rotifers, Artemia and copepods (Muller-Feuga, 2000). Microalgae are grown either in open culture systems (ponds) or closed systems...... for copepods (Støttrup and Jensen, 1990; Zhang et al., 2013). Despite the benefit of using R. salina in cultivation of copepods, to our knowledge, there is no report on the production of this microalga at industrial scale to supply sufficient food for mass production of copepods. We intend to conduct the basic...... was cultivated continuously at temperature of 20ºC and salinity of 30ppt in two tubular PBRs with addition of CO2. The experiment was run two times and each PBR in 18 - 30 days. Periodically, the algae were sampled for analyzing the growth, biochemical composition and production. An exponential light model...

  20. Comparison live adult Artemia and squid meat on the growth of Penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Royan, J.P.

    An experiment lasting 14 weeks was conducted to compare the efficiency of live adult Artemia with fresh squid meat on growth of penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni. The shrimps were found actively feeding on live Artemia and grew 84% more than those...

  1. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  2. Survival and growth of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae fed on vitamin C-enriched Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Setiawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research was conducted to evaluate effect of the administration of Artemia enriched with vitamin C on the survival, total body length, and average body weight of Pangasionodon sp. larvae. Artemia were enriched with either 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/L vitamin C immersed in the culture medium for 13 hours. Two days old larvae were fed on enriched Artemia 12 times/day for seven days. At the end of feeding experiment, it was found that fish fed on Artemia enriched with 100 mg/L culture medium had the highest survival, total length and body weight, respectively 76.17±12.78%, 1.63±0.34 cm, and 20.6±3.8 mg. Keywords: survival, growth, Artemia, vitamin C, catfish, Pangasionodon sp.  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Artemia yang diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup, panjang total, dan bobot tubuh larva ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pada penelitian ini, Artemia diperkaya dengan vitamin C dosis 0, 50, 100, atau 150 mg/L media pengayaan. Larva yang berumur dua hari diberi pakan Artemia hasil pengayaan sebanyak 12 kali sehari selama tujuh hari masa pemeliharaan. Pada akhir percobaan, didapatkan bahwa larva ikan yang diberi Artemia diperkaya vitamin C dosis 100 mg/L media pengayaan memberikan kelangsungan hidup 76,17±12,78%, panjang total 1,63±0,34 cm, dan bobot tubuh paling tinggi 20,6±3,8 mg. Kata kunci: kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan, Artemia, vitamin C, ikan patin, Pangasionodon sp. 

  3. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-10-26

    Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), also known as brine shrimp, are typical inhabitants of extreme environments. These hypersaline environments vary considerably in their physicochemical composition, and even their climatic conditions and elevation. Several thalassohaline (marine) environments along the Colombian Caribbean coast were surveyed in order to contribute to the knowledge of brine shrimp biotopes in South America by determining some vital biological and physicochemical parameters for Artemia survival. Additionally, cyst quality tests, biometrical and essential fatty acids analysis were performed to evaluate the economic viability of some of these strains for the aquaculture industry. In addition to the three locations (Galerazamba, Manaure, and Pozos Colorados) reported in the literature three decades ago in the Colombian Caribbean, six new locations were registered (Salina Cero, Kangaru, Tayrona, Bahía Hondita, Warrego and Pusheo). All habitats sampled showed that chloride was the prevailing anion, as expected, because of their thalassohaline origin. There were significant differences in cyst diameter grouping strains in the following manner according to this parameter: 1) San Francisco Bay (SFB-Control, USA), 2) Galerazamba and Tayrona, 3) Kangarú, 4) Manaure, and 5) Salina Cero and Pozos Colorados. Chorion thickness values were smaller in Tayrona, followed by Salina Cero, Galerazamba, Manaure, SFB, Kangarú and Pozos Colorados. There were significant differences in naupliar size, grouping strains as follows (smallest to largest): 1) Galerazamba, 2) Manaure, 3) SFB, Kangarú, and Salina Cero, 4) Pozos Colorados, and 5) Tayrona. Overall, cyst quality analysis conducted on samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, and Salina Cero revealed that all sites exhibited a relatively high number of cysts.g-1. Essential fatty acids (EFA) analysis performed on nauplii from cyst samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona revealed that cysts from all sites

  4. The brine shrimp Artemia: adapted to critical life conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Gajardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to perceive forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions.At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism. The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress

  5. Survival of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus in seawater and its bioencapsulation in the brine shrimp Artemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ofelio

    2014-06-01

    The results obtained in the first test showed that the L. rhamnosus was able to survive in seawater during the whole experiment (30h, maintaining densities of 10e7 CFU/ml during the first 6h although decreasing progressively afterwards (10e3 CFU/ml at 30h. This allows adequate levels at sufficient time for Artemia to incorporate the probiotic. In fact, bioencapsulation test demonstrated that Artemia metanauplii were able to bioencapsulate the probiotic, reaching the highest concentration in Artemia after 30 min of bioencapsulation (10e4 CFU/Artemia. A slight further decrease (10e3 CFU/Artemia was observed after 24h. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus reduced in 1Log total Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia during the 3 first hours. Therefore, 3 hours was the time established for the bioencapsulation protocol and further studies are in progress to determine the ability of Artemia metanauplii to maintain bioencapsulated L. rhamnosus once transferred to rearing tanks. Also, the capability of the probiotic to inhibit potential pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria will be assessed.

  6. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Es, van M.A.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid

  7. Toxicity testing of restorative dental materials using brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhem, Manar M; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad S; Darmani, Homa

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GIC)s and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy), a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer), two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP), and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability) followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively). One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (plarvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (pshrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  8. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The structure of these compounds were identified by IR, CG/MS, ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature. In addition, the extracts were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and the highier activity was observed in the chloroformic extract.

  9. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  10. Using of Daphnia pulex, Artemia salina and Tubifex tubifex for cyanobacterial microcystins toxicity detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, I.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2000), s. 637-643 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant - others:Cyanotox project ENVA(XX) CT98 0802; Cyanotox project ENVA(XX) EU DG-XII Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : cyanobacteria * microcystin * toxins * Slovakia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.165, year: 2000

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, Artemia salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.W.; Davis, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on the survival and growth of brine shrimp, nauplii and adults were exposed to different doses of radiation and maintained at different salinities and temperatures. The LD 50 determination demonstrated that nauplii were thirty to forty times more sensitive than the adults and had a 25-day LD 50 of 450 rads. Radiation and salinity reduced survival of adult female brine shrimp more than the males. The interaction of salinity, 5 and 50 ppt, temperature, 10, 20 and 30 0 C, and radiation, 25 to 100 kilorads, decreased the survival of both male and female brine shrimp, with the males having the greater sensitivity. Brine shrimp nauplii irradiated with doses of 500 and 2,500 rads had accelerated growth and matured earlier than the controls. A test of the effect of crowding on growth showed that volume per individual was important, and a dose of 500 rads accelerated brine shrimp growth in all concentrations, with the greatest increase at 8 ml/nauplius

  12. Salinas. Theory Manual Version 2.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bhardwaj, Manoj K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  13. Optimised selenium enrichment of Artemia sp. feed to improve red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Péter; Lengyel, Szvetlana; Udvari, Zsolt; Sándor, Alex Nagy; Stündl, László

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp. instead could increase survival and growth rate of fish. However, no such references are available for the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae. Therefore, in this study, Artemia sp. was enriched with nano-selenium of verified low toxicity and easy availability in 5 treatments (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/l Se), and then, fish larvae were fed with four of these enriched Artemia stocks (1, 5, 10, 50 mg/l Se) and a control group. At the end of the 9-day-long experiment, survival rate (S) and growth parameters (SL, W, K-factor, SGR) of fish larvae were calculated as well as their selenium retention and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity were analysed. It was revealed that a moderate level of selenium enrichment (~4 mg/kg dry matter) of Artemia sp. positively influences the rearing efficiency (i.e. survival and growth) of fish larvae, but higher dosages of selenium could cause adverse effects.

  14. SMART SfM: SALINAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  15. Smart SfM: Salinas Archaeological Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions) offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  16. Prospects of Artemia culture in the coastal zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of the brine shrimp Artemia as live feed in shrimp hatcheries has been pointed out. The paper deals with the resource potential and status of cyst production in India. There is a need for setting up a Pilot Project for Artemia cyst...

  17. Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene from microplastics to Artemia nauplii and further to zebrafish via a trophic food web experiment: CYP1A induction and visual tracking of persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Annika; Linti, Frederic; Scherer, Martina; Erdinger, Lothar; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The uptake of microplastic particles and the transfer of potential harmful substances along with microplastics has been studied in a variety of organisms, especially invertebrates. However, the potential accumulation of very small microplastic particles along food webs ending with vertebrate models has not been investigated so far. Therefore, a simple artificial food chain with Artemia sp. nauplii and zebrafish (Danio rerio) was established to analyze the transfer of microplastic particles and associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) between different trophic levels. Very small (1-20 μm) microplastic particles accumulated in Artemia nauplii and were subsequently transferred to fish. Virgin particles not loaded with POPs did not cause any observable physical harm in the intestinal tracts of zebrafish, although parts of the particles were retained within the mucus of intestinal villi and might even have been taken up by epithelial cells. The transfer of associated POPs was tested with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene and an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for CYP1A induction in zebrafish liver as well as via fluorescence analyses. Whereas a significant induction in the EROD assay could not be shown, because of high individual variation and low sensitivity regarding substance concentration, the fluorescence tracking of benzo[a]pyrene indicates that food-borne microplastic-associated POPs may actually desorb in the intestine of fish and are thus transferred to the intestinal epithelium and liver. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1656-1666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Bruno S.; Carvalho, Felix D.; Guilhermino, Lucia M.; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed

  19. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  20. Understanding Environmental Factors that Affect Violence in Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the lettuce produced in the United States is grown there, earning the Salinas Valley the nickname “Salad Bowl of the World.”1 The agricultural...1 City of Salinas, “ History of Salinas,” http://www.ci.salinas.ca.us/visitors/history.cfm. 2 State of the Cities...Chief of Police Louis Fetherolf reviewed the history of gang problems in Salinas. Highlights included: gang fights reaching ‘epidemic

  1. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus = Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Cuzini Lombardi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para alarvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate forlarvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs were

  2. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835 Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para a larvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate for larvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs

  3. Crime Trend Prediction Using Regression Models for Salinas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    2 1. History of Violence in Salinas ................................................. 2 2. Current and Past Efforts to...BACKGROUND 1. History of Violence in Salinas Small tribes of Native Americans inhabited the City of Salinas until around 1822. In 1822, Mexico...In the 1920s, sugar beets and beans gave way to the farming of lettuce because of the ice bunkered railroad, allowing fresh produce shipment

  4. The Selectivity of Milking of Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of the simultaneous production and extraction of carotenoids, milking, of Dunaliella salina was studied. We would like to know the selectivity of this process. Could all the carotenoids produced be extracted? And would it be possible to vary the profile of the produced carotenoids and,

  5. An investigation of the interactions of low doses of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants on Artemia Salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Benova, K.; Hromada, R.; Falis, M.; Dvorak, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear reactor failures present a risk of global contamination which can be affected by other environmental factors, such as chemicals. The present study has investigated the effect of low doses of gamma radiation in relation to the presence of low doses of Cr and Cd. (authors)

  6. Pedro Salinas: la letra y la persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escartín Gual, Montserrat

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a Pedro Salinas's homage in the fifty anniversary of his death. Here, we analise his attitude in front of life and his securities through his poems, personal letters and essais. The poet criticizes the materialistic american stil of life, where he should live during his exile until his death (1936-1951. Against the hurry, the profitable things, the technology, the money..., Salinas believes in his language, slowness, friendship, contemplation of countryside, art, spiritualism, optimism, etc. Son of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza's ideas, his personal ethics looked for the biggest perfection trought the will.Este artículo es un homenaje a Pedro Salinas al cumplirse el cincuentenario de su muerte. En él, se analiza su actitud ante la vida y sus valores a través de sus poesías, cartas personales y ensayos. El poeta critica el materialismo del modelo americano en el que se vio obligado a vivir desde que se exilió hasta su muerte (1936-1951. Frente a la prisa, lo rentable, la tecnología, el dinero...; Salinas cree en su idioma, la lentitud, la amistad, la contemplación del paisaje, el arte, lo espiritual, el optimismo, etc. Hijo de las ideas de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, su ética personal buscó la mayor perfección a través de la voluntad.

  7. Biological screening of chitosan derivatives using Artemia spp. (brine shrimp test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaini Mohd Zohdi; Norimah Yusof; Asnah Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The present study reported on the screening of six selected chitosan derivatives using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the irradiation effects towards the compounds at 25 kGy were also studied. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects as well as walls of some bacteria and fungi. Brine shrimp test is employed for the screening of toxicity of chitosan derivatives. Toxicity test was carried out by adding different concentrations of tested samples to approximately 5 to 15 Artemia salina larvae. Biological activity using the brine shrimp bioassay was recorded as LC 50 i.e. lethal concentration that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the samples. Compounds are considered toxic when the LC 50 value is lower than 1 mg/ml by brine shrimp bioassay and practically non-toxic when the value is larger. Of the samples tested, none were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC 50 > 1 mg/ml). The LC 50 values of all chitosan derivatives tested, control and irradiated at 25 kGy were above 1 mg/ml thus all tested samples are considered non-toxic. This study demonstrated that irradiation at 25 kGy showed no significant effects towards the toxicity of the chitosan derivatives. After irradiation, only NO-CMC exhibited marked decrease in LC 50 value, reduced by 3-fold from 34.96 mg/ml to 11.07 mg/ml while O-CMC (5.45 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml) showed no clear differences based on rough estimation. This study suggested that brine shrimp bioassay is a simple, reliable and convenient method that could provide useful clues of the relative toxic potential of the sample tested. (Author)

  8. Field culture of American strain of Artemia in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Pilot scale culture of Artemia was carried out in a 0.22 ha condenser unit of salt pans. Pond was fertilized with inorganic salts. The nauplii of San Francisco Bay, USA strain were inoculated. Within a period of 5 months a production of 20.6 kg dry...

  9. Variabilidade sazonal dos constituintes da própolis vermelha e bioatividade em Artermia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio César Cunha Nunes

    Full Text Available A própolis é uma substância resinosa coletada pelas abelhas de diversas partes das plantas. Sua composição depende da época, vegetação e local de coleta. Apresenta diversas atividades biológicas como antimicrobiana, antioxidante, antitumoral, dentre outras. Foi realizado estudo da variabilidade sazonal, nos meses de fevereiro, junho e outubro de 2006, dos constituintes voláteis da própolis vermelha de Pernambuco através da extração por headspace dinâmico e identificação por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. Foram identificados 34 constituintes voláteis, sendo monoterpenos e monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenos e sesquiterpenóides, fenilpropanóides, aldeídos, cetonas e η-alcanos. Os constituintes majoritários foram o trans-anetol, α-copaeno e o metil cis-isoeugenol. Também foi realizado o perfil fitoquímico por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD, através da qual os constituintes fenólicos foram identificados como majoritários. Com o extrato bruto metanólico da própolis, realizou-se o ensaio de letalidade em Artemia salina, que demonstrou DL50 de 18,9 µg/mL, sugerindo uma possível atividade antitumoral.

  10. Pedro Salinas y el teatro desde dentro (Pedro Salinas and Theatre from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Benítez Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Pedro Salinas y el teatro, desde dentro” es el título de este artículo cuya finalidad consiste en realizar un recorrido por la vocación teatral de Pedro Salinas desde sus primeros años hasta el final de sus días: su asistencia a representaciones teatrales, sus contactos con el teatro y sus proyectos como autor dramático tanto los que se realizaron como los que no llegaron a materializarse. El propósito es adentrarnos en el alma teatral del poeta: cómo, cuándo, por qué surge su vocación por el arte escénico, insistiendo en la necesidad de rescatar la faceta de dramaturgo de Pedro Salinas como una constante más en la labor del poeta, profesor y crítico.Abstract: "Pedro Salinas and the theatre, from inside " it is the title of this article which purpose consists of realizing a tour for Pedro Salinas's theatrical vocation from his first years until the end of his days: his assistance to theatrical representations, his contacts with the theatre and his projects like dramatic author so much those who were realized as those who did not manage to materialize. The intention is to enter the theatrical soul of the poet: how, when, why his vocation arises for the scenic art, insisting on the need to rescue the playwright's facet of Pedro Salinas as one more constant in the labor of the poet, teacher and critic.

  11. Characterization of PHB1 and its role in mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development of Artemia embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1 in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development.

  12. Assessment of endemic microalgae as potential food for Artemia franciscana culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pacheco-Vega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five microalgal strains were isolated from Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico and identified as Grammatophora sp., Navícula sp., Rhabdonema sp., Schizochytrium sp., and Nitzschia sp., and their evaluation as potential food for Artemia franciscana. The isolated strains were cultured outdoors and harvested after four days. Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured under laboratory conditions and used as control. The protein, lipid, and carbohydrate composition and the fatty acid profiles of the strains were determined by gas chromatography. To assess the effect of microalgal strains on A. franciscana, decapsulated cysts were cultured at outdoor conditions in 15 L containers. The experiment was conducted for twelve days. Samples from the five different feeding treatments were taken at the beginning and end of the experiment to assess number, size, and weight of Artemia larvae. Treatment with Rhabdonema sp. showed larvae with a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs while Grammatophora sp. showed those with the greatest PUFA proportion, even more than those fed Chaetoceros muelleri (control. Larvae consuming Schizochytrium sp. had no docosahexanoic (DHA nor eicosapentaenoic (EPA fatty acid content. Growth and survival of A. franciscana did not show significant differences among feed treatments, except when it was fed Nitzschia sp., showing lower survival and dry weight. Treatment based on Schizochytrium sp. and Rhabdonema sp. had a greater A. franciscana size but reduced dry weight; additional tests including two or more algal species for every treatment should be carried out to determine the best yield.

  13. Swimming speed alteration of Artemia sp. and Brachionus plicatilis as a sub-lethal behavioural end-point for ecotoxicological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaventa, Francesca; Gambardella, Chiara; Di Fino, Alessio; Pittore, Massimiliano; Faimali, Marco

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to improve a new behavioural bioassay (Swimming Speed Alteration test-SSA test) using larvae of marine cyst-forming organisms: e.g. the brine shrimp Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Swimming speed was investigated as a behavioural end-point for application in ecotoxicology studies. A first experiment to analyse the linear swimming speed of the two organisms was performed to verify the applicability of the video-camera tracking system, here referred to as Swimming Behavioural Recorder (SBR). A second experiment was performed, exposing organisms to different toxic compounds (zinc pyrithione, Macrotrol MT-200, and Eserine). Swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the first experiment indicate that SBR is a suitable tool to detect linear swimming speed of the two organisms, since the values have been obtained in accordance with other studies using the same organisms (3.05 mm s(-1) for Artemia sp. and 0.62 mm s(-1) for B. plicatilis). Toxicity test results clearly indicate that swimming speed of Artemia sp. and B. plicatilis is a valid behavioural end-point to detect stress at sub-lethal toxic substance concentrations. Indeed, alterations in swimming speed have been detected at toxic compound concentrations as low as less then 0.1-5% of their LC(50) values. In conclusion, the SSA test with B. plicatilis and Artemia sp. can be a good behavioural integrated output for application in marine ecotoxicology and environmental monitoring programs.

  14. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  15. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  16. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana

    2017-09-02

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  17. Harvesting of Dunaliella salina by membrane filtration at pilot scale

    KAUST Repository

    Monte, Joana; Sá , Marta; Galinha, Clá udia F.; Costa, Luí s; Hoekstra, Herre; Brazinha, Carla; Crespo, Joã o G.

    2017-01-01

    The microalgae Dunaliella salina is industrially produced due to its high content in carotenoids induced by low nitrogen and high salinity conditions. D. salina with low carotenoids content also produces other added value compounds, however its recovery have hardly been studied. This work aims to examine the potential of pre-concentrating D. salina by membrane processing prior to a final harvesting step by low-shear centrifugation. The aim is to minimize the overall energy expenditure and reduce capital costs, while assuring a minimal loss of cell integrity. This task is challenging, considering the sensitivity of D. salina to shear. Harvesting of D. salina by ultrafiltration allowed reaching a final concentration factor of 5.9, with an average permeate flux of 31 L/(m2 h). The Total Cost of Ownership and energy consumption for harvesting are respectively 52% and 45% lower when applying a two-step approach with pre-concentration (ultrafiltration) compared to only harvesting by centrifugation.

  18. Study of inter species diversity and population structure by molecular genetic method in Iranian Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hajirostamloo, Mahbobeh

    2005-01-01

    Artemia is a small crustacean that adapted to live in brine water and has been seen in different brine water sources in Iran. Considering the importance of genetic studies manifest inter population differences in species, to estimate genetic structure, detect difference at molecular level and separate different Artemia populations of Iran, also study of phylogenic relationships among them, samples of Artemia were collected from nine region: Urmia lake in West Azerbaijan, Sh...

  19. Use of the Crustacean Artemia franciscana for Alternative Biotests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the crustacean Artemia franciscana for alternative biotests of the second generation was studied, and possible experimental design and applications of such tests outlined. In addition to the classical use in ecotoxicology, the test can be used in pharmacology as well, or to monitor the effects of ionizing radiation in co-exposure with some chemical compounds. The synergistic effect of co-exposure of PCB (DELOR 103, cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate with beta 89Sr irradiation was shown. We also demonstrated the anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative effects of the ascorbic acid in dependence on its concentration. Use of the pharmaco-toxicological screening in search for the novel inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases was demonstrated as well, showing that Artemia franciscana may be used as a suitable biosensor instead of the expensive tests on higher vertebrates.

  20. Virulence of luminous vibrios to Artemia franciscana nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, S A; Roque, A; Lizarraga-Partida, M L; Guerra-Flores, A L; Gomez-Gill, B

    2003-02-27

    From healthy and diseased penaeid shrimp from Asia and the Americas, 25 luminous and 2 non-luminous bacterial strains were isolated, and 14 were phenotypically identified as Vibrio harveyi; 9 isolates produced significant mortalities (45 to 80%) in Artemia franciscana nauplii at inoculation densities of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) compared to the controls (unchallenged nauplii). The maximum number of bacteria ingested (bioencapsulated) by the Artemia nauplii varied from less than 10 to 10(3) CFU nauplius(-1) and no significant relationship was observed between the density of bacteria inoculated, the amount of bacteria ingested, and naupliar mortality. Significant correlations were obtained between naupliar mortality and production of proteases, phospholipases or siderophores, but not between mortality and lipase production, gelatinase production, hydrophobicity or hemolytic activity. The results suggest that virulence of the strains tested was more related to the production of particular exoenzymes than to the measured colonization factors.

  1. Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Plannel, H.; Kovalev, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean life span was reported in Artemias developed from Artemia cysts hit by the cosmic heavy ions. On Earth, Artemia cysts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 200 and 400 Gy of gamma (gamma) rays. A stimulating effect on developmental capacity was observed for 10 Gy; the mean life span was significantly increased for this dose. These results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations performed on Earth and in space

  2. Studies on experimental culture of a marine ciliate Fabrea salina

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, R.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    Studies were conducted on the culture of a marine ciliate, Fabrea salina in the laboratory condition. Three types of inert feed; commercial yeast, fermented wheat bran and fermented rise bran were tested to study their suitability as artificial feed...

  3. Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca in Chile: a review of basic and applied biology Artemia Crustacea, Anostraca en Chile: revisión de la biología básica y aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Rios-Escalante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia in Chile has been studied since the 1980s, initially on populations inhabiting shallow coastal and inland mountain ponds, and saltworks in northern and central Chile. Based on morphometric and molecular evidence, these populations were identified as A. franciscana. In the 1990s, A. persimilis was recorded from southern Patagonia, a species previously considered endemic to Argentina. Recently, two new populations of A.franciscana have been recorded, from one saline coastal pond in northern Chile and from a saltwork in central Chile. The scope for further research to increase both understanding of the strain characterization and basic population ecology descriptions of the Chilean brine shrimps and improve their conservation status is discussed. It is suggested that future studies should investigate first the management of local brine shrimp population for local aquaculture or conservation resources, other direction would be the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposition that is notoriously high in brine shrimp habitats. This last factor is very important because the UVR is an important mutagen on the genetic structure of the populations. In this scenario, it is suggest a carefully management for introduced brine shrimp populations for local aquaculture for avoid alterations in native populations that due their genetic isolation would need conservation procedures for avoid local extinctions.El camarón de salmuera o Artemia ha sido estudiado en Chile desde la década de 1980, las primeras descripciones de poblaciones fueron para lagunas someras en zonas costeras y de montana, y en salinas artificiales en la zona central y norte de Chile. Sobre la base de evidencias morfométricas y moleculares estas poblaciones fueron descritas como A. franciscana. En la década de 1990, se describió la presencia de A. persimilis en la zona sur de la Patagonia, lo cual fue una ampliación del rango de distribución significativa

  4. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  5. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810 juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Vite-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival during first months after birth is one of the bottlenecks for consolidating the seahorse farming industry. In this work, Artemia metanauplii enriched with two highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA rich commercial emulsions with different docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels (63% and 14% of total lipids, a vegetable oil with no DHA, and non-enriched Artemia as control, were used to feed 5-day-old juvenile Hippocampus erectus for 60 days. Enriched Artemia had similar levels of DHA (13% and 9%, despite great differences of DHA in the emulsions, with traces of DHA in non-enriched and vegetable oil enriched Artemia. More than 20% of DHA was found in 24 h starved juveniles fed both DHA-enriched treatments, similar to values in newly born juveniles, but those fed vegetable oil enriched Artemia or non-enriched Artemia had 5% of DHA. Total lipid and protein levels were similar in juveniles from the four treatments. The n-3/n-6 ratio was almost four-fold higher in seahorses fed DHA-enriched treatments compared to juveniles fed the non-enriched treatments. Survival of seahorses only partially reflected the DHA levels: it was lower in the vegetable oil treatment, similar in the seahorses fed Artemia with higher DHA and in the control treatment, and higher in seahorses fed the HUFA-enriched Artemia with lower DHA levels, although growth was similar in the two DHA-enriched Artemia treatments. Juvenile H. erectus seahorses perform better when they have at least 20% of DHA in their tissues, and these levels can be attained with no more than 14% of DHA in emulsions, eliminating the need for more expensive emulsions with higher DHA levels.

  6. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Salina Quadrangle, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, R.D.; Campbell, J.A.; Franczyk, K.J.; Luft, S.J.; Peterson, F.; Robinson, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two stratigraphic units, the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation and the Triassic Chinle Formation, were determined to be favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the US Department of Energy in the Salina 1 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah. Three areas judged favorable for the Salt Wash Member are the Tidwell and Notom districts, and the Henry Mountains mineral belt. The criteria used to establish favorability were the presence of: (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Four favorable areas have been outlined for the Chinle Formation. These are the San Rafael Swell, Inter River, and the Orange Cliffs subareas and the Capitol Reef area. The criteria used to establish these areas are: the sandstone-to-mudstone ratios and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation which is considered as the probable source for the uranium

  7. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respectively. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, final mean weight (FW), total length (FL), height (FH), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), survival and stress index were compared. Significantly highest (P larvae solely fed formulated feed. Survival and the stress index were independent from weaning methods. Although sudden weaning is possible on 7 DPH, larvae showed comparatively higher growth when switch off to formulate feed on 14 DPH.

  8. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  9. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 μg) and survival rate (65% ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 μg and 24.5 ± 2.4%, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects.

  10. Decapsulated brine shrimp cysts - an ideal feed for shrimps in aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    Feeding experiments have been carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using different stages of Artemia salina as feed. The importance of using decapsulated cysts to obtain greater food conversion efficiency has been indicated...

  11. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  12. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  13. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum are two important marine microalgae rich in bioactive substances and other high-value constituents. In this study, growth effects on mixed culture of these two microalgae were studied under different inoculation proportions (10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) and low, medium and high ...

  14. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  15. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  16. Setting the conditions for phycoremediation of radionuclide microalgae Dunaliella salina and Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarova, D.; Galanda, D.; Kuruc, J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation deals with bioremediation using microalgae - by phycoremediation. Microalgae are economically low profile compared to the plants, their cultivation can be carried out in laboratory conditions. They can survive in extreme conditions, they occur in all habitats and have faster growth. Halophilous green D. salina can accumulate heavy metals such as Zn, Cu and Cd. It occurs in hypersaline environment with tolerance (0.2 to 35) % NaCl. It contains high amounts of carotenoids, which protect it against formation of free radicals from UV radiation. Chlorella vulgaris is a representative of eukaryotic green microalgae with the highest chlorophyll content with the appearance in fresh water. Its phycoremediant ability are found in N and P elements, which are used as its nutritional components as well as for Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Au. The experiments were carried out using a peristaltic pump ISMATEC Model: ISM851 (flow rate 2 cm"3 min"-"1) followed by monitoring of time dependence of decrease of activity of the microalgae solutions. For evaluation of the samples was used HPGe gamma spectrometer (measurement time of the samples: 600 sec) from ORTEC Company and measured spectra were evaluated with software GammaVision from ORTEC. The measured results showed that the most effective phycoremediation of microalgae Dunaliella salina toke place in an environment of pH 3, and even more at pH 8. The fact that the D. salina is able of phycoremediation at so acidic pH can contribute to its applications in extreme conditions or in the coastal areas in view of that it is halophilic. At freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was found the best phytoremediation potential in its natural environment at pH of 6. Because this microalgae is freshwater, it may find application in inland or in liquid radioactive waste from nuclear facilities.(authors)

  17. Observations on development of artemia eggs irradiated on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jian; Zhou Qiling; Xing Guoren; Zheng Decun; Su Ruizhen; Chen Qu'e

    1990-01-01

    For accompanying with space radiobiological studies, dry eggs of native Artemia were irradiated in the laboratory by 14 MeV fast neutrons and 60 Co γ-rays, and their development was then followed. Doses of the fast neutrons used were 10, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy, and those of γ-rays were 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy respectively. The irradiated eggs, together with the control, were stored at 4 deg C before incubation and observations. The results are as follows: (1) A significant delay of early development was seen in eggs irradiated by both radiatoins. (2) The rates of emergence and hatching decreased with the increase of the doses, and went down further after the prolongation of egg-storage at 4 deg C. (3) The mortality peak of the larvae hatched from irradiated eggs appeared within 2-5 days after hatching, and the RBE's of the fast neutrons, for LD 50 , comparing with the γ-rays were found to be: 1.80 on the 3rd day, 2.44 on the 4th day, and 2.27 on the 5th day

  18. Antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Li, Fengchao; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Marine organisms have usually been viewed as sources of environmentally friendly compounds with antifouling activity. We performed a series of operations to investigate the antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. For the ethyl acetate crude extract, the antialgal activity was significant, and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 58.9 μg ml(-1). The isolated purified extract was tested for antifouling activity, the EC 50 value against S. costatum was 21.2 μg ml(-1), and the LC50 against Balanus amphitrite larvae was 18.8 μg ml(-1). Subsequently, both UHR-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested that the fatty acid extracts from D. salina possess high antifouling activity, and could be used as substitutes for potent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  19. Em torno da luz cristalina: clara voz de Pedro Salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2176-8552.2016n20p147 O texto que segue pretende ler a poesia de Pedro Salinas e Jorge Guillén diante de uma perspectiva que faz da voz uma iluminação e uma resistência diante do tempo histórico e da predominância de uma leitura simples das imagens. Assim, alguns poemas escolhidos permitem uma leitura contemporânea a respeito da voz, seguindo o conceito de Stimmung recuperado por Giorgio Agamben e as lições de poesia de Paul Valéry, e formam aspectos imprescindíveis para ler a poesia destes poetas. Ao manter em sua produção uma conversação com seus predecessores, Pedro Salinas joga com o logos e faz da phoné matéria prima para sua obra.

  20. Cestodes change the isotopic signature of brine shrimp, Artemia, hosts: implications for aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Varo, Nico; Matesanz, Cristina; Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A; Green, Andy J

    2013-01-01

    To reach the final host (greater flamingos), the cestode Flamingolepis liguloides alters the behaviour of its intermediate host, the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, causing it to spend more time close to the water surface. During summer 2010, we showed that the prevalence of this cestode was consistently higher at the top of the water column in the Odiel salt pans in south-western Spain. We used stable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) isotopic analysis to test the hypothesis that cestodes also alter resource use by Artemia. In early summer, we compared stable isotopes in infected hosts at the surface with those from uninfected hosts at the bottom of the water column. In late summer, we compared infected and uninfected Artemia from the bottom. δ(15)N was consistently enriched in infected individuals compared with uninfected hosts, especially in Artemia with multiple infections of F. liguloides (family Hymenolepididae) and those with mixed infections of F. liguloides and cestodes of the family Dilepididae. Infected individuals from the surface were enriched in δ(13)C compared with uninfected ones from the bottom, but the opposite was found when comparing uninfected and infected Artemia from the same depth. This may be caused by the increase in lipid concentration in infected Artemia. Isolated cysticercoids of F. liguloides were significantly enriched in δ(13)C compared with cysticercoids in infected hosts, but surprisingly were not enriched in N. Our findings illustrate the way cestodes can alter food webs and highlight the importance of considering the parasitic status of prey in studies of trophic ecology in saline wetlands. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da toxicidade frente a Artemia salina e da atividade antimicrobiana de Calycorectes psidiiflorus (O. Berg Sobral, Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine A. Domingues

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico das folhas de Calycorectes psidiiflorus (O. Berg Sobral, Myrtaceae, resultou no isolamento e identificação de: sesquiterpeno [8-hidroxicalameneno (1], triterpenos [α-amirina (2a e β-amirina (2b], flavonóide [3-O-α-ramnopiranosil-7-O-bglucopiranosil canferol (3], e alcalóide [1,2,3,4-tetraidro-1-metil-β-carbolina (4]. As estruturas das substâncias isoladas foram elucidadas com base nos seus dados de RMN em comparação com os da literatura. A substância 8-hydroxicalameneno apresentou atividade antibacteriana (MIC = 7,8 µg/mL e antifúngica (MIC = 15,6 µg/mL.

  2. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da toxicidade frente a Artemia salina e da atividade antimicrobiana de Calycorectes psidiiflorus (O. Berg) Sobral, Myrtaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Elaine A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; de Souza, Maria C.; Teixeira, Tatiane S.; Peixoto, Juliana L. B.; Sarragiotto, Maria H.; Vidotti, Gentil J.

    2010-01-01

    O estudo fitoquímico das folhas de Calycorectes psidiiflorus (O. Berg) Sobral, Myrtaceae, resultou no isolamento e identificação de: sesquiterpeno [8-hidroxicalameneno (1)], triterpenos [α-amirina (2a) e β-amirina (2b)], flavonóide [3-O-α-ramnopiranosil-7-O-bglucopiranosil canferol (3)], e alcalóide [1,2,3,4-tetraidro-1-metil-β-carbolina (4)]. As estruturas das substâncias isoladas foram elucidadas com base nos seus dados de RMN em comparação com os da literatura. A substância 8-hydroxicalame...

  3. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    sp. for the enriched and frozen rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller, 1786 on the larval development and survival of the freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. The experiment was developed according to the following treatments: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/ mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/ mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/ mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4. Humid ration was added to all treatments. The results of the final survival in post-larvae were analyzed by the X² test and demonstrated no significant differences from treatment T2 (68.36% to T3 and T4: 68.76% and 64.60%, respectively. T1 treatment (100% B. plicatilis presented total mortality at 14th day of the experiment. Average dry weight of the pos-larvae was analyzed statistically by ANOVA and showed no significant differences in values: 3.29 mg (T2, 3.08 mg (T3 and 3.38 mg (T4. No significant differences among treatments T2, T3 and T4 were observed. The best mortality rate was observed from 1 to 15 day of hatchery based on the number of dead larval stored in the daily material siphoned. Therefore, these results suggest that the total substitution of the enriched and frozen rotifer is not recommended due to a total mortality of larvae, whereas the partial replacement of 40% and 60% of the Artemia sp nauplii by the enriched and frozen rotifer is possible, with no significant damages to survival and post-larval growth.

  4. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... The life cycle of Artemia can begin as an embryo ..... belong to different salt production companies and, although geo- graphically close to each other, were not listed as being the same due to different management. Similarly, sites listed under the name Velddrif do not all belong to the same salt company. In.

  5. Evaluation of different feeds for optimal growth and survival of parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.

    intestinalis and Ulva fasciata). Rice bran yielded best growth at an optimal level of 0.1 and 0.5 mg.ml-1 d-1 respectively for 1-4 and 4-8 d old larvae. Rice bran was also the best food for outdoor cultures. Artemia fed rice bran took shortest time to reach...

  6. Assessment of cyst production potential of a natural population of brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.

    Studies on a natural population of Artemia in the salterns of Jamnagar indicated that the population is parthenogenetic. These shrimps reach a maximum size of 9 mm. Number of cysts per brood varies from 10-32. Adults form about 68% of the total...

  7. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brine shrimp (genus Artemia) are small (8 to 12 mm long) cosmopolitan crustaceans (Anostraca) found predominately in hypersaline water bodies such as inland salt lakes and pans, coastal lagoons, and salt works at salinity levels above 40 g·ℓ-1. They have been extensively studied due to their high monetary value as ...

  8. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  9. Optimization of photosynthesis, growth, and biochemical composition of the microalga Rhodomonas salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuy, Minh Vu Thi; Douëtte, Claire; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2016-01-01

    The cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina is widely used as feed for copepod cultures. However, culturing conditions to obtain high-quality algae have not yet been efficiently optimized. Therefore, we aimed to develop a cultivation protocol for R. salina to optimize its nutritional value and provide tech...

  10. The genus Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: I. True and false taxonomical descriptions El género Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: I. Descripciones taxonómicas verdaderas y falsas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimp Artemia is important for aquaculture since it is bighly nutritious. It is also used widely in biological studies because it is easy to culture. The aim of the present study is to review the literature on the taxonomical nomenclature of Artemia. The present study indicates the existence of seven species: three living in the Americas, one in Europe, and three in Asia.El camarón de salmuera Artemia es importante para la acuicultura por su alta calidad nutricional y es muy utilizado para estudios biológicos por ser de fácil cultivo. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar la literatura sobre la nomenclatura taxonómica de Artemia. Se determina la existencia de siete especies; tres de ellas viven en América, una en Europa y tres en Asia.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin.

  12. Influence of Chemical Parameters on Artemia sp. (Crustacea: Anostraca Population in Al Wathba Lake in the Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE

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    Anitha Saji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long term monitoring programme on Brine shrimp (Artemia sp. is being carried out by the Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (EAD with the prime purpose of understanding the population dynamics, ecology and habitat requirements of Artemia at Al Wathba Lake, situated within Al Wathba Wetland Reserve, which is an artificial wetland near Abu Dhabi City. The present study, being a component of this programme, intends to understand the influence of chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, ammonia and total organic carbon on Artemia biomass and cyst production at different sites of the Al Wathba Lake. The study was carried out by sampling lake water quarterly for a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014. The Artemia population was found to have direct impact of the above mentioned parameters on its abundance. The abundance was highest during the year 2010. Further, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and cadmium were found to be the most crucial parameters for production of Artemia. The study further aimed to determine the significant relationship between physico-chemical parameters and Artemia sp. population dynamics and cyst production.

  13. Biomass production of Artemia in air-water-lift raceway system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Vijayaraghavan, S.; Krishnakumari, L

    - from Venkataraman, 1983). Crude Protein (N x6.25) Lipid Carbohydrate Crude Fiber Ash Moisture 55-65 2-6 10-15 1-4 6-15 5-10 o· ClS'- •• •• lM6M StrGft •~S,I LUlu STrOI,. • tOO A eo 10 ~ • i:f e & .... 0. eo E I w ,. .. en c eo en ~ c • z " 2 a 1M 0 U ji...!:Ta:Vijayaraghavan, Wafar andRoyail~l~n~n.Good growthrates wereobserved in Penaeui indicus, P. monoceros andM. monodon when fed with live adult Artemia (Royan, Sumitra-Vijayaraghavanand Krishna Kumari, 1987). Thus adult Artemia biomass can be used as an ingredient...

  14. [Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta) pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel; Bastardo, Leandro; Cortez, Roraysi; Arredondo-Vega, Bertha; Romero, Lolymar; Gómez, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae) has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae) obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20 degrees C for four weeks and were evaluated biochemically (proteins, lipids, pigments and fatty acids contents) and subsequently, were used to feed the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis at a ratio of 25 mg/L/day. Four different microalgae pastes were prepared: (1) centrifuged and preserved with vitamin C (CV), (2) centrifuged and preserved without vitamin C (C), (3) flocculated and with vitamin C (FV) and (4) flocculated without vitamin C (F). All treatments showed similar contents of proteins and total lipids with respect to control culture (a fresh culture of R. salina), with mean values of 40.0 +/- 2.32% and 12.0 +/- 1.45%, respectively. The pheophytin a/chlorophyll a ratio, a general indicator of the chemical status of microalgal concentrates, was similar (0.09-0.11) between centrifuged pastes and control culture, but was found to be higher in flocculated pastes (1.28-1.48). The fatty acid profile varied with respect to the control culture, mainly in the proportion of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total PUFAs, EPA and DHA contents were statistically similar between centrifuged pastes and control culture (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% and DHA: 4.7%), whereas values obtained for flocculated pastes were significantly lower. The rotifers grew equally well when fed with centrifuged pastes or control culture (maximum density: 320 rotifers/mL; instantaneous growth rate: 0.23 rotifers/day, fecundity: 1.49 eggs/female and productivity: 43 x 10(3) rotifers/L/day. No significant effect of vitamin C was

  15. Evaluación de dietas artificiales con artemia adulta en la maduración y reproducción de penaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano Carranza, Byron R.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluación de dietas artificiales con Artemia adulta en la maduración y reproducción de Penaeus vannamei Un experimento de maduración y reproducción de P. vannamei fue llevado a cabo en tanques de 18 toneladas para (a) comprobar los efectos de la Artemia adulta como ingrediente principal en dietas artificiales, (b) investigar si existen diferencias entre la implementación de liofilizado de Artemia adulta y Artemia adulta congelada, y finalmente (c), comparar estos efectos y resultados con ...

  16. The study of fkbp and ubiquitin reveals interesting aspects of Artemia stress history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-08-01

    Research on stress responses in animals has increased greatly during the last decades. Though most studies focus on the cellular and molecular bases of the stress response mechanisms, the ecological and evolutionary aspects of stress responses gain more and more interest. Here, we use species and parthenogenetic strains of the genus Artemia, an extremophile model organism, to study, for the first time, a protein well known for its chaperone activity and its involvement in stress responses. More specifically, transcription and protein accumulation of an FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) homologue were investigated under heat and salt stresses. Additionally, the mRNA levels of ubiquitin, a heat-inducible protein related to the proteasomal pathway, were quantitated under these conditions. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied FKBP orthologue is a typical representative of the family that clusters with other crustacean sequences. The expression was increased in both fkbp and ubiquitin genes after salt and heat stresses. However, our results in combination with the fact that Artemia species and parthenogenetic strains, selected for this study, exhibit different heat or salt tolerance provide useful hints about the evolutionary significance of FKBP and ubiquitin. Regarding FKBP, mRNA expression and protein accumulation seem to depend on the environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each Artemia population while ubiquitin has a clear and more conserved role under heat shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of salinity on metal mobility in Sečovlje salina sediment (northern Adriatic, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, N.; Ramšak, T.; Glavaš, N.; Dolenec, M.; Rogan Šmuc, N.

    2016-12-01

    Saline sediment (saline healing mud or "fango") from the Sečovlje Salina (northern Adriatic, Slovenia) is traditionally used in the coastal health resorts as a virgin material for medical treatment, wellness and relax purposes. Therapeutic qualities of the healing mud depend on its mineralogical composition and physical, mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties. Their microbial and potentially toxic elements contamination are the most important features affecting user safety. However, the degree of metal toxicity (and its regulation) for natural healing mud is still under discussion. Therefore, the influence of the overlying water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals (and some other geochemical characteristic) was studied for saline sediments of the Sečovlje Salina. Experiments takes place in tanks under defined conditions i.e. at day (21 °C): night (16 °C) cycle for three months. Sediment was covered with water of different salinities (36, 155, 323 g NaCl L-1 and distillate water) and mixed/stirred every week during the experimental period. At the same time, the evaporated water was replaced with distilled water. The mud samples were analyzed, at the beginning and at the end of experiment, for mineral (XRD), elemental composition (ICP-MS) and organic content (% TOC, % TN). Geochemical analysis of the aqueous phase (content of cations and anions) have also been carried out in an accredited Canadian laboratory Actlabs (Activation Laboratories, Canada). Salinity and maturation of sediment does not significantly affect its mineral composition. The samples taken at the end of the experiment have higher percent of water but lower organic carbon concentration. Concentrations of investigated elements are comparable to that in surface sediments from Central Adriatic Sea. In the water phase, concentrations of most elements (As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ni, Sr, Sb) rise from the beginning to the end of the experiment, whereas the metal (potentially toxic elements

  18. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  19. Ecology of a heterotrichous ciliate Fabrea salina from salterns of Bombay Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    The abundance and population size structure of a heterotrichous ciliate @iFabrea salina@@, was studied in relation to hydrochemical and hydrobiological variables in three hypersaline ponds of Bombay, west coast of India There was a clear seasonal...

  20. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  1. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  2. Contribution of Co2+ in increasing chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina in controlled Conwy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Y.; Taba, P.; Suryati, E.; Kasih, P.; Firman, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    A research in determining the contribution of Co2+ on the increase of chlorophyll a concentration of Nannochloropsis salina has been caried out. The cultivation of N. salina was conducted in the Conwy medium with a salinity of 5%o and 25%o and various Co2+ concentration (2, 4, and 8 ppm). In this research, Co2+ was exposed early in the cultivation of N. salina. The growth of N. salina was observed daily by counting the number of populations using a haemocytometer while the chlorophyll a concentration was determined by a Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the growth of N. salina in the control was higher than that in the medium containing Co2+. The optimum growth time was achieved on 15th days (5%) and 8th days (25%). In the cultivation medium with a salinity of 5%, Co2+ with a concentration of 2 ppm increased the chlorophyll a level while Co2+ with concentrations of 4 and 8 ppm decreased it. In the medium of cultivation with a salinity of 25%, the increase in chlorophyll a level was observed at Co2+ concentrations of 2 and 4 ppm whereas the decrease in chlorophyl a level was given at a concentration of 8 ppm. It can be concluded that at low concentrations, Co2+ increased the concentration of chlorophyll a in N. salina.

  3. Increasing β-carotene content of phytoplankton Dunaliella salina using different salinity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, J.; Masithah, E. D.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Abdillah, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dunaliella salina have got great attention in the nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies because contain β-carotene. β-carotene functions as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A and can treat tumors and cancer in humans. The content of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased by increasing salinity levels in the culture medium. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing salinity may increas β-carotene content of phytoplankton D. salina. The research use data collection method with direct observation and then analyzed the result with descriptive method. The results showed that different salinity of media can influenced β-carotene content of D. salina. The highest β-carotene content of D. salina was at treatment B (30 ppt) which equal to 2.312 mg/L on 10th day. The production of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased was other environmental stress treatments in the form of stress-temperature, light and nutrients using.

  4. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  5. Processing recommendations for using low-solids digestate as nutrient solution for poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate production with Synechocystis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, K; Fritz, I; Daffert, C; Markl, K; Fuchs, W; Drosg, B

    2016-12-20

    Within the last decades, environmental pollution with persistent plastics steadily increased; therefore the production of biodegradable materials like poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is essential. Currently, PHB is produced with heterotrophic bacteria from crops. This leads to competition with food and feed production, which can be avoided by using photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, as Synechocystis salina, synthesizing PHB from CO 2 at nutrient limitation. This study aims to increase the economic efficiency of PHB production with cyanobacteria by using nutrients from anaerobic digestate. First, growth and PHB production of S. salina in digestate fractions (supernatant and permeate, with/without precipitating agents) and dilutions thereof and then the scale-up (photobioreactor, 200 L working volume) were evaluated. With precipitated and centrifuged digestate diluted 1/3 the highest biomass (1.55gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (95.4mgL -1 ), being 78% of those in mineral media, were achieved. In the photobioreactor-experiments biomass (1.63gL -1 ) and PHB concentrations (88.7mgL -1 ), being 79% and 72% of those in mineral medium, were reached, but in a cultivation time 10days longer than in mineral medium. The possibility to use digestate as sustainable and low cost nutrient solution for microalgae cultivation and photoautotrophic PHB production, instead of applying it on fields or processing it to achieve discharge limits, makes this application a highly valid option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Brine Shrimp Artemia Survives in Diluted Water of Lake Bunyampaka, an Inland Saline Lake in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sserwadda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ugandan aquaculture is in the process of development; however, it requires access to an affordable live food source, such as brine shrimp Artemia. This study fits within a broader feasibility study of domestic Artemia production in salt lakes. Since Uganda is a landlocked country, the only opportunity for live water food sources lies in the salt lakes in the west of the country. This study used saline water from one of these lakes, Lake Bunyampaka (salinity 72 mg L−1. Two Artemia strains, i.e., the Great Salt Lake strain, which is the dominant strain on the market, and the Vinh Chau strain, which is by far the most inoculated strain in the world, were assayed for their survival, growth, and reproduction in diluted Lake Bunyampaka water, using natural seawater as control. The organisms were fed live freshly cultured microalgae Tetraselmis suecica ad libitum. Our study revealed that the Vinh Chau strain performed especially well in Lake Bunyampaka water diluted to 50 g L−1. The data presented in this study generate the first useful information for the future inoculation of Artemia in Lake Bunyampaka in Uganda, and hence domestic Artemia production in the country; however, further larger-scale laboratory work, followed by field trials, is still needed.

  7. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C.; Somnath Pai, S.; Bright Singh, I. S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of > 50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

  8. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  9. Evolutionary origin and phylogeography of the diploid obligate parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean.We analysed a partial sequence of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I mitochondrial gene from an extensive set of localities (including Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, and examined their phylogeographic patterns and the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated a multiple and recent evolutionary origin of diploid A. parthenogenetica, and strongly suggested that the geographic origin of parthenogenesis in Artemia was in Central Asia. Our results indicate that the maternal sexual ancestors of diploid A. parthenogenetica were an undescribed species from Kazakhstan and A. urmiana.We found evidence for multiple origin of parthenogenesis in Central Asia. Our results indicated that, shortly after its origin, diploid A. parthenogenetica populations underwent a rapid range expansion from Central Asia towards the Mediterranean region, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid parthenogens might have reached their current distribution in historical times, with a range expansion possibly facilitated by an increased availability of suitable habitat provided by anthropogenic activities, such as the spread of solar

  10. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

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    Marta I. Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C, and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C. Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h, and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days. At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L−1 than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L−1 and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L−1–suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L−1. Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results.

  11. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  12. Mercury antagonists: loss of photoactive response in the brine shrimp Artemia and its prevention by thiamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaeger, E.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.; Lasconia, M.; Correal, T.

    1986-01-01

    The positive photoatactic behavior of Artemia was disturbed when larvae cultured in 0.25 M NaCl were introduced into 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -5/ M HgCl/sub 2/. At 10/sup -8/ M, and in controls, Hg had no effect either on orientation or mortality, and 65% of the larvae were collected at the light source in 30 min or less. In contrast, at 10/sup -6/ M, only 29% were able to do so. The presence of 10/sup -4/ M thiamine hydrochloride in the excystment medium prevented fully the loss of light-sensitivity.

  13. Phaeobacter inhibens as Probiotic Bacteria in Non-Axenic Artemia and Algae Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Torben; D'Alvise, Paul; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial diseases are a major constraint in aquaculture, especially in larviculture. Antibiotics that can control pathogens should be avoided due to risk of antibiotic resistance. We have shown in axenic systems of live larval feed that marine Roseobacter clade bacteria can antagonize fish patho...... demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can be introduced at the stage of live feed and have a pathogen reducing effect in both an Artemia and a D. tertiolecta challenge setup. This can potentially limit the subsequent use of antibiotics for control of pathogenic bacteria....

  14. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

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    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium and Artemisia aucheri by Artemia

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    M Ghavamizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, toxic compounds derived from plants used against microbes and cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of Dorema aucheri, Achillea millefollium and Artemisia aucheri using brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana, lethality test. Methods: In this experimental study, the plants were collected from the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, then identified by a botanist. Clean and air-dried aerial parts of plants were extracted with suitable solvents. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using larvae hatched cysts were purchased from Urmia. Live larvae were exposed to different concentrations of extract and the numbers of live and dead larvae were counted after 24 hours. Mean of LC 50 of any extracts from control and exposed live larvae were examined. The data were analyzed using the Finney’s Probit analysis. Results: Hydro ethanol and chloroform extracts of Achillea millefolium, Dorema aucheri and Artemisia aucheri exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality with LC50 67.8±0.53μg.ml-1, 76.50±0.60μg.ml-1, 92.70±6.05μg.ml-1 respectively. The degree of lethality was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of extracts. Conclusion: According to BSLT, LC50 of D. aucheri, A. millefolium and A. aucheri, they were considered as toxic. So these plants could be a source of new compounds with biological activity. Key words: Artemia urmiana, Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia aucheri, Cytotoxicity

  16. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

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    Yu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to support rapid development after reactivation.

  17. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  18. The history, present status and prospects of the availability of Artemia cysts for aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the history of Artemia cyst provision worldwide since the 1950s. It allows a better assessment of the current situation, characterized by poor yields from the main harvest site, the Great Salt Lake in Utah, USA, and to make prognoses about future supplies and demands.

  19. Potential of New Isolates of Dunaliella Salina for Natural β-Carotene Production

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    Yanan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains, DF15, DF17, and DF40, compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil. Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing a large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40, and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in coordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.

  20. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Chai; Yumin, Lu; Tianyun, Wang; Weihong, Hou; Lexun, Xue

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  1. Neutral lipid production in Dunaliella salina during osmotic stress and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Lu, Jingquan; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The salt-tolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina can survive both hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock. Upon osmotic shock, the cells transiently and rapidly decreased or increased in size within minutes and slowly over hours acquired their original cell size and volume. Cell size distribution differs...... significantly in the cultures grown in the salinity range from 1.5 to 15 % NaCl. By using Nile Red fluorescence to detect neutral lipids, it became clear that only hyper-osmotic shock on cells induced transient neutral lipid appearance in D. salina, while those transferred from 9 to 15 % NaCl stimulated...

  2. Novel mesostructured inclusions in the epidermal lining of Artemia franciscana ovisacs show optical activity

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    Elena Hollergschwandtner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Biomineralization, e.g., in sea urchins or mollusks, includes the assembly of mesoscopic superstructures from inorganic crystalline components and biopolymers. The resulting mesocrystals inspire biophysicists and material scientists alike, because of their extraordinary physical properties. Current efforts to replicate mesocrystal synthesis in vitro require understanding the principles of their self-assembly in vivo. One question, not addressed so far, is whether intracellular crystals of proteins can assemble with biopolymers into functional mesocrystal-like structures. During our electron microscopy studies into Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda, we found initial evidence of such proteinaceous mesostructures. Results EM preparations with high-pressure freezing and accelerated freeze substitution revealed an extraordinary intracellular source of mesostructured inclusions in both the cyto-and nucleoplasm of the epidermal lining of ovisacs of A. franciscana. Confocal reflection microscopy not only confirmed our finding; it also revealed reflective, light dispersing activity of these flake-like structures, their positioning and orientation with respect to the ovisac inside. Both the striation of alternating electron dense and electron-lucent components and the sharp edges of the flakes indicate self-assembly of material of yet unknown origin under supposed participation of crystallization. However, selected area electron diffraction could not verify the status of crystallization. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis measured a marked increase in nitrogen within the flake-like inclusion, and the almost complete absence of elements that are typically involved in inorganic crystallization. This rise in nitrogen could possibility be related to higher package density of proteins, achieved by mesostructure assembly. Conclusions The ovisac lining of A. franciscana is endowed with numerous mesostructured inclusions that have not been

  3. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)).

  4. Interaction of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, Potassium Dichromate and Cadmium Chloride in Artemia franciscana Biotest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beňová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cadmium chloride (at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg l-1 and potassium dichromate (at a concentration of 50 mg l-1 along with the effect of gamma radiation 60Co (at a dose of 10 and 50 Gy on lethality to Artemia franciscana was investigated. Four different interactions were studied, namely, those of potassium dichromate and gamma radiation, cadmium chloride and gamma radiation, and combinations of potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride in interaction with gamma radiation. A significant (α = 0.05 decrease was observed in lethality due to exposure to radiation (10 Gy in comparison with action of only potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride or their combination without exposure to gamma rays. These results support the theory of hormesis.

  5. Oxygen-rich hierarchical porous carbon derived from artemia cyst shells with superior electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ran, Wei; He, Jing; Song, Yanfang; Zhang, Chunming; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Gao, Faming; Wu, Jinsong; Xia, Yongyao

    2015-01-21

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous carbon with abundant functional groups is produced through a very simple low-cost carbonization of Artemia cyst shells. The unique hierarchical porous structure of this material, combining large numbers of micropores and macropores, as well as reasonable amount of mesopores, is proven favorable to capacitive behavior. The abundant oxygen functional groups from the natural carbon precursor contribute stable pseudocapacitance. As-prepared sample exhibits high specific capacitance (369 F g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 and 349 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH), excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 100% over 10 000 cycles, and promising rate performance. This work not only describes a simple way to produce high-performance carbon electrode materials for practical application, but also inspires an idea for future structure design of porous carbon.

  6. The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crab, R; Lambert, A; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Verstraete, W

    2010-11-01

    To study the potential biocontrol activity of bioflocs technology. Glycerol-grown bioflocs were investigated for their antimicrobial and antipathogenic properties against the opportunistic pathogen Vibrio harveyi. The bioflocs did not produce growth-inhibitory substances. However, bioflocs and biofloc supernatants decreased quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence of V. harveyi. This suggested that the bioflocs had biocontrol activity against this pathogen because quorum sensing regulates virulence of vibrios towards different hosts. Interestingly, the addition of live bioflocs significantly increased the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged to V. harveyi. Bioflocs grown on glycerol as carbon source inhibit quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence in V. harveyi and protect brine shrimp larvae from vibriosis. The results presented in this study indicate that in addition to water quality control and in situ feed production, bioflocs technology could help in controlling bacterial infections within the aquaculture pond. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Involvement of cyclin K posttranscriptional regulation in the formation of Artemia diapause cysts.

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    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemia eggs tend to develop ovoviviparously to yield nauplius larvae in good rearing conditions; while under adverse situations, they tend to develop oviparously and encysted diapause embryos are formed instead. However, the intrinsic mechanisms regulating this process are not well understood. PRINCIPAL FINDING: This study has characterized the function of cyclin K, a regulatory subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb in the two different developmental pathways of Artemia. In the diapause-destined embryo, Western blots showed that the cyclin K protein was down-regulated as the embryo entered dormancy and reverted to relatively high levels of expression once development resumed, consistent with the fluctuations in phosphorylation of position 2 serines (Ser2 in the C-terminal domain (CTD of the largest subunit (Rpb1 of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II. Interestingly, the cyclin K transcript levels remained constant during this process. In vitro translation data indicated that the template activity of cyclin K mRNA stored in the postdiapause cyst was repressed. In addition, in vivo knockdown of cyclin K in developing embryos by RNA interference eliminated phosphorylation of the CTD Ser2 of RNAP II and induced apoptosis by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK survival signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings reveal a role for cyclin K in regulating RNAP II activity during diapause embryo development, which involves the post-transcriptional regulation of cyclin K. In addition, a further role was identified for cyclin K in regulating the control of cell survival during embryogenesis through ERK signaling pathways.

  8. Alternative mitochondrial respiratory chains from two crustaceans: Artemia franciscana nauplii and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Armenta, Chrystian; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Rosas-Lemus, Monica; Chiquete-Felix, Natalia; Huerta-Ocampo, Jose Angel; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria. Specific inhibitors were used to identify alternative redox enzymes in mitochondria isolated from Artemia franciscana nauplii, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. We report the presence of two alternative redox enzymes in the respiratory chain of A. franciscana nauplii, whose isolated mitochondria used glycerol-3-phosphate as a substrate, suggesting the existence of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, cyanide and octyl-gallate were necessary to fully inhibit this species' mitochondrial oxygen consumption, suggesting an alternative oxidase is present. The in-gel activity analysis confirmed that additional mitochondrial redox proteins exist in A. franciscana. A mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase oxidase was identified by protein sequencing as part of a branched respiratory chain, and an alternative oxidase was also identified in this species by western blot. These results indicate different adaptive mechanisms from artemia to face environmental challenges related to the changing levels of oxygen concentration in seawater through their life cycles. No alternative redox enzymes were found in shrimp mitochondria, further efforts will determine the existence of an uncoupling mechanism such as uncoupling proteins.

  9. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  10. Salinas de interior en el territorio de la Región de Murcia

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    S. Gil Guirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La sal es un elemento necesario en la actividad de los grupos humanos. Para su captación y recolección se ha ordenado el territorio, con unos paisajes propios: las salinas. Podemos distinguir dos tipos: las salinas costeras y las salinas de interior. En estas últimas, su localización y explotación está ligada a la presencia de algún material salino que atraviesa el agua. En ellas se pueden distinguir tres áreas, la de captación del agua (generalmente pozos horizontales del tipo minado o galería; la de almacenaje (con balsas y recocederos dónde acumular y calentar; y finalmente la de cristalización (con parcelas más o menos aterrazadas conocidas como eras. A través del estudio combinado del trabajo de campo y la documentación de archivos, hemos podido localizar una veintena de salinas en el interior de la Región de Murcia; huella de una actividad económica y de una cultura del agua entre la variedad de paisajes surestinos.

  11. Dichotomosiphon salina sp. nov. - a new marine algal form from Goa estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    A new species Dichotomosiphon salina sp. of family Vaucheriaceae has been reported from brackish water areas of Goa. The high salinity tolerance of 40 ppt and the variation in size as well as shape of the reproductive organs are the main...

  12. Not yet? Ya basta: Healing and the horizons of an otherwise in Salinas, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raschig, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Among a persistently criminalized population of Mexican-Americans in the farmtown-gangland of Salinas, California, healing from the wounds of history has emerged as a critical register of political action, a tacit and uncertain activism recalibrating the pace and tense of personal recoveries and

  13. Antioxidant activity of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana clone Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, Ita; Zainuri, Muhammad; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermien; Susilowati, Ragil; Hardivillier, Yann; Leignel, Vincent; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Mouget, Jean-Luc

    2017-02-01

    Natural alternatives antioxidant source has become a trending topic in the past decades to replace synthetic antioxidant. Microalgae have been mentioned to show interesting bioactive properties and one of them is its antioxidant activity. This study aims to evaluate the potential of three microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbanaas new source of natural antioxidant. Proximate analysis and total phenolic content of D. salina, T. chuii and I. galbanas were determined. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of these three species prepared in different concentration (50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm) was performed through DPPH assay. I. galbana clone Tahiti demonstrated a highest antioxidant potential with 61.64 of inhibition at 50 ppm followed by D. salina with 58.45 % of inhibition and T. chuii with 52.58 % of inhibition. I. galbana clone Tahiti was the best antioxidant with total phenol content of 17.798 mg GAE g-1 extract at 50 ppm; followed by T. chuii 16.868 mg GAE g-1 extract and the lowest was D. salina with 4.672 mg GAE g-1 extract. Results suggest that these microalgae posses antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries.

  14. Crecimiento en poblaciones de Artemia franciscana y A. persimilis (Crustacea, Anostraca en condiciones controladas

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    Patricio De los Ríos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el crecimiento individual expresado en largo total, de dos poblaciones de A. franciscana (Utah, Estados Unidos, y Yape, Chile y A. persimilis (Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina cultivadas a partir de quistes bajo condiciones controladas (24°C, agua de mar 35 g/l, alimentación con Chaetoceros calcitrans. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en todos los estadios analizados entre las poblaciones de A. franciscana de Utah y A. persimilis, mientras que entre A. persimilis y A. franciscana de Yape, hubo similitudes sólo en dos estadios, y A. franciscana de Utah y Yape registraron similar tamaño corporal para todos los estadios analizados. Las adaptaciones a los hábitats podrían explicar estos resultados.Growth (length, was compared in A. franciscana populations from Utah, United States of America, and Yape, Chile, and A. persimilis (population from Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina, cultured under controlled conditions (24°C, seawater 35 g/l, feeding with Chaetoceros calcitrans. There were significant differences among all stages of A. franciscana (Utah and A. persimilis, whereas we found significantly differences only in two stages of A. persimilis and A. franciscana (Yape; both A. franciscana had similar total lengths in all stages analyzed. Habitat adaptations could explain these results.

  15. The changes in the biochemical compositions and enzymatic activities of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis, Müller) and Artemia during the enrichment and starvation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    The changes in the biochemical compositions and enzymatic activities of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia, enriched and stored at 4 degrees C temperature, were determined. The total starvation period was 16 h and samples were taken at the end of the 8th and 16th hours. In present study, the rotifer and nauplii catabolized a large proportion of the protein during the enrichment period. Lipid contents of both live preys increased during the enrichment period and decreased in nauplii and metanauplii throughout the starvation period but lipid content of the rotifer remained relatively constant during the starvation period. The changes observed in the amino acid compositions of Artemia and the rotifer were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The conspicuous decline the essential amino acid (EAA) and nonessential amino acid (NEAA) content of the rotifer was observed during the enrichment period. However, the essential amino acid (EAA) and nonessential amino acid (NEAA) contents of Artemia nauplii increased during the enrichment period. The unenriched and enriched rotifers contained more monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) than polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, Artemia contained more PUFAs than MUFAs and SFA during the experimental period. A sharp increase in the amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the enrichment of the rotifer and Artemia nauplii was observed. However, the amount of DHA throughout the starvation period decreased in Artemia metanauplii but not in Artemia nauplii. Significant differences in tryptic, leucine aminopeptidase N (LAP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme activities of Artemia and rotifer were observed during the enrichment and starvation period (P < 0.05). The digestive enzymes derived from live food to fish larvae provided the highest contribution at the end of the enrichment period. In conclusion, the results of the study provide important contributions to determine the most

  16. Multiple γ-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Mai; Ikeda, Yuka; Kanzawa, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Mika; Goto, Mina; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Uchiumi, Toshio; Odani, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the γ-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple γ-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  17. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  18. Coadaptation: lessons from the brine shrimp Artemia, "the aquatic Drosophila" (Crustacea; Anostraca Coadaptación: lecciones desde el camarón de salmuera Artemia, "la Drosophila acuática" (Crustacea; Anostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZALO GAJARDO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During the fifties Brncic and the Dobzhansky's school, using the fruit fly Drosophila as a test organism, introduced the term integration of the genotype, or genetic coadaptation, which has had great impact on thinking in today's evolutionary biology. In this work we use the brine shrimp Artemia - in many respects a sort of aquatic Drosophila- as a model organism to evaluate the relationship between population structure, potential for divergence and the degree of morphological and/or genetic change. These aspects, tightly linked with the organization of the genotype, are important to understanding how recombination and adaptive release of genetic and phenotypic variation affect the speciation process in Artemia. Analysis of genetic (allozyme, diploid and chromocentre numbers, morphological (Mahalanobis distances and reproductive data (cross-fertility tests available for populations of the bisexual, endemic species of the Americas, Artemia franciscana and A. persimilis, indicate that: (i A. franciscana and A. persimilis are morphologically distinct in correspondence with observed genetic differences (D Nei > 1; 2n = 42 and 44; 12.5 and 1.5 mean chromocentre numbers, respectively; (ii populations from Chile and other South American localities (mainly A. franciscana display high levels of genetic variability and a trend to develop large genetic distances between populations; (iii the plasticity of Artemia gene pool is associated, at least in part, with ecological heterogeneity. Hence an adaptive divergence mode is thought to best define the speciation process in Artemia; (iv the succesful production of laboratory hybrids in the allopatric Artemia populations studied in the Americas, a feature seen in other anostracods, could be explained by the fact that formerly allopatric populations have not achieved later sympatry, as required by the allopatric speciation paradigmEn los años cincuenta Brncic y la escuela de Dobzhansky introdujeron el t

  19. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

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    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  20. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgar, S.; Torres, E.; Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l -1 ) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  1. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ting; Park, Stephen Y.; Racharaks, Ratanachat; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina with effluent of anaerobic digestion (AD). • The highest biomass yield was obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. • Lipid content and productivity decreased with increased effluent loading from 3% to 18%. • Biomass productivity increased by up to 49% as harvest ratio increased from 25% to 50%. - Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d −1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l −1 d −1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l −1 d −1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l −1 d −1 and 3.8 mg l −1 d −1 , respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively

  2. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  3. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  4. Phototactic orientation mechanism in the ciliate Fabrea salina, as inferred from numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, R; Preosti, G; Colombetti, G

    2000-02-01

    The marine ciliate Fabrea salina shows a clear positive phototaxis, but the mechanism by which a single cell is able to detect the direction of light and orient its swimming accordingly is still unknown. A simple model of phototaxis is that of a biased random walk, where the bias due to light can affect one or more of the parameters that characterize a random walk, i.e., the mean speed, the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes and the frequency of directional changes. Since experimental evidence has shown no effect of light on the mean speed of Fabrea salina, we have excluded models depending on this parameter. We have, therefore, investigated the phototactic orientation of Fabrea salina by computer simulation of two simple models, the first where light affects the frequency distribution of the angles of directional changes (model M1) and the second where the light bias modifies the frequency of directional changes (model M2). Simulated M1 cells directly orient their swimming towards the direction of light, regardless of their current swimming orientation; simulated M2 cells, on the contrary, are unable to actively orient their motion, but remain locked along the light direction once they find it by chance. The simulations show that these two orientation models lead to different macroscopic behaviours of the simulated cell populations. By comparing the results of the simulations with the experimental ones, we have found that the phototactic behaviour of real cells is more similar to that of the M2 model.

  5. Study of interaction of low doses of ionizing radiation with selected pesticides on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Špalková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to observe the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation, azoxystrobin and glyphosate separately as well as in their mutual combinations on the lethality of Artemia franciscana. Increasing intensity of agricultural production leads to continual exposure of animals to pesticide residues. Animals could be exposed to these negative factors in case of possible nuclear accident. A total of 1000 nauplia, randomly placed in 20 groups (1 control and 19 experimental groups, were irradiated with gamma rays (0, 20, 30, 40 or 50 Gy and were kept in solution of standardized sea water and standardized sea water with addition of pesticides (azoxystrobin at a concentration of 0.0001 g·l-1 and glyphosate at a concentration of 0.5 g·l-1 individually or in combination. A significant increase of lethality was observed after 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure to only azoxystrobin, but also in the group exposed to the combined effect of azoxystrobin and glyphosate at all time intervals. On the other hand, a significant decrease of lethality was observed in those groups exposed to ionizing radiation even at the dose of 30 Gy at all time intervals compared to non-irradiated groups. These results confirm the toxicity of azoxystrobin to aquatic organisms; non-toxicity of glyphosate to crustaceans and support the theory of radiation hormesis at the level of 30 Gy radiation dose.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  7. Effect of low doses of ionizing radiation, azoxystrobin and selected heavy metals on the model organism of species Artemia franciscana; Posobenie nizkych davok ionizujuceho ziarenia, azoxystrobinu a vybranych tazkych kovov na modelovy organizmus druhu Artemia franciscana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalkova, M.; Danova, D. [Univerzita veterinarskeho lekarstva a farmacie, Katedra biologie a genetiky, Ustav biologie, zoologie a radiobiologie, 04181 Kosice (Slovakia); Falis, M. [Univerzita veterinarskeho lekarstva a farmacie, Katedra farmakologie a toxikologie, Ustav toxikologie, 04181 Kosice (Slovakia); Zdarsky, M. [Veterinarni a farmaceuticka univerzita Brno, Ustav biochemie, chemie a biofyziky, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-16

    The aim of our study was to observe the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation, azoxystrobin, zinc and chrome on the lethality of Artemia franciscana. Significant increase of the lethality was observed after 72 and 96 hours of exposure to azoxystrobin and chrome as well as to azoxystrobin, chrome and irradiation. On the other hand, we observed significant decrease of the lethality in the groups exposed to pesticide and chrome or pesticide and zinc in combination with ionizing radiation with the dose of 50 Gy at time interval of 96 hours in comparison to non-irradiated groups. (authors)

  8. Composición del contenido de ácidos grasos en tres poblaciones mexicanas de Artemia franciscana de aguas epicontinentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Malpica Sánchez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la composición y el porcentaje de ácidos grasos de tres poblaciones mexicanas de Artemia franciscana de aguas epicontinentales; dos provienen de lugares silvestres (Coahuila y San Luis Potosí y una (Texcoco de un cultivo alimentado con Spirulina. Para la determinación de los ácidos grasos de cada población se extrajeron los lípidos totales por el método soxhlet y se esterificaron los ácidos grasos; posteriormente, mediante cromatografía de gases se determinó la composición y el porcentaje de los mismos. Los resultados muestran que la población de Texcoco contiene los seis ácidos grasos relevantes para peces y crustáceos en la acuicultura (16:0; 16:1; 18:1; 18:2w6; 18:3w3 y 20:5w3; mientras que la Artemia de San Luis Potosí resultó ser la más pobre en estos ácidos y la población de Coahuila, aunque mostró un perfil amplio, carece del ácido linolénico, ácido esencial y precursor de otros. Al comparar estos resultados, con datos ecológicos de estas tres poblaciones publicados previamente, se puede señalar que el ambiente es determinante para este crustáceo ya que Artemia de Texcoco provenía de un cultivo alimentado con Spirulina y fue la población que mostró mayor variedad de ácidos grasos. Las otras dos poblaciones son silvestres, con hábitats diferentes, la Artemia de Coahuila vive en aguas ricas en sulfatos y la de San Luis Potosí habita en vasos evaporadores de sal construidos con piedra de cantera y por lo tanto con escaso crecimiento de fitoplancton, ambas poblaciones mostraron deficiencias de ácidos grasos esenciales, sobre todo ésta últimaIn this paper is presented the percentage of fatty acids composition of three Artemia franciscana Mexican populations of epicontinentals waters; two are from natural environments (Coahuila and San Luis Potosí and one (Texcoco is a culture fed with Spirulina. Determination of fatty acids composition in each population, was performed by

  9. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  10. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on survival of Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Falis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential risk of pesticides is an important part of registration procedures in many countries. However, risk assessment of several pesticides used during the growing season has not been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pesticides (azoxystrobin and glyphosate, heavy metals (cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, zinc disulphate and their combinations on lethality to Artemia franciscana. In total, 1,250 freshly hatched nauplii of A. franciscana were used in the study. They were placed in 125 Petri dishes (10 nauplii in one Petri dish containing 10 ml of azoxystrobin, glyphosate, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate and zinc sulphate separately, or their combinations; the control dish contained only sea water. Each experimental set consisted of 50 nauplii which were divided into five replicates of 10 nauplii per replicate. Live A. franciscana were counted after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and the numbers were compared with the control group. A significant (P after exposure to azoxystrobin in combination with glyphosate after 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure, in combination with glyphosate and potassium dichromate after 48 h of exposure, and in combination with glyphosate and zinc disulphate after 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. The results of this study provide information about the combined toxicity of pesticides used during the growing season and some heavy metals as major pollutants of the rural environment. A study of this kind has not been conducted yet. Further research for investigation of the combined toxicity of pollutants and pesticides is required.

  12. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania

  13. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  14. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  16. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Baruah, Kartik; Nguyen, Dung Viet; Smagghe, Guy; Vossen, Els; Bossier, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM), protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production (twofolds or more) as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM) and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM) with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  17. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  18. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  19. Drilling in salt formations; Perfuracao em formacoes salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Jose Luiz [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Perfuracao e Operacoes Especiais], e-mail: jfalcao@petrobras.com.br; Poiate Junior, Edgard [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Metodos Cientificos], e-mail: poiate@petrobras.com.br; Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Exploracao e Producao], e-mail: amcta@petrobras.com.br; Alves, Ivan Antonio Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Exploracao. Gerencia de Operacoes em Pocos], e-mail: ialves@petrobras.com.br; Eston, Sergio Medici de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Engenharia de Minas e Petroleo], e-mail: e-mail: sergio.eston@poli.usp.br

    2007-12-15

    This paper is a collection of experiences of service companies, operators and PETROBRAS in the drilling of salt rocks in petroleum prospecting. From the exploratory point of view, the presence of these rocks in the area increases the chances of success. By their characteristics, these sediments can deform, dissolve and migrate, creating preferential flow paths and generating stratigraphic structures and traps ideal for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. This has been a well known fact since the beginning of the petroleum industry. In addition to these factors, the salts are almost perfect seals for the accumulations under them. Their presence in sedimentary basins have an important economical significance, not only in the exploratory interpretation phase, but also in the drilling of wells, as they present mechanical characteristics distinct from siliclastic and carbonatic rocks. However, from the operational point of view, the drilling of some of these salt rocks is associated with a large number of well stability problems (in the short term) and the integrity of wellbore liners (in the long term), when compared to other lithologies. (author)

  20. Evaluation by design of experiments of active clay specimens behavior in the presence of distilled water, saline solutions and cationic inhibitors; Avaliacao por analise estatistica experimental do comportamento de corpos de prova de argila aditivada na presenca de agua destilada, solucoes salinas e inibidores cationicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Emanuella Layne Ferreira; Araujo, Bruno Alysson Barbosa Duarte; Borges, Mauricio Rodrigues; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the drilling, in general, there are layers of clays which water absorption easily as smectites. In drilling with clays swelling when is applied water-base fluid there is necessary the use of the clay inhibitors to avoid the incorporation of the cutting to the drilling fluid. The most used chemical inhibitors in drilling fluids are sodium and potassium chlorides. However, the cationic inhibitors have been used as alternative form to increase the inhibition power of the drilling fluids. In this work was evaluated the behaviour of the activated clay test bodies in the presence of distilled water, aqueous solution potassium chlorides, and cationic inhibitors. The solutions were submitted at Capillary Suction Timer tests to evaluation the capacity of the water retention in activated clay samples. At the interpretation of the results was used Design of Experiments (DOE) by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), using Umetrics MODDE 7.0{sup TM} programme. It was observed that the clay samples when in contact with the solutions presented lower water retention than in the presence of distilled water only. This result indicates that the clay was inhibited. (author)

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of gold nanoparticles on microalga Dunaliella salina in microplate test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, Daniil; Prilepskii, Artur; Dykman, Lev; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Bogatyrev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles are intensively studied in biomedicine. Assessment of their biocompatibility is highly important. Currently there is lack of evidence, concerning nanotoxicity of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles < 5 nm. Existing data are rather contradictory. The aim of that study was to evaluate the toxicity of 2 nm colloidal gold, using microalga Dunaliella salina. Cellular barriers of that microalga are very similar to animal cells so it might be considered as a valuable model for nanotoxicity testing. Chlorophyll content as a test-function was used. Spectrophotometric method for chlorophyll determination in vivo in suspensions of D.salina cultures was applied. Calculated EC50 48h value of ionic gold was 25.8 +/- 0.3 mg Au/L. EC50 value of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoclusters was 32.2 +/-1.1 mg Au/L. It was not possible to calculate EC50 for 15 nm citrate gold nanoparticles, as they were non-toxic at all concentrations tested. These results are confirmed by fluorescent -microscopic monitoring of the same probes. It was shown that 10-fold growth of phosphine-stabilized gold nanoparticles (from 2.3 +/- 0.9 nm to 21.1 +/- 7.5 nm) led to 7-fold decrease of their toxicity.

  2. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de 1pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1,T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-driedembryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4,post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose dietwas supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than growth found in the other experimental groups (T1, T3 and T4. Shrimp fed with DMP and EMB obtained a significantly higher absolute weight gain (6.7 mg than those found in treatments that used DMP and FLO (5.4 mg or DMP alone (5.8 mg in T3 and 5.7 mg in T4. Theseresults underline the nutritional value of freeze-dried Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  3. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  4. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis.

  5. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  6. Effect of mixing rate on Beta-carotene production and extraction by dunaliella salina in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Andrysiewicz, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    beta-Carotene has many applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries; Dunaliella salina is currently the main source for natural beta-carotene. We have investigated the effect of mixing rate and whether it leads to the facilitated release of beta-carotene from the cells of

  7. INFLUENCIA DE LA SALINIDAD Y LA IRRADIANCIA SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN BIOQUÍMICA DE UNA NUEVA CEPA DE Dunaliella salina, PROVENIENTE DE LAS SALINAS DE ARAYA, VENEZUELA | INFLUENCE OF SALINITY AND IRRADIANCE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A NEW STRAIN of Dunaliella salina FROM THE ARAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina is a microalga used for the production of metabolites of high industrial and pharmaceutical value. The combined effect of irradiance and salinity on growth, pigment production and biochemical composition of this strain were evaluated in order to contribute to the knowledge of the physiological responses of this new isolate of D. salina from Araya saltworks, to changes in the conditions of its environment. It was aslo intendend to increase the variety of native microalgae species which can serve as sources of bioproduction for bioactive compounds, biomass and metabolites of application in pharmaceuticals and biomedical industries. Batch cultures of the strain of D. salina were conducted for 22 d at f/2 medium Guillard (0.88 mmol.L-1 of nitrogen at 27 ± 2°C, pH 7.8; photoperiod 12 h light: 12 h darkness, continuous aeration (150 mL.L-1 in two salinities (40 and 250 UPS and irradiances (195 and 295 µmolphotons.m-2.s-1. Population growth was evaluated daily and at the end of the trial the contents of biomass, pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and cell size were determined. The growth rate of the new strain of D. salina decreased with increasing salinity and irradiance. However, cell size, biomass, content of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, total carotenoids and β-carotene increased with increasing irradiance and salinity. In addition, the potential of this strain for the production of β-carotene was shown.

  8. Toxicity of Diuron and copper pyrithione on the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana: the effects of temperature and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Aoyama, Isao

    2008-12-01

    Diuron and copper pyrithione (CuPT) are two substances that have been used worldwide as alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) in antifouling paints for the protection of ship hulls. In this study their toxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is examined under several combinations of salinity and temperature using the LC(20), LC(50) and LC(80) values found for the 25 degrees C and 35 per thousand standard conditions. A significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects was observed for both chemicals. Decreasing temperature almost eliminated Diuron's toxicity, while a toxicity reduction was also observed for CuPT. Decreasing salinity decreased Diuron's toxicity, while for CuPT the effect of salinity was more complex. These two natural environmental parameters had a profound influence on the ecotoxicity of the two tested chemicals, and this highlights the importance of considering the implications of such factors when conducting ecological risk assessment.

  9. Lethal and sublethal endpoints observed for Artemia exposed to two reference toxicants and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Loredana; Canepa, Sara; Piazza, Veronica; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Swimming speed alteration and mortality assays with the marine crustacean Artemia franciscana were carried out. EC50 and LC50 values after 24-48h exposures were calculated for two reference toxicants, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound, Diethylene Glycol (DEG). Different end-points have been evaluated, in order to point out their sensitivity levels. The swimming speed alteration (SSA) was compared to mortality values and also to the hatching rate inhibition (literature data). SSA resulted to be more sensitive than the mortality and with a sensitivity comparable to (or even higher than) the hatching rate endpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  11. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  12. SEM study of diversity in the cyst surface topography of nine parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca) populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2014-12-01

    The cysts of nine Chinese populations of parthenogenetic Artemia were studied by scanning electron microscope. In the 270 cysts examined, 15 different morphological patterns were recognized with most of them not recorded in previous studies and the "tubercled shell surface" being the most common pattern. Results also displayed high intrapopulation variability, with the maximum of 11 patterns (in 30 cysts) recorded from the Barkol population. No positive correlation between the diversity of cyst shell patterns and ploidy compositions was found. Principal components analysis suggests higher similarity among coastal populations than among inland populations, which may be attributed to the identity of physicochemical conditions among coastal salterns and dissimilarity among inland saline lakes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. IRRIGAÇÃO COM ÁGUA SALINA NA CULTURA DO AMENDOIM EM SOLO COM BIOFERTILIZANTE BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Estação Agrometereológica, UFC, em Fortaleza/Ceará, no período de setembro a novembro de 2012, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação nas características agronômicas do amendoinzeiro, cultivar BRS 1 em solo com e sem biofertilizante bovino. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com cinco repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação:0,8; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, em solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, aplicado de uma única vez, ao nível de 10% do volume do substrato, três dias antes da semeadura. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de folhas, altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento de raiz, matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a área foliar, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca total e comprimento da raiz do amendoinzeiro, porém com menor intensidade no solo com o biofertilizante bovino. A elevação da salinidade do solo decorrente da irrigação com água salina provoca redução na altura da planta, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca da raiz. Palavra-chave: estresse salino, índices fisiológicos, insumo orgânico. PEANUT CULTURE IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER IN SOIL WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted at the agrometeorological experimental station, at the UFC, Fortaleza-CE (BR, in the period from September 2012 to November 2012, aiming to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the agronomic characteristics of BRS 1 peanut plant, in bio fertilized and non-bio fertilized soil. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with five repetitions. Five different saline solutions (or irrigation water, identified by their respective electrical

  14. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM, protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 production (twofolds or more as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  15. Defense systems in developing Artemia franciscana nauplii and their modulation by probiotic bacteria offer protection against a Vibrio anguillarum challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarma, Eleni; Amanetidou, Eleni; Toufexi, Alexia; Touraki, Maria

    2017-07-01

    The alterations of immune responses of Artemia franciscana nauplii as a function of culture time and after a challenge with the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum were studied. The effect of the administration of the probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis either alone or in combination with the pathogen was evaluated. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione reductase (GRed), Glutathione transferase (GST) and Phenoloxidase (PO) presented a significant increase as a function of culture time, appeared elevated following probiotic administration and were depleted 48 h following the experimental challenge. Lipid peroxidation reached peak levels at 48 h of culture, when nauplii start feeding and returned to lower values at 144 h, remaining however significantly higher than control (P probiotics significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in comparison with the corresponding control, while challenge with the pathogen resulted in its threefold increase. Survival of nauplii remained high throughout culture and was either increased or remained at control levels following the administration of the probiotics. The challenge with the pathogen resulted in a significantly decreased survival of 15.3% for the positive control, while in the probiotic treated series survival values were not significantly different from the negative control (P > 0.05). Following a combined administration of each probiotic and the pathogen the activities of all enzymes tested were significantly lower (P probiotic). Lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in the probiotic treated series in comparison to the positive control (P probiotics B. subtilis, L. plantarum and L. lactis protect Artemia against a V. anguillarum challenge by enhancing its immune responses thus contributing to reduced oxidative damage and increased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Beacham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed.

  17. Metabolic studies with NMR spectroscopy of the alga Dunaliella salina trapped within agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, M; Pick, U; Avron, M; Degani, H

    1990-02-22

    A technique for the entrapment of the unicellular algae Dunaliella salina in agarose beads and their perfusion during NMR measurements is presented. The trapped cells maintained their ability to proliferate under normal growth conditions, and remained viable and stable under steady-state conditions for long periods during NMR measurements. Following osmotic shock in the dark, prominent changes were observed in the intracellular level of ATP and polyphosphates, but little to no changes in the intracellular pH or orthoposphate content. When cells were subjected to hyperosmotic shock, the ATP level decreased. The content of NMR-visible polyphosphates decreased as well, presumably due to the production of longer, NMR-invisible structures. Following hypoosmotic shock, the ATP content increased and longer polyphosphates were broken down to shorter, more mobile polymers.

  18. Spatial scale and the diversity of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nübel, U.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the richness of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms in a salina system using traditional and molecular biological methods. After determining the different morphotypes and 16S rRNA genes present in various localities within this hypersaline system, an analysis of the increase......, and for the estimation of the average degree of dissemination of community members within the system. We found interesting differences between analyses based on morphotypes or 16S rRNA genes. The cumulative number of rRNA gene sequences exceeded that of morphotypes by more than two-fold. This indicates that many...... organisms possessing distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology. Thus, some of the apparently widely distributed morphotypes may in fact conceal several ecologically independent genotypes....

  19. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.

  20. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  1. Pastas de Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta como alimento para Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guevara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastas de Rhodomonas salina, obtenidas mediante centrifugación y floculación con quitosano y preservadas con o sin vitamina C, a -20°C fueron evaluadas bioquímicamente y proporcionadas como alimento al rotífero Brachionus plicatilis. Las pastas microalgales: (1 centrifugada y con vitamina C (CV, (2 centrifugada y sin vitamina C (C, (3 floculada y con vitamina C (FV y (4 floculada y sin adición de vitamina C (F; mantuvieron sus contenidos de proteínas y lípidos totales similares al cultivo control, con valores de 40.0±2.32% y 12.0±1.45%, respectivamente. La relación feofitina a/clorofila a fue similar (0.09-0.11 entre las pastas centrifugadas y el cultivo control, pero mayor en las pastas floculadas (1.28-1.48. Las pastas centrifugadas presentaron porcentajes de PUFAs totales, EPA y DHA similares al cultivo control (PUFAs: 47%, EPA: 4% y DHA: 4.7% y superiores al de las pastas floculadas. Las pastas obtenidas por centrifugación indujeron un crecimiento del rotífero igual al obtenido con el alimento control (densidad máxima: 320rotíferos/mL; tasa instantánea de crecimiento: 0.23rotíferos/día, fecundidad: 1.49huevos/ hembra y productividad: 43x103rotíferos/L/día. Se concluye que la pasta de R. salina centrifugada y congelada a -20°C, durante cuatro semanas, sin adición de vitamina C, mantiene su calidad nutricional similar a la del alga fresca y puede ser usada como alimento de Brachionus plicatilis.Rhodomonas salina (Cryptophyta pastes as feed for Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera. Rotifers are an important live feed for first feeding larvae of many fish species. The use of concentrated algae cells in the mass culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Brachionidae has opened new horizons for research on this organism. Pastes of Rhodomonas salina (Pyrenomonadaceae obtained either by centrifugation or flocculation with chitosan were preserved, with or without vitamin C, at -20°C for four weeks and were evaluated

  2. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per

    2016-01-01

    salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality...... of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scaleusing a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large...... after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark.The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good...

  3. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario; Hourani, Nadim; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani; Thomsen, Laurenz A.; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes

  4. cis-Canthaxanthins: unusual carotenoids in the eggs and the reproductive system of female brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis, H.J.C.F.; Lavens, P.; Moens, L.; Sorgeloos, P.; Jonckheere, J.A.; Criel, G.R.J.; De Leenheer, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance of carotenoid accumulation in crustacean eggs remains obscure, particularly because neither eggs nor female animals have been found to display specific pigment patterns in relation to reproduction. We report here the first example of carotenoids found exclusively in the ovaries, the eggs, and the hemolymph, but not in the carcass of a female, reproductively active crustacean, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia . These pigments are virtually absent in males and in immature animals ...

  5. Growth and survival of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797 paralarvae fed on three Artemia-based diets complemented with frozen fish flakes, crushed zooplankton and marine microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fuentes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During one month, paralarvae of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris were fed 3 different diets: (1 Artemia sp. enriched with Isochrysis galbana (AI complemented with sand eel (Hyperoplus lanceolatus flakes (AH; (2 Artemia sp. enriched with crushed marine zooplankton (AZ; and (3 Artemia sp. cultured with Isochrysis galbana and further enriched with the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. (AN. The highest dry weight (1.6179±0.3861 mg was registered with the AN diet and the best average survival (67.0% with the AZ diet. Considering the highest dry weight obtained, the moderate high survival and the fact that with this diet it was possible to attain the adult stage, the AN diet was the most appropriate. The reasons for the best result in growth observed with AN are discussed as: (1 the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provided by Isochrysis galbana and the high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content present in Nannochloropsis sp.; (2 the fact that the higher protein/lipid ratio of this diet improves the final dry weight of the paralarvae; and (3 the fact that Nannochloropsis sp. could inhibit the harmful microflora growth in the rearing tank. Regarding nutritional aspects, DHA content per se is not the only determinant factor for growth and survival of O. vulgaris paralarvae, but the presence of a high protein/lipid ratio and a high phospholipid content in the diet could possibly explain the better quality and strength of the paralarvae.

  6. Virulence of luminescent and non-luminescent isogenic vibrios towards gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae and specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Defoirdt, T; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the virulence of luminescent (L) and non-luminescent (NL) isogenic strains of Vibrio campbellii LMG21363, Vibrio harveyi BB120 (wild type) and quorum-sensing mutant strains derived from the wild type such as Vibrio harveyi BB152, BB170, MM30 and BB886. The NL strains could be obtained by culturing rifampicin-resistant luminescent strains in the dark under static condition. The virulence of the L and NL strains was tested in gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae challenged with 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of bacteria. All luminescent isogenic tested strains showed higher virulence compared to the NL strains. The virulence of L and NL V. campbellii and V. harveyi BB120 was also tested in specific pathogen-free juvenile shrimp upon intramuscular injection with 10(6) CFU of bacteria. In contrast with Artemia, there was no significant difference in mortality between the groups challenged with L and NL strains (P > 0.05). The non-luminescent strains were not able to revert back to the luminescent state and quorum sensing did not influence this phenotypic shift. Luminescent Vibrio strains can switch to a non-luminescent state by culturing them in static conditions. The NL strains become less virulent as verified in Artemia. The luminescent state of Vibrio cells in a culture needs to be verified in order to assure maintenance of virulence.

  7. Anticipation of Artemia sp. supply in the larviculture of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro (Gobiidae: Teleostei influenced growth, metamorphosis and alkaline protease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda da Silva-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The barber goby Elacatinus figaro is considered endangered due to overexploitation by the ornamental industry. Farming marine ornamental fishes, especially the threatened ones, can be one of the measures to minimize the pressure on the natural stocks. Among the priority issues for their production is the determination of the most appropriate feeding management. The feeding protocol commonly used in the larviculture of barber goby, when the start of Artemia sp. offer occurred at the 18th DAH (days after hatching (treatment T18, was modified, by anticipating brine shrimp supply in 6 days (treatment T12. Alkaline proteases activity, growth and metamorphosis of larvae were evaluated in both protocols. Juveniles at T12 showed higher weight (0.04 ± 0.001 g and lower activity of total alkaline proteases (1.3 ± 0.2 mU mg-1 protein compared to T18 (0.02 ± 0.001 g; 2.8 ± 0.4 mU mg-1 protein, respectively. With anticipation of brine shrimp, the commencing and end of larval transformation was observed earlier (at 24 and 34 DAH, respectively in comparison to those with the supply of Artemia sp. at 18 DAH (27 and 41 DAH, respectively. Thus, the Artemia sp. anticipation was beneficial during the larviculture of the barber goby, considering that larvae reached metamorphosis earlier.

  8. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  9. Biotechnological potential of Synechocystis salina co-cultures with selected microalgae and cyanobacteria: Nutrients removal, biomass and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana L; Pires, José C M; Simões, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been the focus of several research studies worldwide, due to the huge biotechnological potential of these photosynthetic microorganisms. However, production of these microorganisms is still not economically viable. One possible alternative to improve the economic feasibility of the process is the use of consortia between microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Microcystis aeruginosa were co-cultivated with Synechocystis salina to evaluate how dual-species cultures can influence biomass and lipid production and nutrients removal. Results have shown that the three studied consortia achieved higher biomass productivities than the individual cultures. Additionally, nitrogen and phosphorus consumption rates by the consortia provided final concentrations below the values established by European Union legislation for these nutrients. In the case of lipid productivities, higher values were determined when S. salina was co-cultivated with P. subcapitata and M. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Approaches about prescriptions and corporal practices in schools in Pirapora, Januária and Salinas (1906-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISÂNGELA CHAVES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the proposal of the corporal education in schools in the north of Minas Gerais during 1906 and 1927, especially in Pirapora, januária and Salinas. As main source, the research made use of oral reports and other documents directly related to school memory to understand how physical activities were realized as habit and attitude-forming, in a historic moment in which Brazil used to cherish the modernizing speech.

  11. 97 Etude éco-biologique d'Artémia salina des zones humides de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grenelle

    l'aviculture de poissons marins [1]. En Algérie, les travaux effectués sur ce crustacé sont relativement rares. Dans le présent ..... dépassent pour certains les normes établies par l'OMS, ce qui peut provoquer le comportement et la dynamique de la reproduction de l'Artémia salina, sans oublier aussi l'action anthropique qui ...

  12. Desenvolvimento de mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água salina

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    Fábio Santos Matos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação torna-se importante alternativa diante daescassez de água de boa qualidade em todo o mundo. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. possui baixa exigência hídrica, sobrevive e apresenta produção satisfatória em solos de baixa fertilidade. No entanto, a sua produção é maior em cultivos irrigados, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de pesquisas para uso de água salina. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação nas características morfofisiológicas de mudas de pinhão-manso. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com interceptação de 50 % da radiação solar, localizada na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Ipameri, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com capacidade de 4 L de solo, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas diariamente com 150 mL de água não salina, durante os 30 primeiros dias após a germinação das sementes. Do 31º ao 50º dia, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos: plantas diariamente irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica igual a 0,5; 8; 16 e 24 dS m-1. Aos 50 dias após a germinação, analisaram-se as seguintes características nas mudas de pinhão-manso: número de folhas; altura de planta; diâmetro de ramo; teor relativo de água; área foliar; clorofila total; razões de massa radicular, massa caulinar, massa foliar e parte aérea/sistema radicular; e biomassa total. Os resultados evidenciaram que as mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica 8 dS m-1 não apresentaram redução do crescimento vegetativo. Todavia, a água de irrigação com condutividade elétrica 16 dS m-1 causou redução no crescimento vegetativo e elevou a senescência e abscisão foliar. Água com condutividade elétrica elétrica de pinhão-manso na fase de mudas.

  13. Metabolic responses and β-carotene production by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina exposed to leaf extracts

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    Alireza Einali

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus and elderberry ( Sambucus ebulus leaves on β-carotene productivity in Dunaliella salina, a green microalga. Leaf extracts from eucalyptus have greater amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as greater ferric reducing antioxidant potential than elderberry. The extracts of both species greatly inhibited growth of algal suspensions. However, chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration increased in cells treated with leaf extracts, and the highest values were detected in 1 % eucalyptus and 2 % elderberry extracts. Fresh weight, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased following exposure of cells to different doses of leaf extracts. However, in doses containing more than 2 % eucalyptus, the upward trend for total sugar and protein ceased and remained statistically unchanged. These results suggest that metabolic modifications enable D. salina cells to tolerate the stress induced by the leaf extracts through allocating carbon flux to the synthesis of osmolytes and putative antioxidant molecules (e.g. sugars and β-carotene. Therefore, the use of leaf extracts holds potential to be a promising and effective way to improve D. salina cultivation for β-carotene production and other biotechnological and industrial applications.

  14. Comportamiento geoquímico de las formaciones salinas bajo el efecto de la temperatura y la irradiación

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    Pueyo, J. J.

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of radiation induced defects, as well as fluid migration (brine and gases, are the most relevant phenomena due to the combined effects of heat and irradiation in repositories emplaced in rock salt. In order to gain knowledge of these phenomena, laboratory experiments on samples coming from the Sallent Mine (Barcelona have been performed. The water content ranges between 0.04 and 1.00 %. Nevertheless, smaller releases of brine are expected, since part of it is present in fluid inclusions of a size below 100 µm. The chemical composition of the brine, which is a key issue in the study of container corrosion, is in the case of the fluid inc1usions enriched in magnesium (1.15 mol/l and potassium (0.31 mol/l. The study of the gas content reveals the absence of toxic gases and the scarcity of hydrogen and methane. Finally, the amount of radiation induced defects, which are controlled by the mineralogical composition of the rock salt, is similar to those obtained with the Jain-Lidiard model.La generación de defectos cristalinos y la migración de las fases fluidas (salmueras y gases, son los efectos más relevantes de la irradiación y la temperatura sobre una formación salina, susceptible de albergar un almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos. Para determinar dichos efectos se ha puesto a punto la metodología necesaria y se ha verificado sobre muestras salinas de la mina de Sallent (Barcelona. El contenido en agua oscila entre 0,04 y 1 %. Sin embargo, la cantidad de salmuera susceptible de migrar será inferior a la total, debido a que parte de esta se encuentra en inclusiones fluidas inferiores a 100 µm. La composición química de la salmuera, factor clave para el estudio de corrosión de contenedores, es de carácter magnésico (1,15 moles/litro y potásico (0,31 moles/litro en el caso de las inclusiones. El análisis de los gases presentes indica la ausencia de gases tóxicos y concentraciones muy bajas de hidrógeno y metano

  15. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

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    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana (brine shrimp eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We tested the hypotheses that (1 powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2 palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation in some females.

  16. Un carnaval para el yo lésbico: Los cuentos de Gilda Salinas

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    Elena Madrigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilda Salinas rompe las unidades cuentísticas tradicionales al hacer de cada texto de Del destete al desempance. Cuentos lésbicos y un colado un episodio en la vida de una lesbiana que, con “voz propia”, narra sus peripecias nocturnas por la ciudad de México, de los años setenta a la actualidad. Al ubicar las acciones en sitios de diversión lésbica que no existen más, la voz, cual cronista, rescata un ámbito de la vida homosexual a la vez que fija bromas y códigos lingüísticos que por su origen oral hubieran corrido el riesgo de perderse con las generaciones que los animaron. Sus estrategias carnavalizan el tema lésbico a la vez que legitiman la validez de las búsquedas expresivas y de comportamiento del ser lesbiana en un tiempo y en un lugar. Su aportación en los planos del género literario y de la formación de constantes en la narrativa homosexual mexicana indudablemente enriquece los medios expresivos, la visibilidad, la diversidad, las vidas y las historias de la y las lesbianas.

  17. Geology of the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 10 x 20 quadrangles, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy is responsible for administering the program. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is responsible for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) of 3.9 million km 2 (1,500,000 mi 2 ) in 37 eastern and western states. This document provides geologic and mineral resources reports for the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles, Utah. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Except for the Escalante Quadrangle, each report is accompanied by a geologic map and a mineral locality map (Plates 1-8, in pocket). The US Geological Survey previously published a 1 0 x 2 0 geologic map of the Escalante Quadrangle and described the uranium deposits in the area (Hackman and Wyant, 1973). NURE hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data for these quadrangles have been issued previously in some of the reports included in the references

  18. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  20. Obtención de glicerol a partir de la Microalga Dunaliella Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisethy Hernández Nazario

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la tecnología farmacéutica, el glicerol es un disolvente ampliamente utilizado en virtud de sus propiedades físico-químicas en la formulación de diferentes formas farmacéuticas. Se investigaron las posibilidades de obtención de glicerol como un subproducto del proceso de extracción de ß-carotenos a partir de cultivos de Dunaliella salina, desarrollados bajo régimen autotrófico en el Centro de Investigaciones de Energía Solar. El flujo tecnológico propuesto comprende el tratamiento de la biomasa con hidróxido de calcio, la filtración del producto resultante, la extracción del ß-carotenos con un solvente insoluble en agua y, por último, la separación del glicerol neutralizando convenientemente del filtrado con ácido. El rendimiento de glicerol fue del 4-5 %, valor susceptible de ser incrementado mediante la inducción metabólica de los cultivos.

  1. Rainfall leaching is critical for long-term use of recycled water in the Salinas Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda E. Platts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, Monterey County Water Recycling Projects began delivering water to 12,000 acres in the northern Salinas Valley. Two years later, an ongoing study began assessing the effects of the recycled water on soil salinity. Eight sites are receiving recycled water and a control site is receiving only well water. In data collected from 2000 to 2012, soil salinity of the 36-inch-deep profile was on average approximately double that of the applied water, suggesting significant leaching from applied water (irrigation or rainfall. In this study, we investigated some of the soil water hydrology factors possibly controlling the soil salinity results. Using soil water balance modeling, we found that rainfall had more effect on soil salinity than did leaching from irrigation. Increasing applied water usually only correlated significantly with soil salinity parameters in the shallow soil profile (1 to 12 inches depth and at 24 to 36 inches at sites receiving fairly undiluted recycled water. Winter rains, though, had a critical effect. Increasing rainfall depths were significantly correlated with decreasing soil salinity of the shallow soil at all test sites, though this effect also diminished with increased soil depth. When applied water had high salinity levels, winter rainfall in this area was inadequate to prevent soil salinity from increasing.

  2. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  3. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424 Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p Artemia e recomendam sua inclusão na dieta pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannameiThe objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4, post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose diet was supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei

  4. Efeito do meio Erd Schreiber no cultivo das microalgas Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii e Isochrysis galbana = Erd Schreiber medium effect in culture of microalgae Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Mota Klein

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available As microalgas são utilizadas como fonte de alimento em aqüicultura. Neste trabalho cultivaram-se D. salina, T. chuii e I. galbana. O objetivo do trabalho consistiu em determinar o efeito do meio Erd Schreiber sobre o seu crescimento. Iniciou-se o cultivo com a mistura de 200 mg de Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg de NaNO3 e 50 mL de extrato de solo. No monitoramento, manteve-se a temperatura entre 24 - 28 oC, a salinidade a 34 ppt, à iluminação constante, a densidade celular com uma câmara de Neubauer e um microscópio binocular modelo ZEISS. Como resultado, I. galbana, D. salina e T. chuii atingiram 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104 cel/mL e 258,66 x 104 cel/mL, respectivamente, e oscoeficientes angulares b foram 3,76 x 104 cel./mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel./mL/dia e 2,08 x 104 cel./mL/dia respectivamente, indicando bom desempenho de todas as microalgas no meio Erd Shreiber.The microalgae is used as food source in aqüicultura. In this work they had cultivated D. salina , T. chuii and I. galbana . The objective of the work is to determine the effect of Erd Schreiber´s culture medium on the microalgae growth. The culture initiated mixting 200mg of Na2HPO4,7H2O, 100 mg of NaNO3 and 50 mL of soil extract. During the culture the temperature had varied between 24 and 28oC, the salinity was fixed on 34 %o, and the illumination was maintained constant. The assessment of the culture was made by a chamber of Neubauer and a binocular microscope ZEISS model. As result I. galbana D. salina and T.chuii reached 969 104 cel/mL, 457 x 104cel/mL and 258,66 x 104 cel/mL respectively and as angular coefficient 3,76 x 104 cel/mL/dia, 6,84 x 104 cel/mL/dia and 2,08 104 x cel/mL/dia respectively, showing good answer of the microalgae to the effect of Erd Schreiber´ s medium.

  5. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  6. Executive summary of a draft report on the geology and salt deposits of the Salina Salt Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The study discussed is the first phase of a program for the geologic evaluation of the Silurian-age bedded salt of the Salina Group. The Salina Salt Basin, as used in this study, includes those portions of the Appalachian and Michigan basins that are underlain by the Salina Group. The full draft report consists of a regional reconnaissance, identification of study areas in New York and Ohio which are deserving of a more thorough evaluation, and a program plan to accomplish that evaluation. The entire draft report is in two volumes, contains 1068 pages and 204 figures, and has a bibliography that consists of over 1100 separate entries. This summary has been prepared for the benefit of those who wish to review the results of this phase of the evaluation but who do not want to go through the exhaustive detail that is present in the full report. The regional reconnaissance was accomplished by a very thorough and extensive literature review, addressing the following topics: depth of salt, thickness, stratigraphy, tectonics, structure, seismicity, hydrology, erosion and denudation, and mineral resources. Before further technical evaluation proceeds, the draft report and the proposed program are being subjected to a thorough evaluation by a number of groups, including appropriate state agencies. This rather extensive review process is being conducted to ensure that the program is performed entirely in the open and subject to continuous public surveillance. This report does not represent the first work that has been done in this region with regard to evaluating the salt deposits for waste disposal. Previous efforts have been limited, however, and have been done by individual consultants. At the present time, the U.S. Geological Survey is also participating in the technical evaluation; their results will be issued separately. In addition to the technical evaluations, environmental surveys will also be conducted as an integral part of this thorough evaluation program

  7. Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Nichino, Daniela; Iacometti, Camillo; Ferrando, Sara; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -5  M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these exposure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were investigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localization. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, followed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural copepods are superior to enriched artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, R J; Bell, J G; Luizi, F S; Gara, B; Bromage, N R; Sargent, J R

    1999-06-01

    Replicate groups of halibut larvae were fed to d 71 post-first feeding (PFF) either the marine copepod, Eurytemora velox, or Artemia nauplii doubly enriched with the marine chromist or golden algae, Schizochytrium sp., (Algamac 2000) and a commercial oil emulsion (SuperSelco). The fatty acid compositions of eyes, brains and livers from larvae fed the two diets were measured, and indices of growth, eye migration and skin pigmentation were recorded along with histological examinations of eye and liver. The docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); DHA]/eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3); EPA] ratios in Artemia nauplii enriched with the SuperSelco and Algamac 2000 were 0.4 and 1.0, respectively. The E. velox copepods were divided into two size ranges (125-250 and 250-400 microm) with the smaller size range containing the highest level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The DHA/EPA ratios for the two size ranges of copepods were 2.0 and 0.9, respectively. The total lipids of eyes, brains and livers of larvae fed copepods had higher levels of DHA and lower levels of EPA than those of larvae fed enriched Artemia. The percentage of survival of the halibut larvae was significantly higher when copepods rather than enriched Artemia nauplii were fed, but larval specific growth rates did not differ. The indices of eye migration were high and not significantly different in larvae fed the two diets, but the percentage of larvae undergoing successful metamorphosis (complete eye migration and dorsal pigmentation) was higher in larvae fed copepods (40%) than in larvae fed enriched Artemia (4%). The rod/cone ratios in histological sections of the retina were 2.5 +/- 0.7 in larvae fed copepods and 1.3 +/- 0.6 in larvae fed enriched Artemia (P < 0.01). Histological examination of the livers and intestines of the larvae were consistent with better assimilation of lipid from copepods than lipid from Artemia nauplii up to 46 d post-first feeding. Thus, marine copepods are superior to

  9. Etude d’impact des métaux traces (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu et Zn) dans les cystes et la biomasse "d’Artemia" exploités dans la saline de Sfax

    OpenAIRE

    Aloui, N.; Amorri, M.; Choub., L.

    2010-01-01

    RESUME La saline de Sfax constitue un site potentiel pour l’exploitation et la production de l’Artemia locale. Des quantités importantes d’Artemia sont exploitées chaque année (60 kg de cystes poids sec) et sont utilisées en alimentation larvaire. Afin de démontrer l’impact de divers rejets industriels, agricoles dans cette saline, nous avons procédé à la détermination de quelques métaux traces toxiques : le mercure (Hg), le cadmium (Cd), le plomb (Pb), le cuivre (Cu) et le zinc (Zn) p...

  10. IL MUSEO SALINAS, PARADOSSO DEL WEB MARKETING CULTURALE La comunicazione archeologica ai tempi dei social media, a museo chiuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonacini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer the case study of the archaeological museum Antonino Salinas in Palermo, that - closed for many years for the restoration of the architectural complex that houses it, the seventeenth-century Olivella’ s House of the Philippine Fathers - has invented new strategies of the archaeological communication on the social media. After two years, waiting for its reopening, the museum has been able to create a real brand and to renovate the museum’s reputation. The solutions adopted by the Museum could “inspire” other institutions to adopt those web marketing cultural strategies.

  11. La sedimentación salina actual en las lagunas de La Mancha: una síntesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Zarzuelo, Antonio de la; Marfil, R.

    1986-01-01

    [ES] La Mancha es una región natural de más de 30.000 Km2, caracterizada por una topografía extraordinariamente plana y un clima de tipo semiárido (Cuadro 1, Fig. 2), en la que existen numerosas lagunas salinas (Fig. 1), la mayoría de las cuales, por su régimen anual, pueden ser consideradas como «playa-lakes» (Fig. 3). Desde el punto de vista hidroquimico sus salmueras están integradas por: a) aniones: SO4 y Cl, con CO3 y CO 3H subordinados, y b) cationes: Mg 2+ y ...

  12. Nivel de conocimiento sobre tuberculosis pulmonar y actitud de los pacientes, centro salud San Juan de Salinas, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Atuncar Mendoza, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del estudios de investigación fue determinar la relación que existe entre el nivel de conocimiento sobretuberculosis pulmonar y la actitud hacia el tratamiento detuberculosis pulmonar de los pacientes dela Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Prevención y Control de la Tuberculosis, Centro de Salud San Juan de Salinas, San Martinde Porres, año 2017. En cuanto a lametodología fue de tipo de investigación aplicada, nivel descriptivo correccional,la población estuvo conformada por 50 p...

  13. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  14. Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso (Un acercamiento analítico a "La voz a ti debida" de Pedro Salinas)

    OpenAIRE

    Corencia Cruz, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    La tesis Construcción macrotextual y cancionero amoroso. Unacercamiento analítico a La voz a ti debida de Pedro Salinas. Fue leídapor Joaquín Corencia Cruz en la Sala de Juntas de la Facultad deFilología de la Universidad de Valencia (España) el 7 de noviembre de2008.El trabajo investigador se desarrolla a lo largo de nuevecapítulos. En el primero se produce una introducción a la tesisrevisando desde la trayectoria vital y profesional de Pedro Salinas acómo el macrotexto poético de La voz se ...

  15. Utilização da artêmia nacional como dieta para pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 na fase berçário = Brazilian artemia as feed for Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae through the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Prysthon da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram realizados em uma fazenda comercial de criação decamarões marinhos, objetivando avaliar a taxa de crescimento e sobrevivência das pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, quando cultivadas em tanques-berçário e submetidas a diferentes dietas. As pós-larvas utilizadas encontravam-se com 19 dias (PL19 e foram estocadas a 16 PL/L, em tanques-berçário de 60 m3. As pós-larvas foram submetidas ao Método de Alimentação Convencional (MAC e o Método de Alimentação com Artêmia (MAA. Verificou-se que ao se correlacionar o peso em função do comprimento e do tempo de cultivo,o MAA apresentou uma relação estatisticamente superior (pExperiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm toevaluate growth and survival rate of the Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae during nursery phase using different diets. The nursery tanks (60 m3 will be provided with post-larvae of 19 days (PL19 with a density of 16 PL/liter. The post-larvae were submitted to a Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and an Artemia Feeding Method (MAA. Considering the correlations between weight and length, and between weight and culture duration, a better efficiency (p<0.05 of the MAA was verified. The survival rate of the post-larvae fed with MAA was 86.25%, while MAC yielded survivorship of 62.12%. Thus, artemia nauplii were proved to be more efficient, providing higher growth and survival rates of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae.

  16. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Castilla Casadiego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3 and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6 from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6 and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9 were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  17. Salinity-Induced Palmella Formation Mechanism in Halotolerant Algae Dunaliella salina Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics and Phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmella stage is critical for some unicellular algae to survive in extreme environments. The halotolerant algae Dunaliella salina is a good single-cell model for studying plant adaptation to high salinity. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanism in salinity shock-induced palmella formation, we performed a comprehensive physiological, proteomics and phosphoproteomics study upon palmella formation of D. salina using dimethyl labeling and Ti4+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC proteomic approaches. We found that 151 salinity-responsive proteins and 35 salinity-responsive phosphoproteins were involved in multiple signaling and metabolic pathways upon palmella formation. Taken together with photosynthetic parameters and enzyme activity analyses, the patterns of protein accumulation and phosphorylation level exhibited the mechanisms upon palmella formation, including dynamics of cytoskeleton and cell membrane curvature, accumulation and transport of exopolysaccharides, photosynthesis and energy supplying (i.e., photosystem II stability and activity, cyclic electron transport, and C4 pathway, nuclear/chloroplastic gene expression regulation and protein processing, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, and salt signaling transduction. The salinity-responsive protein–protein interaction (PPI networks implied that signaling and protein synthesis and fate are crucial for modulation of these processes. Importantly, the 3D structure of phosphoprotein clearly indicated that the phosphorylation sites of eight proteins were localized in the region of function domain.

  18. Influencia del medio ambiente en los materiales de construcción III. Dinámica salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Paris, José Manuel

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Las sales y la humedad son los dos factores que condicionan las alteraciones de los materiales de construcción. Los citados materiales, bien de por sí —piedras y ladrillos—, bien una vez endurecidos —morteros y hormigones—, están estructurados por partículas sólidas granulares, separadas por un sistema poroso, que constituye el medio -dinámico para el transporte de las disoluciones salinas procedentes del medio ambiente. La motilidad de las sales a través de la red de poros es función de tres variables físicoclimáticas: temperatura, humedad y condiciones de aireación. La dinámica salina se efectúa mediante procesos de difusión, unas veces de naturaleza química: difusión iónica, otras de naturaleza física: difusión capilar.

  19. Ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus from Jerusalem artichoke grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W J; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2008-12-01

    To study fuel ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC8554 from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater. The growth and ethanol fermentation of K. marxianus ATCC8554 were studied using inulin as substrate. The activity of inulinase, which attributes to the hydrolysis of inulin, the main carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke, was monitored. The optimum temperatures were 38 degrees C for growth and inulinase production, and 35 degrees C for ethanol fermentation. Aeration was not necessary for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus from inulin. Then, the fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers grown in salina and irrigated with 25% and 50% seawater were further examined for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus, and a higher ethanol yield was achieved for the Jerusalem artichoke tuber irrigated with 25% seawater. Furthermore, the dry meal of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers irrigated with 25% seawater was examined for ethanol fermentation at three solid concentrations of 200, 225 and 250 g l(-1), and the highest ethanol yield of 0.467, or 91.5% of the theoretical value of 0.511, was achieved for the slurry with a solid concentration of 200 g l(-1). Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke can be used for fuel ethanol production. Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke, not competing with grain crops for arable land, is a sustainable feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

  20. Larvicidal, Histopathological Efficacy of Penicillium daleae against Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti Plus Biotoxicity on Artemia nauplii a Non-target Aquatic Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ragavendran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes can transmit the terrible diseases to human beings. Soil-borne fungal products act as potential source for low-cost chemicals, used for developing eco-friendly control agents against mosquito-vector borne diseases. The prime aim of study was to check the larvicidal potential of fungus mycelia (by ethyl acetate solvent extract from Penicillium daleae (KX387370 against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti and to test the toxicity of brine shrimp Artemia nauplii, by observing the physiological activity. The ethyl acetate extract of P. daleae mycelia (after 15 days from Potato dextrose broth (PDB medium revealed better result with least LC50 and LC90 values of I-IV instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 127.441, 129.087, 108.683, and 93.521; LC90 = 152.758, 158.169, 139.091, and 125.918 μg/ml and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 105.077, 83.943, 97.158, and 76.513; LC90 = 128.035, 106.869, 125.640, and 104.606 μg/ml respectively. At higher concentration (1000 μg/ml of extracts, mortality begins at 18 h of exposure and attained 100% mortality after 48 h exposure. Overall, the activity was depends on the dose and time of exposure to the extracts. The stereomicroscopic and histopathological analysis of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae treated with mycelium ethyl acetate extract showed complete disintegration of abdominal region, particularly the midgut and caeca, loss of cuticular parts and caudal hairs. Morphological characterization of the fungi was performed and taxonomically identified through 5.8s rDNA technique. The phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence was carried out to find out the taxonomic and the evolutionary sketch of isolate in relation to earlier described genus Penicillium. Behavior and swimming speed alteration was analyzed together with mortality. The results of the experiment indicates that swimming behavior recorder (SBR is a appropriate tool to detect individual swimming speed of the A. nauplii organisms

  1. Real-time PCR detection and quantification of fish probiotic Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and fish pathogenic Vibrio in microalgae, rotifer, Artemia and first feeding turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prol, M.J.; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Pintado, J.

    2009-01-01

    and in presence of microalgae (Isochrysis galbana), rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), Artemia nauplii or turbot (Psetta maxima) larvae by real-time PCR based on primers directed at genetic loci coding for antagonistic and virulence-related functions respectively. The optimized protocol was used to study...

  2. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO 2 -driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  3. The utilization of Habrobracon and artemia as experimental materials in bioastronautic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    In the reproductive performance of female braconids striking contrasts were revealed between the results from the actual biosatellite flight and those from experiments when the recovered vehicle was subjected to the forces of simulated launching and recovery. Second week decreases in egg production due to the radiation damage of cells in mitosis were minimized for the females irradiated during space flight. It was demonstrated that females irradiated for two days during orbital flight laid as many eggs during the second week as the unirradiated ground-based controls. After the 10th day their oviposition records exceeded control values. The hatchability of eggs deposited by Biosatellite II females was excellent. Explanations were sought for the space flight's cancellation of the characteristic radiation-induced decrease in egg production, and for the exceptionally good hatchability of eggs derived from most of the cell types in the irradiated ovarioles. Eggs from only two classes of cells showed enhanced embryonic lethality: those poised in meiotic metaphase during their mother's orbital flight, and those from oocytes beginning vitellogenesis.

  4. 78 FR 37790 - In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio, Inmate Number #61687-279, FCI La Tuna, Federal Corrections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Mario Salinas-Lucio... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45....S.C. 793, 794 or 798; section 4(b) of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or...

  5. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb 2+ in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb 2+ to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm

  6. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hajar [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradshahi, Ali, E-mail: moradshahi@susc.ac.ir [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein [Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs) are toxic to D. salina. • Gum-Arabic coating alters the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Cell-NPs agglomerates and lipid peroxidation could explain the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Shading effect and dissolution do not seem to contribute to the toxicity of PbS NPs. • Particle–particle interaction was reduced by coating; therefore, PbS NPs were stabilized in the culture media. - Abstract: The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb{sup 2+} in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb{sup 2+} to the culture media had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P > 0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle–particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about

  7. Regulatory Project Manager for Salina and Permian Basins for the NWTS [National Waste Terminal Storage] Program: Final techical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The identification of candidate sites for nuclear waste repositories involves geological and environmental studies to characterize potential sites. These investigations include the collection and analysis of detailed geological and environmental data and comparison of the data against predetermined site performance criteria, i.e., geologic characteristics, environmental protection, and socioeconomic impacts. The work summarized in this final technical report encompasses mainly ''environmental characterization'' studies in the Permian Basin in the Texas Panhandle during the period of 1977-86; in the earlier phase of the contract, regional environmental work was also done in the Salina Basin (1977-79) and certain licensing support activities and safety analyses were conducted (1977-82). Considerable regulatory support work was also performed during 1986. 9 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Lane, Todd W.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2016-01-01

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are “keystone” OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the microbiota

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of live feeds in juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) farming: copepods versus Artemiapepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemiacopepods versus Artemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    The biological benefits of copepods as live feed for marine finfish larvae have already been well established in the literature. Copepods have better biochemical compositions that improve growth, reduce malpigmentations and allow successful farming of ‘new’ marine finfish species. However...... items (copepods and Artemia) in juvenile turbot farming. Unit cost of production and profit are compared between the two feeding regimes using a unique data set from an existing turbot fry production facility in Denmark. The result reveals that copepods are not only biochemically superior...... but they are also economically a cost-effective alternative. Thus, a commercial use of copepods will significantly reduce the production costs for turbot. Furthermore, the unexploited economic potential can be utilized for the successful farming of other high-valued marine finfish species such as tuna, flounders...

  10. Estratégias de irrigação com água salina na mamoneira Irrigation strategies with saline water in castor oil plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado em campo para avaliar estratégias de irrigação com água salina no crescimento e na produção da mamoneira (BRS Energia, além de identificar eventuais estádios de maior tolerância à salinidade e monitorar alguns atributos químicos do solo. Os tratamentos consistiram da irrigação com águas de CE 0,53; 2,09; 3,66 dS m-1 de acordo com a fase de desenvolvimento da cultura, totalizando cinco estratégias de irrigação com água salina e uma testemunha. As avaliações de crescimento foram realizadas aos 20; 40; 60; 80; 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS. As coletas de solo foram realizadas concomitantemente às avaliações de crescimento, nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,30; 0,30-0,50 m. A irrigação contínua com água de CE 3,66 dS m-1 reduziu a altura de planta, o comprimento de racemo terciário, o número de frutos por área útil e a produtividade de frutos. Essa estratégia aumentou acentuadamente os teores de Na+ e a CE do solo no final do ciclo. Por outro lado, a irrigação com água salina começando aos 45 DAS não prejudicou as variáveis de crescimento e os componentes de produção. Essa estratégia minimizou os impactos negativos sobre a salinidade/sodicidade do solo no final do ciclo. Comportamento similar foi observado para a irrigação contínua com água de CE 2,09 dS m-1 (mistura de águas com CE de 0,53 e 3,66 dS m-1. A mamoneira não apresentou tolerância diferenciada à salinidade em função da fase de desenvolvimento, embora tenha sido prejudicada quando aumentaram a intensidade e a duração do estresse salino.This experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate irrigation strategies with saline water on growth and production of castor oil plant (cv. BRS Energia, identify eventual stages with higher tolerance to salinity and monitor some soil chemical attributes. The treatments consisted of irrigations with water of EC 0.53; 2.09; 3.66 dS m-1 according to the development

  11. Effects of salinity, commercial salts, and water type on cultivation of the cryptophyte microalgae Rhodomonas salina and the calanoid Copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Thoisen, Christina V.; Carron-Cabaret, Thibaut

    2018-01-01

    Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research was to investi......Marine aquaculture facilities positioned far from the sea need access to seawater (SW); hence, commercial salts are often the chosen solution. In marine hatcheries, most fish larvae require live feed (zooplankton) that are in turn fed with microalgae. The objective of this research...... was to investigate the applicability of commercial salts and clarify the potential effects on the cultivation of the microalga Rhodomonas salina and the copepod Acartia tonsa. Three commercial salts were tested, Red Sea Salt (RS), Red Sea – Coral Pro Salt (CP), and Blue Treasure Salt. R. salina was cultured...

  12. Uso da solução salina para manutenção de acessos venosos em adultos: uma revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Francimar Tinoco de; Silva,Lolita Dopico da

    2006-01-01

    Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a prática da salinização em cateteres venosos periféricos. O estudo objetivou analisar os artigos científicos sobre o uso de solução salina na manutenção da permeabilidade de cateteres venosos periféricos em adultos, indexados no MedLine e LILACS no período de 1995 a 2005. A amostra consistiu de 5 artigos os quais foram analisados quanto à procedência e periódico de publicação, ao delineamento do estudo, a amostragem, e ao efeito da solução salina. ...

  13. Cytotoxic activity of carotenoid rich fractions from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae and the identification of the phytoconstituents using LC-DAD/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Farouk K; Hussein, Rehab A; Mahmoud, Khaled; Abdo, Sayeda M

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae represent a rich source that satisfies the growing need for novel ingredients of nutriceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and food supplements. Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina microalgae are isolated from the Egyptian hydro-flora and are reported for their potent antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activity of different fractions of both microalgae was investigated on 4 cell lines HePG2, MCF7, HCT116, and A549. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell line and moderate activity against both liver and breast cancer cell lines. On the other hand, the carotenoid rich fraction of D. salina showed mild cytotoxic activity on breast and liver cancer cell lines. The carotenoid rich fraction of H. pluvialis was analysed using LC-DAD/ESI-MS and the major carotenoids were identified either free as well as bounded to fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 advanced oxidation on unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina: implications for removal of invasive species from ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; You, Hong; Du, Jiaxuan; Chen, Chuan; Jin, Darui

    2011-01-01

    The UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was investigated for ballast water treatment using Dunaliella salina as an indicator. Inactivation curves were obtained, and the toxicity of effluent was determined. Compared with individual unit processes using ozone or UV/Ag-TiO2, the inactivation efficiency of D. salina by the combined UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 process was enhanced. The presence of ozone caused an immediate decrease in chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentration. Inactivation efficiency and ch1-a removal efficiency were positively correlated with ozone dose and ultraviolet intensity. The initial total residual oxidant (TRO) concentration of effluent increased with increasing ozone dose, and persistence of TRO resulted in an extended period of toxicity. The results suggest that UV/Ag-TiO2/O3 has potential for ballast water treatment.

  15. Effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of carotenoids accumulated by Dunaliella salina (strain CONC-007 and Dunaliella bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 Chlorophyta

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    PATRICIA I GÓMEZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dunaliella salina and D. bardawil are well-known microalgae accumulating high levels of b-carotene under growth-limiting conditions. In both taxa, this pigment is primarily composed of the isomers 9-cis and all-trans. The 9-cis b-carotene occurs only in natural sources and is the most attractive from a commercial point of view. The conditions that enhance the preferred accumulation of 9-cis b-carotene in D. salina are controversial and they have not been well established yet. This study examined the effect of salinity on the quantity and quality of total carotenoids and b-carotene isomers accumulated by D. salina (strain CONC-007 and D. bardawil (strain ATCC 30861 grown in two media with different nutritional compositions (PES and ART and at salt concentrations of 1M, 2M and 3M NaCl. Total carotenoids were determined by spectrophotometry and b-carotene isomers, by HPLC. The highest carotenoid contents per cell were obtained at 2M NaCl in both taxa. In both media, an increase of the 9-cis/all-trans b-carotene ratio was observed in D. bardawil when the salt concentration increased, with a maximum value of 2.6 (in ART medium at 3M NaCl. In D. salina this ratio did not exhibit the same pattern, and the salt concentrations for maximal ratios were different in both media. The highest ratio obtained for this strain was 4.3 (in ART medium at 2M NaCl.

  16. Cultural heritage and food identity: The pre-Hispanic salt of Zapotitlán Salinas, Mexico

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    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt production in Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, Mexico dates back to pre-Hispanic times when the Popolocas inhabiting the Tehuacán Valley paid it as tribute to the Aztecs. The technique to obtain salt has changed little over the past 500 years and know-how continues to be transmitted from generation to generation of salters (salineros. It is a resource that is deeply anchored in the identity of the inhabitants of Zapotitlán and regional cuisine. Salt has endured over the centuries as a perennial resource and constitutes a source of income for its owners. However, despite these historical and cultural factors of territorial anchorage, salters have not attained the level of organization necessary to obtain a fair value in the market. Failure to appreciate this product has led to the abandonment of a large percentage of the saltworks that once existed. This essay will analyze the socio-economic and cultural constraints that have prevented this community from attaining the level of territorial governance necessary to enhance the market value of Zapotitlán salt on the market but how, with the depletion of other economic options, its people are returning to the salt, with new strategies. Lastly, the paper will conclude with a consideration of its future potential.La producción de sal de Zapotitlán de las Salinas (Puebla, México se remonta a épocas prehispánicas cuando los popolocas, moradores del valle de Tehuacán, lo tributaban a los aztecas. La técnica para la obtención de la sal ha cambiado poco desde hace 500 años y el saber-hacer se sigue transmitiendo entre las generaciones de salineros. Es un recurso profundamente anclado en la identidad de los habitantes de Zapotitlán y en la gastronomía regional. Su existencia ha perdurado en el transcurso de los siglos por ser un recurso perenne y constituir una renta para sus dueños. Sin embargo, a pesar de los factores históricos y culturales de anclaje territorial, los salineros no

  17. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tolerance induction to stress caused by lavender (Lavandula angustifolia extracts in the microalga Dunaliella salina through metabolic modifications and β-carotene production

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    Sahar Mazang-Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of one plant on other plant species through the released chemical compounds into the environment, known as allelochemicals, is called allelopathy. In the present study, effect of aqueous extracts of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia leaves on growth pattern and ability of β-carotene production in unicellular green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated. Based on these results, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was relatively low. Treated cultures with extract concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 % showed that the process of cell division was ceased because of extracts phytotoxicity. However, the chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration pronouncedly increased in phytotoxin-treated cells, so that the highest of these values were detected in 3 % extracts-exposed cells. Percentage change of all three fresh weight, total sugar and protein between 0 and 48 h of phytotoxins treatment was significantly increased concurrently with increasing dose of extracts. These results suggest that D. salina tolerate allelochemicals-induced stress by metabolic modifications. Therefore, phytotoxins-tolerance mechanisms in D. salina are associated with physiological and metabolic adjustments by allocating the carbon flux to the synthesis of the sugars, chlorophyll and β-carotene, which induce phytotoxins stress tolerance in this alga.

  19. Utilização da artêmia nacional como dieta para pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 na fase berçário - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.52 Brazilian artemia as feed for Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae through the nursery phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.52

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    Paulo de Paula Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos foram realizados em uma fazenda comercial de criação de camarões marinhos, objetivando avaliar a taxa de crescimento e sobrevivência das pós-larvas do Litopenaeus vannamei, quando cultivadas em tanques-berçário e submetidas a diferentes dietas. As pós-larvas utilizadas encontravam-se com 19 dias (PL19 e foram estocadas a 16 PL/L, em tanques-berçário de 60 m3. As pós-larvas foram submetidas ao Método de Alimentação Convencional (MAC e o Método de Alimentação com Artêmia (MAA. Verificou-se que ao se correlacionar o peso em função do comprimento e do tempo de cultivo, o MAA apresentou uma relação estatisticamente superior (pExperiments were carried out in a commercial marine shrimp farm to evaluate growth and survival rate of the Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae during nursery phase using different diets. The nursery tanks (60 m3 will be provided with post-larvae of 19 days (PL19 with a density of 16 PL/liter. The post-larvae were submitted to a Commercial Feeding Method (MAC and an Artemia Feeding Method (MAA. Considering the correlations between weight and length, and between weight and culture duration, a better efficiency (p<0.05 of the MAA was verified. The survival rate of the post-larvae fed with MAA was 86.25%, while MAC yielded survivorship of 62.12%. Thus, artemia nauplii were proved to be more efficient, providing higher growth and survival rates of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae

  20. Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water

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    Dalva Paulus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na produção de hortaliças constitui no momento atividade essencial, tendo em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce, tanto pela atividade agrícola quanto pelo abastecimento urbano e industrial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção e os indicadores fisiológicos de alface cultivada em hidroponia com a utilização de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em Piracicaba-SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl [Condutividade elétrica (Cea: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1] em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram determinadas massa fresca e seca de folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea; teor de nitrato, prolina e clorofila. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu linearmente as massas fresca e seca das folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea. As massas fresca e seca foram 36% e 57% superiores na cultivar Verônica, respectivamente. A cultivar Pira Roxa apresentou maior teor de nitrato 25% (3008 mg L-1, clorofila total 50% (1,46 mg g-1massa fresca e prolina, 71,43% (0,21 µM g-1massa fresca-1 em relação à Verônica, o que pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação daquela cultivar ao estresse salino. Com relação à produtividade comercial, obteve-se uma perda de 69 e 64% para as cultivares Pira Roxa e Verônica, quando se utilizou água mais salina (7,43 dS m-1. Em relação à produção de massa seca, a perda pelo uso dessa água foi de 53% e 44%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo hidropônico podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças para produtores que têm disponibilidade de água salina e restrita disponibilidade de água doce, embora com redução na produtividade.The use of saline water in the production of vegetables constitutes

  1. Tolerância ao florescimento precoce e características comerciais de progênies F4 de alface do cruzamento Regina 71 x Salinas 88 = Tolerance to precocious flowering and commerical traits of F4 progenies of hybrid Regina 71 x Salinas 88 lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho

    2009-01-01

    originated from crosses involving the ‘Regina 71’ and ‘Salinas 88’ cultivars, previously selected for heat tolerance, nematode resistance and LMV (lettuce mosaic virus. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications. The limb,edge, head formation and the number of days until flowering were evaluated. Among the 22 evaluated progenies, three are butterleaf and may lead to new lettuce lines resistant to rootknot nematodes, heat and LMV.

  2. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  3. Trocas gasosas e teores de minerais no feijão-de-corda irrigado com água salina em diferentes estádios Gas exchange and mineral concentration in cowpea irrigated with saline water at different stages

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    Antonia L. R. Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de água salina nos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de plantas de feijão-de-corda sobre as trocas gasosas, o crescimento e os teores de minerais. O experimento foi conduzido no campo e obedeceu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1 - água do poço (CEa de 0,8 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo (controle; T2 - água salina (CEa de 5,0 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo; T3, T4 e T5 - água salina de 0 a 22, de 23 a 42 e de 43 a 62 dias após o plantio (DAP, respectivamente. As plantas dos tratamentos T3, T4 e T5 foram irrigadas com água do poço nas demais fases do ciclo. Realizaram-se, ao longo do ciclo da cultura, medições de trocas gasosas e se determinaram a produção de matéria seca e os teores de Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, N e P. Os tratamentos T2 e T3 em relação ao T1 (controle, reduziram as taxas de fotossíntese e transpiração e as taxas de crescimento vegetativo e provocaram acúmulo, especialmente de Na+ e Cl-, porém se verificou, nas plantas do T3, recuperação de todas essas variáveis ao final do ciclo da cultura. As alterações no acúmulo de Na+ e Cl- nas plantas dos tratamentos T4 e T5 não foram suficientes para provocar efeitos significativos nas trocas gasosas nem nas taxas de crescimento da cultura, em comparação com as plantas do T1.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with saline water, applied at different development stages of cowpea, on gas exchange, growth and nutrient concentration. The experiment was set up in the field, in a completely randomized block design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments studied were: T1 - Groundwater with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.8 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle (control; T2 - saline water (ECw = 5.0 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle; T3, T4 and T5 - saline water from 0

  4. Germinação e formação de mudas de coqueiro irrigadas com águas salinas Germination and seedling formation of coconut irrigated with saline waters

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    Francisco J. L. Marinho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de coqueiro vem crescendo no Nordeste, com aumento de produtividade, quando irrigado. Sendo comuns na região águas salinas e se considerando a carência de dados de pesquisa de salinidade em coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., objetivou-se, através deste trabalho, avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com águas salinas (CEa = 2,2, 5, 10, 15 e 20 dS m-1 sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de plântulas, até 120 dias após semeadura (fase I, estendendo-se a avaliação, posteriormente, após repicagem para o viveiro, quando passaram a ser irrigadas com água de CEa = 2,2 dS m-1, durante 120 dias (fase II, estudando-se o efeito residual dos níveis de salinidade aplicados na fase I. Em ambos os experimentos, o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As águas salinas foram preparadas com adição de NaCl comercial. Na primeira fase, o incremento da CEa não influenciou significativamente a germinação que variou de 80 a 97,5%, porém afetou a velocidade de germinação e o crescimento das plântulas; na fase de sementeira, a salinidade afetou a fitomassa total a partir de 5,4 dS m-1; o sistema radicular foi a variável mais afetada pela salinidade. Na fase II, as plantas oriundas de germinação sob condições de alta salinidade, após passarem a ser irrigadas com água de 2,2 dS m-1, cresceram no mesmo ritmo daquelas germinadas sem estresse salino.The coconut cultivation is growing in the Northeast Brazil with increase in productivity under irrigated conditions. Saline waters are commonly found in this region and considering the lack of data related to salinity on dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L., this work had the objective of evaluating the effects of the irrigation with saline waters (ECw = 2.2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dS m-1 on the germination and the initial growth of seedlings until 120 days after sowing (phase I, extending the evaluation, later, after transplanting in the nursery, when

  5. Produção de mudas de limão cravo em substrato com biofertilizante bovino irrigado com águas salinas Production of rangpur lemon seedlings in substrate with bovine biofertilizer irrigated with saline water

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    Alex Matheus Rebequi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi instalado no período de março a maio de 2008, em ambiente telado, para avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação e do biofertilizante bovino na formação de mudas de limão cravo. O substrato foi material dos primeiros 20 cm de um Argissolo Amarelo Distrófico não salino, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com seis repetições, referente a cinco valores de condutividades elétrica da água de irrigação (0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS.m-1, obtidos pela diluição de uma água fortemente salina (14,3 dS.m-1 com água não salina (0,5 dS.m-1, em solo sem e com biofertilizante comum, diluído em água na proporção de 1:1 aplicado ao nível de 10% do volume do substrato, um dia antes da semeadura. Pelos resultados, se constatou superioridade dos dados obtidos nos tratamentos com o biofertilizante em relação aos dos tratamentos sem o respectivo insumo.One experiment was developed during the period from March to May of 2008 in a canvassed shelter to evaluate the effects of saline water and bovine biofertilizer on seedling formation of rangpur lemon. The substrate used was composed by soil at 20 cm depth of a non saline yellow distrofic Oxisoil, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement 5 x 2 with six repetitions, referring to water electrical conductivity (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 e 4.0 dS.m-1 obtained by dilution of saline water (14.3 dS.m-1 with non saline water (0.5 dS.m-1 in soil with and without biofertilizer diluted in water 1:1 proportion applied in 10% of substrate volume, one day before sowing. According to results, it was observed a superiority of data from treatments with biofertilizer in relation to those without this product.

  6. Corrosividade Causada por Soluções Salinas Empregadas na Estabilização Dimensional da Madeira

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar a corrosividade de soluções salinas antes e depois de sua impregnação na madeira. Soluções com 5% de concentração de cloreto de lítio, carbonato de sódio, sulfato de magnésio, sulfato de zinco e sulfato de cobre II foram mantidas durante 6 horas, a 25 °C, 45 °C e 100 °C em contato com amostras de 1,25 cm × 0,1 cm × 7,5 cm (largura × espessura × comprimento produzidas com chapas de aço carbono antes e depois de seu contato com amostras de madeira de Corymbia torelliana e Eucalyptus cloeziana. Não se observou efeito da temperatura na corrosão das soluções puras. Depois do contato com a madeira houve incremento da corrosividade para as soluções de sulfato de zinco e de cobre II. O sulfato de cobre II ocasionou a maior perda de massa nas chapas, não sendo recomendado seu contato com superfícies metálicas, como usinas de tratamento e câmaras de secagem de madeira.

  7. Growth of mono- and mixed cultures of Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on struvite as a nutrient source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Siccardi, Anthony J. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Huysman, Nathan D. [Texas AgriLife Research Mariculture Lab., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lane, Todd W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-26

    In this paper, the suitability of crude and purified struvite (MgNH4PO4), a major precipitate in wastewater streams, was investigated for renewable replacement of conventional nitrogen and phosphate resources for cultivation of microalgae. Bovine effluent wastewater stone, the source of crude struvite, was characterized for soluble N/P, trace metals, and biochemical components and compared to the purified mineral. Cultivation trials using struvite as a major nutrient source were conducted using two microalgae production strains, Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in both lab and outdoor pilot-scale raceways in a variety of seasonal conditions. Both crude and purified struvite-based media were found to result in biomass productivities at least as high as established media formulations (maximum outdoor co-culture yield ~20 ± 4 g AFDW/m2/day). Finally, analysis of nutrient uptake by the alga suggest that struvite provides increased nutrient utilization efficiency, and that crude struvite satisfies the trace metals requirement and results in increased pigment productivity for both microalgae strains.

  8. Las expediciones a salinas: caravanas en la pampa colonial. El abastecimiento de sal a Buenos Aires (Siglos XVII y XVIII

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    Gabriel Darío Taruselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El abastecimiento de sal en cantidades sufi cientes fue una de las principales preocupaciones del Cabildo de Buenos Aires. Fue este un producto de importancia vital no sólo por su aplicación en las comidas cotidianas, sino también por su aplicación en la conservación de las carnes y los cueros. Las características de su uso y su obtención, aumentaron su valor, no sólo comercial sino también estratégico. El hallazgo de yacimientos locales permitió a los habitantes de Buenos Aires abastecerse mediante la práctica de expediciones periódicas que fueron promovidas por las autoridades capitulares, lo que les permitió ejercer un mayor control sobre dicha producción. Como la actividad requería una importante capacidad de transporte y de mano de obra, era una práctica aprovechada por muchos para emplearse en ella y para obtener benefi cios con el comercio que se generaba en la oportunidad. Esto convertía a las expediciones a salinas, organizadas por las autoridades de la ciudad, en grandes caravanas que se internaban en pleno territorio indí-gena, involucrando un amplio conjunto de actores sociales tanto de la ciudad como de la campaña y el mundo indígena

  9. EL PAN VS. SALINAS O EL DILEMA DEL PRISIONERO: REFORMA INSTITUCIONAL Y COOPERACIÓN COMO ESTRATEGIA POLÍTICA

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    Alicia Gómez López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza, desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos, la estrategia que el Partido Acción Nacional desarrolló frente al gobierno de Carlos Salinas de Gortari luego de la turbulenta elección presidencial de 1988. El objetivo es demostrar que entre estos adversarios se estableció un tipo de juego cuyo modelo a menudo se utiliza para analizar procesos de transición: el Dilema del prisionero, con un desenlace, al menos en este caso, cooperativo. Como en todo dilema, en este juego la posibilidad de la cooperación implica la existencia de un escenario aceptable para ambos adversarios, pese a que en primer lugar se busquen resultados opuestos. En este caso, dicho escenario se relaciona con el hecho de que el objetivo central en la estrategia panista era lograr reformas institucionales que hicieran avanzar la transición mexicana, de manera que le fuera posible llegar al poder; un objetivo cuya materia —las reformas institucionales— resultaba perfectamente negociable para su adversario presidencial.

  10. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality in the 3,016-square-mile Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project. The GAMA Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow-aquifer systems in parts of Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The shallow-aquifer system in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit was defined as those parts of the aquifer system shallower than the perforated depth intervals of public-supply wells, which generally corresponds to the part of the aquifer system used by domestic wells. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers can differ from the quality in the deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater can be more vulnerable to surficial contamination.Samples were collected from 170 sites that were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method. The study unit was divided into 4 study areas, each study area was divided into grid cells, and 1 well was sampled in each of the 100 grid cells (grid wells). The grid wells were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells. A greater spatial density of data was achieved in 2 of the study areas by dividing grid cells in those study areas into subcells, and in 70 subcells, samples were collected from exterior faucets at sites where there were domestic wells or wells with screen depths similar to those in nearby domestic wells (shallow-well tap sites).Field water-quality indicators (dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance) were measured, and samples for analysis of inorganic

  11. Studies on the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems in the Biostack experiments I and II flown on board of Apollo 16 and 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1975-01-01

    The Biostack experiments are described and the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems are discussed. The biological systems contained in the experimental packages include spores of Bacillus subtilis, cysts of Colpoda cucullus, seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, radiculae of Vicia faba, and eggs of Artemia solina, Tribolium castaneum, and Carausius moresus. The physical characteristics of the particles are given and the implications for manned spaceflight are discussed

  12. Reproductive performance of the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata [Peters, 1859] fed with live Artemia franciscana [Kellog, 1906] cultured with inert and live diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento reproductivo del guppy Poecilia reticulata —evaluado como número de crías, longitud estándar, peso húmedo y seco de las crías y su proporción sexual— fue estudiado usando varias dietas para los reproductores. Los tratamientos consistieron en adultos vivos de Artemia franciscana cultivada con microalgas vivas (Tetraselmis suecica y Chaetoceros calcitrans, harina de Spirulina, harina de soya, harina de trigo, una mezcla 50%/50% de dichas harinas y una dieta comercial como grupo control. Después de 45 días bajo condiciones experimentales de laboratorio, no se encontraron diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 en el número de crías producidas por hembra y en la longitud estándar individual de las crías entre los tratamientos. Las crías producidas por el grupo control fueron más pesadas que las del resto de los tratamientos (4.14 y 1.06 mg de peso húmedo y seco, respectivamente. En promedio, el grupo de reproductores alimentado con Spirulina produjo mayor cantidad de machos. Los resultados destacan el uso de la dieta comercial para cubrir con los requerimientos reproductivos de P. reticulata.

  13. Influência da irrigação com água salina na cultura do girassol Influence of irrigation with saline water on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alexandre de Morais

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da irrigação com água salina no crescimento e na produção de girassol (híbrido H251, além de monitorar a evolução de alguns atributos químicos do solo ao longo do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis diferentes estratégias de irrigação, sendo cinco delas com utilização de água salina. As avaliações de crescimento (altura de planta, diâmetro de caule e número de folhas foram realizadas aos 20; 40; 60; 80; 100 dias após semeadura (DAS. Aos 100 DAS foi realizada a colheita, ocasião em que se mediu o diâmetro de capítulo, sendo determinados posteriormente o peso de 1000 aquênios e a produtividade de aquênios. As coletas de solo foram realizadas concomitantemente às avaliações de crescimento, nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,30; 0,30-0,50 m. Os atributos químicos do solo avaliados foram Na+, CE e pH, além das relações Na+/Ca2+ e Na+/Mg2+. A cultura do girassol mostrou-se tolerante à salinidade da água de irrigação, indicando que ela pode ser irrigada com água de CE de até 3,53 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo. Entretanto, quando se utilizar água de média ou alta CE, é necessária a adoção de práticas de controle da salinização/sodificação do solo. A tolerância do girassol à salinidade não dependeu da fase de desenvolvimento. Em geral, os atributos químicos do solo aumentaram e estabilizaram a partir da metade do ciclo.This experiment was made to evaluate the influence of the irrigation with saline water on growth and production of sunflower (híbrido H251, besides monitoring the evolution of some chemical attributes of the soil along its cycle. The experimental design used was the randomized blocks with six treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of six different irrigation strategies, five of them with

  14. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel

  15. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Wang

    Full Text Available We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli, Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli.

  16. Clorofila e carotenoides em maracujazeiro-amarelo irrigado com águas salinas no solo com biofertilizante bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos deletérios provocados pelo estresse salino resultam em modificações nos mecanismos bioquímicos e fisiológicos das plantas, alterando, dentre outros, os teores foliares de clorofila e carotenoides, comprometendo a atividade fotossintética e, consequentemente, o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, a produção e a adaptabilidade aos ambientes adversos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes condutividades elétricas da água de irrigação (CEai, associadas às épocas de aplicação de biofertilizante, sobre os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos para a determinação dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos (clorofila a, b, total e carotenoides do maracujazeiro-amarelo. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, referentes aos valores de CEai: 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 dS m-1, em quatro épocas de aplicação do biofertilizante: sem biofertilizante (SB; aplicação uma semana antes do transplantio (1SAT; a cada 90 dias, a partir do transplantio (90DAT; uma semana antes e a cada 90 dias, após o transplantio (1SAT+90DAT. O aumento da concentração salina da água de irrigação reduziu a eficiência fotossintética nas folhas do maracujazeiro-amarelo, sendo mais drástico na condutividade superior a 2,5 dS m-1. As frequências de aplicação do biofertilizante não influenciaram nas concentrações dos pigmentos fotossintéticos.

  17. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  18. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus,Dalva; Paulus,Eloi; Nava,Gilmar Antônio; Moura,Cláudia Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes), com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se Na...

  19. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del parque regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Pelegrín, Gustavo Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfi...

  20. Atributos biológicos de dos suelos de Quibor con aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Betty; Florentino, Adriana; Hernández-Hernández, Rosa Mary; Aciego, Juan; Torres, Duilio; Vera, Elena

    2013-01-01

    La evaluación del efecto de la aplicación de abono orgánico y soluciones salinas sobre los atributos biológicos de suelos de Quibor estado Lara, Venezuela, uno bajo manejo convencional (CV) y otro bajo manejo conservacionista (CS), se realizó mediante un ensayo de invernadero. Se utilizaron tres dosis de materia orgánica (MO): 0, 15 y 30 Mg ha-1 y cuatro soluciones de riego (SR): testigo con agua (T), sulfato de calcio (SC), cloruro de sodio (CN) y la mezcla de sulfato de calcio con cloruro d...

  1. Salt-stimulation of caesium accumulation in the euryhaline green microalga Chlorella salina: potential relevance to the development of a biological Cs-removal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, S. V.; Codd, G. A.; Gadd, G. M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    1993-07-01

    Accumulation of Cs{sup +} by Chlorella salina was 28-fold greater in cells incubated in the presence than in the absence of 0.5 M-NaCl. An approximate 70% removal of external Cs{sup +} resulted after 15 h incubation of cells with 50 μ;M-CsCl and 0.5 M-NaCl. LiCl also had a stimulatory effect on Cs{sup +} uptake, although mannitol did not. Cs{sup +} influx increased with increasing external NaCl concentration and was maximal between 25-500 mM-NaCl at approximately 4 nmol Cs{sup +} h−1 (10{sup 6} cells){sup −1}. Little effect on Cs{sup +} uptake resulted from the presence of Mg{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} or from varying the external pH, and Cs{sup +} was relatively non-toxic towards C. salina. At increasing cell densities (from 4 × 10{sup 5} to 1 × 10{sup 7} cells ml{sup +1}), decreasing amounts of Cs{sup +} were accumulated per cell although the rate of Cs{sup +} removal from the external medium was still greatest at the higher cell densities examined. Freely suspended C. salina and cell-loaded alginate microbeads accumulated similar levels of Cs{sup +}, however, 46% of total Cs{sup +} uptake was attributable to the calcium-alginate matrix in the latter case. When Cs{sup +}-loaded cells were subjected to hypoosmotic shock, loss of cellular Cs{sup +} occurred allowing easy Cs{sup +} recovery. This loss exceeded 90% of cellular Cs{sup +} when cells were washed with solutions containing ≤ 50 mM-NaCl between consecutive Cs{sup +} uptake periods; these cells subsequently lost their ability to accumulate large amounts of Cs{sup +}. Maximal Cs{sup +} uptake (approximately 85.1% removal after three 15 h incubations) occurred when cells were washed with a solution containing 500 mM-NaCl and 200 mM-KCl between incubations. The relevance of these results to the possible use of C. salina in a salt-dependent biological Cs-removal process is discussed. (author)

  2. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HALA

    2012-10-11

    Oct 11, 2012 ... capacity of each sample to scavenge the ABTS radical cation, we revealed that the EPS aqueous ... evaluated using the brine shrimp Artemia salina, as test organism. ..... released by cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

  3. Comparative evaluation of essential oils from Lippia javanica L leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Oil was extracted from the fresh and dried leaves of Lippia javanica by HD and SFME methods ... Keywords: Artemia salina, Lippia javanica, Essential oil, Hydrodistillation, ...... in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude.

  4. 77 FR 71842 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541), as amended by the Antarctic Science, Tourism and..., as well as 500 grams of Artemia salina cysts as food for krill. They plan to measure how fast DNA is...

  5. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  6. Variation in the chemical composition of essential oils from Artemisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Methods: The essential oils were obtained from fresh and dried leaves of Artemisia afra using ... Keywords: Artemia salina, Artemisia afra, Essential oils, hydrodistillation, ..... by Kayode and Afolayan [11] that the dried seed .... foodborne fungi.

  7. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE GOIABEIRA IRRIGADOS COM ÁGUAS SALINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tavares Gurgel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating effects of salinity of irrigation water on initial development of rootstocks of guava (Psidium guajava L, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse at Experimental Station of Pacajus, belonging to Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry in the State of Ceará. The treatments in randomized block design consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of water (ECw: 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and two cultivars of guava (Rica and Ogawa with four replications. The irrigation waters were prepared maintaining equivalent proportion of 7:2:1 respectively of Na:Ca:Mg. Seedlings were appraised 80 days after emergence, the effects, on number of leaves, plant height, diameter of stem, phytomass of the root and aerial parts, total phytomass, diameter, leaf area and root to aerial part ratio were studied. The increment of water salinity affected growth of cultivar in terms of number of leaves, stem diameter plant height, the Ogawa cultivar was found to be more affected. In highest level of water salinity (4.5 dS m-1 the relative reduction in total dry phytomass in case of cultivar Rica was 63.5% while the decrease in cultivar Ogawa was higher (77.4%; with regard to leaf area the effect was linear with reduction of 17.2% and 18.4%, respectively, for unit increase of water salinity. In cultivar Rica roots and in cultivar Ogawa the aerial parts were most affected negatively by water salinity.

  8. BIOMETRIA DE MUDAS DE CAJUEIRO ANÃO IRRIGADAS COM ÁGUAS SALINAS E USO DE ATENUADORES DO ESTRESSE SALINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliésia Carla de Medeiros Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade hídrica é fator de estresse que altera o crescimento de mudas de frutíferas. Objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento de mudas de cajueiro anão precoce em substratos irrigados com águas salinas e adição de biofertilizante bovino e cobertura com biomassa vegetal no Seridó Paraibano. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo fatorial 5 x 2 x 2, correspondente a cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,5; 3,5; 6,5; 9,5 e 12,5 dS m-1, no solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, numa alíquota de 0,2 dm-3 por planta, sem e com cobertura morta com 3 cm de casca de arroz. As taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo em altura, em diâmetro caulinar, número de folhas, área foliar, comprimento da raiz e fitomassa fresca do cajueiro anão precoce foram influenciados negativamente pela salinidade da água de irrigação. O biofertilizante mitigou os efeitos depressivos dos sais no crescimento absoluto das plantas irrigadas com água de salinidade até 3,5 dS m-1. O uso simultâneo do biofertilizante e cobertura morta foi eficiente na redução dos efeitos dos sais nas plantas irrigadas com águas de 3,5 e 6,5 dS m-1, promovendo aumento no número de folhas. O biofertilizante incrementou a fitomassa fresca total das plantas irrigadas com água de maior condutividade elétrica.Palavra-chave: agroecologia, biofertilizante, crescimento, fruticultura, salinidade. SEEDLING OF DWARF CASHEW BIOMETRY IRRIGATED WITH SALINE WATER AND SALT STRESS ATTENUATORS USE   ABSTRACTThe water salinity is a stress factor that alters the growth of fruit seedlings. This study aimed to evaluate the growth of dwarf cashew seedlings in substrates irrigated with saline water and bovine bio fertilizer addition and cover with vegetable biomass in Seridó, Paraiba. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replications in a factorial 5 x 2 x 2, corresponding to five

  9. Pomada orgânica natural ou solução salina isotônica no tratamento de feridas limpas induzidas em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahal Sheila Canevese

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar, machos, com peso inicial médio de 225 gramas, separados em dois grupos. Após serem anestesiados com éter, foi induzida uma ferida limpa na região torácica dorsal cranial, mediante a utilização de molde metálico de 2,0 x 1,5cm. No grupo I, foi utilizada pomada contendo óleo de fígado de bacalhau, extrato de confrei, extrato cítrico, óxido de zinco e veículo (Creamex®; no grupo II, a ferida foi apenas limpa com solução salina isotônica. Para a avaliação histológica, foram submetidos à eutanásia cinco animais de cada grupo no 3º, 7º, 14º e 21º dia de pós-operatório. O grupo tratado com a pomada orgânica apresentou padrão cicatricial de qualidade superior em relação ao grupo tratado com salina isotônica, representado por formação de fibras colágenas, neoformação de vasos e reepitelização completa da epiderme.

  10. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  11. The Salinas formation in the type-area, Northeastern Minas Gerais: a proposal to review the stratigraphy of the Aracuai belt on sedimentary, metamorphic and U-Pb SHRIMP evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Sirlene A. de Abreu; Pedrosa Soares, Antonio C.; Cordani, Umberto G.; Nutman, Allen

    2002-01-01

    The Salinas Formation has been considered to be a stratigraphic unit of the Macaubas Group. This group comprises the rift to passive margin sequences of the precursor basin of the Neo proterozoic Aracuai Orogeny, eastern Brazil. However, new road cuts show extensive and spectacular outcrops with very well-preserved sedimentary structures, allowing detailed studies in the type-locality of this formation, located in the Salinas town and surroundings, northeast Minas Gerais State. In its type-locality, the Salinas Formation consists of graywacke, pelite and clast-supported conglomerate, metamorphosed in the green schist facies. The sedimentary lithofacies are grouped into three facies association (shelf, slope and deep-sea), indicating sedimentation from shelf deposits to deep-water turbidites. The shelf sedimentation was influenced by storm-wave during deposition. The slump and deep-sea deposits were generated by gravitational flows and high- to low-concentration turbidity currents. Shelf sandstone, clast-supported conglomerate and proximal to distal turbidites outline a submarine fan system. U-Pb SHRIMP data from detrital zircons of graywacke samples indicate a maximum sedimentation age of ca. 568 Ma. Thus, the Salinas Formation is much younger than the Macaubas Group, and represents late orogenic deposits (ca. 568- 500 Ma). The distal, passive margin unit of the Macaubas Group is now called Ribeirao da Folha Formation (ca. 800 Ma). (author)

  12. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  13. The immune-related fatty acids are responsive to CO2 driven seawater acidification in a crustacean brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zheng, Shu-Cheng; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Shi, Yue-Chen; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The gradual increase of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO 2 driven seawater were investigated. The results showed a significant reduction of the proportion of total saturated fatty acids under the pH7.6 within one week. Meanwhile, the percentage of total monounsaturated fatty acids was significantly decreased at day 14 under pH7.8, and this percentage gave a significant increase of proportion within one week under pH7.6. Furthermore, the relative content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was found to be clearly increased with exposure to different seawater acidification at day 1, suggesting that the brine shrimp immune response was likely to be affected by acidified seawater as the PUFAs have been well known to be involved in immunomodulatory effects through alterations on cell membrane fluidity/lipid mediators and gene expression of cell signaling pathways. Notably, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which have essential effect on various physiological processes such as inflammatory cytokines production and cell structural stability, were strongly increased under two lower pH treatments within one week and with the significant increase at day 1 under pH7.6. These data clearly supported the hypothesis that OA might affect fatty acids composition, likely also the innate immunity, in crustacean and the subsequent energy transfer by food-chain system in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Crescimento inicial do tomateiro-cereja sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizantes bovino Initial growth of cherry tomatoes under irrigation with saline water in a soil with bovine biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outubro de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010, em ambiente telado do Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Rural do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, PB, para avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação no crescimento inicial do tomate-cereja em solo não salino, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizante bovino. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5x3, com seis repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, em solo sem biofertilizante, com biofertilizante comum e enriquecido com leite, melaço e gesso agrícola. Depois de diluídos em água não salina (0,5 dS m-1 na razão de 1:1. Os biofertilizantes foram aplicados uma única vez, dois dias antes da semeadura, a nível de 10% do volume do substrato. Os biofertilizantes proporcionaram maior crescimento das plantas em relação ao solo sem os respectivos insumos, independentemente do nível de salinidade das águas. A adição do biofertilizante comum e do enriquecido elevou o caráter salino do solo com superioridade sobre os tratamentos com apenas águas salinas, mas sem diferença significativa entre ambos.An experiment was conducted, from October 2009 to February 2010, in a greenhouse of the Soil and Rural Engineering Department from CCA – UFPB, Areia – PB, to evaluate the influence of the irrigation water salinity in the initial growth of the cherry tomatoes in a non-saline soil with and without two types of bovine biofertilizer. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 3, with six repetitions, referring to values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 , in the soil without biofertilizer, with ordinary biofertilizer and enriched with milk, molasses, agricultural gypsum. The biofertilizers after

  15. New enamine derivatives of lapachol and biological activity

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    OLIVEIRA MAILCAR F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of the new enamine derivatives 2-(4-morpholinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione, 2-(1-piperidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphtalenedione and 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione was carried out from natural 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (lapachol and morpholine, piperidine and pyrrolidine. The structures of the products were established mainly by NMR analysis, including 2D experiments. Biological activities of these products were evaluated against Artemia salina, Aedes aegypti and cytotoxicity using A549 human breast cells.

  16. Estudio de caracterización de emprendedores de la Parroquia Salinas de la Provincia de Bolívar - Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Goyes Noboa

    2016-09-01

    Salinas de Guaranda. Se han identificado variables y factores sociales, económicos, de financiamiento, organizacionales, estructuras administrativas, económicas, cultura organizacional, formas asociativas, motivación para crear negocios, estructuras de negocios predominantes que impulsan la economía social y solidaria presente en la zona. El mayor número de emprendimientos está ligado directa e indirectamente (66% de negocios a las organizaciones sociales y fundaciones salineras, son negocios relativamente jóvenes (menos de 10 años de existencia que han surgido por la necesidad de generar actividades económicas que apoyen al ingreso familiar y comunitario, con lo que afianza el modelo de desarrollo social vigente.

  17. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  18. Encapsulación de moléculas pequeñas mediante la precipitación salina de poliuretanos catioméricos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández d’Arlas, Borja; Corcuera, María Ángeles; Eceiza, Arantxa

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia un copolímero de poliuretano catiomérico (PU) con alta proporción de uretano como agente encapsulante de fármacos modelos (FM) mediante la encapsulación inducida por precipitación salina del PU y FM a pH < pI del PU. Mediante espectroscopia UV-Vis se ha estimado el porcentaje de encapsulación de varios FMs proponiéndose un modelo semi-empírico para determinar la distribución observada en las eficiencias de encapsulación, E, en función de su volumen molar...

  19. El turismo de naturaleza en espacios naturales. El caso del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios naturales atraen a turistas que buscan el contacto con la naturaleza, surgiendo nuevos productos turísticos. Surgen, de este modo, nuevos productos turísticos. En la oferta de turismo de naturaleza del Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar destaca: deportes en la naturaleza, aventura y ecoturismo. Este último se divide en: turismo ornitológico y fotográfico, que junto al tradicional de sol y playa y de salud, se ve favorecido por su situación geográfica, condiciones naturales y amplia oferta hotelera. Sin embargo, el turismo cultural basado en la tradición salinera y pesquera no ha sido desarrollado.

  20. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes, com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade.

  1. Trocas gasosas e conteúdo de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados em pinhão-manso irrigado com águas residuária e salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evami Cavalcante Sousa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações nas trocas gasosas e nos conteúdos de carboidratos e compostos nitrogenados, em pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas irrigado com águas residuária e salina. Empregou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições: irrigação plena com água de abastecimento a 0,6 dS m-1 (controle; irrigação plena com água salinizada a 2,4 dS m-1 (SAL; e irrigação com água residuária de esgoto, plena (R100 e a 50% da capacidade de campo (R50. O tratamento R50 reduziu fortemente as trocas gasosas e a área foliar, comparado ao controle, seguido pelos tratamentos SAL e R100. A redução na fotossíntese diminuiu o nível de sacarose nas folhas, nos quatro tratamentos. Os teores de açúcares solúveis aumentaram nos tratamentos R50, SAL e R100, enquanto o conteúdo de amido permaneceu praticamente inalterado. Os conteúdos de prolina e glicina betaína aumentaram nos três tratamentos, mas a última foi mais importante, em termos quantitativos, como protetor celular e osmótico. A irrigação plena com água residuária induz efeitos similares aos causados pela irrigação com água salina. A irrigação limitada com água residuária causa estresse agudo às plantas, provavelmente pela combinação de deficiência hídrica e acúmulo de solutos no solo.

  2. Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia submetidas à irrigação com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayky F. P. de Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais na água de irrigação sob a emergência e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, Mossoró, RN, usando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, com 24 sementes em cada parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das concentrações salinas 0,68 (água de abastecimento; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0 e 7,5 dS m-1, obtidas através da adição de NaCl em água. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, número de folíolos, condutividade elétrica acumulada do substrato, índice de conteúdo de clorofila, massa seca da raiz, do caule, das folhas e total. O aumento da salinidade na água de irrigação interfere negativamente na emergência e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de albízia, sendo recomendado água com concentração salina até 1,5 dS m-1, caracterizando esta espécie como glicófita, sensível à salinidade.

  3. Crescimento e fitomassa da beterraba sob irrigação suplementar com água de diferentes concentrações salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Pereira dos Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso da água salina na agricultura é uma alternativa viável, tendo-se em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento e a produção de fitomassa da beterraba, sob irrigação com água de diferentes concentrações salinas, em experimento em condição de campo, no Campus da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, em Arapiraca. Os tratamentos foram cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 dS m-1. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O máximo rendimento da beterraba aos 27 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos foi obtido com uma salinidade de 3,0 dS m-1, para as variáveis altura de planta (AP, diâmetro do caule (DC, comprimento da raiz (CR, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST. Aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos, as variáveis fitomassa fresca da parte aérea (FFPA, fitomassa fresca da raiz (FFR, fitomassa fresca total (FFT, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSPA e fitomassa seca total (FST aumentaram com o aumento da salinidade da água. A chuva pode ter influenciado os resultados obtidos para as avaliações, realizadas aos 42 dias após aplicação dos tratamentos salinos.

  4. Tratamiento del prolapso rectal en la infancia con infiltración de solución salina al 16,5 % Treatment of the prolapse of the rectum in childhood with 16,5 % saline solution infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Pérez

    2011-09-01

    el grupo experimental (6,2 %, un caso más. La recurrencia se comportó de forma inversa, predominó en un 6,2 % en el grupo control. Para disminuir el número de complicaciones se estipuló el uso profiláctico de antimicrobianos, el día del procedimiento y 2 días más. Conclusiones: quedó demostrado que el tratamiento de elección del prolapso rectal en la infancia es la infiltración, y que una sola sesión con 20 mL de solución salina al 16,5 % en cada paciente es un efectivo agente esclerosante.Introduction: when the conservative medical treatment fails in children with prolapse of the rectum it is necessary the perirrectal infiltration with irritant substances. In 1990s these infiltrations in our center were carried out using glycerin, but due to be scarce in the market we must to find other alternative infiltrating agent. The objective of present paper is to describe the experience with the use of 16,5 % saline solution. Methods: an experimental, prospective, longitudinal and interventional study of non-controlled clinical trial was conducted. It consists of a second part in which we used the randomization with a control group for validation. Universe included 27 patients and sample included 16 patients with prolapse of the rectum over 2003-2007, seen in service of gastroenterology of the Provincial Children Hospital of Holguín province. The variables developed were: a concentration suitable for treatment, amount of substance to be infiltrated, complications, recurrence, number of infiltrations and the cure at a year. Results are showed in percentage tables. Results: the effectiveness of the 16,5 % saline solution was of 100 %, all patients cured and any had relapse, thus there were not necessary two or more treatment sessions. There was a comment on a child that, after failure of breast milk infiltration like a first option and also of the cerclage, finally, resolved with this method. Complications were relatively few (18,9 %: an abscess, a cellulitis

  5. Insecticidal and Repellent Activit ies of Laurinterol from the Okinawan Red Alga Laurencia nidifica

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    Takahiro Ishii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract of Laurencia nidifica was found to have toxic effect against brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract resulted in the isolation of four known halogenated sesquiterpenes, laurinterol (1, isolaurinterol (2, aplysin (3, and a -bromocuparene (4. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. Among isolated compounds, only laurinterol showed strong toxicity against A. salina. Further experiments revealed that laurinterol also exhibited repellent activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais , insecticidal activity against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory effect . This is the first report of insecticidal and repellent activities of laurinterol.

  6. Atividade β-D-N-Acetilglucosaminidásica de enzimas imobilizadas extraídas da Artemia franciscana e possíveis aplicações biotecnológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Pablo de Castro

    2008-01-01

    A β-D-N-acetilglucosaminidase, extraída e parcialmente isolada do crustáceo Artemia franciscana através de precipitação com sulfato de amônio e cromatografia em gel filtração Bio Gel A 1.5m foi imobilizada em Dacron ferromagnético rendendo um derivado insolúvel ativo contendo 5,0 unid/mg de proteína e retendo 10,35% da atividade da enzima solúvel. A β-D-N-acetilglucosaminidase-Dacron ferromagnético foi facilmente removida do meio reacional com o auxílio de um campo magnético e pô...

  7. Estudo de processos de produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina com recuperação do agente de separação

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Luci Ligero

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: : Uma técnica amplamente utilizada na produção de etanol é a destilação azeotrópica benzeno, cuja propriedade cancerígena é bastante conhecida. Um processo alternativo, ecologicamente viável, é a destilação extrativa salina. O emprego de um sal solúvel na desidratação do etanol possibilita uma redução no consumo energético, além de produzir um etanol livre do agente de separação. Uma etapa importante na produção de etanol anidro através da destilação extrativa salina é a recuperação d...

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, 2005-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000 square mile (2,590 km2) Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (MS) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in central California in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA MS study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers). The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 97 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the MS study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the MS study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or

  9. Tratamiento del prolapso rectal en la infancia con infiltración de solución salina al 16,5 %

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Pérez

    Full Text Available Introducción: cuando falla el tratamiento médico conservador en los pacientes pediátricos con prolapso rectal se impone la infiltración perirrectal con sustancias irritantes. En la década de los 90 esas infiltraciones en nuestro centro se hacían con glicerina, pero escaseó en el mercado, y ante tal problema, se buscó otro agente infiltrante alternativo. En el presente trabajo se describe la experiencia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 %. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención, longitudinal, prospectivo, experimental, del tipo ensayo clínico no controlado. Consta de una segunda parte en la que se utilizó la aleatorización con un grupo control para la validación. El universo estuvo constituido por 27 pacientes y la muestra, por 16 pacientes con prolapso rectal, que fueron atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Holguín en el quinquenio 2003-2007. Las variables desarrolladas fueron: concentración idónea para el tratamiento, cantidad de sustancia a infiltrar, complicaciones, recurrencia, número de infiltraciones y curación al año o más. Los resultados se exponen en forma de tablas porcentuales. Resultados: la eficacia con la utilización de solución salina al 16,5 % fue del 100 %, todos los pacientes curaron, y ninguno presentó recurrencia, por lo que no fueron necesarias 2 o más sesiones de tratamiento. Se comentó de un niño que, luego de fallar la infiltración con leche materna en primera opción y fallido también el cerclaje, finalmente resolvió con este método. Las complicaciones fueron relativamente pocas (18,9 %: un absceso, una celulitis y una retención urinaria con necesidad de sondaje durante 2 semanas, sin secuelas posteriores. Se realizó aleatorización con igual número de pacientes en quienes se usó la glicerina, los resultados del uso de ambas sustancias fueron muy parecidos, y el número de complicaciones fue ligeramente mayor en el

  10. Variación espacial y temporal de la diversidad de hormigas en el Jardín Botánico del valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla Spatial and temporal variation of the diversity ants in the Botanic Garden from Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guzmán-Mendoza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Debido al escaso conocimiento que se tiene de las hormigas de las zonas áridas de México, se evaluó la biodiversidad de este taxón en el Jardín Botánico de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla. Se realizaron 2 colectas, una en época de lluvias (agosto de 2004 y otra en la temporada de secas (febrero de 2005. En ambas ocasiones se seleccionaron 2 sitios contrastantes en estructura vegetal y se colocaron 10 trampas de caída para cada sitio. La captura fue más abundante en temporada de lluvias. El sitio con menor diversidad y cobertura vegetal mostró una mayor diversidad de hormigas durante el estudio. Comparado con otras zonas áridas de México, el valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas resultó ser una de las zonas semiáridas con mayor riqueza en especies de hormigas; con 12 nuevos registros se incrementó a 27 el número de especies, sólo una por debajo de otras localidades cercanas al valle. Los datos sugieren que con un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo y la aplicación combinada de otras técnicas de recolección, la riqueza de especies en el área podría elevarse considerablemente.The knowledge about ants of arid zones of Mexico is very poor. For this reason we assessed the biodiversity of this taxon in 2 sites with different vegetation structure. Ten pitfall traps were placed in each site, and 2 surveys were conducted, 1 in August (rainy season, 2004 and another in February (dry season, 2005. The capture was more abundant in the rainy season; however, during the study, a higher ant diversity was observed in the site with low vegetation cover and few plant diversity. Compared with other arid zones of Mexico, the Zapotitlán de las Salinas Valley is the site with the highest ant species richness. The new records have increased richness to 27 ant species, which is very close to the number of species registered in other localities near Zapotitlan. Our data suggest that increasing sampling effort and application of different sampling

  11. Arqueología de un espacio habitado, trabajado y defendido. El sistema fortificado de Salinas de Añana (Álava

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    Plata Montero, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratigraphic analysis of the wall of the village of Salinas de Añana (Álava together with the excavations within its fortified area have offered a lot of information about the evolution of its built environment from the Early Medieval period until now. This research paper consists of two parts. Main recorded phases obtained thanks to the archaeological work are firstly described. Comprehension of spatial order resulted after the foundation of a village at the beginnings of the 12th century and the gathering of several hamlets that since the Late Antiquity populated, worked and defended the Valle Salado, is exposed in the second part. In order to understand this process, space syntax analysis, methodology developed within English scientific context, has been applied, showing an special attention to those instruments which enable to determine a global pattern of settlements (Alpha analysis, because this pattern links the social logic of space with the spatial logic of the society that created it.La lectura estratigráfica de la muralla de la villa alavesa de Salinas de Añana, así como la ejecución de excavaciones en su recinto fortificado, nos han proporcionado abundante información sobre la evolución de su paisaje construido desde la Alta Edad Media hasta la actualidad. La investigación que presentamos se divide en dos partes. En la primera, describimos las principales fases documentadas durante la intervención arqueológica. En la segunda, nos hemos centrado en comprender el ordenamiento espacial resultante tras el proceso de fundación de una villa creada a principios del siglo XII en la que, además, se agruparon las distintas comunidades aldeanas que desde la Tardoantigüedad habitaban, trabajaban y defendían el Valle Salado. Para ello, hemos empleado la metodología del «Análisis Sintáctico del Espacio» desarrollada en el mundo anglosajón, prestando una especial atención a las herramientas dirigidas a determinar el patr

  12. ROS and calcium signaling mediated pathways involved in stress responses of the marine microalgae Dunaliella salina to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2017-08-01

    UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m -2 per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased. It suggested that it was cell division instead of cell growth that UV-B exerted negative effects on. The subcellular damages on nuclei and plasmalemma further evidenced the hypothesis. The nutrient absorption was affected with UV-B exposure, and the inhibition on PO 4 3- uptake was more serious compared to NO 3 - uptake. UV-B radiation promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, decreased the redox status and altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. The addition of the ROS scavenger and the glutathione biosynthesis precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) alleviated the stress degree, implying ROS-mediated pathway was involved in the stress response to UV-B radiation. Transient increase in Ca 2+ -ATPase was triggered simultaneously with UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, the addition of an intracellular free calcium chelator aggravated the damage of cell division, but exogenous calcium and ion channel blocker applications did not, inferring that endogenously initiated calcium signaling played roles in response to UV-B. Cross-talk analysis showed a relatively clear relationship between ROS inhibition and Ca 2+ -ATPase suppression, and a relation between Ca 2+ inhibition and GPx activity change was also observed. It was thus presumed that ROS-coupled calcium signaling via the

  13. Caracterização dos frutos de maracujá amarelo irrigados com água salina Characterization of fruits of yellow passion fruit irrigated with saline water

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    José R.M. Costa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se caracterizar frutos de maracujazeiro amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg irrigados com água salina, desenvolveu-se um experimento em Santa Cruz, RN, zona semi-árida do Brasil, cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, correspondente ao sem revestimento (R0 e com revestimento das faces (R1; R2; R3; R4; respectivamente uma, duas, três e quatro faces irrigadas diariamente com volumes de 5 e 10 L de água. A salinidade da água, superior a 3,0 dS m-1, não interferiu sobre a qualidade externa nem interna dos frutos. O aumento do volume de água resultou em maior massa média dos frutos. A proteção das covas não influenciou o comprimento, diâmetro e número de sementes por fruto nem a espessura da casca, rendimento em polpa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e teores de vitamina C total.With the purpose of characterizing fruits of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg in plants irrigated with saline water, an experiment was conducted at Santa Cruz, RN, in the semi-arid zone of Brazil. The treatments were distribuited in randomized blocks, with four repetitions, using factorial design 5 x 2 corresponding the planting pits without coating (R0 and with side coatings (R1; R2; R3; R4; respectively one, two, three and four lateral sides, irrigated daily with volumes of 5 and 10 L of water. The water salinity higher then 3.0 dS m-1 did not show effect on the external and internal quality of the fruits. The increase of the volume of water resulted in larger mean weight of the fruits. The protection of the planting pits did not influence the length, diameter or number of seeds for fruit and neither the peel thickness, pulp percentage, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity or total vitamin C contents.

  14. Produção e biometria do milho verde irrigado com água salina sob frações de lixiviação Production and biometry of green corn irrigated with saline water under leaching fractions

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    José F. de Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho da cultura do milho em relação a produção e biometria, irrigado por gotejamento com água salina e sob diferentes frações de lixiviação em estação lisímetrica de drenagem. Os tratamentos consistiram de dois níveis de salinidade da água (CEa- 1,2 e 3,3 dS m-1 e cinco frações de lixiviação (FL- 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 5. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE. Foram avaliados a produtividade de polpa hidratada e desidratada e de espiga com e sem palha, matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea, diâmetro de caule e altura de planta. As variáveis produção de grãos verdes, matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea apresentaram resultados semelhantes, obtendo elevados valores quando se utilizou água de 3,3 dS m-1 com a fração de lixiviação de 10%, obtendo efeito deletério com o aumento da fração de lixiviação.The objective of present study was to evaluate the corn crop in respect to the production and biometry under drip irrigation system with saline waters at lysimeter station of drainage. The treatments consisted of two levels of water salinity (CEa - 1.2 and 3.3 dS m-1 and five leaching fractions (LF - 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, in a completely randomized experimental design (2 x 5 factorial. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Rural Technology of the UFRPE, Recife/PE. The productivity of hydrated and dried pulp and of weight of cob with and without husks, fresh and dry matter of the aerial parts, stem diameter and height of plant were evaluated. The productivity of hydrated pulp and the fresh and dry matter of the aerial parts presented high values when water of 3.3 dS m-1 was used with leaching fraction of 10%, obtaining decreasing effect with the increase of the leaching fraction.

  15. Insights on the criteria of selection of vegetable and mineral dielectric fluids used in power transformers on the basis of their biodegradability and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Sanderson, Karina; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Schuelter, Adilson Ricken; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Neves, Camila Vargas; Zanão Junior, Luiz Antônio; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2018-05-01

    Leakage of transformer dielectric fluids is a concern because it may pose a risk of environmental contamination. In this study, the deleterious effects of vegetable and mineral dielectric fluids in water bodies were investigated using biodegradability and acute toxicity tests with Danio rerio and Artemia salina. Regarding biodegradability, all four tested vegetable oils (soy, canola, sunflower and crambe) were considered as easily biodegradable, presenting degradation rates significantly higher than the Lubrax-type mineral fluid. Acute toxicity tests were performed in two separate experiments without solution renewal. In the first experiment, the organisms were exposed in direct contact to different concentrations of vegetable (soy) and mineral (Lubrax) oils. Total soy-type vegetable oil has a higher toxic effect than Lubrax-type mineral oil. In the second experiment, the organisms were exposed to increasing percentages of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of both types of tested oils. The LC 50 values for the water-soluble fraction of the Lubrax-type mineral oil were about 5 and 8% for the Danio rerio and Artemia salina bioindicators, respectively, whereas the vegetable oil did not present toxic effect, regardless of its WSF. These results have shown that a strict selection of dielectric fluids and monitoring the leakage from power transformers is a serious duty of environmental protection agencies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aproximações sobre prescrições e práticas corporais nos Grupos escolares de Pirapora, Januária e Salinas: a educação dos corpos sertanejos - (1906-1927 * Approaches about prescriptions and corporal practices in schools in Pirapora, Januária and Salinas

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    ELISÂNGELA CHAVES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} O texto analisa a proposta da educação corporal de grupos escolares localizados no norte de Minas Gerais no período de 1906 a 1927, notadamente nos municípios de Pirapora, Januária e Salinas. A pesquisa tomou como fonte principal relatos orais e demais documentos diretamente relacionados com a memória escolar para compreender como as atividades físicas foram percebidas como modeladoras de hábitos e atitudes, em um momento histórico em que Brasil prezava pelo discurso modernizador. Palavras-chave: Educação corporal – Memória – Desenvolvimento.   Abstract: The text analyses the proposal of the corporal education in schools in the north of Minas Gerais during 1906 and 1927, especially in Pirapora, januária and Salinas. As main source, the research made use of oral reports and other documents directly related to school memory to understand how physical activities were realized as habit and attitude-forming, in a historic moment in which Brazil used to cherish the modernizing speech. Keywords: Corporal education – Memory – Depevolpment.

  17. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  18. Proteomic analysis of halotolerant proteins under high and low salt stress in Dunaliella salina using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis

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    Yan-Long Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dunaliella salina, a single-celled marine alga with extreme salt tolerance, is an important model organism for studying fundamental extremophile survival mechanisms and their potential practical applications. In this study, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to investigate the expression of halotolerant proteins under high (3 M NaCl and low (0.75 M NaCl salt concentrations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and bioinformatics were used to identify and characterize the differences among proteins. 2D-DIGE analysis revealed 141 protein spots that were significantly differentially expressed between the two salinities. Twenty-four differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, including proteins in the following important categories: molecular chaperones, proteins involved in photosynthesis, proteins involved in respiration and proteins involved in amino acid synthesis. Expression levels of these proteins changed in response to the stress conditions, which suggests that they may be involved in the maintenance of intracellular osmotic pressure, cellular stress responses, physiological changes in metabolism, continuation of photosynthetic activity and other aspects of salt stress. The findings of this study enhance our understanding of the function and mechanisms of various proteins in salt stress.

  19. Fungal population in soils producing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, under different management systems in the community Kerecaya Municipality of Salinas de Garci Mendoza

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    Paco-Pérez Victor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Kerecaya community (3700-4000 msnm of the municipality of Salinas of Garci Mendoza of the south altiplano of Bolivia, in spite of your climatics risks. The plots of quinoa present lower organic matter to 0.93%, humidity of the smaller earth to 12.9%, temperature of the earth for under 8.5 oC and pH lower to 8.0. The population of funguses in three types it has studied of earths that went: without farm (without entropic intervention, traditional and mechanized. The humid samples of the earth were gathered to a depth of 6 to 25 cm at random in zig-zag, these to be prosecuted by means of the method of seriate dilution and inoculated in plates with 0.5 mL and it is evaluated the colonies for UFC´s/g of earth, the genre of Penicilli-um spp., with major population of 65.1%, followed for Aspergillus spp., with 24,1% and Trichoderma spp., with minor great quality of 13,8% and the population average in UFC´s/g of earth it went of 1035.4 in with-out farm (without entropic intervention, 959.7 in traditional and 868.2 in the mechanized and the major population was presented in the month of February 1572.8 UFC/g of earth.

  20. Marine myxobacteria as a source of antibiotics--comparison of physiology, polyketide-type genes and antibiotic production of three new isolates of Enhygromyxa salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Goralski, Emilie; Neu, Edith; Erol, Ozlem; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter; Bierbaum, Gabriele; König, Gabriele M

    2010-09-03

    Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1(T) as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005) and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006) sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).

  1. A systematic correlation analysis of carotenoids, chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number for the blueprint of Dunaliella salina culture in a photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeon Gi; Byeon, Seon Yeong; Chung, Goo Yong; Jung, Sang-Myung; Choi, Jung Il; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2018-05-28

    Microalgal carotenoids are attractive health ingredients, but their production should be optimized to improve cost-effectiveness. Understanding cellular physiology centered on carotenoid synthesis is the prerequisite for this work. Therefore, systematic correlation analyses were conducted among chlorophyll, carotenoids, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number of Dunaliella salina in a specified condition over a relatively long culture time. First, an integrated correlation was performed: a temporal profile of the carotenoids was correlated with those of other factors, including chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were performed to identify linearity and monotonicity of the correlation, respectively, and then cross-correlation was executed to determine if the correlation had a time lag. Second, to understand the cellular potential of metabolism, the procedure was repeated to provide a data set composed of the specific synthesis rates of the factors or growth rate, which additionally provided kinetic correlations among the constituting components of the cell, excluding the effect of cell number. This systematic approach could generate a blueprint model that is composed of only what it needs, which could make it possible to efficiently control and optimize the process.

  2. Evaluación de la gestión en el Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar (Murcia

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    Gustavo A. Ballesteros Pelegrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Regional de las Salinas y Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar es un territorio multifuncional desde el punto de vista social, económico y ambiental, donde es imposible separar y, por tanto gestionar de forma independiente, las tramas paisajísticas y ecológicas de las tramas socioeconómicas. Para su gestión, la Administración se apoya en el Plan de Ordenación de los Recursos Naturales aprobado en 1995, que sin embargo ha sido ejecutado en el 50 % de su articulado. Se desarrollan diversas iniciativas de conservación de fauna y flora silvestre, recogida de residuos sólidos, una adecuada información al visitante y mejora del conocimiento de los diferentes elementos de los espacios protegido. Sin embargo la participación social es escasa, la Junta Rectora se ha reunido en solo cuatro ocasiones, la última en 2001, se han producido desarrollos urbanísticos en la periferia del Parque que producen deterioro paisajístico y se han desarrollado una serie de infraestructuras que han reducido en unas 7 hectáreas la superficie protegida.

  3. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

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    Gabriele Bierbaum

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005 and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006 sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE.

  4. Caracterización de bacterias halófilas productoras de amilasas aisladas de las Salinas de San Blas en Junín

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    Pamela Elizabeth Canales Mormontoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Caracterización de bacterias halófilas productoras de amilasas aisladas de las Salinas de San Blas en Junín Título en ingles: Characterization of halophilic bacteria producing amylase isolated from San Blas Salterns in Junin Título corto: Bacterias halófilas amilolíticas de las Salinas de San Blas Resumen:  El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar bacterias halófilas con actividad amilolítica provenientes de las Salinas de San Blas-Junín, ubicadas en los Andes peruanos aproximadamente a 4100 m de altitud. Este estudio se realizó con 34 bacterias aisladas de muestras de suelos las cuales se cultivaron en agar agua de sales (SW 5 % conteniendo extracto de levadura 0,5 % y almidón 1 %. El 41 % de bacterias mostró la capacidad de hidrolizar almidón, éstas fueron caracterizadas mediante pruebas fisiológicas y bioquímicas convencionales. Tres bacterias fueron Gram-negativas y once Gram-positivas. El 21 % (3/14 creció en un amplio rango de concentración de sales, entre 5 y 20 %. El 14 % (2/14 de las bacterias presentó actividad lipolítica, proteolítica y nucleolítica, y el 29 % (4/14, presentó actividad proteolítica y nucleolítica. Las bacterias se identificaron mediante los perfiles de restricción de los genes ribosómicos 16S amplificados, las enzimas usadas fueron Hae III, BstU I, Hinf I y Cfo I. Los genes ribosómicos 16S de siete bacterias que presentaron perfiles de ADN diferentes se amplificaron, secuenciaron y analizaron mediante programas bioinformáticos. Del análisis fenotípico y molecular de las 14 bacterias amilolíticas se obtuvieron dos grupos, uno perteneciente al género Halomonas (3 y el otro, al género Bacillus (11. Las bacterias amilolíticas caracterizadas podrían ser de potencial uso a nivel industrial.  Palabras clave: Salinas de San Blas, amilasas, genes ribosómicos 16S, ARDRA, Bacillus, Halomonas. Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize halophilic

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2012–13: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Wright, Michael

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 7,820-square-kilometer (km2) Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer (MS-SA) study unit was investigated from October 2012 to May 2013 as part of the second phase of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in the central coast region of California in the counties of Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The MS-SA study was designed to provide a statistically robust assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems. The assessment was based on water-quality samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 100 groundwater sites and 70 household tap sites, along with ancillary data such as land use and well-construction information. The shallow aquifer systems were defined by the depth interval of wells associated with domestic supply. The MS-SA study unit consisted of four study areas—Santa Cruz (210 km2), Pajaro Valley (360 km2), Salinas Valley (2,000 km2), and Highlands (5,250 km2).This study had two primary components: the status assessment and the understanding assessment. The first primary component of this study—the status assessment—assessed the quality of the groundwater resource indicated by data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the shallow aquifer system of the MS-SA study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. As opposed to the public wells, however, water from private wells, which often tap the shallow aquifer, is usually consumed without any treatment. The second

  6. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  7. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1 em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca, da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano.This study aimed to evaluate the content of

  8. SALINIDADE DO SUBSTRATO CONTENDO BIOFERTILIZANTE PARA FORMACÃO DE MUDAS DE MARACUJAZEIRO IRRIGADO COM ÁGUA SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparino Batista de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out, in order to evaluate the saline aspect of the substrate with biofertilizer on seedling formation of yellow passion fruit irrigated with different saline water. A completely randomized design was used, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement 5 x 3 x 2, referring to water salinity levels (0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4,0 dS m-1, substrate volumes (1, 2 and 3 L, in absence and presence of biofertilizer bovine. The following variables were registered at the end of the experiment: pH, electrical conductivity of water and exchangeable sodium percentage. The increase of irrigation water salinity, independently of biofertilizer use, drastically enhanced the substrate salinity, from not saline to saline and strongly saline. No there was definition of the values of PST among substrate volumes. Electrical conductivity values of the saturation extract were higher for substrate with lower volume.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  10. Evidence of Protaphorura fimata (Collembola: Poduromorpha: Onychiuridae) feeding on germinating lettuce in the Salinas Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Bettiga, Christopher; Ramirez, Christian; Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the impact of Protaphorura fimata Gisin (Family: Onychiuridae) feeding on seeds and germinating seedlings of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae). First, various densities of P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds for 7 d and feeding injury was evaluated in three soilless arena experiments. As a second step, 100 P. fimata were incubated with 25 lettuce seeds in three arena experiments with soil media. Finally, in a commercial field the incidence and impact of P. fimata on recently planted lettuce was assessed following applications of pyrethroid-insecticides: 2 d before planting, at planting, and 20 d later. In experiments without soil, the number of ungerminated seeds, feeding injury sites, and plants with injury were significantly greater in arenas with P. fimata than without. Similarly, the number of germinated seedlings, shoot fresh, and dry weights, and the length and width of fully opened-leaves were greater in arenas without than with P. fimata in assays with soil. In the field, P. fimata densities were significantly lower in beds that received insecticides at 2 d before and at planting than in untreated beds. Also, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce plants were significantly greater in the beds that received insecticide than in untreated. The results clearly show that P. fimata is a pest of lettuce and can cause severe feeding injury to germinating seeds or seedlings, thereby reducing their growth rate. The potential implications of P. fimata feeding and feeding injury characteristics are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sel Naturel; 0423 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Formaciones Salinas Naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F. L.; Boegly, W. J.; Bradshaw, R. L.; Empson, F. M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E. G.; Tamura, T. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1960-07-01

    sont actuellement en cours. (author) [Spanish] Las razones por las que se propone utilizar las cavidades en las formaciones salinas como lugar de evacuacion de desechos radiactivos son: 1. La gran antigueedad de los yacimientos de sal; 2. La impermeabilidad de la sal al agua; 3. La amplia distribucion geografica de los yacimientos salinos; 4. Las enormes cantidades de sal disponibles ; 5. La resistencia estructural de la sal; 6. La elevada conductividad termica de la sal comparada con la de otras formaciones geologicas; 7. La posibilidad de recuperar valiosos productos de fision de los desechos evacuados en formaciones salinas; 8. La relativa facilidad con que se puedan formar oquedades por excavacion del yacimiento y la facilidad aun mayor de formar cavidades a bajo coste por disolucion de la sal; 9. La escasez de sismos en las zonas donde existen grandes yacimientos de sal. Los desechos radiactivos liquidos pueden almacenarse en las cavidades de los yacimientos salinos naturales si las propiedades estructurales de la sal no resultan desfavorablemente afectadas por la interaccion quimica y los efectos de la presion, temperatura y radiacion. Los estudios analiticos demuestran que luego de dejarlos enfriar durante dos anos es posible almacenar los desechos resultantes del tratamiento de uranio irradiado a 10,000 MW dia per tonelada y formados a razon de 800 galones/tonelada en una esfera de 10 pies de diametro sin que la temperatura exceda de 200 Degree-Sign F. Los ensayos de laboratorio demuestran que las propiedades estructurales y la conductividad termica de la sal gema no resultan apreciablemente alteradas por grandes dosis de radiacion, aunque las temperaturas elevadas aumentan el indico de fluencia tanto en las muestras irradiadas como en las no irradiadas. Por la accion de los desechos liquidos sobre la sal se forman volumenes moderados de cloro y otros gases clorados. La migracion de los nuclidos a traves de la masa salina y la deformacion de las cavidades

  12. Uso de águas salinas como alternativa na irrigação e produção de forragem no semiárido nordestino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. de A. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO A produção de forragem no semiárido brasileiro é limitada, em virtude da variação da quantidade e qualidade da água, e ainda dos solos encontrados na região. Nesse contexto foi desenvolvido um experimento na Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido - UFERSA, em Mossoró-RN. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, com três repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de dois tipos de solos, um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo eutrófico (PVAe e um Cambissolo Háplico Ta eutrófico (CXve, com três níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (A1 - 0,59; A2 - 2,75 e A3 - 5,00 dS m-1. As culturas utilizadas no experimento foram milho e sorgo. As variáveis analisadas ao final do experimento foram: área foliar, matéria seca e teor de proteína bruta. A resposta das culturas à salinidade é dependente das características físicas do solo, sendo mais tolerantes em solo com menor teor de argila. A mistura de águas salinas possibilita a produção satisfatória de forragem sem reduzir o teor protéico. A mistura de águas até se obter condutividade elétrica de 2,75 dS m-1 possibilita economia de 43,3% na água de boa qualidade, com perda de aproximadamente 22% na produção de biomassa.

  13. River analysis and floodplain modeling using HEC-GeoRAS/RAS, GIS and ArcGIS: a case study for the Salinas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P. K.; Bernini Campos, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The lower portion of the Salinas River in Monterey bay, California has a history of flood, lots of study has been made ab out the water quality since the river provides water for the crops around, but is still in need a detailed study about the river behavior and flood analysis. The floods did significant damage, affecting valuable landing farms, residences and businesses in Monterey County. The first step for this study is comprehend and collect the river bathymetry and surroundings and then analyze the discharge and how it is going to change with time. This thesis develops a model about the specific site, recruiting real data from GIS and performing a flow simulation according to flow data provided by USGS, to verify water surface elevation and floodplain. The ArcMap, developed by ESRI, was used along with an extension (HEC-GeoRAS) because it was indeed the most appropriate model to work with the Digital Elevation Model, develop the floodplain and characterizing the land surface accurately in the study site. The HEC-RAS software, developed by US Army Corp of Engineers, was used to compute one-dimension steady flow and two-dimension unsteady flow, providing flow velocity, water surface elevation and profiles, total surface area, head and friction loss and other characteristics, allowing the analysis of the flow. A mean discharge, a mean peak streamflow and a peak discharge were used for the steady flow and a Hydrograph was used for the unsteady flow, both are based on the 1995 flood and discharge history. This study provides important information about water surface elevation and water flow, allowing stakeholders and the government to analyze solutions to avoid damage to the society and landowners.

  14. Teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos em caupi inoculado com rizóbio e em condições salinas

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    Jailma Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A salinidade é um fator estressante que limita a produção das culturas quando encontra-se em quantidades além do limiar tolerável pelas mesmas. Nesse sentido objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o teor de clorofila a, b, total e carotenóides em feijoeiro caupi irrigado com diferentes níveis de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, a qual, está localizada na zona centro oriental do Estado da Paraíba, no Planalto da Borborema, cujas coordenadas geográficas são latitude sul 7º13’11’’, longitude oeste 35º53’31’’ e altitude de 547,56 m. As variáveis avaliadas foram: clorofilas a, clorofila b, carotenóides, relação clorofila a/clorofila b e relação clorofila total/ carotenóides. A interação de rizóbios e salinidade não teve efeito significativo sobre as variáveis. Já o fator sal isolado foi significativo sobre todas as variáveis avaliadas. Os teores de clorofilas e carotenóides indicam as condições do aparato fotossintético em feijoeiro caupi quando submetido a estresse salino.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Two Lytic Bacteriophages, φSt2 and φGrn1; Phage Therapy Application for Biological Control of Vibrio alginolyticus in Aquaculture Live Feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos G Kalatzis

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. Vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus Vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as Artemia and rotifers. The pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus strain V1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, Sparus aurata, was used as host to isolate and characterize the two novel bacteriophages φSt2 and φGrn1 for phage therapy application. In vitro cell lysis experiments were performed against the bacterial host V. alginolyticus strain V1 but also against 12 presumptive Vibrio strains originating from live prey Artemia salina cultures indicating the strong lytic efficacy of the 2 phages. In vivo administration of the phage cocktail, φSt2 and φGrn1, at MOI = 100 directly on live prey A. salina cultures, led to a 93% decrease of presumptive Vibrio population after 4 h of treatment. Current study suggests that administration of φSt2 and φGrn1 to live preys could selectively reduce Vibrio load in fish hatcheries. Innovative and environmental friendly solutions against bacterial diseases are more than necessary and phage therapy is one of them.

  16. Teoría y práctica del personaje histórico: 1968, el personaje histórico y el trabajo de memoria. El caso de Tizoc, emperador de Pablo Salinas (1970)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyrán, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Tizoc, tlatoani de México-Tenochtitlan (1481-1486) me permite plantear el problema del papel teórico del personaje histórico puesto en escena en el teatro mexicano contemporáneo, como actor metafórico en el deber de memoria sobre 1968 y la masacre de Tlatelolco. Veremos cómo Pablo Salinas se sirve del personaje «antihistórico» para recordar con imaginación en el teatro su propio presente. Tizoc, the tlatoani of México-Tenochtitlan (1481-1486), raises the problem of the theoreti...

  17. Estudio del comercio electrónico como estrategia de negocios dentro de las empresas que brindan servicios de hospedaje en el Cantón Salinas, provincia de Santa Elena.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo López, Blanca Annabell

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los mecanismos de promoción y comercialización, que utilizan los establecimientos que brindan servicios de hospedaje en Salinas, identificando los medios de comunicación que manejan para potenciar sus negocios. Al conocer que a nivel mundial existen varias estrategias soportadas en medios digitales por parte de los hoteles, se ha determinado la necesidad de los empresarios hoteleros de tener en sus empresas una página web, o mejoras...

  18. «Cada página lograda es una letra al más allá». Estudio de la correspondencia Américo Castro-Pedro Salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Zamarreño Méndez, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo explora la correspondencia entre Pedro Salinas y Américo Castro a partir de una edición, que, a causa de la legislación vigente respecto de los derechos de autor, no puede ser publicada. Por tanto, aquí encontramos el estudio introductorio, que analiza ese epistolario desde todas las perspectivas: comenzando con un repaso teórico del subgénero epistolar, pronto se explican las dificultades en torno a la reconstrucción cronológica del epistolario. Temáticamente, se analizan difere...

  19. Uso da solução salina para manutenção de acessos venosos em adultos: uma revisão Uso de la solución salina para la manutención de sondas venosas en adultos: una revisión Use of saline solutions for the mantenaince of venous catheters in adults: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a prática da salinização em cateteres venosos periféricos. O estudo objetivou analisar os artigos científicos sobre o uso de solução salina na manutenção da permeabilidade de cateteres venosos periféricos em adultos, indexados no MedLine e LILACS no período de 1995 a 2005. A amostra consistiu de 5 artigos os quais foram analisados quanto à procedência e periódico de publicação, ao delineamento do estudo, a amostragem, e ao efeito da solução salina. Dois estudos indicam evidências da salinização, outros dois o oposto e um não é conclusivo. Há pequena produção acerca da temática exigindo-se novas pesquisas para validação do método.Es una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de analizar los resúmenes de salinización de catéteres venosos en el banco de dados MedLine y LILACS en el período de 1995 a 2005 y la base de datos OVID. La muestra se ha compuesto con cinco artículos que se han analizado a partir de la procedencia y periódico de publicación, el delineamiento del estudio, el tamaño de las muestras y si los resultados son conclusivos o no para evidencias de salinización. Dos estudios indican evidencias del efecto de la salinización en la permeabilidad, otro dos lo contrario y uno no es conclusivo. Se concluye que hay poca producción lo que valida nuevas encuestas.This article is a bibliography review about the use of saline solution in peripheral venous catheters. The study aimed at analyzing scientific articles about the use of saline solution for the maintenance of peripheral venous catheters patency in adults, indexed at the MedLine and LILACS databases in the periods between 1995 and 2005. The sample consisted of 5 articles analyzed in publication frequency, saline solution effects, study delineation, and nursing periodic publications. The review concluded that this thematic has a modest production and not conclusive about the efficacy of the saline

  20. COMPOSIÇÃO DO LIXIVIADO EM QUATRO SOLOS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE IRRIGADOS COM ÁGUAS SALINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangelo de Oliveira Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In many areas irrigated of the world, water supply of good quality not be enough for the maintenance of the irrigated agriculture, or your cost be elevated, seeking itself alternative with water use of the underground or even of drainage. Generally, these waters are not of good quality and they need to be well managed to avoid the degradation of the soils and damages to the plants. This work objectified evaluate the composition of lixiviate in four soils of Rio Grande do Norte, irrigated with waters of increasing levels of electric conductivity (EC and sodium adsorption relation (SAR. This work aims to evaluate Assu/Mossoró, RN, agricultural production center soil degradation under irrigation with increasing electrical conductivity (EC levels, and sodium adsorption rates (RAS, when cultivated with cantaloupe. The work was conducted in a greenhouse at the Environmental Sciences Department of Semi-Arid Rural Federal University. Four soil types, traditionally used for cantaloupe production, were used and irrigated with solutions corresponding to eight EC (EC = 100, 250, 500, 750, 1.250, 1.750, 2.250 and 3.000 ¿S/cm and two SAR (SAR = 4 and 12 levels, as salinity treatments, corresponding to the irrigation waters used in the Northeast, with low sodification risk, especially in the studied area. So the experiment was a factorial arrangement of 4 x 8 x 2 (four soils, eight EC and two SAR, with three replicates, on a randomized block design. They were evaluated pH and EC, as well as cations and anions soluble of each lixiviate collected of the 10 days after transplanted of the dumb. The use of leaching solutions promoted salt leaching in four studied soils, mainly at Cambissolo and Neossolo.The increase in the concentration of the percolates solutions promoted larger losses of salts, which were crescent with the time of leachate.

  1. Crescimento e conteúdo de nutrientes do cajueiro anão irrigado com águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlington Ricardo de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  2. Crescimento inicial do cafeeiro irrigado com água salina e salinização do solo Initial growth of coffee plants irrigated with saline water and soil salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Figueirêdo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. vem-se expandindo para regiões ainda pouco exploradas, em que o uso da irrigação com água salina possa ser fator limitante. Nesse contexto, avaliou-se o crescimento inicial do cafeeiro, conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, submetendo-o a níveis crescentes de salinidade da água de irrigação. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos (S0 = 0,0 dS m-1, S1 = 0,6 dS m-1, S2 = 1,2 dS m-1, S3 = 1,8 dS m-1, S4 = 2,4 dS m-1 e S5 = 3,0 dS m-1 e 4 repetições. A reposição de água foi realizada com base na curva característica do solo, pela leitura da tensão de água por blocos de resistência, retornando o conteúdo de água à capacidade de campo. Verificou-se que os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente as características da planta e que a salinidade da água a partir de 1,2 dS m-1 prejudicou o crescimento e, em alguns casos, provocou a morte das plantas. A área foliar foi a variável mais prejudicada. Ao final do experimento o solo foi classificado como salino-sódico.The coffee crop is expanding to new areas with not enough studies about its response to saline irrigation water. The initial growth of coffee plant was evaluated, in greenhouse at the Engineering Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, under different levels of irrigation water salinity. The completely randomized design was used with 6 treatments (S0 = 0.0 dS m-1, S1 = 0.6 dS m-1, S2 = 1.2 dS m-1, S3 = 1.8 dS m-1, S4 = 2.4 dS m-1 and S5 = 3.0 dS m-1 and 4 replications. The irrigation was accomplished according to soil water retention curve and resistance block reading, restoring the soil water content to its field capacity. It was verified that water salinity affected the plants characteristics significantly. The water salinity above 1.2 dS m-1 caused damage to plant development resulting, in some cases, in death of

  3. Qualidade do fruto verde de coqueiro em função da irrigação com água salina Quality of green coconut fruits in relation to salinity of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferreira Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados, neste trabalho, os efeitos de quatro níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (0,1, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 dS m-1 obtidos mediante adição de NaCl, na qualidade de frutos de coco (Cocos nucifera L. cultivar Anão Verde do Jiqui, com 3,5 anos de idade e na salinização do solo. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos inteiramente ao acaso, em solo de textura arenosa não salino, utilizando-se de sistema de irrigação por microaspersão, no município de Parnamirim, RN, durante o período de janeiro/2000 a março/2001. A qualidade do fruto foi avaliada com base no peso médio, volume de água, ºbrix, e composição iônica da água. A salinidade da água de irrigação reduziu o peso médio e o volume de água dos frutos, elevando o teor de açucares (ºbrix a concentração iônica expressa pela condutividade elétrica (CE da água do fruto. Os íons em maior concentração na água de coco foram o cloreto e o potássio. A CE do extrato de saturação do solo, 11 meses após iniciada a irrigação, aumentou até à profundidade de 0,80 m, em função da concentração salina da água de irrigação, atingindo valores superiores a 4 dS m-1 principalmente nos últimos dois níveis de CE (10 e 15 dS m-1.The effects of 4 levels of water salinity (0.1, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 dS m-1 obtained by addition of NaCl were studied on quality of 3.5 years old dwarf green coconut (Cocos nucífera L.. The experiment was carried out in a completly randomized block design in an initially non-saline sandy soil, using a micro sprinkler irrigation system in the municipality of Parnamirim-RN, Brazil, during the period of January 2000 to March 2001. The quality of fruit was evaluated by means of fruit weight, volume of water, ºbrix, and ionic composition of coconut water. The salinity of irrigation water reduced the mean weight and volume of fruit water but increased the ionic concentration expressed as electrical conductivity (EC of coconut water and sugar

  4. Produtividade do repolho utilizando cobertura morta e diferentes intervalos de irrigação com água moderadamente salina Cabbage yield using mulching and different irrigation intervals with moderately saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação em áreas sob escassez hídrica é imperativo para o incremento da eficiência do uso da água, particularmente em áreas susceptíveis a salinização e a elevadas demandas atmosféricas. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito da cobertura morta e de intervalos de irrigação utilizando-se água moderadamente salina sobre a produtividade do repolho e sobre suas variáveis relacionadas, em vale aluvial no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições, mediante a aplicação de intervalos de irrigação de 12, 24 e 48 h, com utilização de uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, e presença ou ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Verificou-se que as produtividades foram afetadas pelos intervalos de irrigação e pela presença da cobertura morta. A máxima eficiência uso da água foi obtida aplicando-se o intervalo de irrigação de 12 h com cobertura morta, correspondendo a 110,49 Mg ha-1 mm-1, em consequência da menor variação da umidade ao longo do experimento. A relevância da cobertura morta ficou evidenciada para o tratamento com intervalo de irrigação de 48 h, tendendo a controlar as perdas de umidade e manter a produtividade do repolho.The irrigation management in areas under water scarcity is imperative to increase the water use efficiency particularly in areas with salinization risk and high atmospheric demands. In this study, effect of mulching and irrigation intervals was evaluated using moderately saline water on cabbage yield and on its related variables in an alluvial valley in the semiarid. The experimental design was in random blocks using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 4 replications, adopting irrigation application intervals of 12, 24 and 48 h, and a leaching fraction of 20%, and considering mulching presence or absence on the soil. It was verified that productivities have been affected by the irrigation interval and by mulching. The

  5. Desenvolvimento vegetativo do pepino enxertado irrigado com água salina Vegetative development on grafted cucumber plants irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Folegatti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A salinização dos solos em ambiente protegido devido ao excesso de fertilizantes e falta de lixiviação tem resultado na redução da produtividade das culturas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da irrigação com água salina no desenvolvimento vegetativo do pepino enxertado cultivado em ambiente protegido. Foram utilizadas águas de diferentes salinidades (S1=1,58; S2=3,08 e S3=5,13 dS m-1, lâminas de água de irrigação (L0=1,00 x ETc e L1=1,25 x ETc e freqüências de aplicação da lâmina L1 (F1=em todas as irrigações e F2=quando a lâmina de água de irrigação acumulada em L0 atingia 100 mm. Os resultados demonstraram que a altura das plantas, área foliar unitária e índice de área foliar foram afetados linearmente pela salinidade da água, não apresentando diferença para as diferentes lâminas e frequências de aplicação de L1.Greenhouse soil salinization by excessive fertilization and lack of leaching has been a common cause of cucumber yield reduction in Brazil. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with saline water on the vegetative development of grafted cucumber plants in a greenhouse. Three water salinities (S1=1.58; S2=3.08 e S3=5.13 dS m-1, two irrigation water depths (L0=1.00 x ETc e L1=1.25 x ETc and two application frequencies of L1 (F1=in all irrigations and F2=when the irrigation water depth of L0 reached 100 mm were used. Irrigation water depths and frequencies of L1 were grouped and, therefore, the experimental design was in a factorial scheme 3x3, with randomized blocks. Results showed that plant height, unit leaf area and leaf area index were linearly affected by water salinity. No differences were observed for the various irrigation water depths and frequencies of L1 application.

  6. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resposta de plantas de melancieira irrigadas com água salina ao tratamento pré-germinativo da semente com H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auderlan de Macena Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O manejo da água é um dos fatores mais importantes para uma efetiva absorção de nutrientes, uma vez que esta pode apresentar-se com elevadas concentrações de sais, o que pode afetar o processo de absorção, bem como causar estresse oxidativo nos vegetais, devido as espécies reativas de oxigênios (EROs, principalmente H2O2. As plantas evoluíram um complexo sistema antioxidante para conter os efeitos deletérios das EROs, é possível que a pré-exposição das plantas ao H2O2 possibilite uma adaptação das mesmas. Estudando-se uma alternativa para amenizar os efeitos deletérios das EROs,objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a resposta de plantas de melancieira, irrigadas com água salina, ao tratamento pré-germinativo da semente com H2O2. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar-CCTA, da UFCG-Pombal – PB. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas 2x5, com 4 repetições, com a parcela constando de dois níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (S1 = água de abastecimento local, 0,32 dSm-1; e S2 =  água salina, 2,0 dS m-1 e a subparcela de sementes de melancieira tratadas com solução de H2O2 em cinco concentrações (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 µmol L-1. As aplicações foram feitas via água de irrigação, junto à solução nutritiva a 100%, utilizada como fonte de nutrientes. O experimento foi conduzido até o início da floração (45 DAS, quando foram avaliadas as seguintes características de crescimento: Massa Fresca da Parte Aérea, Massa Seca da Parte Aérea, Número de Folhas por Planta e Comprimento da Haste Principal. Avalio-use também as características fisiológicas: Taxa de Fotossíntese, Transpiração, Condutância Estomática e Concentração de CO2 intracelular. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância ao nível de 5 % de probabilidade. Os níveis de salinidades da

  8. Utilização de água salina e condicionador de solo na produção de beterraba no semi-árido brasileiro Effect of saline water and soil conditioner on sugar beet yield in the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto G. Cordeiro

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina - PE, no primeiro semestre de 1997 com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e do condicionador de solo Sper Sal (ácido polimaléico na produção de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L., cultivar Early Wonder. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: água com condutividade elétrica de 0,1 (água do Rio São Francisco - testemunha 4 e 8 dS/m e água com condutividade elétrica 0,1, 4 e 8 dS/m mais Sper Sal, com parcelas de 2 m². Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as produtividades variaram de 20,2 a 65,4 t/ha para os tratamentos irrigados com água salina mais Sper Sal e água do Rio São Francisco, respectivamente. Não se verificou diferença significativa na produtividade quando do uso de água com níveis de salinidade de 4 e 8 dS/m, cujas produtividades foram 29,4 e 26,3 t/ha respectivamente. Nos tratamentos com Sper Sal, observou-se que na concentração salina de 4 dS/m, o condicionador de solo demonstrou ser mais eficiente, em relação à concentração de 8 dS/m.An experiment was carried out at an experimental field in Embrapa Semi-arid, Petrolina - PE, during the first semester of 1997, with the objective of evaluating the effect of different irrigation water salinity levels, with and without the soil conditioner Sper Sal (polymaleic acid, on the yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder. The experiment was set up in complete randomized block design, with four replications. Six treatments were tested: water with electrical conductivity of 0.1 (control, 4 and 8 dS/m, and the levels of electrical conductivity cited above plus Sper salt. The size of the plots was 2m². The results obtained showed that the yield varied from 20.2 to 65.4 t/ha, respectively, for irrigation treatments of saline with Sper Sal and water from the S

  9. Evaluación de la actividad citotóxica y mitodepresiva de extractos acuosos de trece plantas medicinales argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    Bidau, Claudio J.; Amat, Anibal Gumersindo; Yajia, Marta Esther; Martí, Dardo A.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Riglos, Ana G.; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Torres, Guillermo M.; Fumagalli, Emiliano

    2006-01-01

    Trece especies de plantas vasculares usadas en la medicina popular argentina, fueron estudiadas para evaluar las actividades citotóxicas y mitodepresivas de sus extractos acuosos a diferentes concentraciones usando los tests de Artemia salina y Allium. No se observó actividad citotóxica de los extractos analizados con el test de Artemia salina y, en relación a los parámetros macroscópicos de toxicidad general, todas las especies mostraron correlaciones negativas aunque no significativas entre...

  10. Potential use of an ultrasound antifouling technology as a ballast water treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Gambardella, Chiara; Miraglia, Francesco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Greco, Giuliano; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, at a laboratory scale, the potentialities of an ultrasound-based treatment initially designed to eliminate fouling, as a ballast water treatment system. Therefore, early life stages of three different zooplanktonic species (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina) were exposed to ultrasound waves (20-22 kHz). The experimental set up included static assays with variations of time exposure (30 s, 60 s and 30 s on/60 s off/30 s on), material of tanks (stainless steel, galvanized steel and plastic) and position of the ultrasound source. Results showed that the treatment efficacy increased from 30 to 60 s and no differences were registered between 60 s-continuous exposure and pulse exposure. The highest efficacy was observed in Experiment I (metal-to-metal contact assay) with a mortality value of 93-95% for B. plicatilis and A. salina. It consisted of organisms located inside stainless steel tubes that were located in direct contact with the ultrasound source and treated for 60 s. Further, we found that, generally, A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis were the most resistant species to the ultrasound treatment whereas A. salina was the most sensitive. We further discuss that US may unlikely be used for commercial vessels, but may be used to treat ballast water in smaller ballast tanks as on board of mega yachts.

  11. Effects of Changes in Irrigation Practices and Aquifer Development on Groundwater Discharge to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, about 75 acres of black mangroves have died in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve near Salinas, Puerto Rico. Although many factors can contribute to the mortality of mangroves, changes in irrigation practices, rainfall, and water use resulted in as much as 25 feet of drawdown in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in the vicinity of the reserve between 1986 and 2002. To clarify the issue, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study to ascertain how aquifer development and changes in irrigation practices have affected groundwater levels and groundwater flow to the Mar Negro area of the reserve. Changes in groundwater flow to the mangrove swamp and bay from 1986 to 2004 were estimated in this study by developing and calibrating a numerical groundwater flow model. The transient simulations indicate that prior to 1994, high irrigation return flows more than offset the effect of reduced groundwater withdrawals. In this case, the simulated discharge to the coast in the modeled area was 19 million gallons per day. From 1994 through 2004, furrow irrigation was completely replaced by micro-drip irrigation, thus eliminating return flows and the simulated average coastal discharge was 7 million gallons per day, a reduction of 63 percent. The simulated average groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the reserve from 1986 to 1993 was 2 million gallons per day, compared to an average simulated discharge of 0.2 million gallons per day from 1994 to 2004. The average annual rainfall for each of these periods was 38 inches. The groundwater discharge to the coastal mangrove swamps in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve was estimated at about 0.5 million gallons per day for 2003-2004 because of higher than average annual rainfall during these 2 years. The groundwater flow model was used to test five alternatives for increasing

  12. Uptake and localization of fluorescent labelled gold nanoparticles in living zebrafish (Danio rerio) using Light Sheet Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Asmonaite, G.; Jolk, R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite nanoparticles being used in many different products and applications, the effects and fate in the environment are still not well understood. Uptake of nanoparticles into cells has been shown in vitro and in vivo. However, it is challenging to find suitable methods to identify uptake...... and determine localization on a whole organism level. Furthermore, methods used to identify nanoparticle uptake have been associated with artefacts induced by sample preparation including staining methods for electron microscopy.  This study used Fluorescent Light Sheet Microscopy (FLSM) to determine uptake...... to the particles through the diet or the water phase in a series of separate experiments. In the dietary exposure experiments Artemia salina were exposed to 1 mg Au/L for 24h before being fed to D. rerio. For exposure through the water phase 1 mg Au/L was added directly to aquaria holding the fish and non...

  13. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  14. Estratigrafía y paleontología del Cenozoico marino del Gran Bajo y Salinas del Gualicho, Argentina, y descripción de 17 especies nuevas Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the marine Cenozoic from the Gran Bajo and Salinas del Gualicho , Argentina and description of 17 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria A Reichler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La estratigrafía de la Formación Gran Bajo del Gualicho se presenta con mayor detalle, proponiéndose los nuevos Miembros Saladar y Arrióla, precisando la sucesión faunística integrada por 35 géneros y 41 especies, de las cuales 17 son nuevas y se describen en este estudio: Anadara australis sp. nov., Cubitostrea delrioi sp. nov, Amusium rorii sp. nov., Zygochlamys rizzoloi sp. nov,Pododesmus (Monia atlántica sp. nov, Tawera canalei sp. nov.,Dosinia (Dosinia salarensis sp. nov, 'Spirocolpus' adapicis sp. nov, Torcula magna sp. nov,Magnatica hansi sp. nov., Eudo-lium lissiei sp. nov, Sconsia magdai sp. nov., Chicoreus (Chicoreus guadalupei sp. nov, Penion patagonensis sp. nov, Mitra (Fusimitra carlosi sp. nov, Austroimbricaria brugnii sp. nov. y Polystira cingula sp. nov. El reconocimiento de la Asociación de Moluscos NVG (Nodipecten sp.-Venericor abasolensis-Glycymerita camaronesia sitúa al Membro Saladar nov. en el Moceno Temprano alto-Mioceno Medio bajo y lo correlaciona con la sección superior de la Formación Chenque y con los estratos portadores de Venericor de las formaciones Gaiman y Vaca Mahuida. La fauna de este miembro constituye una evidencia más respecto a la diferenciación en franjas climáticas postulada para Patagonia a partir del Oligoceno Tardío-Mioceno Temprano. En el Miembro Arrióla nov., la asociación recuperada indica probablemente la biozona de Aequipecten paranensis y su relación estratigráfica con la Formación Puerto Madryn del Moceno Tardío bajo, extendiendo el área abarcada por la Provincia Valdesiana hasta las Salinas del Gualicho. La fauna del Miembro Saladar presenta mayor afinidad con las que integran las formaciones Monte León y Chenque, mientras que la del Miembro Arrióla es más afín con las de las formaciones Puerto Madryn y Paraná. Las formaciones chilenas Navidad y Guadal presentan respectivamente el 30% y el 10% de los géneros en común con la fauna del Miembro Saladar

  15. Aspectos fisiológicos e crescimento do algodoeiro ‘BRS topázio’ cultivado com águas salinas e adubação potássica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dayanne Capitulino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os índices fisiológicos e o crescimento do algodoeiro colorido cv. BRS Topázio submetido à irrigação com águas de diferentes níveis de salinidades e adubação com doses de potássio. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos sob condições de casa de vegetação, utilizando-se um Neossolo Regolítico Eutrófico de textura franco-arenoso não salino. Utilizaram-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, cujos tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, sendo quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa (1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1 e quatro doses de potássio (50; 75; 100 e 125% da recomendação, sendo a dose de 100% correspondente a 150 mg K2O por kg-1 de solo. Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a concentração interna de CO2 (Ci, transpiração (E, condutância estomática (gs, taxa de assimilação de CO2 (A, eficiência no uso da água (EiUA e a eficiência instantânea da carboxilação (EICi, fitomassa seca das folhas (FSF, fitomassa seca do caule (FSC, fitomassa seca da parte aérea (FSA, área foliar especifica (AFE e no período compreendido entre 30 e 130 dias determinaram-se a taxa de assimilação líquida (TAA. As trocas gasosas e a fitomassa seca da folha, a fitomassa seca do caule e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea do algodoeiro colorido cv. BRS Topázio reduz acentuadamente, quando submetida a níveis de CEa maior que 1,5 dS m-1. A área foliar especifica e a taxa de assimilação líquida do algodoeiro BRS Topázio não foram afetados pela água de irrigação com água salina. A adubação potássica não exerceu influência sobre as variáveis de analisadas do algodoeiro colorido. Não houve interação entre os fatores salinidade da água de irrigação versus doses de potássio para as variáveis analisadas.Physiological aspects and growth of 'BRS topázio' cotton cultivated with salt waters and potassic fertilizationThe objective

  16. Influência da irrigação intraperitoneal de solução salina em diferentes temperaturas na formação de aderências e prevenção de hipotermia após pneumoperitônio em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Lourenço de Molla Neto

    Full Text Available Este estudo experimental em ratos avalia a influência da irrigação da cavidade peritoneal com solução salina isotônica (0,9 %, em diferentes temperaturas, na formação de aderências peritoneais e prevenção de hipotermia após pneumoperitônio. Foram utilizados 80 ratos divididos em quatro grupos de 20 animais: grupo controle (G1 sem irrigação, grupos com irrigação a temperatura ambiente 22,0°C (G2, a 35,0°C (G3 e a 45,0°C (G4. A análise da hipotermia foi realizada através da monitorização da temperatura retal em três diferentes momentos: após a anestesia (T1, cinco minutos depois da insuflação de dióxido de carbono (T2 e cinco minutos após a irrigação com solução salina (T3. Os animais foram sacrificados no 28º dia de pós-operatório. Observaram-se aderências nos grupos com irrigação, sendo que, com salina à temperatura de 45,0ºC houve maior formação de aderências (30,0% , porém, esta diferença não foi significante. No G2 ocorreu uma queda significante na temperatura média retal quando comparada aos demais grupos, demonstrando que a hipotermia na cirurgia laparoscópica pode ser reduzida com o uso de solução salina aquecida.

  17. Avaliação da hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica em crianças e adolescentes Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline challenge in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Kussek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica a 4,5% como método alternativo a outros agentes broncoconstritores e sua relação com a sensibilização alérgica do paciente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, experimental, com 85 indivíduos assim distribuídos: 45 no grupo de asmáticos e 17 no grupo controle não asmáticos e não alérgicos, que completaram o teste. Para nebulizar a solução salina hipertônica foi utilizado um nebulizador ultra-sônico de grande volume, sucessivamente durante 0,5, 1, 2, 4 e 8 minutos até haver queda > 15% em relação ao volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo basal. A dosagem de imunoglobulina E específica ao Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus por ImmunoCap foi considerada positiva quando > 0,35 kU/L. RESULTADOS: No grupo de asmáticos, 36 apresentaram queda média do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo de 27,4% após nebulização de solução salina hipertônica. Nenhum do grupo controle (imunoglobulina E OBJECTIVE: To assess airway hyperresponsiveness to 4.5% hypertonic saline solution in comparison to that obtained through challenge with other bronchoconstriction agents and in relation to patient allergic sensitization. METHODS: A cross-sectional, experimental study was conducted, initially involving 85 subjects. After exclusions, the final sample consisted of 62 patients, divided into two groups: a study group of those with asthma (n = 45 and a control group of those with no asthma or allergies (n = 17. Hypertonic saline was nebulized using an ultrasonic nebulizer and administered successively for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 minutes until a drop in forced expiratory volume in one second of = 15% was achieved in relation to the baseline value. The level of specific immunoglobulin E to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus level was determined by ImmunoCAP assay and was considered positive when > 0.35 kU/L. RESULTS: In the 36 asthma group subjects presenting a

  18. Efeito da carga de frutos e concentrações salinas no crescimento do meloeiro Cultivado em substrato Effect of fruit load and saline concentrations on the growth of melon cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da S Duarte

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do número de frutos por planta e de concentrações salinas em solução nutritiva recirculante, no crescimento do meloeiro cultivado em ambiente protegido e em substrato de casca de arroz crua, durante os meses de fevereiro a maio de 2003. Três números de frutos por planta (2, 3 e 4 e três concentrações salinas da solução nutritiva (1,9; 2,3 e 2,9 dS m-1 foram estudados. A partir dos dados da matéria seca (MS e fresca (MF e da área foliar, acumuladas aos 62 dias após o transplante, foi determinada a produção e a distribuição de biomassa entre as diferentes partes da planta. Os frutos compreenderam de 49 a 55% da MS aérea total produzida pela planta, demonstrando que estes são os órgãos drenos de assimilados mais potentes. O aumento do número de frutos reduziu o peso médio dos frutos, sem afetar a produção e a distribuição de MS total, vegetativa e generativa. Entretanto, aumentou levemente a produção de MF dos frutos e da parte aérea como um todo, favorecendo a distribuição de MF para os frutos. Portanto, o acúmulo de água nos frutos ocorreu em uma proporção diferente do acúmulo da MS. A menor concentração salina da solução nutritiva testada pode ser indicada para o cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de casca de arroz crua durante o outono, pois promove um crescimento da planta similar ao observado nas concentrações mais altas.The effect of fruit load and of saline concentrations in nutrient solution recirculating, was evaluated on the growth of melon plants cultivated under protected cultivation and in raw rice husk, during the months February to May of 2003. Three numbers of fruits/plant (2, 3 and 4 and three saline concentrations of the nutrient solution (1,9; 2,3 and 2,9 dS m-1 were studied. From the data of dry and fresh matter (DM and FM, and of the leaf area accumulated at 62 days after setting, the biomass production and distribution among the different plant parts

  19. Growth and development of vimba bream (Vimba vimba) larvae in relation to feeding duration with live and/or dry starter feed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamáčková, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kozák, P.; Peňáz, Milan; Stanny, L. A.; Policar, T.; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 287, 1-2 (2009), s. 158-162 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : ASTA starter feed * Artemia salina * Total length * Weight * Level of ontogeny Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2009

  20. Фаунистические комплексы малых озер лесостепной зоны Западной Сибири как основа промысла беспозвоночных гидробионтов

    OpenAIRE

    Козлов, О. В.; Аршевский, С. В.

    2016-01-01

    For small lakes of Siberia Western allocated six faunistic complexes of aquatic inverte-brates with the dominance of Gammarus lacustris, Artemia salina, Eudiaptomus graciloides or Arctodiaptomus salinus, Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna. Zoocenoses biodiversity of these lakes is determined by the ecology of dominant species and hydrochemical characteristics of the lake waters

  1. Characterization and properties of the biosurfactant produced by Candida lipolytica UCP 0988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Diniz Rufino

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity against different vegetable seeds: Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo and Lactuca sativa L. and the micro-crustacean Artemia salina. The properties of the biosurfactant produced suggest its potential application in industries that require the use of effective compounds at low cost.

  2. 587-IJBCS-Article-Agadjihouede Hyppolite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Production de proies vivantes Brachionus plicatilis et. Artemia salina. Ifremer, station Merea, 83. 84. Shep H. 1994. Comparaison des capacities de développement et des processus de régulation en élevage monospécifique de triostypes de proies planctoniques d'intérêt aquacole : Moina micrura,. Diaphanosoma excisum.

  3. Yaequinolones, new insecticidal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-2140. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    New nine insecticidal antibiotics designated yaequinolones were isolated from the culture broth of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. FKI-2140 by solvent extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography and HPLC. Yaequinolones showed growth inhibitory activity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Among them, yaequinolone F has the most potent activity with MIC value of 0.19 microg/ml.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 3601 - 3650 of 11090 ... P Mwaura, T Dubois, T Losenge, D Coyne, E Kahangi. Vol 11, No 2 (2012), Effect of enriched Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina nauplii by microalga Tetraselmis chuii (Bütcher) grown on four different culture media on the growth and survival of Sparus aurata larvae, Abstract PDF. HM Khairy ...

  5. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  6. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  7. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  8. Soil salinization and maize and cowpea yield in the crop rotation system using saline waters Salinização do solo e produtividade de milho e feijão caupi em sistema de rotação cultural utilizando águas salinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan F. Lacerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water and the reuse of drainage water for irrigation depend on long-term strategies that ensure the sustainability of socio-economic and environmental impacts of agricultural systems. In this study, it was evaluated the effects of irrigation with saline water in the dry season and fresh water in the rainy season on the soil salt accumulation yield of maize and cowpea, in a crop rotation system. The experiment was conducted in the field, using a randomized complete block design, with five replications. The first crop was installed during the dry season of 2007, with maize irrigated with water of different salinities (0.8, 2.2, 3.6 and 5.0 dS m-1. The maize plants were harvested at 90 days after sowing (DAS, and vegetative growth, dry mass of 1000 seeds and grain yield were evaluated. The same plots were utilized for the cultivation of cowpea, during the rainy season of 2008. At the end of the crop, cycle plants of this species were harvested, being evaluated the vegetative growth and plant yield. Soil samples were collected before and after maize and cowpea cultivation. The salinity of irrigation water above 2.2 dS m-1 reduced the yield of maize during the dry season. The high total rainfall during the rainy season resulted in leaching of salts accumulated during cultivation in the dry season, and eliminated the possible negative effects of salinity on cowpea plants. However, this crop showed atypical behavior with a significant proportion of vegetative mass and low pod production, which reduced the efficiency of this strategy of crop rotation under the conditions of this study.A utilização de águas salinas bem como o reúso de águas de drenagem na irrigação dependem de estratégias de longo prazo que garantam a sustentabilidade socioeconômica e ambiental dos sistemas agrícolas. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação com água salina na estação seca e com água de baixa salinidade na estação chuvosa

  9. Crescimento e acúmulo de N, P e K pelo meloeiro irrigado com água salina Growth and N, P and K accumulation by melon irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francismar de Medeiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na irrigação é muito comum em cultivos de melão em regiões semi-áridas, o que pode resultar na salinização do solo e redução de rendimento se o manejo da irrigação não for adequado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de N, P e K em plantas de melão (Cucumis melo, L. irrigadas com água salina. Os tratamentos estudados resultaram da combinação de dois fatores: salinidade da água de irrigação (1,1; 2,5 e 4,5 dS m-1 e materiais de melão (híbrido Trusty e cultivar Orange Flesh. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições, com tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. A época de coleta de plantas foi analisado como outro fator e os resultados interpretados por análise multivariada. As plantas amostradas foram fracionadas em folhas + ramos e frutos, determinaram-se as produções de matérias secas e os conteúdos de N, P e K nestes materiais. Os acúmulos dos nutrientes nos frutos e de fitomassa seca na planta diminuíram com o incremento da salinidade da água de irrigação. Os frutos exportaram, em média, 57,1%, 67,1% e 70,0% dos totais de N, P, K, absorvidos pela planta e alocados na parte aérea, mostrando, portanto, que foram o principal dreno para estes nutrientes na planta.The use of saline water for irrigation is very common in cultivation of melon in semiarid zones, which can result in the soil salinization if irrigation management is not appropriate. The growth and accumulation of N, P and K by melon (Cucumis melo, L. irrigated with saline water was evaluated. Treatments resulted from the combination of the factors irrigation water salinity levels (1.1; 2.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and melon materials (hybrid Trusty and cultivar Orange Flesh. Treatments were arranged following a completely randomized block design with four replications, arranged in 3 x 2 factorial. Another factor analyzed was time of

  10. Alterações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em sementes de café secas em sílica gel e soluções salinas saturadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vilas Boas Coelho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em sementes de café submetidas à secagem rápida, em sílica gel, e à secagem lenta, em soluções salinas saturadas. As sementes foram secas até que atingissem os seguintes teores de água: 40, 30, 20, 15, 10 e 5% (base úmida. Após a secagem, uma parte das sementes foi imediatamente avaliada quanto ao desempenho fisiológico e ao perfil de enzimas do processo oxidativo, e outra parte foi avaliada após armazenagem em condição hermética, em câmara fria e seca, por quatro meses. A velocidade de secagem e o teor final de água tiveram efeito significativo sobre a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Após a secagem rápida em sílica gel, as sementes toleraram teores finais de água mais baixos. No entanto, após a secagem lenta, as sementes com teores finais de água mais elevados apresentaram maior qualidade. O período de armazenamento não afetou a germinação, mas prejudicou o vigor das sementes. A secagem rápida apresenta maior potencial de dano ao endosperma do que aos embriões. O perfil enzimático das sementes de café é afetado pelo teor final de água e pela velocidade de secagem.

  11. Crescimento do feijão caupi submetido a inoculação com rizóbio e irrigação com água salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailma Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN é caracterizada pela conversão do nitrogênio gasoso (N2 em nitrogênio amoniacal (NH4, forma disponível às plantas. A cultura do feijão caupi gera em média 1.055.334 empregos, o potencial de suprimento alimentar é de 26.486.755 pessoas e o valor da produção é de R$ 643,09 milhões. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar parâmetros de crescimento no Feijão caupi irrigado com água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1, sendo cada unidade experimental representada por uma planta/vaso, com capacidade de 1,5 Kg de solo. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos às análises de variância, pelo teste de Tukey a 1 e 5% de significância. O acréscimo da salinidade afeta o número de folhas, diâmetro do caule e área foliar. Quanto ao desenvolvimento da cultura, todas as variáveis são afetadas após os 30 DAE.

  12. Diversidad de escarabajos necrófilos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae y Trogidae en una región semiárida del valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Jiménez-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las zonas áridas y semiáridas ocupan más de la mitad del territorio de México, sin embargo, son ambientes donde los escarabajos necrófilos han sido escasamente estudiados. En esta investigación se presenta la diversidad y fenología de Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae y Trogidae en el valle de Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año de abril de 1998 a marzo de 1999 empleando trampas tipo NTP-80 cebadas con calamar, distribuidas en un mezquital y matorral espinoso, en cactáceas columnares y vegetación alterada. Se capturaron 613 individuos de 12 géneros y 15 especies. Staphylinidae tuvo la mayor riqueza (9 especies y abundancia (74.2%, le siguieron Scarabaeidae (21.9%, Silphidae (2.9% y Trogidae (1% con dos especies cada una. La fauna para las dos primeras fue inferior a la observada en otras zonas de México. La máxima abundancia y riqueza estuvieron en la época seca y las comunidades de escarabajos necrófilos prefirieron los sitios con mezquital y matorral, donde permanecieron más tiempo y se registraron todas las especies, por lo tanto los tipos de vegetación presentes fueron el factor más importante que determinó las variaciones locales de abundancia, diversidad y riqueza y no la época de lluvias.

  13. Superimposed extension and shortening in the southern Salinas Basin and La Panza Range, California: A guide to Neogene deformation in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; McPhee, Darcy K.; McDougall, Kristin; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized data from geologic maps, wells, seismic-reflection profiles, potential-field interpretations, and low-temperature thermochronology to refine our understanding of late Cenozoic extension and shortening in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges. Data from the La Panza Range and southern Salinas Basin document early to middle Miocene extension, followed by Pliocene and younger shortening after a period of little deformation in the late Miocene. Extension took place on high-angle normal faults that accommodated ∼2% strain at the scale of the ∼50-km-wide Salinian block (oriented perpendicular to the San Andreas fault). Shortening was accommodated by new reverse faults, reactivation of older normal faults, and strike-slip faulting that resulted in a map-view change in the width of the Salinian block. The overall magnitude of shortening was ∼10% strain, roughly 4–5 times greater than the amount of extension. The timing and magnitude of deformation in our study area are comparable to that documented in other Salinian block basins, and we suggest that the entire block deformed in a similar manner over a similar time span. The timing and relative magnitude of extension and shortening may be understood in the context of central Coast Range tectonic boundary conditions linked to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges at the south end of the Salinian block. Older models for Coast Range shortening based on balanced fault-bend fold-style cross sections are a poor approximation of Salinian block deformation, and may lead to mechanically improbable fault geometries that overestimate the amount of shortening.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DA CONCENTRAÇÃO DE OLIGONUCLEOTÍDEOS NO EFEITO DE AGLOMERAÇÃO DE NANOPARTÍCULAS NA PRESENÇA DE SOLUÇÃO SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo de Osti Comparato Filho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de tecnologias que auxiliam no estudo da interação de nanopartículas com biomoléculas tem proporcionado o surgimento de novas técnicas de diagnóstico de doenças. Nanomateriais possuem características químicas e físicas específicas, como o efeito de ressonância plasmônica de superfície (SPR. Este trabalho parte do princípio da utilização de nanopartículas de Ouro (AuNPs, previamente sintetizadas e padronizadas, para o estudo da influência de concentrações de oligonucleotídeos, em presença de solução salina de Cloreto de Magnésio hidratado (MgCl2.6H2O, na sua estabilidade coloidal, por meio da Espectroscopia de UV-visível. No laboratório de nanossensores, realizaram-se experimentos com nanopartículas, oligonucleotídeos e sal, onde se observou, por meio de testes colorimétricos, a influência da porcentagem de cobertura das superfícies das nanopartículas das soluções finais, nos efeitos da SPR. Os resultados gráficos dos experimentos, dos espectros UV vis que relacionam absorbância e comprimentos de onda, registraram o processo de aglomeração. O objetivo foi analisar comparativamente a influência da concentração dos oligonucleotídeos nas soluções com nanopartículas e sal, para a elaboração das curvas de estabilidade das AuNPs.

  15. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  16. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  17. Investigación: La historia de la sal en México, las salinas de Cuyutlán y el caso de la cooperativa de salineros de Colima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Zaret Gaytán Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En México, y en muchos lugares del mundo, existen productores artesanales que extraen sal de maneras casi tan autóctonas como lo hicieron nuestros antepasado prehispánicos. En este trabajo se pretende exponer el caso de una cooperativa ubicada en la región de Cuyutlán, en el Estado de Colima, que, si bien ya ha implementado algunas innovaciones, aún sigue utilizando el trabajo intensivo para poder llevar a cabo la extracción de la sal. Conoceremos un poco de la historia de la cooperativa, de los conflictos que enfrentó durante su constitución y a lo largo de toda su existencia. Asimismo, se abordará el tema de la cultura regional que ha emergido alrededor de ella. Antes de exponer dicha situación, se presentará un panorama general de lo que ha sido la historia de la sal en México antes y después de la llegada de los españoles, durante el México independiente y la Revolución, hasta llegar a la situación actual; ello con el fin de contextualizar la investigación y poner en antecedentes al lector de la importancia de este mineral en la historia de nuestro país. Para finalizar el trabajo, se expondrá la realidad presente y pasada de las salinas de la Costa de Colima para con ello exponer la pertinencia de estudiar a mayor profundidad el fenómeno de explotación de la sal a través de dicha sociedad, la cual el 1º de enero de 2015 cumplió 90 años de existencia.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Degradation of nicotine in water solutions using a water falling film DBD plasma reactor: direct and indirect treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupež, Jelena; Kovačević, Vesna V.; Jović, Milica; Roglić, Goran M.; Natić, Maja M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.

    2018-05-01

    Nicotine degradation efficiency in water solutions was studied using a water falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. Two different treatments were applied: direct treatment, the recirculation of the solution through a DBD reactor, and indirect treatment, the bubbling of the gas from the DBD through the porous filter into the solution. In a separate experiment, samples spiked with nicotine in double distilled water (ddH2O) and tap water were studied and compared after both treatments. Furthermore, the effects of the homogeneous catalysts, namely, Fe2+ and H2O2, were tested in the direct treatment. Nicotine degradation efficiency was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. A degradation efficiency of 90% was achieved after the direct treatment catalyzed with Fe2+. In order to analyze the biodegradability, mineralization level, and toxicity of the obtained solutions, after all degradation procedures the values of the following parameters were determined: total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, and the Artemia salina toxicity test. The results showed that an increase in biodegradability was obtained, after all treatments. A partial nicotine mineralization was achieved and the mortality of the A. salina organism decreased in the treated samples, all of which indicating the effective removal of nicotine and the creation of less toxic solutions. Nicotine degradation products were identified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion trap Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer and a simple mechanism for oxidative degradation of nicotine in non-thermal plasma systems is proposed.

  20. Evolução da salinidade e pH de solo sob cultivo de melão irrigado com água salina Evolution of salinity and pH of soil cultivated with melon irrigated with brackish water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Q. Porto Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da irrigação com águas salinas em um solo cultivado com melão a evolução da salinidade e reação do solo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Santa Júlia, município de Mossoró, RN, em dois plantios consecutivos, no período de 2001 a 2002. As plantas de melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. AF646 foram irrigadas com água de salinidade 0,6 (testemunha; 1,9; 3,2 e 4,5 dS m-1 durante todo o ciclo (70 dias e de forma incremental, em três fases de desenvolvimento do meloeiro (1-30, 31-50, 51-70 dias após a semeadura - DAS. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 15 tratamentos e quatro repetições. A salinidade e o pH do solo foram medidos no início e aos 30, 50 e 70 DAS, em amostras de solo coletadas nas camadas de 0-15, 15-30 e 30-45 cm. Observou-se maior acúmulo de sais no solo na camada superficial (até 15 cm em todos os níveis de salinidade e que a utilização de águas de maior salinidade aumentou a salinidade média no perfil do solo. Os valores médios de pH estiveram dentro da faixa ótima de absorção de nutrientes requerida para a cultura do melão, com pequena variação entre os tratamentos estudados.This work aimed to study the effects of irrigation with saline waters in an area cultivated with melon on soil salinity and pH. The experiment was conducted in the Santa Julia Farm, Mossoró city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, during the years 2001 to 2002. Water with different salinity levels (0.6; 1.9; 3.2 and 4.5 dS m-1 was used throughout the cycle and in incremental way in three periods of melon development, forming 15 treatments, arranged in randomized blocks with four replications. The salinity was measured at 0, 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing in soil samples collected in layers of 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm. There was greater accumulation of salts in the surface layer (up to 15 cm in all salinity levels and the use of more saline water

  1. Biomassa, atividade microbiana e FMA em rotação cultural milho/feijão-de-corda utilizando-se águas salinas Biomass, microbial activity and AMF in crop rotation system of maize/cowpea using saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloneide de Jesus Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da irrigação com água de alta e baixa salinidade sobre variáveis microbiológicas do solo em área submetida à rotação de cultura entre milho (Zea Mays L. e feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L.. A área destinada ao experimento foi dividida em duas subáreas, sendo realizados quatro cultivos: dois cultivos irrigados na estação seca e dois de sequeiro na estação chuvosa. O estudo foi conduzido em campo, utilizando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Nos cultivos irrigados foram usadas água com as seguintes condutividades elétricas (CEa: 0,8; 2,2; 3,6 e 5,0 dS m-1. Os cultivos de sequeiro foram realizados nas mesmas parcelas que foram cultivadas na estação seca, as quais permaneceram demarcadas e identificadas. No início e ao final de cada cultivo, foram coletadas amostras em duas subáreas na região radicular das plantas, no terço médio da fileira central de cada parcela. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação promoveu aumento do número total de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares FMA e reduziu a respiração basal do solo, o carbono da biomassa e o coeficiente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, principalmente na área cultivada com feijão-de-corda. O gênero Glomus respondeu por mais de 70% dos esporos totais encontrados, sendo que essa percentagem aumentou nos tratamentos com maior salinidade nos cultivos da estação seca. Os dados não evidenciaram qualquer efeito negativo da salinidade residual sobre as variáveis microbiológicas avaliadas, em função da irrigação com água salina durante os cultivos da estação seca.This work carred out the influence of irrigation with water of high and low salinity on soil microbial variables in area under the crop rotation between maize (Zea Mays L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.. The area for the experiment was divided into two sub areas being made four crops, two crops irrigated in

  2. Decontamination pig carcasses of organic acids with commercial and saline acidified ultraviolet lightDescontaminação de cortes suínos com ácidos orgânicos comerciais, solução salina acidificada e luz ultravioleta

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    Eliane Maria De

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the consumption of pork has increased significantly in recent years, mainly due to large public awareness campaigns, especially in relation to issues of concern for consumer health. The meat quality is the factor to be controlled so that the consumer can enjoy the benefits. There are many variables to be controlled. Aiming to reduce the contamination and increase the shelf life of pork were performed nine treatments with mixtures of organic acids, saline acidified, exposure to ultraviolet light and water at 80 º C during 30 days of storage, belly pork, and all analyzes performed in triplicate. Counts were performed aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, psychrotrophic, total and fecal coliforms, Salmonella, pH determination and the number of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA sensory evaluation. Showed a reduction in the contamination of pork belly cuts with a mixture of organic acids, followed by exposure to ultraviolet light for 1 minute. Regarding the pH treatments that were added to the mixture of organic acids differ from the other treatments except the control. The solutions of organic acids did not affect the sensory characteristics of pork roast. Through the experiments in this study, it was concluded that we can make further proposed as an alternative for industrial meat mixture obtaining a greater microbiological control features without changing the feedstock, increasing the life and thereby offering the consumer a quality product and commercially safe. No Brasil o consumo de carne suína tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos devido, principalmente, às grandes campanhas de esclarecimento ao público, sobretudo em relação às questões de interesse para a saúde do consumidor. A qualidade da carne é o fator a ser controlado para que o consumidor possa usufruir dos benefícios. Muitas são as variáveis a serem controladas. Com o objetivo de reduzir a contaminação inicial e aumentar a vida útil da

  3. Produção do maracujazeiro e resistência mecânica do solo com biofertilizante sob irrigação com águas salinas Production of the yellow passion fruit and the mechanical resistance of the soil with biofertilizer under irrigation with saline water

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    Thiago Jardelino Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de águas de irrigação com níveis crescentes de salinidade e frequências de aplicação de biofertilizante bovino sobre a produção do maracujazeiro amarelo e a resistência mecânica do solo à penetração (RSP. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Remígio (PB, com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 5 x 4, correspondente aos valores de condutividade elétrica (CE da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 dS m-1 e quatro frequências de aplicação do biofertilizante: sem biofertilizante (SB, aplicação uma semana antes do transplantio (1 SAT, a cada 90 dias a partir do transplantio (90 DAT e, uma semana antes e a cada 90 dias após o transplantio (1 SAT + 90 DAT. O aumento da CE das águas comprometeu a capacidade produtiva do maracujazeiro amarelo, em termos de número de frutos colhidos e produção por planta, sendo os maiores declínios registros nas plantas irrigadas com águas de CE igual e superior a 2,5 dS m-1. As maiores frequência de aplicação do insumo orgânico promoveram incremento da produção por planta. Os valores da RSP até a profundidade de 40 cm, apesar de aumentarem com a profundidade do perfil, foram abaixo de 2000 Kpa o que não compromete o crescimento radicular e a produtividade do maracujazeiro amarelo. As aplicações das águas salinas aumentaram a resistência mecânica com menores valores nos solos com o insumo orgânico aplicado 1 SAT + 90 DAT e aos 90 DAT.The study aimed to evaluate the effects of irrigation water with increasing salinity levels and the application frequency of bio-fertilizer on the production of yellow passion fruit and soil resistance to penetration (RSP. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Remígio (PB, Brazil, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 4 factorial design corresponding to levels of electrical conductivity (EC of the irrigation water of 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and

  4. Viabilidade da irrigação do meloeiro com águas salinas em diferentes fases fenológicas Feasibility of irrigation of musk melon with salinity water in different phenological stages

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    Francisco de Queiroz Porto Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da aplicação de águas de irrigação de diferentes salinidades no rendimento do melão irrigado por gotejamento e de associar a produção obtida com o custo da água utilizada, desenvolveu-se este trabalho em Mossoró-RN. Águas de diferentes salinidades (S1=0,6, S2=1,9, S3=3,2 e S4=4,5dS m-1, utilizadas de forma incremental em três estádios de desenvolvimento ou sem variar durante o ciclo da cultura, formaram dez tratamentos arranjados em blocos inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições. O uso de águas salinas por longos períodos afetou a produção de melão. Substituições tardias na salinidade da água tenderam a não exercer efeito significativo sobre a produção do meloeiro. O tratamento irrigado com a água de menor salinidade durante todo ciclo apresentou, simultaneamente, o maior custo com água de irrigação e o maior lucro na produção de melão.This study was carried out in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different irrigation water salinity levels on yield of drip irrigated melon, and to relate yield with the cost of water. The waters of different salinities (S1=0.6, S2=1.9, S3=3.2 e S4=4.5dS m-1 were used both in incremental way in three different phenological stages and without replacement during the crop cycle totalizing ten treatments arranged in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The use of saline waters without substitutions affected melon production. The treatments irrigated with low salinity water presented simultaneously the higher cost of irrigation water and higher profits of melon cultivation.

  5. EFEITO DA SOLUÇÃO, DA FIXAÇÃO EM FORMOL-SALINA E DO TEMPO DE INCUBAÇÃO SOBRE OS RESULTADOS DO TESTE HIPOSMÓTICO PARA SÊMEN EQÜINO CONGELADO

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    Ana Karine Almeida

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou determinar o melhor protocolo de teste hiposmótico (HO para avaliar a integridade funcional da membrana plasmática dos espermatozóides eqüinos submetidos à criopreservação. Foram avaliadas três soluções HO (água destilada, frutose 100 mOsmol/L e citrato de sódio 100 mOsmol/L, os tempos de incubação de 0, 15 e 30 minutos dependendo do tipo de solução utilizada e o processo de fixação ou não em formol-salina. Após a descongelação do sêmen foram retiradas alíquotas de sêmen para incubação nas três soluções HO. Decorridos os tempos de incubação (0, 15 e 30 minutos, retirou-se uma alíquota de sêmen para leitura do percentual de espermatozóides reativos ao teste HO e fixou-se, em formolsalina, o restante da mistura sêmen/solução HO para posterior leitura e comparação entre as leituras fixadas versus não fixadas. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tempos de incubação independente da solução HO utilizada. A água destilada apresentou maior percentagem de espermatozóides reativos ao teste no protocolo que não usou a fixação em formol, entretanto apresentou resultado semelhante às amostras incubadas em frutose e citrato de sódio, no protocolo que utilizou a fixação em formol. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 na comparação, por solução, da leitura fixada versus não fixada. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino, sêmen congelado, teste hiposmótico

  6. Fitomassa e produção de algodoeiro cv. BRS Jady cultivado com águas salinas e doses de esterco bovino

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    Leandro de Pádua Souza

    2016-11-01

    manure. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment in a sandy-texture Eutrophic Regeneration Neosol in the municipality of Campina Grande, Paraíba. A randomized complete block design was used in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme with three replications, and the treatments were composed of four levels of electrical conductivity of water (ECw, 1.7, 3.4, 5.1 and 6.8 dS m-1 and four doses of bovine manure  (0; 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% on a soil bulk basis. Increasing levels of salinity of irrigation water with ECa greater than 1.7 dS m-1 reduced the formation of dry leaf biomass, however, the increase in the doses of bovine manure promoted increases in this variable. Fertilization with bovine manure promotes an increase in the production of total number of seeds and mass of one hundred seeds. There was interaction between the factors levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water and doses of cattle manure for dry phytomass and stem and root of cotton cv. 'BRS Jady'.

  7. Estratégias de irrigação com águas salinas e adubação nitrogenada no cultivo da mamoneira

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    Geovani Soares de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a concentração de potássio, sódio e a produção na mamoneira cv. BRS Energia, em função da irrigação com águas salinizadas e adubação nitrogenada nas diferentes fases fenológicas, em experimento conduzido em lisímetros de drenagem sob condições de campo no Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 5x2x2, constituídos pela combinação de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação - CEa (0,3; 1,2; 2,1; 3,0 e 3,9 dS m-1, duas doses de nitrogênio-DN (100 e 160 mg  kg-1 de solo e duas fases fenológicas (vegetativa e formação da produção - floração e frutificação. A concentração de potássio e sódio nas folhas, caule e raízes da cv. BRS Energia foram mensuradas aos 120 dias após o semeio. O aumento dos níveis de salinidade da água elevou a concentração de sódio nas folhas, caule e raízes, sendo o efeito variável de acordo com os estádios de desenvolvimento. A maior concentração de K+ nas folhas, caule e raízes foi obtida quando se irrigou com água de CEa de 0,3; 1,8 e 0,3 dS m-1 respectivamente. Os diferentes níveis de CEa afeta de forma negativa a produção, independente da fase de desenvolvimento. Doses crescentes de N e a interação entre os fatores estudados não interferiram sobre a concentração de K+ e Na+ em nenhuma parte avaliada.Irrigation strategies with salt waters and nitrogen fertilization in plant castor beanAbstract: Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potassium and sodium in the castor bean cv. BRS Energia as a function of irrigation water salinity and nitrogen fertilization in different phenological phases in an experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters under field conditions, at the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agroalimentar da Universidade Federal de Campina

  8. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of dry dormant eggs, gemmules, and statoblasts of three invertebrate forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Atsuko; Egami, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of the special structures (reproductive organs) of various invertebrate animals were examined. The doses of 50 % hatch were about 5 kR for staboblasts of the bryozoa, Pectinatella magnifica; 70 kR for gemmules of the freshwater sponge, Eunapius fragilis; 130 kR for gemmuls of the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilis; 180 kR for dry eggs of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, and 350 kR for dry eggs of Artemia salina. The results showed that Artemia eggs were the most radioresistant reproductive organ among the materials examined. (author)

  9. Dengue antiviral activity of polar extract from Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf var. Visenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk; Liong, S.; Fauziah, S.; Wahid, I.; Firdaus; Taba, P.; Ahmad, F.

    2018-03-01

    A research on the dengue antiviral activity test on the polar bark extract of M. umbelatta (Houtt.) Stapf var. Vicenia have been done to determine the relation to its activity againts brine shrimp Artemia salina. The bark was extracted by maceration with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethylacetate. The activity of the ethyl acetate extract was then tested against A. salina and dengue virus. It was found that the ethyl acetate extract was active to A. salina with the LC50 value of 101.66 μg/mL and also very active to dengue virus with the IC50 value of 1.67μg/mL. It is clear that the toxicity to brine shrimp A. salina has a positive correlation with the dengue anti virus.

  10. Metabolomics of carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative production processes based on renewable resources are required to stop the exhaustion of our natural resources. Microalgae are one of the most promising feedstocks for such sustainable processes, since they can produce valuable biochemicals at high productivity using sunlight, water,

  11. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

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    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  12. Nutrição mineral e extração de nutrientes de planta de milho irrigada com água salina Mineral nutrition and extraction of nutrients by corn plant irrigated with saline water

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    Geocleber G. de Sousa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água salina na agricultura irrigada pode causar desequilíbrio nutricional e inibição competitiva na absorção de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o acúmulo, os totais extraídos e a distribuição de nutrientes em plantas de milho. O estudo foi conduzido em condições de campo em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo na estação seca, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, de setembro a dezembro de 2007, em Fortaleza, CE. As plantas de milho foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura e realizadas as seguintes avaliações: teores, extração e distribuição de elementos minerais nas diferentes partes da planta (folha, colmo, grão e sabugo. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação aos 90 dias após a semeadura, inibiu o acúmulo de potássio nas folhas e de magnésio e fósforo nos grãos. A extração dos nutrientes e sódio pelas plantas irrigadas com água de salinidade variando de 0,8 a 3,6 dS m-1 obedeceu à seguinte ordem decrescente: K > Mg > Ca > P > Na; no tratamento de maior salinidade (5,0 dS m-1 a sequência de extração foi: K > Ca > Na > P > Mg.The use of saline water in irrigated agriculture can cause nutritional imbalance and competitive inhibition in the absorption of nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salinity of irrigation water on the accumulation, the total absorption, and the distribution of mineral elements in maize plants. The study was conducted under field conditions in an Yellow Red Argisol in the dry season, in the randomized blocks design with five replicates during September to December 2007 in Fortaleza - CE. The maize plants were collected at 90 days after sowing, and the following assessments were made: content, extraction and distribution of mineral elements in the plant parts (leaf, stem, grain and elderberry. The increase of salinity of irrigation water

  13. Fertirrigação com água salina e seus efeitos na produção do pepino enxertado cultivado em ambiente protegido Fertigation with saline water and its effects on yield of greenhouse grafted cucumber

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    Flávio F. Blanco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes via água de irrigação nos cultivos protegidos, bem como a utilização de água subterrânea com alta concentração salina, tem resultado no aumento da salinidade do solo, ocasionando perdas de produtividade. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a produção da cultura do pepino enxertado, cultivado em ambiente protegido, quando irrigado com águas de diferentes condutividades elétricas (S1=1,54; S2=3,10 e S3=5,20 dS.m-1 e duas lâminas de irrigação associadas às suas freqüências de aplicação (L0=1,00.ETc; L1F1=1,25.ETc em todas as irrigações e L1F2=1,25.ETc quando a lâmina de água de irrigação acumulada em L0 atingia 100 mm, sendo ETc a evapotranspiração da cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos casualizados com três repetições e os fatores foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 3x3. O número de frutos comerciais por planta reduziu linearmente com o aumento da salinidade, enquanto a produção total e comercial, bem como o número total de frutos por planta e a produção de matéria seca de frutos não foram afetados significativamente pela salinidade, embora todas as características tenham apresentado tendência de redução com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. As diferentes lâminas de irrigação não foram suficientes para reduzir os efeitos do estresse salino, independente das suas freqüências de aplicação.Fertiliser application through irrigation water in greenhouse crops, as well as the use of groundwater with high salt concentration, has been the cause of increasing soil salinity, leading to an expressive yield reduction. The yield of grafted cucumber in greenhouse when irrigated with waters of different electrical conductivity was evaluated (S1=1.54; S2=3.10 and S3=5.20 dS.m-1 and two irrigation water depths associated to their application frequencies (L0=1.00.ETc; L1F1=1.25.ETc in all irrigation and L1F2=1.25.ETc when the irrigation water depth of L0

  14. Envelhecimento acelerado em sementes de azevém com e sem solução salina e saturada Accelerated aging of ryegrass seeds submitted to saturated salt solution

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    Lilian Madruga de Tunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a metodologia do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de azevém, bem como verificar a possibilidade do uso de solução não saturada e saturada de NaCl como opção para controle da absorção de água pelas sementes durante a realização do teste, sem reduzir sua sensibilidade. Foram utilizados quatro lotes de sementes, submetidos aos testes de germinação, emergência de plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência e envelhecimento acelerado, empregando-se os períodos de exposição de 24, 48, 72 e 96h, com e sem solução salina (NaCl. A utilização de solução não saturada e saturada de NaCl diminui a absorção de água pelas sementes de azevém durante o teste de envelhecimento acelerado, acarretando uma taxa de deterioração menos acentuada e resultados menos drásticos e mais uniformes. A opção 24h com solução não saturada (SNS só conseguiu estratificar os lotes em dois grupos, não devendo ser indicada como promissora. Assim, deve-se usar a opção 48h com solução saturada de NaCl (SSS, que estratificou em três lotes.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the methodology of the accelerated aging test to evaluate the physiological potential of s ryegrass seeds, as well as verify the possibility of the use of unsaturated and saturated solution of NaCl as an option for control of water uptake by seeds during the test without reducing its sensitivity. Four lots of ryegrass seeds were tested for germination, seedling emergence, speed emergence and accelerated aging (periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96h, with or without the use of saturated and saline solution of NaCl. The use of unsaturated and saturated solution of NaCl reduces water absorption by ryegrass seeds during the accelerated aging test, resulting in a rate of deterioration is less pronounced ,less drastic and more uniform results. Option 24h with

  15. In vitro toxic activity of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

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    Jéssica de Andrade Gomes Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Often found in some Brazilian biomas as caatinga, brejo, restinga and cerrado, the velame, Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth, is popularly known for its medicinal properties used in stomach ache, gastric reflux, vomiting, bloody diarrhea and to reduce fever. In addition to the pharmacological properties, its essential oil has larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, as well as the ethanol extract showed significant insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of preliminary methanolic extract of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth on Artemia salina larvae. The bioassay was carried out at concentrations of 50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 1000 µg/ml of methanolic extract of leaves. The extract studied showed a moderate toxicity to Artemia salina, with LC 50 values in the range of 637,29 µg/mL.

  16. Actividad farmacológica preliminar del fruto de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón

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    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio farmacológico preliminar de un extracto hidroalcohólico concentrado de los frutos de Bromelia pinguin L. (piña de ratón mediante bioensayos sencillos y confiables. Se determinó la toxicidad frente a Artemia salina Leach, que resultó muy baja. Se probó la actividad antihelmíntica contra Lombricus terrestri, con resultados relevantes. El extracto no mostró actividad contra diversas cepas de hongos y bacterias.The results of the preliminary pharmacological study of a concentrated hydroalcoholic extract from the fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. ("piña de ratón" by simple and reliable bioassays are presented. The toxicity against Artemia salina Leach, which was very low, was determined. The anthelmintic activity against Lombricus terrestri was proved with remarkable results. No activity of the extract against the strains of fungi and bacteria was observed.

  17. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  18. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides M. Leite

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward Artemia salina with CL50 values between 9.59 and 253.43 μL/mL. Essential oils from E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare and R. officinalis showed embryotoxicity on Aedes aegypti larvae with a viability inhibition between 40 and 100%. These results show the bioactivity of the assayed essential oils and phytochemicals and, partially, justify their insertion in further evaluation in order to establish a safe exploitation of their biological potentiality.

  19. Effect of the addition of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii on the gut microbiota composition and contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvi, Stefania; Nardi, Miria; Sulpizio, Roberto; Orpianesi, Carla; Caggiano, Massimo; Carnevali, Oliana; Cresci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the effects of probiotic treatment on gut microbiota and the contribution to the well-being of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.). A bacterial strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (AS13B), isolated from adult European sea bass gut, was administered during sea bass development using Brachionus plicatilis and/or Artemia salina as carriers. The effective strain colonization and modulation of the gut microbiota, the mortality and the cor...

  20. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were de...

  1. Determinación de la secuencia de precipitación salina en la laguna de La Playa (Zaragoza, España. 1. Condiciones de equilibrio mineral y simulación teórica del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, J.

    1999-04-01

    simulación teórica del proceso de concentración por evaporación se ha efectuado empleando como punto de partida la muestra menos concentrada, considerando unas condiciones de sistema abierto respecto al intercambio gaseoso con la atmósfera y a una temperatura de 25° C. Los resultados de la simulación han reproducido fielmente la pauta evolutiva definida por los datos del sistema natural. Esta circunstancia apoya la hipótesis planteada anteriormente en relación con la secuencia de precipitación salina que debe producirse en la laguna, y sugiere la posible existencia de un proceso de precipitación primaria de thenardita y bloedita, sales relacionadas comúnmente bien con eflorescencias o bien como productos de transformación de minerales previamente precipitados.

  2. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  3. Cyst quality and hatching in parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Ramaiah, N.

    ) enhance the percentage of hatching of the cysts. On the basis of naupliar size, low ash content and high protein content it can be suggested that this strain is likely to be preferred by predators...

  4. Toxicity of heavy metals to brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Hirota, R.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_43.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  6. TRIO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion

  7. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon

  8. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  9. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  10. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  11. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  12. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  13. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  14. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  15. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    -Doerr, 1996) and has been shown to have a positive effect to the outcome of collaborative R&D (Sampson, 2005). Anand & Khanna (2000), furthermore, hypothesized that research joint ventures are more ambiguous than marketing joint ventures and even more the licensing and showed that the effect of collaborative......Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity...

  16. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  17. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  18. EXPERIENCE WITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGERY DEPT

    Abstract. Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive ...

  19. Authoring experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect inphilosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experienceto illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participantsis the traditional point of departure for the dialogicalexchange....... However, narrating is much more than abeginning point or the skeletal framework of events and itdeserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impactsthe conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article weshow how the narrative aspect became a rich...... an experiencethrough a collaborative effort, most participants hadtheir initial experience existentially refined and the chosenconcept of which the experience served as an illustrationtransformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientationpost cancer....

  20. Dirac experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies

  1. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  2. Russian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet research in terrestrial decontamination appears to have paralleled that of the US in many respects. However, the probability exists that long-term evaluations of decontamination techniques (over 10 to 20 years) have been carried out at one nuclear accident site (a marked divergence from US experience). The area of aquatic decontamination seems to offer the most intriguing possibilities for new information acquisition from the USSR; at this point only its potential importance can be speculated upon

  3. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  4. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  5. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses mediated experiences from the perspective of the visual modality in combination with the multimodal interaction. ICT-studies has a rapid influx of new words and concepts. Digital technology led to a need to describe the convergence of images, text and sound has taken various w...... to educational practices as still more advanced technology emerge and intertwine the scientific areas in new and cross-disciplinary frameworks....

  6. UTILIZAÇÃO DE Spirulina platensis COMO SUPLEMENTO ALIMENTAR DURANTE A REVERSÃO SEXUAL DA TILÁPIA-DO-NILO (VAR. CHITRALADA EM ÁGUA SALINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lafaiete Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis influence as a food supplement in Nile tilapia post-larvae grown in saline water. The experiment consisted of two treatments with three replicates. In first one the animals were fed ration containing the androgen 17 α - methyltestosterone and S. platensis, and in the other only diet with the hormone. At the end of the reversal (28 days, tilapia that received S. platensis showed average weights of 1.17 ± 0.16 g, significantly superior to the animals fed only ration, which reached an average weight of 0.62 ± 0.38 g (P < 0.05; however, survival rates showed no significant difference (P < 0.05. At the end of the experiment (78 days, fish gonadal analysis showed indices of 47.5% of males for fish reared without microalgae and 59.09% for fish reared with S. platensis. It was conclude that Nile tilapia showed good growth and survival rate in the presence of S. platensis, compared to the fish fed only diet in saline water. However, it was not possible to obtain acceptable rates of sex reversal after the administration of masculinizing hormone through the diet.

  7. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Coupling digestion in a pilot-scale UASB reactor and electrochemical oxidation over BDD anode to treat diluted cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey (CW) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated cheese whey was evaluated. The diluted cheese whey, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 6 g/L, was first treated in a 600-L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB process, which was operated for 87 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, led to a COD removal efficiency between 66 and 97 %, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 9 and 18 A and in the presence of NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 3-4 h of reaction. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organochlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, alongside free chlorine, are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina.

  9. An Improved Method for Removal of Azo Dye Orange II from Textile Effluent Using Albumin as Sorbent

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    Tadashi Ohashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are generally resistant to biodegradation due to their complex structures. Acid orange II is one of the most widely used dyes in the textile industry. The influence of bovine serum albumin (BSA in different concentrations, pH, and time of contact on Orange II was investigated using kinetics and adsorption-isotherm experiments. The results showed that the maximum colour removed from dye/albumin was 99.50% and that a stable dye-protein complex had been formed at pH 3.5 and in a proportion of 1:3 (v/v, respectively. The synthetic effluent did not show toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina, and showed a CL50 equal to 97 µg/mL to azo dye orange II. Additionally, the methodology was effective in removing the maximum of orange II using BSA by adsorption at pH 3.5 which mainly attracted ions to the azo dye during the adsorption process. This suggests that this form of treatment is economical and easy to use which potentially could lead to bovine serum albumin being used as a sorbent for azo dyes.

  10. Schiff base: A high affinity chemical agent to decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk contaminated artificially

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    Frane Delaš

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study were conducted the effect of pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 and concentration of new synthesized 3-/2-aminophenylimino-(p-toluoyl/-4-hydroxy-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (Schiff base on decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in raw milk contaminated with known concentration of this toxin. Experiments were carried out at temperature of 4 °C during 35 days. At pH 5.5 Schiff base concentration of 0.1 µmol/L was lessening the concentration of AFM1 after 35 days by 55 %. However, at pH 6.5 the most effective concentration for lessening of AFM1 was 0.5 µmol/L. Schiff base was not effective at pH value of 7 or higher. The ability of Schiff base to act as antimycotoxigenic agent provides new perspective for possibly using this compound to control AFM1 contamination in milk and to extent shelf lives of this food. Detection of toxicity of investigated Schiff base was performed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator to determine their sensitivity to this chemical agent.

  11. Study on caralluma tuberculata nutritional composition and its importance as medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, B.; Abbasi, S.J.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted on Caralluma tuberculata, a famous traditional medicinal plant in the northern territory of Pakistan to assess its importance. Analysis were performed on its nutritional, proximate and microchemical composition for evaluation as food plant, while experiments of cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity and as phytobiocide were conducted to study its importance as medicinal plant. A method for vegetative propagation of C. tuberculata was optimized using cut stems without roots give better result and also more economical, from single stem multiple plant can be produced. It contains good amount of nutrients and proximate contents. Due to high inhibitory effect results of C. tuberculata against Alternaria alternata it can be recommended as selective fungicide for controlling Alternaria sp., born diseases. From the results it becomes clear that C. tuberculata had some anti-bacterial compounds which had very minimum inhibitory effect on the growth of bacterial species. This plant also showed significant activity against Artemia salina, Lemna minor and can be used as cytotoxic and phytotoxic agents in concentrated states. (author)

  12. TRISTAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Seigi

    1994-01-01

    Any successor to PETRA and PEP colliders was expected to extend the energy range to the region where the weak interaction effect becomes sizable in annihilation process. The aim was to reach the level, at which the all round study of the standard model can be performed in a clean system of e + e - collision. Also it was aimed to explore the energy region where top quark pair production is likely. Considering the available site for accelerator construction and the expected size of the electroweak interference effect, the target energy was set at 60 GeV at the lowest. TRISTAN-1 experiment is a big initial step in the long range physics program. The laboratory established the plan to move on to TRISTAN-2 (B Factory) project. The TRISTAN accelerator including the main storage ring, the time sequence of storage ring operation, three experimental groups of AMY, TOPAZ and VENUS, and so on are explained. The experiments on basic annihilation process, the search for new particles, the electroweak interaction, QCD studies and so on are reported. The optimum TRISTAN ring was estimated as 3 km in diameter, but the largest possible size in the site was 1/3 of that. Hard decision was made to equip the ring with unusually many accelerating RF cavities and to apply superconducting technology. (K.I.)

  13. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

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    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  14. Experimenting with a design experiment

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    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  15. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  16. Management Experiences

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    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  17. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  18. Características agronômicas do amendoinzeiro sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizantes = Agronomics Characteristicsof Peanuts under irrigation with saline water on soil with biofertilizers.

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    Geocleber Gomes de Sousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação nas características agronômicas do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivado em solo sem e com biofertilizantes. O experimento foi conduzido em estufa telada na Estação Agrometereológica, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE. A semeadura foi feita em vasos utilizando-se, como substrato, um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, com uma planta por vaso. O experimento obedeceu a um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com cinco repetições. Os fatores referem-se aos valores de condutividadeelétrica da água de irrigação: 1,5; 3,0; 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1 e sem e com biofertilizantes (sem biofertilizante -B0; com biofertilizanteanaeróbico-B1; e com biofertilizante aeróbico - B2. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH, condutividade elétrica do solo, crescimento inicial em número de folhas, altura de plantas, diâmetro do colmo, área foliar e matéria seca da parte aérea. O biofertilizante bovino diminuiu os efeitos negativos das concentrações crescentes de sais na água de irrigação nas variáveis estudadas. O nível salino do solo foi maior na presença do biofertilizante anaeróbico. O biofertilizante anaeróbico foi mais eficiente que o aeróbico na redução dos efeitos depressivos dos sais das águas de irrigação às plantas.This study evaluated the effects of irrigation water salinity on agronomics characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., cultivated without and with biofertilizers. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the Estação Agrometereológica, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE. The seeds were sown in pots using, as substrate, a Red-Yellow Argisol, with one plant per pot. The experiment followed a completely randomized design set as a 4 x 3 factorial, referring to four irrigation water electrical conductivity values: 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1 in three soil configurations: B0(without biofertilizer, B1

  19. Pore size distribution in soils irrigated with sodic water and wastewater Distribuição de poros em solos irrigados com água salina e com água residuária

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    Roberta Alessandra Bruschi Gonçalves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil porosity, especially pore size distribution, is an important controlling factor for soil infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention. This study aimed to verify the effect of secondary-treated domestic wastewater (STW on the porosity of a sandy loam Oxisol in the city of Lins, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The two-year experiment was divided into three plots: soil cultivated with corn and sunflower and irrigated with STW, soil cultivated and irrigated with sodic groundwater, and non-irrigated and non-cultivated soil (control. At the end of the experiment, undisturbed core samples were sampled from 0 to 2.0 m (8 depths. The water retention curves were obtained by tension plates and Richard's pressure plate apparatus, and the pore size distribution inferred from the retention curves. It was found that irrigation with treated wastewater and treated groundwater led to a decrease in microporosity (V MI, defined as the pore class ranging from 0.2 to 50 μm diameter. On the other hand, a significant increase in cryptoporosity (V CRI (A porosidade do solo, principalmente a distribuição dos poros, é um fator importante que controla a infiltração de água, condutividade hidráulica e retenção da água no solo. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto (TSE na porosidade de um Latossolo de textura média. A área experimental foi dividida em três parcelas: solo cultivado com milho e girassol e irrigado com TSE (STW; solo cultivado e irrigado com água subterrânea sódica (W; e solo não cultivado e não irrigado (C-controle. No final de dois anos de experimento, amostras não deformadas de solo foram coletadas de 0 a 2,0 m (oito amostras. As curvas de retenção de água no solo foram obtidas com mesas de tensão e câmara de Richards, e a distribuição de poros no solo foi calculada a partir da derivação dessas curvas. Foi observado decréscimo da microporosidade V MI

  20. Comportamento morfofisiológico da mamoneira BRS Energia submetida à irrigação com água salina Morphophysiological behavior of castor bean BRS Energia submitted to irrigation with saline water

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    João B. dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido na estação experimental de Irrigação e Drenagem do Instituto Federal Baiano, para avaliar o crescimento da mamoneira BRS Energia, em função da salinidade da água de irrigação, em sistema de lisimetria. Os tratamentos foram constituídos dos níveis de salinidade da água de 0,12; 0,8; 1,6; 2,4; 3,2; 4,0 e 4,8 dS m-1, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e quatro plantas por tratamento. Quinzenalmente foram avaliados, dos 20 até os 80 dias após a emergência, o crescimento e as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo da altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule e a área foliar das plantas. O crescimento avaliado pela altura, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo de cada variável, diminuíram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação, em todos os períodos estudados. As inibições foram respostas da elevação do nível salino do solo de não salino, para ligeiramente, moderadamente e fortemente salino.An experiment was conducted at the experimental station of Irrigation and Drainage of the Instituto Federal Baiano, to evaluate the growth variables of the castor bean BRS Energia as a function of salinity of irrigation water in lysimeters. The treatments were constituted of water salinity levels of 0.12; 0.8; 1.6; 2.4; 3.2; 4.0 and 4.8 dS m-1, disposed in a completely randomized design, with three replications and four plants per treatment. Fortnightly from 20 to 80 days after emergence, the growth variables and the absolute and relative growth rates of plant height, stem diameter and leaf area of plants were evaluated. The growth measured by height, stem diameter, leaf area and the rates of absolute and relative growth of each variable, decreased with increase in irrigation water salinity in all periods. The restrictions were in response to increase in soil salinity levels from non saline soil to slightly, moderately and

  1. Crescimento absoluto e relativo de mudas de maracujazeiro sob biofertilizante e águas salinas Absolute and relative growth of yellow passion seedlings over salines waters and bovine biofertilizer

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    Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em abrigo telado no DSER/CCA/UFPB, no período de Maio/Julho de 2008, para avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação e do biofertilizante bovino no crescimento das mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos no DIC e 12 plantas por parcela, com três repetições, usando o arranjo fatorial 5 x 2 x 2, referente aos níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação: 0.5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, no solo sem e com biofertilizante bovino, avaliando aos 25 e 65 dias após emergência das plântulas. Determinando a altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, massa seca da parte aérea, raiz e total. O aumento da salinidade das águas inibiu o crescimento absoluto e relativo das plantas avaliado pela altura, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca da parte aérea, raízes e total, mas, em qualquer situação, com menor intensidade nos tratamentos com o biofertilizante.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse in DSER/CCA/UFPB, in period May-July 2008, Paraiba state, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effects of salinity water irrigation and bovine biofertilizer on inittial growth of passion fruit Passiflora edulis Sims seedlings. The treatments were distributed competed randomized design, with three repetitions, in factorial arrangement 5 x 2 x 2, refering at levels of irrigation water salinity: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1, in soil without and with bovine biofertilizer and evaluations made at ages of 25 and 65 days after seedling emergence. For assessing growth the plants’s height, stem diameter, dry matter of the part aerea, roots and dry matter total of the yellow passion fruit plants, but in every condition with low intensity in treatment with bovine biofertilizer.

  2. Alterações químicas de um Neossolo Flúvico irrigado com águas salinas Chemical changes of a Fluvic Neossol cultivated with tomato and irrigated with saline water

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    Israel Venismare Cordeiro Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações químicas de um Neossolo Flúvico do semiárido de Pernambuco cultivado com três cultivares de tomateiro e irrigado com água de dois valores de relação de adsorção de sódio (RAS e seis de condutividade elétrica (CE foi realizado um experimento em vasos de polietileno em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com arranjo fatorial 3 x 6 x 2 (três cultivares de tomateiro, seis valores de CE e dois de RAS e quatro repetições. Os atributos estudados foram: CE, pH e RAS do extrato de saturação do solo, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e Na+ solúveis em função dos cultivares e da CE e RAS da água de irrigação. Os cultivares de tomateiro estudados não alteraram os atributos CE, pH, RAS, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Na+ do extrato de saturação do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação incrementou a CE do extrato de saturação e os teores de Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ e K+. A água com RAS de 20 (mmol L-10,5 promoveu aumento da RAS do extrato de saturação do solo.Aiming to evaluate chemical changes of a Fluvic Neossol from Pernambuco's semiarid there were cultivated tree tomato cultivars, irrigated with saline water with two values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and six values of electrical conductivity (EC. The experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots in randomized blocks design with factorial arrangement 3 x 6 x 2 (three tomato cultivars, six values of EC and two SAR and four replications. The variables studied were: EC, pH, SAR, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e Na+ of the saturation extract of soil depending on the cultivar and the EC and SAR of irrigation water. The tomato cultivars used in this study did not promote significant changes in the EC, pH, SAR, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Na+ of saturation extracts of soil. Increasing salinity of irrigation water promotes increases in the EC, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ of saturation extract of soil. Water with SAR of 20 (mmol L-10,5 increased the SAR value of the soil saturation extract.

  3. Valsalva maneuver procedures in the diagnosis of right-to-left shunt by contrast-enhanced transcranial doppler using agitated saline solution with blood as a contrast agent Manobra de Valsalva no diagnóstico de embolia paradoxal pelo doppler transcraniano contrastado com o uso de solução salina agitada associada a sangue como meio de contraste

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    Marcos Christiano Lange

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two different timings for the performance of the Valsalva maneuver (VM using an infusion of agitated saline solution with blood as contrast agent (CA to right-to-left shunt (RLS screening. METHOD: 42 patients were submitted to a standardized contrast-enhanced transcranial doppler (cTCD to screen for right-to-left shunt (RLS. cTCD technique was done with two different moments of the VM: [1] the CA injection during the VM (CAduringVM test; [2] the CA injection before the VM (CApreVM test. RESULTS: Positive MCA tests were observed in 47 (56% CAduringVM tests and in 50 (59.5% CApreVM tests, p=0.64. There was an almost perfect agreement for the positive tests between the CAduringVM and CApreVM test, r s=0.829 (95% CI 0.61-1.00, pOBJETIVO: Comparar dois momentos diferentes da manobra de Valsalva (MV com o uso de solução salina com sangue como meio de contraste (MC para investigação de embolia paradoxal (EP. MÉTODO: 42 pacientes foram submetidos a protocolo padronizado de DTCc com a MV em dois momentos diferentes: [1] injeção do MC durante a MV (teste ACduranteMV; [2] injeção de MC antes da MV (teste ACpreMV. RESULTADOS: Exames positivos foram observados em 47 (56% ACMs testes ACduranteMV e 50 (59.5% testes ACpreMV, p=0.64. Houve uma correlação quase perfeita entre ambos os testes, r s=0.829 (95% CI 0.61-1.00, p<0.001. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstra que não existe diferença significativa na positividade de EP pelo DTCc quando são comparados dois momentos diferentes da MV.

  4. Irrigação com águas salinas e adubação nitrogenada na produção de mudas mamoeiro “Formosa”

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    Francisco Wesley Alves Pinheiro

    2017-02-01

    agricultural production, however, the available water sources are not always of good quality. In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation with waters of different saline levels associated with nitrogen rates on the growth of 'Formosa' papaya seedlings under northeastern semiarid conditions. The experiment was carried out in plastic bags under protected environment conditions at the Center of Science and Technology Agrifood of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal - PB campus. The experimental design was a randomized block design, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replications, being the treatments composed of five levels of electrical conductivity of the water (EC, 0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four nitrogen doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% N recommended. The electrical conductivity of irrigation water from 0.3 dS m-1 negatively affected plant height and dry stem biomass. It is observed that the dose of 70% of N and of 100% provided, respectively, greater dry matter production of root and number of leaves. No significant effect was observed for the variables stem diameter and dry stem biomass submitted to different CEa and nitrogen fertilization; As well as, there was no interaction between the factors (CEa x Fertilization with N on the growth of the seedlings. The variables NF, FFF, FSF, FSR presented tolerance to the increase of electrical conductivity of irrigation water.

  5. http://revistas.unicordoba.edu.co/revistamvz/mvz-182/v18n2a12.pdf

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    Rubén Valbuena V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el desempeño y sobrevivencia de larvas de capaz Pimelodus grosskopfii suministrando alimento vivo (Cladóceros, Copépodos y Artemia salina. Materiales y métodos. Larvas de capaz fueron ubicadas en recipientes plásticos con un volumen útil de 3 L, a una densidad de 10 larvas L-1, fueron alimentadas cuatro veces al día, durante 15 días con nauplios de Artemia recién eclosionadas, Cladóceros de los géneros Moina y Ceriodaphnia y Copépodos calanoides. Las larvas de capaz se pesaron y se midieron al inicio y al final del experimento para estimar ganancia en peso (GP, ganancia en longitud (GL, tasa de crecimiento específico (TCE, Factor de crecimiento relativo (FCR y sobrevivencia (S Resultados. El tratamiento que presentó los mejores resultados en GP, GL y S fue el de larvas alimentadas con nauplios de Artemia (3.8 ± 0.2 mg, 8 ± 0.7 mm y 48.3% respectivamente seguido de los tratamientos donde adicionó cladóceros y copépodos Conclusiones. Los nauplios de Artemia fue el tratamiento que presentó los mejores resultados en las variables productivas evaluadas en larvas de P. grosskopfii al inicio de su alimentación exógena.

  6. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  7. Inalação de solução salina hipertônica como coadjuvante da fisioterapia respiratória para reversão de atelectasia no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution as coadjuvant in respiratory physiotherapy to reverse atelectasis in the postoperative of pediatric heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Luisa Saiki da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Criança de 11 meses, sexo feminino, submetida à operação de fechamento de comunicação interventricular, comunicação interatrial e ligadura de canal arterial. Evoluiu no pós-operatório com atelectasia persistente em base pulmonar à direita, não respondendo às manobras fisioterapêuticas convencionais, efetuadas seis vezes ao dia. Após associação, como coadjuvante, da inalação de solução salina hipertônica com NaCl a 6%, imediatamente antes e após o atendimento fisioterápico, observou-se crises de tosse produtiva, com maior indução do escarro e resolução completa da atelectasia, com três dias de tratamento.The case of an eleven-month-old female child is presented diagnosed as having congenital heart disease with pulmonary hyperflow, who was submitted to a surgery to close an interventricular communication, interatrial communication and arterial canal ligature. The infant evolved with persistent atelectasis at the right lung base in the postoperative period which did not respond to conventional physiotherapeutic measures. Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution with 6% NaCl was associated as a coadjuvant therapy, giving a total cure of the atelectasis after three days of treatment.

  8. In-depth survey report of Scoular Elevator, Salina, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.

    1987-06-01

    An in/depth industrial hygiene survey of exposures to phosphine during the use of aluminum phosphide was conducted as part of a survey on exposure to grain fumigants. Area monitoring and breathing-zone sampling for phosphine were conducted during the addition of aluminum phosphide to grain during turning operations; source samples and peak personal exposures were also analyzed. Major sources of personal exposure included the escape of air from the bin headspace during filling with treated grain, filling and emptying of the phosphide pellet dispenser, and infiltration from the treated grain bin and from the pellet dispenser itself into adjacent air space. Relatively good dust control was indicated by the total dust samples collected during the survey. Measures recommended by the author are in the report.

  9. Growth effects on mixed culture of Dunaliella salina and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... compounds of nutritional supplements or food additives. (Wikfors and Ohno ... mixed cultures of marine microalgae and most of the work has been ..... This work was supported by the National Natural Science. Foundation of ...

  10. The Salinas Airshower Learning And Discovery Project (SALAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Victor; Niduaza, Rommel; Ruiz Castruita, Daniel; Knox, Adrian; Ramos, Daniel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The SALAD project partners community college and high school STEM students in order to develop and investigate cosmic ray detector telescopes and the physical concepts, using a new light sensor technology based on silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors. Replacing the conventional photomultiplier with the SiPM, offers notable advantages in cost and facilitates more in depth, hands-on learning laboratory activities. The students in the SALAD project design, construct and extensively evaluate the SiPM detector modules. These SiPM modules, can be completed in a short time utilizing cost effective components. We describe our research to implement SiPM as read out light detectors for plastic scintillators in a cosmic ray detector telescope for use in high schools. In particular, we describe our work in the design, evaluation and the assembly of (1) a fast preamplifier, (2) a simple coincidence circuit using fast comparators, to discriminate the SiPM noise signal pulses, and (3) a monovibrator circuit to shape the singles plus the AND logic pulses for subsequent processing. To store the singles and coincidence counts data, an Arduino micro-controller with program sketches can be implemented. Results and findings from our work would be described and presented. US Department of Education Title V Grant Award PO31S090007

  11. El Agua Salina y los Métodos de Riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Betancur Fabio

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available La selección del método más adecuado de riego está notoriamente influenciado por las condiciones de salinidad que pueda haber en el suelo o en el agua que se usará para el riego. El objetivo principal del riego es el de abastecer el suelo con agua para que ella sea fácilmente disponible a los cultivos que en él se desarrollan o crecen. Bajo condiciones normales el método de riego que mejor se adapta, depende del cultivo, la topografía, las características del suelo y la disponibilidad del agua. Las condiciones de salinidad y sodicidad presentes en el suelo, están influenciadas por la concentración local de sales; la aplicación del riego, es una de las causas de la migración de sales y puede influenciar notoriamente el efecto salino del agua que con una determinada calidad sea aplicada.